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CONVERTERS

S.Divya

Final year B.E(EEE)

s.divya3110@gmail.com

C.R.Amudha

Final year B.E(EEE)

amudha.archana@gmail.com

Department of Electrical Engineering,

Annamalai University

N.Radhakrishnan

Assistant Professor

nradhaa75@yahoo.co.in

ABSTRACT

A dc-dc converter owes its focus to cater to the innovative requirements of the present day applications.

It is significant to predict its performance in the viable operating horizon and encompass a strategy to enhance

its viable operating range. It is envisaged to investigate its stable horizon and incorporate an appropriate

compensator in order to aid in the process of further increasing its loadability level. The performance is evaluated

through MATLAB based simulation and includes both Root locus and Bode plot analysis to demonstrate the

suitability of the use of converter over a desired load range.

KEY WORDS: DC-DC converter, Stability, Compensator, Root locus, Bode plot

INTRODUCTION

DC DC converters are excellent power electronic interfaces between the available supply and the utility.

They are used in a good number of applications that include SMPS, Automobile drives, and power supplies used in

Aircrafts besides Cellular phones. Though their structure operating modes and characteristics are well established,

still their viable range of operation under expected loads or supply changes is of crucial importance. It is in this

pretext an attempt is made to evaluate the performance when it is subjected to load increases and supply changes.

A dc-dc converter basically converts one dc voltage level to another by storing the input energy temporarily

and then releasing that energy to the output. They offer a variable output voltage from a fixed input dc voltage. This

conversion method is found to be more efficient (often 75% to 98%) than the traditional methods. Converters built

with transformers may serve to provide isolation between the input and output. The typical range is from 300 KHz

to 10 MHz. By adjusting the duty cycle of the charging voltage i.e the ratio of on/off time, the amount of power

transferred can be controlled.

DC-DC converters are alternatively known as switching regulators. A switching regulator is a circuit that uses a

power switch, an inductor, and a diode to transfer energy from input to output. The storage may be in either the

magnetic field storage components (inductors, transformers) or the electric field storage components (capacitors).

PROBLEM DEFINITION

The basic philosophy is to model a feedback compensator in order to ensure the stable operation of a

dc-dc Converter. It involves the construction of its small signal model to aid in the process of determining its

stability through a relation between its output transfer function and duty cycle. The approach aims to evaluate the

performance using Root locus in the time domain and Bode plot in the frequency domain on a MATLAB

platform.

PROPOSED METHODOLGY

The methodology involves the creation of a small signal model for the dc-dc buck converter from where a

relation between the output transfer function of the converter and its duty cycle is established. The procedure continues

to examine its steady state stability both in the time and frequency domains and there from design a compensator with a

view to extend the range over which the converter can be loaded. The scheme is investigated through MATLAB based

simulation to exhibit its usefulness and horn innovative application domains.

The power module of the dc-dc buck converter seen in fig.1 is built with an inductor and two switches,

(usually transistor (IGBT) and diode) which controls the inductor. It alternates between connecting the inductor to

source voltage to store energy in the inductor and discharging the inductor into the load.

It operates in continuous mode if the current through the inductor (IL) does not fall to zero during the

commutation cycle. When the switchs is closed, the voltage across the inductor is VL=Vi-Vo. The current through

the inductor rises linearly. As the diode is reverse biased by the voltage source v, no current flows through it.

However in the OFF mode the diode D becomes forward biased and free wheels the energy stored in the load,

thereby maintaining the continuous flow of load current. The output voltage and current waveforms are shown in

fig. 2

The transfer function model of the converter under study is derived using familiar circuit laws.

di L

V - V0

= s

dt

L

dv o i L - V0 /R

=

dt

C

--------------------- (1)

----------------------------- (2)

SI L ( S ) =

IL (S ) =

dV

dt

CS

--------------------------------(3)

V s (S) - V 0 ( S )

SL

V s (S) - V 0 ( S )

L

----->(4)

il - V0 / R

SL

(S ) = I

(S)

--------->(5)

V

(S )

R

-------------->(6)

CS V o ( S ) =

V S (S) - V 0 ( S ) V o (S)

SL

R

------------------------------>(7)

R(V

(S) - V 0 ( S )) V 0 ( S ) SL

SLR

------------------------------>(8)

S L RC ( V 0 Cs ) = R V S ( S ) V O ( S )( R + SL )

