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EARTH SCIENCE ENDOGENETIC PROCESSES II EDIZON

CONTENT
CONTENT STANDARDS
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
LEARNING COMPETENCIES
SPECIFIC LEARNING
OUTCOMES
TIME ALLOTMENT

Endogenetic Processes
The learners demonstrate an understanding of:
1. the geologic processes that occur within the Earth
The learners shall be able to make a simple map showing places where
erosion and landslides may pose risks in the community.
The learners will be able to
1. explain why the Earths interior is hot (S11ES-IIb-c-23)
2. describe how magma is formed (S11ES-IIc-24)
At the end of the lesson, the learners will be able to
1. know the sources and significance of the Earth's internal heat.
2. understand and explain the requirements for magma generation.
90 minutes

LESSON OUTLINE:
1. Introduction/Review: Communicating learning objectives & review of the rock cycle (5 minutes)
2. Motivation: Class participation by asking questions about magma formation (5 minutes)
3. Instruction Delivery: Earths Internal Heat and Magma Formation with 1demo activity (50 minutes)
4. Practice: Chocolate Mantle Convection activity (30 minutes)
5. Enrichment: After Class

MATERIALS

RESOURCES

For demonstration #1 (Convection current):


Burner, beaker, water, coffee or tea
For Chocolate Mantle Convection Activity (Practice section):
1 flat pan (or 500ml tin ice cream can), 3 small candles, pan holder (higher than the
candle), clean water, 1 cup chocolate/cocoa powder (to represent the lithosphere)
1. Carlson, D. H., Plummer, C. C., Hammersley L., Physical Geology Earth Revealed 9thed, 2011,
pp46-47.
2. Kirkland, K., Earth Sciences Notable Research and Discoveries, 2010, pp 18-21.
3. Marshak, S., Essentials of Geology, 4th ed., 2013, pp99-100.
4. Tarbuck, E. J. et al Earth An Introduction to Physical Geology, 2014, p 134-136.
5. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/EarthSci/people/lidunka/GEOL2014/Geophysics8%20%20Thermal%20evolution/Heat.htm (Accessed 3Dec 2015).
6. http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/eens211/earths_interior.htm(Accessed: 3 Dec 2015).
7. http://www.geol.umd.edu/~jmerck/geol100/lectures/10.html (Accessed 3Dec 2015).
8. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PdWYBAOqHrk (Accessed 07 Dec 2015).

PROCEDURE
I. INTRODUCTION: (5 minutes)
Communicate learning objectives
1. Introduce the following learning objectives using the suggested
protocols (Verbatim, Own Words, Read-aloud)
a. I can identify the sources of the Earths internal heat and describe
the different processes responsible for the transfer of heat.
b. I can explain the different conditions required in the generation of
magma.
Review
Review the internal structure of the Earth - layering based on
physical and chemical properties.

MEETING THE
STUDENTS NEEDS
Teacher Tip:

EARTH SCIENCE ENDOGENETIC PROCESSES II EDIZON


Review the rock cycle and definition of magma.
II. MOTIVATION ( 5 minutes)
Teacher tip:
Encourage class participation by asking a question that will guide the students
focus to the topics to be discussed, like:
How and where is magma formed?
III. INSTRUCTION DELIVERY (50 minutes)
Teacher tip:
A. Heat in Earths Interior
Teacher can ask the
what
they
Discuss the two categories of the internal heat sources of the Earth students
(http://www.ucl.ac.uk/EarthSci/people/lidunka/GEOL2014/Geophysics8% learned about isotopes
and Earths formation.
20-%20Thermal%20evolution/Heat.htm).
- Discuss primordial heat (the heat generated during Earths
formation) sources: accretion energy, adiabatic compression, core Accretion energy - heat
released from collision of
formation energy and decay of short-lived radio-isotopes.
- Discuss radioactive heat (the heat generated by long-term radioactive planetary objects during
decay): main sources are the four long-lived isotopes (large half-life), the early formation of
namely K40, Th232, U235 and U238 that made continuing heat source planets.
over geologic time.
Adiabatic compression heat
generated
as
materials are compressed.
As the early Earth gained
mass through accretion,
the pull of gravity resulted
to compression.

