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# CHAPTER 6

6.1

## MECHANICAL DESIGN OF REACTOR

6.1.1

Design Pressure

For safety purpose, the design pressure is 10 % above the operating pressure was
chosen.
Pi

= 3 bar x 1.1
= 3.3 bar
= 0.33 N/mm2

6.1.2

Design Temperature

The strength of metal decreased with the increasing of temperature. Therefore, the
maximum allowable design stress will depend on the material temperature. The
design temperature is taken as the maximum working temperature in the reactor.
Operating temperature

= 75oC

## Maximum operating temperature

= 120 oC

Design temperature

= 1.1 x 120 oC
= 132 oC

6.1.3

Material Used

Stainless steel material is used as the construction because the chemical material
involved in this process is corrosive. Specifically, stainless steel Type 316 is used
because it is an alloy added with molybdenum to improve the corrosion resistance in

6-2
reducing conditions. From Chemical Engineering Vol 6, Table 13.2, the strength
property of this material is:
Design stress, f

6.1.4

= 140.4N/mm2

## Welded Joint Efficiency

Joint efficiency selected is 1 because the lower joint factor will result in a thicker and
heavier vessel. The joint factor 1 implies that the joint is equally strong as virgin
plate.
6.1.5

Corrosion Allowance

The corrosion allowance is the additional thickness of metal added to allow for
material lost by corrosion and erosion or scaling. The allowance should be based on
experience with the material of construction under similar service condition to those
for the proposed design. Most design codes and standards specify a minimum
allowance of 1.0 mm, but since the process involves corrosive material, the
corrosion allowance is increased to 4.0 mm.
6.1.6

## Minimum Wall Thickness

For cylindrical shell, the minimum thickness required to resist internal pressure is
determine from the following equation;

where;
Di is the internal diameter

= 2.430 m

=140.4N/mm2

## is the internal pressure

=0.33 N/mm2

6-3
Therefore the wall thickness = e + corrosion allowance
= 2.859 + 4
= 6.859 mm
7mm

6.1.7

The ends of a cylindrical vessel are closed by head. There are four principal type of
and torispherical heads. Hemispherical, ellipsoidal and toripherical can be referred
as domed heads. They are formed by pressing or spinning. The diameter of the
head will be same with the diameter of the cylinder.
Table 6.1: The Comparison of Head Types
Flat

plates

and Hemispherical

Ellipsoidal

Torispherical

Diagra
m

covers
Uses

for

manways, channel
covers

of

heat

vessels

exchengers

Shape

Flat

plates

with

flanges

same

Strengt

can

## head to withstand withstand very

high pressure or high pressure
large diameter

## major to minor knuckle to crown

2:1

Not a structurally
efficient

ratio

is

can withstand
higher

torispherical

bar

6-4
Cheap but can be
Price

Cheapest

Highest

Less

## than increased with the

hemispherical

increased

of

pressure

All of the minimum thickness of all types of head is calculated to choose the
best head for the reactor. The example of calculation for the torispherical head is;

Where

## = stress concentration factor for torispherical heads

6-5
Therefore the wall thickness = ehead + corrosion allowance
= 5.05 + 4
= 9.05mm
10 mm
Table 6.2: Minimum thickness of different types of closure

Hemispherical

Ellipsoidal

Torispherical

10

Formula
Value
(mm)

From the calculation and consideration for choosing the heads, an ellipsoidal
head is chosen for the reactor because the thickness is same with the vessel
thickness. So there is no need to install a conical section (reducers) to make a
gradual reduction from one cylindrical section to another of smaller diameter.
6.1.8

## Total Height of Reactor

Figure 6.1: Major and minor axis of the ellipsoidal dome closure

Major axis, the diameter is equal to internal diameter of the cylinder, which is 2.43m.