2

------------------------------>(9)

S L RC V0 ( S ) + V0 ( S ) ( R + SL ) = R VS (S)

2

(s) (S

LRC

+ R + SL ) = V

-->(10)

(S )

------------------------------>(11)

V

V

0

S

(S )

=

(S )

S

1

2

LC

+1 +

SL

R

------------------------------>(12)

COMPENSATORS

It is evident that there is a need to incorporate measures to guide the system to stability. Though a number

of techniques are in use, still the role of compensators in the direction is acknowledged as a viable and effective

means to enhance the system stability. Among a variety of compensators in use a lag-lead type is chosen for its

distinct advantages for such applications. The intuitive approach is to generate a pole zero cancellation mechanism.

A typical transfer function of the compensator is

Where

Fv =

k m (1 + s/z )

s(1 + s/p )

responses. The integrator gain km can be adjusted to obtain a reasonable phase margin for the closed loop system.

The current sensing network is shown in fig.3. The use of the compensator shown in fig.4 envisages to extend the

stable operating range and in addition to perform the role of the controller in its attempt to regulate the output

voltage.

The output voltage is related to the duty cycle as ,

vo

Vg ( + sCR C )

1 + s/ Q o + s 2 / o2

------------------------------>(13)

Where

and

Q =

1

LC

------------------------------>(14)

Ac

Z AC

CR c + L

--------------------------->(15)

STABILITY ANALYSIS

The stability of a system is referred to as the capability to return to the original or a new equilibrium state

after the occurrence of a disturbance. It implies that small changes in the system input, in initial conditions or in the

system parameters, dont result in large changes in the system output. The system may lose its stability on account

of change in the parameters values, which cannot be predicted. The change in load- change in supply and extreme

eventualities such as short circuits are causes that may lead to unstable operation.

A host of techniques are in vogue for testing the stability of a system. They are

Routh Hurwitz criterion time domain

Root locus criterion time domain

Bode plot frequency domain

Polar plot frequency domain

Nyquist plot frequency domain

It is significant to investigate the steady state stability of a system to explore the range of stable operation.

ROOT LOCUS

It is another method for evaluating the stability. It is basically a time domain approach. The steps involved

are explained. A simple techniques known as the root locus techniques for finding the roots of the characteristic

equation , introduced by W.R Evans is extensively used in control engineering practice this technique provides a

graphical method of plotting the locus of the root in the S-plane as a given system parameter is varied

over the complex range of values. The root corresponding to a particular value of the system parameter

can then be located on the locus. The rootlocus is powerful technique as it brings in to focus the

complete dynamic response of the system and further ,being graphical technique, an approximate root locus

sketch can be made quickly and the design can easily visualize the effects of varying various system

parameter on root location.

The rootlocus also provides a measure of sensitivity of roots to the variation in the parameter being

considered. It may further be pointed out hence that the root locus technique is applicable for single as well as

multiple-s loop systems.

Step:1

The characteristic equations 1+G(s)H(s)=0 is written from the closed loop model and rewritten in the

form 1+kp(s)=0, K is the root locus parameter. The numerator of p(s) must have a plus sign on the

highest powers.

Root Locus (RL): 0 K +

Step: 2

The poles and zeroes of p(s) are determined. The root locus start at the poles and allowed to proceed to

the zeroes as k advances from 0 to . The number of branches of the root locus is equal to the number of poles

(np is the number of poles and nz is the number of zeroes.)

Step 3:

Any point on the root locus there is a need to satisfy the angle condition. The difference between

the sum of the angles of the vectors drawn to the point from the poles

of p(s) and the sum of the

angles of the vectors drawn to it from the zeroes of p(s) is an odd multiple of 180. Any point

on the complementary root locus must satisfy the angle condition

The difference between the sum of the angles of the vectors drawn to the point from the poles p(s) and the

sum of the angles of the vectors drawn to its from the zeroes of p(s) is an even multiple of 180 including 0.

Step4:

The root locus is symmetric with respect to the real axis.

Step5:

The real axis is part of the root locus.

Step: 6

The angle of asymptotes of the root locus for large values of k in the root locus that

proceed to infinity give the asymptotes expressed as

2m + 1

180

np

nz

A=

--------------------------->(28)

( m = 0,1,2..........np nz 1)

Step: 7

The

by

given

A=

For

np - nz

complex

conjugate

on the

real axis.

