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Booklet 3
1.

Use, Form and Concepts

!-

2.

Teaching Grammar

J.

Material Evaluation

i3

4.

Reading Skills (Receptive)

It.

1.Use, Form and Concepts

Handout

a) superstitious
b) to get on wilh someone

g) Go over ihe bridge and take the first doht.


h) You should trv ioooino
i1 sr'e GEoJ oq;;;;;mv crorhes. "

Grammar
d) lm meetrno Sarah at ten in Tavtors
e) The lfain arrives at eiqht.
f) When l arrived, theydfinjshed eatinq.

Qt

Concept Checking.

nanaged ta da il.

You want to iccus studnts on the meaninq of naraged. Tick lhe senten@s be ow that
conlain parl of the essentialmeaning oitourlargei anguage.

lt was a responsibi lty.

10. l'm qolns to succeed.


1

12.

'm pleased

wh$

am lhe manager

I thlnk

aboll it now.

ofa @npany

13 lremembered to do

it-

CONCEPT CHITCKING
Whicbofthequestionsw.!ldchc.k$udenrJundenrlndingol

u.cdl.'l

Hc used io plNY roolball.

Did hc usclo phyfootb.ll?

2 \vas

he

usedloFla-ri.gJnotb.ll?

5 whichtelm did herla!

7.

whrldid

i.rl

he us. ro do?

t. Whdl doe!

he

Jo.o\rl

THINGS TO REMEMBER with CCQs:

t
.
.
.
.

lsolate the key concepts in separat sentences.


Oon t use the targel langurge in

yo!rquestions,

Wrire clearsimple queslions,


Only check relevant infornarion-

4!4lq ot diferent meanings ofth target language, but only


meening yo! are focusing on.
Be

check ihe

where necessary, checkTlllE, e.q. pasl, present or lutu re?


"Why?" can be a good reinforcing question.
"Wh" questions (when, what, where, how etc.) can be more effective than
"Yes/no" quesfions, butare often more comPlex to formulate,
Use timelins where a )ropriate 1o rci4!9!99 the meanin

(t

Time lines
time

lMalch the folowing seniences io lhe

He used to smoke

b.

She's been lvins herc lor 22 years

c
d

She'd leftwhen lairived

e.

Hesworked here snce 2008.

f.

llhave finished it bv Fridav

nes below:

lwas reading when the lghls went oul

{inish.d
No'

FPTDA!

starh d
NOU)

ZooS

ff.r->
64t

+'@

<n70

(t

N@

20t2

Concept Questions

Does he smoke now? No


D d he smoke in lhe past? Yes
D d he smokejustore cgareite? No
Was ll a rcg! ar aclon? Yes

b.5he's been living here fo.twe.iy-iwo years.


What yeardid she start lvirg heel In1982
she jve here

r 1985,

yes....'1990?..yes...'1995? yes
Does she stl live here now? Yes
W she live here tomorown lhefullre? Yesprobabt
Dd

c. She'd lefi when

laiiived.

Whatlme dld arve? 645


Whatlme d d she eave? 6.00
Why nor? because she wasr'l lhere ||hen yau anive.l

d.I was reading when the lights wentout,


Whattne dld sran reading? 6.00
Whatlne d d finish read rg? 205
whydd srop.ead nq? becausethe lighlswenlaut
D d lwanllo slop read ng? No
So. drd rstarr reading aoa n? Maybe, 1l ctepends on the lights.
e. He's worked here sincelhe beginning of1994.
Ddhewo&herelSyearsaga? na ...14 yearc ago2
D d he work ior a d lferenl company in lhal line? no
Does hework here now? yes
W hework heretomorow? probabt

yes

syears ago? yes

Illhavefinished it by Friday,
ls F day i. the fllure or in the pasl? the lLtute
Wl linish lhe wolk on Friday? no
iinish belore Friday? yes
poss
ls l
b e w I nnish on Thursday? ....yes .Wednesday?. ..yes
H.vc fln sherl il now? ,o

Wl

(-.-'

2. Teaching Grammar

Gra nmar prcsenia'Lon reJrniq',s

lI
rEn,

'.

Ld

fri,

n!