6-6
Minor axis, the radius, , can be calculated by

The height of the dome is equal to the radius at minor axis. Therefore,
Height = 0.6075 m

6.1.9

## The main sources of load to consider are:

1. Pressure
2. Dead weight of reactor and contents
3. Wind
4. Earthquake (seismic)
5. External loads imposed by piping and attached equipment
Since the plant is situated in Malaysia which is known as an earthquake-free and the
reactor is build on the ground, so the loads cause by earthquake can be neglected.
For preliminary calculations the approximate weight of a cylindrical vessel with
domed end, and uniform wall thickness can be estimated from the following
equation;

6-7
Where,
Wv

Cv

Hv

## Length of the cylindrical section, m

wall thickness, mm

Dm

## Weight of insulation material

Insulation material

= Mineral Wool

Density

= 130 kg/m3

Thickness

= 40 mm

Inner diameter

Outer diameter

Length of reactor

= 9.72 m

## Volume of insulation = Volume by outer diameter Volume by inner

diameter
= 46.84 m3 45.34 m3
= 1.5 m3

6-8
Total weight

## = Density x Volume of insulation x Gravitational

acceleration
= 130 kg/m3 x 1.5 m3 x 9.81 m/s2
= 1912.95 N
= 1.913 kN

Wrapper material

## = Stainless steel 316

Density

= 8300 kg/m3

Thickness

= 6 mm

Inner diameter

= 2.477 m

Outer diameter

= 2.483 m

Length of reactor

= 9.72 m

Volume of steel

## = Volume by outer diameter Volume by inner

diameter
= 47.07 m3 46.84 m3
= 0.23 m3

## Total weight of steel = Density x Volume of steel x Gravitational

Acceleration
= 8300 kg/m3 x 0.23 m3 x 9.81 m/s2
= 18727.29 N
= 18.727kN
Weight of catalyst
According to Biegler et al, (1997);

6-9

= 2.31 hr -1
Molar flowrate = 176.221 kgmol/hr
Molar density = 8.4713 kgmol/m3

Weight of fluid

6-10

## = Weight of vessel + Weight of fluid + Weight

of catalyst + Weight of insulation material and
wrapper
= 54.944kN + 82.353kN + 162.634kN + 1.913
+ 18.73
= 320.574kN

## 6.1.10 Analysis of Stresses

where,
W

= total weight

Di

= internal diameter

= thickness of vessel

Bending stresses

From Sinnott, 2003, a dynamic wind pressure of 1280 N/m 2 can be used in
preliminary design study where it is equivalent to a wind speed of 160 km/h for a
column with a height of 20 m and above. At any site, the wind velocity near the
ground will be lower than that higher up (due to the boundary layer), and in some

6-11
design methods a lower wind pressure is used at heights below about 20 m;
typically taken as one-half of the pressure above this height.

Where,
= Wind pressure = 640 N/m2
= Mean diameter

## Bending moment at bottom tangent line;

Where,
H2 = The height of concentrated load above the column base
Assume that the height of skirt support to tangent line is 1.5 meter.

The second moment of area of the vessel about the plane of bending, I v ;

6-12
Where,

So,

## Resultant longitudinal stress

At bottom tangent line, primary stresses are given by the longitudinal and
circumferential stresses due to pressure (internal or external),

and

6-13

## (Compressive, therefore it is negative)

As assumed that there is no torsion shear stress, the principal stresses will be
and

.
26.08N/mm2

19.25N/mm2

57.28N/mm2

57.28N/mm2

Down-wind

Up-wind

## 6.1.11 Vessel Support

The method used to support a reactor depends on the size, shape, and weight of
the reactor, the design temperature and pressure, the reactor location and
arrangement, and the internal and external fittings and attachments. Supports will
impose localised loads on the vessel wall, and the design must be checked to
ensure that the resulting stress concentrations are below the maximum allowable

6-14
design stress. Supports should be designed to allow easy access to the vessel and
fittings for inspection and maintenance.