Its location is

------------------>(29)

Step: 8

Break away and Break - in point (if any) are determined. It is known that

p(s) =

and

1

p(S )

--------------------------->(30)

dp( S )

is set equal to 0 . Then it is solved for S.

ds

The real solutions are either break away and break in point on the root locus on the complementary root

locus.

Step: 9

The angle of the tangent to the loci at any point must satisfy the angle condition. At poles of p(s), the

angle is called the angle of departure. At a zero of p(s), the angle is called the angle of arrival.

BODE PLOT

The bode plot is a frequency response plot of the transfer function of a system. A Bode Plot consists of two

graphs. One is a plot of the magnitude while the other is a plot of the phase angle of the sinusoidal transfer function.

The Bode lot can be drawn for both open loop and close loop transfer functions. Usually the standard

representation of the logarithmic magnitude of open loop transfer function of G(j) is 20 log |G(j)| where the base

of the logarithm to the base 10. The unit used in this representation of the magnitude is the decibel usually

abbreviated db. The curves are drawn on a semilog paper, using the log scale (abcissa) for frequency and linear

scale (ordinate) for either the magnitude (in decibel) or the phase angle (in degrees).

The constant gain K, integral and the derivative factors contribute to gain (magnitude) at all frequencies. In

the approximate plot the first, quadratic and higher order factors contribute the gain (magnitude) only when the

frequency is greater than the corner frequency. Hence the low frequency response up to the lowest corner

frequency is decided by K or K/(j)n or K (j)n term. Then at every corner frequency the slope of the magnitude plot

is altered by the first, quadratic and higher order terms. Therefore the magnitude plot can be started with K or

K/(j)n or K (j)n term and then the db magnitude of every first and higher quadratic and higher order terms.

Let , G ( S ) =

G ( j ) =

K(1 + sT1 ) 2

S 2 (1 + sT2 )(1 + sT3 )

--------------------->(23)

K(1 + jT1 ) 2

( j ) 2 (1 + j T2 )(1 + jT3 )

--------------------------->(24)

The corner frequencies are

Here

c1 =

1

1

1

, c 2 = , c3 =

T1

T2

T3

c1 , < c 3 < c 2 ,

Step: 1

The transfer function is converted into the Bode form or time constant form. The Bode form of the transfer

function is

G (S ) =

K(1 + sT1 ) 2

s2

s

S (1 + sT2 )1 + 2 + 2

n

n

G ( j ) =

--------------------------->(25)

K(1 + jT1 ) 2

2

s

j (1 + jT2 )1 2 + j 2

n

n

----------------------->(26)

Step: 2

The corner frequencies in the increasing order are identified and a table is prepared. In the table enter K is

entered as the first term and the other terms in the increasing order of corner frequencies. Then the corner frequency,

slope contributed by each term and change in slope at every corner frequency are entered

Step: 3

An arbitrary frequency l which is lesser than the lowest corner frequency is chosen. The db magnitude of

K or K/(j)n or K (j)n at l and at the lowest corner frequency is calculated.

Step: 4

Then the gain (db magnitude) at every corner frequency one by one is calculated by using the formula,

The Gain at y = change in gain from x to y + Gain at x

x

Step: 5

An arbitrary frequency

which is greater than the highest corner frequency is chosen. Calculate the

gain at

Step: 6

In a semilog graph sheet mark the required range of frequency on x-axis (log scale) and the range of db

magnitude on y-axis (ordinary scale) is marked after choosing proper scale .

Step: 7

The points obtained in steps 3,4,and 5 are marked on the graph and join the points by straight lines.

Mark the slope at every part of the graph.

The phase plot is an exact plot and no approximations are made while drawing the phase plot.

Hence the exact

of frequencies are preferably the frequencies chosen for magnitude plot .Usually the magnitude plot and

phase plot are drawn in a single semilog -sheet on a common frequency scale.

The magnitude plot is drawn and in this y-axis the desired range of phase angles are marked after

choosing proper scale. From the tabulated values of and phase angle, the points are marked on the graph.

The points are joined by a smooth curve.

DETERMINATION OF GAIN MARGIN AND PHASE MARGIN

The gain margin in db is given by the negative of db magnitude of G[j] at the phase cross - over

frequency, pc. The pc is the frequency at which phase of G[j] is - 180. If the db magnitude of G[j] at pc is

negative, then gain margin is positive and vice versa.