Le

cleal expl6hatiah Aiu.t


Ls belA,itt the use,
sa"le

aetsirt 4u.srols

--L2 aomD:.ins

LL end L2

J*\

hi ht aal thletst.hd

h.ede
t

t.ol clt.it'tt0A

s h.tc ro be

"!l

tD

!:l:
sh!
Lb

rrdiie,.,nr e i-a5 n ih..a


i.r iq (7r rr ioprcp,nre

bl

9'rejan,!:rp:idi.ioirldJ.,mol:hep,!r.nrDe(1rPl5.]rcrjq!.ronl.,n5h,.nibs,iraI...llrire

ir r

l..! ienren.aj

nrhernor.b!

'E

rea.!, r. i hn. 5 wh +,e ha.o.. (hG i,ori i! /v. /rJ. ny


Ltartlat t@ tai.t q..dbfe ta nr,-rtrl'e^ | le .ifu.t r,a .rpt nl
The

.0ri.e / !e ..t /e, ro s.n.cr (er ) 5


!.t ,l.rr: t i' ta.rne) and nit^ a
eirene!Ircm hs

eries

I rh,'y

rii ltre le. nry d.9 teatrte. tir.


tEa.ri.id J:o !v, rp5 up 5!,ic i.n .ortided f.rmr (/ rrirc /gr mr, d.!
?t l5he th.. p. nE our th!r rre presenrpe,fed rpiie 5 us!d 1o,
ui:r,.f.J p; 1me, l lhe rme n
tenJE

!dfien uiPd

r lrvou,tu! i.bodu.ins ihe prernt


rhe tni in., whi.h .f ibe nrelrr
t' nnrrrs a.uld y.u u!.r (You rirr
f.r

..r'bn! rte-trt
2

l.

or rh.r. l

whi.h ord.rnould you !5: /our

rea5nn5

ro'

r!u

dror..(')

eilro,.:amrie,xrdihijbee,i;

rl

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rm. h r\r prf, _i l

Figh ieh rif

the ioim oi n rer! gramrr:rr itenr

nar j_np! Fri\ n! rn !lhr

nd borqhr

00.ker) nh
nrDs:n;rte.

en

hervrr.Lr !!r

I ls! yrn DLd nr.]Li- jL n


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I dreFjr otfne I Af I I :: r, tsr: r- l,1rlnlte )r !s5 NL1 ibjollrclyl s.. r,hir

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nrilw rlr r rn rhe ror nfJ.r


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pl.:

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trinnar.Irrn ui n ril

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i3

3. N4aterials Evaluation

C,;

Advantages of Lrslng coursebooks

l.)isadvantaoes of usinc coursebooks

COURSEBOOKEVALUATION
Look aryo!rco!rsebook. Howwolld yo! rate it in these categories?

iayo0l and visualaFpal

guidance for

'

lansuaSe references

balance ofski

authenlic/sraded malera s

focos on pronunciaion

tunctional langUaSe

use

conlents page

swork:

stening, speaking, readinq wriUng

pr6sentation oivocabllaryand gramma. e.g. ihrough texts, conlexts,


de !o.te)ar!alised?

pctice oflanguage input

manaseablevoume olinput (e.9. not too much qrammar/vocab covered in

@,

4. Reading Skills

Read th txt bcl.w, and cbeckifyonr ideas

fro

th previons

ererciseRere c.Eecr-

Efectiv. readins

sft rtegies

"Sludents, like the rst ofus, ned !o bc abl to do a DMber ofdiffercnt


thlncs wii\ a.eading text". Thet need to be able ro eress lhal the teat
is about before they decide !o read jt, drey need to be .ble to skim a text
to get a gatral idca ofwhal ii js a!ou! ad rher should be able to scd
ihe rext for the paiticuld birs of infomarion fiai they need. $rtrether
raders skin or scm terls is dependdt on wtrat lhey ee reading, ald
wny. Therefore. one ofthe teachels main irnciions is to nake stude.ts
adare ofetrective stEteeies for reading.