Explain geothermal gradient (Kirkland, K., Earth Sciences Notable


Research and Discoveries, 2010,pp 18-21; Carlson, D. H. et al, Physical
Geology
Earth
Revealed,
2011,
pp
46-47;
and
http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/eens211/earths_interior.htm).
- Geothermal gradient or geotherm: the temperature increase with
depth into Earth (the non-linear temperature/depth curve).

The
geothermal
gradient
(source:
http://www.geol.umd.edu/~jmerck/geol100/lectures/10.html) PLS REDRAW

Non-linear: the increase


in one variable (e.g.
depth)
is
not
proportional
to
the
increase in the other
variable
(e.g.
temperature)

EARTH SCIENCE ENDOGENETIC PROCESSES II EDIZON


-

Temperature gradient in the crust: 25C/km


Some areas exhibit a much higher gradient as a result of a greater
concentration of heat at relatively shallow depths. It is this
characteristic (anomalously high temperature gradient) which is
exploited in geothermal energy.
If temperature was simply a function of depth (linear relationship),
we should expect that at depths below 100 km (the average thickness
of the lithosphere), temperature could reach as much as 2500C.
Partial melting of rocks can occur at this temperature yet we know
that, except for the outer core, the rest of the Earth is essentially solid.
That most of the rocks beneath the surface of the Earth is solid can be
explained by the fact that the geothermal gradient tapers off sharply a
short distance into the earth and that increasing confining pressure
with depth counteracts the effect of increasing temperature.
Temperature gradient at the mantle: between 0.5C/km to 1C/km.

Discuss the estimated internal temperature of the Earth (Carlson, D. H. et


al, Physical Geology Earth Revealed, 2011, p 47 and
http://www.geol.umd.edu/~jmerck/geol100/lectures/10.html)
- Based on the geotherm curve above, it can be deduced that the mantle
and asthenosphere are considerably hotter than the lithosphere, and
the core is much hotter than the mantle.
- Core-mantle boundary: 3,700C
- Inner-core outer-core boundary: 6,300C800C
- Earths center: 6,400C600C

Review the concepts of


Discuss how the Earth's internal heat is redistributed:
conduction, convection
- Simultaneous conduction, convection and radiation
- Convection occurs at the mantle but not between the core and mantle and radiation
or even between the asthenosphere and lithosphere (except at seafloor spreading zones).The only heat transfer mechanism in these
transition zones is through conduction.

Diagram illustrating how heat is transferred in the Earths interior. (source:


http://www.ucl.ac.uk/EarthSci/people/lidunka/GEOL2014/Geophysics8%20
-%20Thermal%20evolution/Heat.htm). PLS REDRAW

EARTH SCIENCE ENDOGENETIC PROCESSES II EDIZON


Demonstrate convection current (activity is based on the examples
sourced
fromhttp://www.geol.umd.edu/~jmerck/geol100/lectures/10.html).
Instruction
Heat water in the beaker until it boils. Pour coffee or tea into it.
Discussion:
1. Explain and guide the students in understanding the concept of
convection by enumerating the mechanisms that occur when boiling
the water.
a. There is a heat source at the bottom of the water.
b. The heat is rising to the top from the bottom.
c. The surface water becomes hot, and it radiates its heat into the
air and then cools.
d. The cooler water sinks into the space vacated by the ascending
warmer water. This cooler water starts to warm again while
the one that rises starts to cool.
e. The process goes on, forming a top to bottom circulation of
water.
2. Observe what happens to the coffee or tea, especially the top portion.
Explain what happens.
The top portion has a relatively lighter color relative to the lower
portion and represents the top of a convection cell. Condensing water
vapor marks the top of rising columns of warm water. Dark line
separating them marks the location of sinking cooler water.