Let gc be the phase angle of G[j] at gain cross over frequency gc. The gc is the frequency at which the

db magnitude of G[j] is zero. Now the phase margin, is given by, = 180 + gc. If gc is less negative than

180 then the phase margin is positive and vice versa.

In the open loop transfer function G[j] the constant K contributes only the magnitude. Hence by changing

the value of K the system the gain can be adjusted to meet the desired specifications. The desired specifications are

gain margin, phase margin, pc and gc. In a system transfer function if the value of K required to be estimated to

satisfy a desired specification then the bode plot of the system is drawn with K = 1. The constant K can add 20 log K

to every point of the magnitude plot and due to this addition the magnitude plot will shift vertically up or down.

Hence the magnitude plot is shifted vertically up or down to meet the desired specification. The vertical distance by

which the magnitude plot is shifted to 20log K is equated and solve for K.

Let x = change in db (x is positive if the plot is shifted up and vice versa)

Now 20 log K= x;

log K= x/20

K = 10x/20

MATLAB SIMULATION

The methodology is simulated using a dc-dc converter rated for 5 kW output at 230V. The tool facility in

the MATLAB library is invoked to obtain the root locus and bode plot responses with both R and RL load. The plots

seen in figs.5 to 8 correspond to an operating point of 4kW.

The compensator is designed to bring them into the stable domain as observed from Figs 5 and 7. The

developed approach extracts positive values for phase and gain margins thus highlighting its stability in the

frequency domain. The entries in Table 1 include the load current , output voltage, gain and phase margins and

crossover frequencies, both in the open and closed loop over a range of RL load powers. The closely regulated

output voltages and the positive gain and phase margins bring out the effective role of the proposed compensating

feedback technique.

Power

Load voltage

Gain margin

Phase cross

over

frequency

Gain cross

over

frequency

25.84

1.2104

1.2105

1.2037104

1.2972105

1.0838104

1.2973105

1.4245103

1.3463105

1.755104

1.2855105

Closed

Loop(v)

Load Current

(amperes)

(watts)

Open

Loop(v)

Phase

margin

1000

265.67

233.11

4.45

604.09

2000

260.76

232.23

8.86

420.33

24.17

3000

253.22

231.36

13.25

376.23

24.47

4000

244.09

230.50

17.60

221.93

24.57

5000

235.14

229.65

21.92

221.93

23.57

CONCLUSION

The role of DC-DC converters have been expanding over a period of time. The advent of solid state

switches has facilitated their smooth operation. However knowledge of the viable range of operation would be

handy to prevent undesirable states of operation. The incorporation of the control techniques in the analysis of such

converters has been attempted and the results obtained will go a long way in the better and efficient use of such

power electronics entities.

REFERENCE

1. R.B.Ridley,A new, continuous-time model for current-mode control, IEEE Trans.Power Electronics,

vol.6,pp,271-280,Apr.1991.

2. Lee, Julie J.M.S.Egr., Dept of Electrical Engg.,Wright State University, 2007. Analysis of Small signal

Model PWM DC-DC Buck-Boost Converter in CCM.

3. Indian Institute of science,switched mode power conversion,section-5,Dc-DC converter dynamics.

4. Haifei Deng, Alex Q.Huang, Yan Ma,Frequency response analysis for switching converters in SPICE

without averaging , Center for power electronics systems,Dept of Electrical and Computer Engg.,Virginia

Polytechnic Institute and state university, Blacksburg.

5. Byungcho Choi, Member, IEEE, Bo H. Cho, Senior Member, IEEE, and Sung-Soo Hong, Dynamics and

Control of DC-to-DC Converters Driving Other Converters Downstream.

6. B. Choi, B. H. Cho, F. C. Lee, and R. B. Ridley, The stacked power system: A new power conditioning

architecture for mainframe computer systems, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 9, pp. 616623, Nov.

1994.

7. R. D. Middlebrook, Modeling current-programmed buck and boost regulators, IEEE Trans. Power

Electron., vol. 4, pp. 3652, Jan. 1989.

8. V. Vorperian, Simplified analysis of PWM converters using the model of PWM switchesPart I:

Continuous conduction mode, IEEE Trans.

9. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. 26, pp. 490496, May 1990.1248 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS

AND SYSTEMSI: FUNDAMENTAL THEORY AND APPLICATIONS, VOL. 46, NO. 10, OCTOBER

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