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E3E3-E4 (CFA)

Overview of SDH

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AGENDA
SDH & PDH Hierarchy

SDH Network Survivability

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SDH OVERVIEW
 Synchronous
All elements are synchronized with one master
clock.
DIGITAL
Information is in binary.
HIERARCHY
Set of bit rates in a hierarchical order.
SDH is an ITU-T Standard Technology

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CONCEPT OF SYNCHRONOUS,
PLESIOCHRONOUS, ASYNCHRONOUS
Synchronous: The digital transitions in the signals
occur exactly at the same rate. In Synchronous
network, all the clock are traceable to one PRC,
derived from a cesium atomic clock.
Plesiochronous: The digital signal transitions
occur at almost same rate and variation remains
within limit as per ITUT recommendation G-811. If
two n/w need to inter-work, their clock may be
derived from two different PRC, there is a small
frequency difference between one clock and the
other.
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CONCEPT OF SYNCHRONOUS,
PLESIOCHRONOUS, ASYNCHRONOUS
Asynchronous: Transitions of the signal doesnt
necessarily occur at same nominal rate. Two
clock are derived from free-running quartz
oscillators. (difference between two clock is much
greater than a Plesiochronous difference).

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SDH- ADVANTAGES

1. Network simplification .
2. Reduction in the amount of equipment.
3.Multi-vender interoperability
4. Accommodating future application
5. Protection
6. NMS Functionality

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SDH FRAME REPRESENTATION


9

S
O
H

261

PAY
LOAD

270
(MATRIX REPRESENTATION)
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BIT RATE : STM-N


Number of Rows = 9
Number of Columns = 9+261=270
Number of Bytes = 9x270
Number of Bits = 9x270x8
Number of Bits/Second = 9x270x8x8000
=155520000
=155.520 Mbps (STM-1)
Bit Rate of STM-N = (Nx155.520) Mbps

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SDH NETWORK ELEMENTS


Terminal Multiplexer
PDH &
STM-m
Tributaries
m<n

STM-n

Applications:
Point-to-Point
Transmission Systems
(STM-1, STM-4, STM-16)

SDH Repeater
STM-n

STM-n

Applications:
Line Signal Regeneration
in Point-to-Point and Ring
Networks

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ADD DROP MULTIPLEXER


ADM

WEST

EAST

STM-1/4

STM-1/4

......

Tributary Ports : n x 2 Mbit/s ( 34 Mbit/s)


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NETWORK TOPOLOGY
* Point-To-Point:
TM

TM

* Point-To-Multipoint:
TM

ADM

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TM

NETWORK TOPOLOGY
* Ring-Topology:
ADM

ADM

ADM

ADM

Best Advantage of This Topology is Strong Survivability.


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MESH TOPOLOGY
DXC/ADM

DXC/ADM

DXC/ADM

DXC/ADM

Multiple optional rout between two nodes,


complex structure ,high cost and high reliability
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SURVIVABILITY OF SDH NETWORK


 A self healing network means that a network can
automatically recover the services from a failure
fault in a very short period of time without making
users be aware of any network fault.
A Self-healing network involves no repairing and
replacement of a specific faulty component or
part but the reestablishment of communication.

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SURVIVABILITY OF SDH N/W (Contd.)


1. Linear Protection
There are three different protection scheme in
Linear Protection
a. 1+1 Protection scheme (1+1 configuration)
Each working line is protected by one
protection line. The same signal is transmitted
on both lines. If a failure or degradation occur,
the network elements switch the connection
over to the Protection line at the receive end.
W
P
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SURVIVABILITY OF SDH N/W (Contd.)


b. 1:1 Protection scheme (1:1 configuration)
A protection line is used to directly replace the
working line when it fails. The protection path
can only be used if a switchover takes place at
both the transmitting end and the receiving end.
W
P

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SURVIVABILITY OF SDH N/W (Contd.)


c. 1:N Protection scheme
A 1:N configuration represents a more cost-effective
solution than the other two mechanisms. N working
channels are protected by one protection channel. If
there are no defects in the network, this protection
channel can be used to transport low priority traffic.
W
W
P
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SURVIVABILITY OF SDH N/W (Contd.)