always have a reso! to read sonething, dd this is somedrilg a


teac}e. needs to consider when dcalirg with t xt. The stldent needs ro
bc engaeed in the topic, md somc discussion on the contmt of the !e*
helps the studenls fdiliarise ilmsehs sidr $trat ihey de a!o!t ro
read. This cd jlst be a gendal dismssjo!, or students cd predict the
content of a texl using clues. suc! a h..dings or pictwes. Tte $udents
de therfo.e better equippcd to get the gisl of the lAsagq 6d ! shon
activiry, perhals checking agairsi then lrediclions or findilg a sentence
ihat mcapsulales the t.x! wlll heb studots fdilidise thdselves $irh
the prssage before a mor intensive redding task. lt is also a Sood idca
to set time limiis foi rlon gist iisks, so studots N elawged to skiD
ald scd iexts. s opposed 1o tying to read every {ord.

we

Of come, one bd io eff{rive rcadi's is diffictll vocabulary,

so

foi dealing lvith Problcn l elaec.


P.et@ching e$enrlal vocatular-v i5 often neces$.y (i! the
comprehelsion qlestions as wcll 4 tle text), but the teache! also needs
teacher needs to corsidcr melhods

Lo

rnake students awde that they do noi need to

udeBtltd

every word,

$lddts cd

tdk so thar
eilhd by tellng tbm, or bf
evertlling.
Of couse. ihe leacher
complete it wilhout undestddrg
cd follow up with a vocabulary exercise, o. studdts cd cone back ro
difrcult vocabd6ry in their own iime. Moy stude s will hiehlidt new
glading thc

ftet

go alon8, and tholeh this slows dow! the lroccss.


rhev rvill iem new le{is.
vocabulary as

Now lll your partnsr about what you've read

/.:

(r'

Rerd rhe reir beloq,.nd checl ifyour rdcre froh rbe previou<
elercise were correct.
Inefiective readire sh.teeies
"Students- like the lst of ns, need to be able to ilo a nmbe. of diffe@ni
things {ilh a relding texf'. fhey need 10 be able to guess whal the tcxt
is about bcfole r,hel decide to read i! they need to be able to skim a te$
to gel a g6dal idea ofw|al it is aboul. &d th.y should be able to scd
the tet for the particuld bils of infomarion that they need. Wheiher
read$ shn or scan texts is delmddl on lvhat iley de readirg, ud
whr. Thcrefor, one ofthe teacher's main fiDctions is to nake stldents
ande not o!]y of effeciive ways to read, blt aho inetrective ways.

we always have a rcaon for leadins.

wo

if we de idly looki.g

al ih

back of ou. hain ticket while we wait for it ro lnally dive. Thercforq
it is not really cffective for stude s to read a lcn cold. xnefier il is to
drerulvs or r.ad aloxd 6 a class. Likewise, reading a terl jn oidd to
highlieht what thcy don't uderstmd ihpedes the students
undersbndirg, s rlris doesn't give l,!e passage a corrext o. familiatjty.
The teacher also hs no control over how the students are rcading. for
exdple. ifthey are readils every word cdetully or usirE Ineirfirgen
in ord6 to 'urddslod' evegillhe. dre readinS 9rcce$ r'ill bo
incredibll slow md impo$jbleto nonito!.

*ay we deal wiil vocabulary is also inponet Encouaging tlc


studdts to look words !! 6 they so along lol only slows down
ieading, but aho impedes udesrddirg, as srudents will oftd nnd
dctnitiom oursid of dre ooltext of the text. Simildlt, if sludsts loo$
they cd dk the leacher, ihis will slow doM Lhe p.ocess md lead to
studdts beine leacher dependent. Highlidting difiicult {ords neds
The

sludents de pe.haps concentating on the sJong vords, ones that do noi


aid global udeislsding, and trdslating difflcult lelis also leads to

sixdols lnding words oui of contexl, thdebl adding io ey lack ol


comprehe.sjon. Trdlation as a wlole h reasorably ineff.clive, snen
a sumorary of the text would be a bedei quicker way of checkilg
Now

i.ll yo r parhr abo!t' what you hrv read,

Tlneesin paks go abund lhedassndn dlscosslng whether $e lde.s belowaG


effeclive or inefeclive rading slraiegis.

I like to read everyword carefully in orderto undeBtand ihe

entire text.
I like my students to read difiicult passasesaioud before we

answer questions abo0i il.


often ask my students to read a passage and tell me ifthere are
any words they don't underciand.
I like to translate difficult passaqes into 11.

llik tow ie down allihe newvocabularyand tanslat il j.to 11.


i likeio iook up allthe unfamiljarwords in my bjlingual diciionaly,
or ask ihe teacher if l don t undeBiand

My teacher makes us talk about a text before we stad lo tead it.