Source: http://www.geol.umd.edu/~jmerck/geol100/lectures/10.html (PLS


REDRAW ILLUSTRATION ON THE LEFT)
B. Magma Formation
Discuss the special conditions required for the formation of magma
(Marshak, et al, Essentials of Geology, 2013, pp 99-100).
- Crust and mantle are almost entirely solidindicating that magma only
forms in special places where pre-existing solid rocks undergo
melting.
A. Melting due to decrease in pressure (decompression melting): The
decrease in pressure affecting a hot mantle rock at a constant
temperature permits melting forming magma. This process of hot
mantle rock rising to shallower depths in the Earth occurs in mantle

Bring the students closer


to the demonstration
area.
Make
sure
everybody is attentive
before
starting
the
activity.

Convection cell the


unit of a convective
circulation

EARTH SCIENCE ENDOGENETIC PROCESSES II EDIZON


plumes, beneath rifts and beneath mid-ocean ridges.
B. Melting as a result of the addition of volatiles (flux melting): When
volatiles mix with hot, dry rock, the volatile decreases the rocks
melting point and they help break the chemical bonds in the rock to
allow melting.
C. Melting resulting from heat transfer from rising magma (heat transfer
melting): A rising magma from the mantle brings heat with it that can
melt the surrounding rocks at the shallower depths.

Identify
the
places
where
magma
can
form
(http://www.geol.umd.edu/~jmerck/geol100/lectures/10.html).
- Mid-oceanic ridges: the rising magma in mantle convection cell brings
heat to the surface, transferring heat to the overlying rocks. The
transfer of heat due to convection is accompanied by a decrease in
pressure or "decompression" associated with the spreading of the
lithospheric plates. These two work in tandem promoting the partial melting
of rocks along the spreading center.

Mantle plumes (hot spots): Similar to mid-oceanic ridges, the transfer


of heat and decompression result to magma generation. The source of
heat for mantle plumes is much deeper.
Subduction zones: Oceanic crustal rocks are formed along spreading
centers, typically beneath several kilometers of seawater.
The
presence of water during generation results to the formation of
hydrous minerals. As the oceanic slab is down-thrusted along
subduction zones, the change in temperature and pressure conditions
brings about mineral instability (e.g. hydrous minerals) and the release
of water to the surrounding hot rocks. The introduction of water
effectively lowers the melting temperature of rocks and therefore
causes partial melting or magma generation.

Schematic diagram showing different zones where melting occurs (source:


http://www.geol.umd.edu/~jmerck/geol100/lectures/10.html) PLS REDRAW
III. PRACTICE (30 minutes)
Divide the class into groups of 5 and perform the activity Chocolate Mantle
Convection (adapted from the videoHot Chocolate Mantle Convection
Demonstration. Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PdWYBAOqHrk).
Objective: To illustrate how heat works in the mantle.

EARTH SCIENCE ENDOGENETIC PROCESSES II EDIZON


Teacher Tip:
Instruction:
Put water in the pan. Sprinkle it with chocolate powder until the top is thickly
covered with dry powder. Slowly put it on the pan holder. Light one of the
candles and place it under the center of the pan. When it starts to boil, light the
other two candles and put them in opposite sides of the pan. Observe what
happens.
Discussion:
1. How is heat transferred in the activity? State evidence.
Answer: Convection is shown by the presence of mounds and cracks in
between the mounds, radiation is illustrated by the emitted gas directly
above the heat source and conduction is evidenced by the submerging
chocolate powder along the rims of the pan.
2. Describe what happens to the powder when the water starts to boil.
Explain why this occurs.
Answer: The chocolate powder starts to rise forming a conical shape then
cracks and emits gas. Slowly, the chocolate powder around it starts to
subside and get wet. The heat source is directly beneath this zone so the
hotter water is rising in that area. But since the chocolate powder traps the
water, the hot water starts to move laterally under the chocolate powder
forming the conical shape, before it manages to create a crater where the
water is released as gas.
3. Describe what happened after boiling is achieved in the other two
candles. Explain why this occurs.
Answer: The other two candles will create the same thing as the first
candle. However somewhere in between the two candles, a crack starts to
form and the chocolate powder sinks slowly in these regions. This occurs
because these are the zones where the colder water goes down.
4. How does this activity relate to the formation of magma?
Answer: The water represents the asthenosphere, the chocolate powder
represents the lithosphere and the candles represent heat sources. Magmas
are formed directly above the heat sources due to relatively higher
temperature. Through convection, heat is transferred to other places. And
since there are more than one heat sources, several convection cells
develop. Where the colder portions of two convection cells meet, cracks
form because the materials are being pulled downwards by the subsiding
colder water. These zones represent subduction zones.
IV. ENRICHMENT
A simple report to be submitted on the next day:
Draw a schematic cross section of the earth, showing the different layers of the
earth. Include and label (when necessary) the following in the illustration:
1. different tectonic settings where magma is generated
2. type of melting that is usually associated with the settings identified in # 1
3. heat transfer mechanisms and the direction of heat transfer (thru arrows)
Below the drawing, make a simple research on the different zones where
magma is formed and cite one known location of each.
EVALUATION