Sub Network Connection (SNC) Protection:
Sub network connection protection is a path
protection Mechanism that It is required to create
two path for each circuit, one working and one
protection. It can be used to protect a portion of a
path (e.g. that where two Separate path
segments are available), It need not be used on
all VCs within all multiplex section.

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SURVIVABILITY OF SDH N/W (Contd.)


SDH is normally configured in a ring architecture.
It is done to create loop diversity for uninterrupted
service protection in case of link failures.
The SDH rings are commonly called self healing
rings, because traffic flowing in a certain path can
be automatically switch to an alternate path.
Self healing rings works in two different type of way:
A- Unidirectional Self healing rings.
B- Bi-directional Self healing rings.
The concept of traffic in both type ring is different.
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SURVIVABILITY OF SDH N/W (Contd.)


Features of SDH Rings
There can be either two or four fibers running
between the nodes on a ring.
The operating signals can travel either clockwise
only (USHR).
The operating signals can travel in both directions
around the ring (BSHR).
Protection switching can be performed either via a
line switched or a path switched scheme.
In BSNL only two fiber ring mechanism is being
adopted.
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SURVIVABILITY OF SDH N/W (Contd.)


Concept Of Line Switched Protection
Uni-Directional Self Healing Ring

RX TX
TX RX

ADM A

ADM B
ADM D

TX RX
RX TX

TX RX
RX TX

RX TX
TX RX

ADM C

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SURVIVABILITY OF SDH N/W (Contd.)


Features of USHR
This scheme offers less information regarding
operating System.
In normal condition the traffic flows in clockwise
directions In one fiber.
In failure condition the traffic flows in counter
clockwise direction path and is used as alternate
path for protection against ring or node failure.
The USHR mechanism itself does not remain aware
which fiber is carrying traffic.

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SURVIVABILITY OF SDH N/W (Contd.)


Features of USHR (contd.)
In case traffic is switched over to alternate
path the traffic is not returned on normal
path after restoration.
USHR is less informative but it protect
traffic positively.
It offers cost effective solution for low level
of capacity network.

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SURVIVABILITY OF SDH N/W (Contd.)


Concept of Speech in SDH Ring
Bi-Directional Self Healing Ring

RX TX
TX RX

4p

Node 1

1p
8p

5p
Node 4

TX RX
RX TX

TX RX
RX TX

7p

6p
3p

Node 2

2p
RX TX
TX RX

Node 3

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SURVIVABILITY OF SDH N/W (Contd.)


Feature of BSHR
BSHR is more informative.
The scheme requires a APS protocol to make it
operative.
The traffic flows from node 1 to node 3 in clockwise
direction along links 1p and 2 p.
But in return path the traffic flows in counter
clockwise from node 3 to node1 along links 7p and 8p.
Thus the information exchange between nodes 1 and
3 does not tie up any of the primary channel bandwidth
in the other half of the ring.
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SURVIVABILITY OF SDH N/W (Contd.)


Ms Shared Protection Rings
MS shared protection rings scheme is supported by
BSHR only.
The ring protocol is essential for both two fiber ring
as well as four Fiber ring.
In BSNL only two fiber rings are deployed.
MS shared protection rings are characterized by
dividing the total payload per multiplex section
equally into working and protection capacity.
For a two fiber STM-N ring, N/2 administrative unit
groups (AUGs) available for working and N/2
(AUGs) for protection.
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SURVIVABILITY OF SDH N/W (Contd.)


Ms Shared Protection Rings (Contd.)
The protection capacity is shared between multiple
multiplex sections.
The sharing of protection capacity may allow a
multiplex section shared protection ring to carry more
traffic under normal conditions than other ring type.
The sum of the tributaries that transverse a span
cannot exceed the maximum capacity of the particular
span.
In MS shared protection the service can be routed in
either one of the two directions, the long way around
the ring or the short way.
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SURVIVABILITY OF SDH N/W (Contd.)


Ms Shared Protection Rings (Contd.)
For normal working shortest path is preferable.
For failure condition ,the alternate path in used.
Maximum station may not be more than 16
excluding regenerator.

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Thanks

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