Ioften lry totnd the sentences that contain the main idea.
I

iry to look forciues

I\,4y

the iiile, subiilles, picturcs orothervisuals


'n befo.e readlng.

ieachersets us time limits so we can read a ten quickly and


work out the main idea.

Itry to ignore unfamil'arwords and maybe come back io them


later.

I like to undedjne or highlight words that

ldon't underctand-

REAbIN6 TASKS
Ar the following r4ding rsk5 to fo.!s on rading

1. R.dd the text

2. Aad

rhe

fd

gis+ ot

fo. sPctiti'

de+'ils??

dnd mdr'h the heding3 given below to rhePd'dg'oPh3

text dd daid dh.]rher thse 5tat44is dre rrue or fal5e

3. Rad thz tett

dnd mdt.h Picruresd-esith PordgraPhs 1 5'

4. Rad the t4iand mke

nore5 ir rheroble below

rext dnd dsw.rth qu'dionsl


wher did steve hove inro hisfldt?
Wher erddlY is ii locdted? etc

5. Redd the

o' not?
Rad the'iext dbour Johns holiddv Did he 4joy himself
in the
7. Each hodinq below sunhd.i34 one of iie Pnrag'aphs
rext ond match the heodings ro th co'rci pardgrcphs

R@d .'42 newspdPer rePorr @d idehlifyJhe

9. Red ihe ixr


A@d

ond drdw q storyboord of the

therextond

5ee

if vour

tetr' Red rhe

cdri'cl htddli"eevars

p.ed icrjo nr abo ut thEhglish

stnEn living ih

EqypTsere.orrct
R@d

11.

lhor lntl<t lheln


obod the 4 cdndiddr6 fo. thejob Underline the Jdclors
needtive
i"" *" p".n." *o put d qudtion marknexro onv Possiblv

",,ioi"
12.

di5'dvanroga of living in
Qed the taxt and hdke o lisr of the odvontdga and

13. Reod

Jhe p.oblen Po96

dd

14. Rad the rexr dnd PUtrha

l5

solllionshoJch rhe problems'ro rhe ogony a!n13

listof evqts

Who'ore the PeoP z 'n lhe pic'_rd


o.d hotch theh to the Picrlres

"--."ltt.y*.l.xt
16 Red the

in

thecor4tordr'

oppos'_e dorng)

lad

-he

rre

p'rcgrophs

qhich
!bou1birrhdoy rrodiiions intheworld- Tick the fodirlons
ro thosu which do hot'
PUl d doss ndi

-unr.}ona

b,,scuss how you couid de6i wilh fhe potenliol student problens v/iih

1.

Sludeni;

2. Teacherr

"l cdnl onswer the queslions becouse I

donf undersidnd

"55 loke oges to reod and then ihey stiil

haven

Gnswered

Te6cher: "SS hoven'l finished rc'xdiAg the texl when ihe lilne
.llocdied hds finished"

4.

Studenl: "I hdve io look

5. Snrdenlr

(lp every word in nry diclionoryr/

"I lust dor't wanl

To do

this reoding exercise.

T'm

nol

6. Teocher: "5s reod tha tri out ioud and thn sliil coni answer the
quell'ons.

Teaching reading in EFL

is a bit different than the

way native speakers are taught to read. Whie


vocabulary is an important part of reading, teaching
the reading skil s ot survey ng, skinning, scanning,
inference, predicting, and guessing are just as
important,
Research tends to indicate that a student's reading
comprehension can be'Tp-oved by locus'rg 01
students'skills in the following areasl

.
t
t
a
a
a
a

prediction
skim reading
gist reading
scan reading
inlensive reading
inferring meaning
extensive reading

Match the above strategies to their definition.