EARTH SCIENCE ENDOGENETIC PROCESSES II EDIZON


Summary questions related to the lessons (Questions in regular font are easy questions while the ones in
bold are hard):
1. What are the two categories of the source of Earths internal heat? Give examples.
Answer: Primordial heat source: accretion energy, adiabatic compression, core formation energy and
decay of short-lived radio-isotopes.
Radioactive heat source: decay of long-life isotopes such as K40, Th232, U235 and U238.
2.How is magma important in helping heat escape the Earth?
Answer: Magma transfers the heat from the Earths interior to the surface when it rises.
3. Differentiate decompression melting and flux melting.
Answer: Decompression melting is the process of creating melt by reducing the pressure at a constant
temperature. Flux melting occurs upon the introduction of volatiles which breaks the chemical bond in
rocks and at the same time lowers the melting temperature of the rocks.
4. Describe how magma is formed.
Answer: Magma is formed when hot rocks in the Earth partially melts which occurs when (1) the pressure
decreases, (2) when volatiles are added to the hot rock and (3) when a heat is transferred by a magma
rising from the mantle into the crust.
5. Cite three tectonic settings where magma is formed.
Answer: mid-oceanic ridges, hot spots and subduction zones
6. Cite example of a tectonic setting wherein two melting processes to occur simultaneously to
generate magma.
Answer: (May vary) In mid-oceanic ridges, the rising hot rocks in mantle convection cell bring heat to the
surface, transferring heat to the overlying rocks. Simultaneously occurring to these rocks is
decompression melting. While the lithospheric plates move further away from the mid oceanic ridge, the
pressure decreases resulting to more melting.

Practice
Activity

1 (NOT VISIBLE)

2 (NEEDS
IMPROVEMENT)

3 (MEETS
EXPECTATIONS)

4 (EXCEEDS
EXPECTATIONS)

Did not complete the


activity and did not
answer any of the
questions

Activity completed on
time; correctly answered
1- 2 questions; answers
are not presented well

Activity completed on
time; authors demonstrate
acceptable understanding
of topic in answering the
question; and answered 3questions correctly

Report is submitted on
time but is lacking of
substance; report not well
presented

Report is submitted on
time; report is wellpresented (organized flow
of discussion with few
instances straying from
the topic) authors
demonstrate acceptable
understanding of topic
(few corrections and
misconceptions)
Correctly answered the
easy questions and 2 hard
questions

Activity completed on
time; authors demonstrate
excellent level of
understanding of topic in
presenting the answers;
correctly answered all
questions
Report submitted on time;
report is excellently
presented (highly
organized flow of
discussion); authors
demonstrate excellent
level of understanding of
the topic

Enrichment Did not submit report


on time; report is not
Project
complete

Summary
questions

Only 2 of the easy


questions are
correctly answered

Correctly answered the


easy questions

Correctly answered all


questions

EARTH SCIENCE ENDOGENETIC PROCESSES II EDIZON