Readngio qel deta ed nformalion from the


Readng alexllo ocale a specJic piece of
lnrormalion such as awodora number or a
lme tis nolnecessaryto underetand rh
Guess ng Ihe mean n9 of nw vocabu ary in a
ten or unde^land nq freaninq or a message n
lh ten lhal is nol infrediat y obvious
Readidgro gelagenera bur nordera ed
arso rading

5.

logtan ovral butnoldetailed

Readins dnqer lexts trequent y over a perod ol


llme This s usua ly done independnly and nol
Looking at hadlins plclures lypefeoe and
ayout to guss whal you lliink a lexl is aboul

In allreading tasks, students are reqLrired ro enploy


che

followins sr'tb skills;

Dcdrcine neanine ard use ofunlaniliar lexical items.


2. Undc6landing gramnatical rclationships al lhe sentence

Undersrandi.g relationships belwccD pat.ls oflexl thiough


cohesive devices lespecially eramnatical cohcsion such
as.oun'pronoun refercnce it, rhei., one erc.l
I Undcslanding , elalionships belweeD pafts oltext Lhiolgh
discourse niarkcrs lcspecially tbr inlLoduciion.
devclopnent. t.ansirionandconclusiorof ideasl
5. Undestanding comnunlcallve trnctions of sentences \!ilh
and wirhonl speciflc markcN.
' 1,1e .d ,a ,9..!
1d .
. rron i
'.F
'
'c.r

l l'

8.

UrdcrsLandinr ideas and nrlonnation in a tcxt which ..e


m"n
not e\plicirly s(ared (i.e.
Sc!draLnrgesenlial and non-csscftial contcfLin Lexr:
distingnishing nai! idca ji(rm sutFoiing detril le.g iact
& ofinion, slatement & cxamllc, lroposition &

10.

Sknnningtext lsuneyiDg ro obiaii gGIl


Scamins rexL lreading for s!ccific detail]
NoIe making fton lcrl(e.g to oeate a sunlnaty for

;^{.r.'9

tl

i9)

Whar's the role of teacher durinq readinq?

St.qes of a Feadrno Stills Lesson


rntrcd=ucrion and

r\6 a

<l

io -e j.

irst tas k (Pre jeadinq) : ej p-di.lio;


[:.. llusrr.riof, rev word< hezd nFs e .);

umfose the r own q jpslons.

, ber.1 ,,,",op..o n-re"r


erlr.cled nrormation (e.g
qleslor s I out |re re I Ss

some

Tasks to focus on oist:


check against predcliors

ffi;l

rrue/Fas,aquesronsjDakfs lseorinro.nrarion i;rh;r;iii;;;;;;lji;;,


Irtuke a sketch riIolr a rorm/tabte, fif.toutwt i"n pa* i"-rr".g l;;;a

rds^j.ocussrno

in dividat Janauaae
rndrvrdat
Jana u aae itehs:
ireirs : er ta.-butat;;i@
6\-. 6 , -o,donno."i
ro..1oo, n-",;e;., o,

"..

Fo ow-on rask e t;Gpj:j, debrrelHas lhis e!er hrfpened ro /o'i7)


ciosinq:

e s. drawinslh;l;aaai ro a con.lusrof l)rnq up


o(E
rev ewins what has been sludied and lvhal ha< been
edrnl.

(z)

TEACHING READING
BASI' PRIN'IPIFS

OF

TEA'HING READING

How can teachers

planning influence or
promote this?

Teaching reading should involve some


discussion on tips & techniques that wil help
lerrners beLome rnore ellective redders ,c,
reading strategies.
Ss should respond to whet they have read
after readinS with a partner (reconstructing)-

Teachers must give ss the iime and space to

Tasks should aim to replicate the processes


involved in real-life reading i.e. purposeful
readinS.
6.

ss should be encouraged

to

read

extensively i.e- more often and frorn

Reading invo ves interaction

with the text

e.g. Qs that involve deeper interpretation.


Such questions, that don't have 'answers'
cou d be indicated by an asterisk *.

Reading in meaninSful
encouraged
reading.

rather than

units should

be

work

1.

rn

group6anddGcusstheiolrrv/rg quenions:

What are the advantages ofchoosing texts that are


accompanied by visuals, diagrams, and maps?

2.
3.

Why is setting

task in advance of readiog a good idea?

why is:ta good idea to let learners compare their answers


to reading comprehension questions?

4.

should learners a nswe r con prehens ion questions from

memory or should they be allowedto consult the text?

5.

Why is itsometimes a good idea to pre-teach key vocabulary


in advance of learners read ing the text?