Skirts support is suitable for the tall, vertical column. In this plant, a straight
skirt is chosen as a support. This is because as they do not impose concentrated
loads on the vessel shell; they are particularly suitable for use with tall columns

a) Stainless steel has been chosen as the material for straight skirt ( =
90o) with the design stress = 175 N/mm2 and Young's modulus 200,000
N/mm2 at ambient temperature

b) Assume height of skirt to tangent line is 1.5 m and the total weight of
reactor with content is 320.574kN

= 2.29 N/mm2

6-15
Where,
Mx

Ds

## = Inside diameter skirt at the base

ts

= Skirt thickness

## = 4.09 N/mm2 (operating)

The resultant stresses in the skirts will be;

## Take joint factor, J = 1

Criteria for design, s (tensile) > fs J sin
-1.8 > 175

## s (compressive) > 0.125 E (ts/Ds) sin

6.38 > 100.68
Both criteria are satisfied, add 2 mm for corrosion, that gives a design
thickness of 12 mm

6-16
6.1.12 Anchor Bolts and Base Rings
Scheiman has given a guide rules in selecting the anchor bolt;
1. Bolts smaller than 25 mm cannot be used.
2. Minimum number of bolts is 8
3. Use multiple of 4 bolts.
4. Bolt pitch should not less than 600 mm (2 feet)

=1m

## Circumference of bolt circle

= 1000

Number of bolts

= 1000/600
= 5.24

Closest multiple of 4

= 8 bolts

Where,

## = Area of one bolt at the root of the thread, mm2

= Number of bolts
= Maximum allowable bolt stress, typically 125 N/mm2
= Bending moment at the base, Nm
= Bolt circle diameter, m
W

## = Weight of the vessel, N

6-17

So, bolt size of M24 will be used in the design where the root area is 353 mm 2
Compressive load on the base ring, Fb

= 243.624kN/m
fc is the maximum allowable bearing pressure on the concrete foundation range from
3.5 7.0 N/mm2.
fc = 5 N/mm2 has been chosen.
Minimum width of the base ring;

Lr

= 76 mm

ts

= 10 mm

## Actual width required, L = Lr + ts + 50mm

= 76 + 10 + 50
= 136mm

6-18
Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation, fc = 5.178 N/mm2 and fr is
typically 140 N/mm2
Base ring thickness;

15 mm

## Several factors need to be considered in the mechanical design of distillation

column such as:
1. Design pressure
2. Design temperature
3. Material of construction
4. Design stress
5. Wall thickness
6. Welded joint efficiency
7. Analysis of stresses
c. Pressure stress
d. Bending stress
8. Vessel support
9. Insulation
6.2.2 Design Pressure

6-19

Temperature and pressure are two important properties in order to design the
thickness and the stress of the material. A column must be design to withstand the
maximum pressure to prevent the column to rupture when excessive pressure was
applied. Safety factors are added as precaution by taking consideration of corrosion
factor, location and process characteristics. Generally, design pressure is taken as 5
to 10% above the operating pressure at the bottom of the column in order to avoid
spurious operating during minor process upsets.

Operating pressure, P0 = 0.27 bar but in order to design the mechanical equipment
base on the industrial survey the appropriate pressure is 4 bar.

PD = 1.1P0
= 1.1 x (4 bar)
= 4.4 bar
= 0.44 N/mm2
6.2.3 Design Temperature

The design temperature at which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as
the maximum working temperature of the material, with due to allowance for any
uncertainty involved in predicting vessel wall temperature.

## Maximum working temperature of the material has taken into consideration in

designing the temperature. The strength of metal will be decrease as the
temperature increase.100C of temperatures were increase to avoid curious
operating during minor process upset
Operating temperature, T0 = 75.0 C
Design temperature, TD. (Take as 10% above the operating temperature)
TD

= 75 C x 1.1
= 82.5C
= 355.65 K

## 6.2.4 Material of construction

6-20
Selection of suitable material must be taking into account the suitability of material
for fabrication (particularly welding) as well as the compatibility of the material with
the process environment. In this production, it involves mixture of acrylic acid which
generally known as an active chemical that can cause corrosion to the surface of
material. Carbon steel is not recommended in this process design even though it
provides, low price and most availability metal used in industry. In this case, the
suitable material selection was stainless steel 304 (18Cr/8Ni, Mo 2 and half per
cent) this material can sustain high temperature and less corrosion. The design
stress at 82.5 C is taken from the table that attached in APPENDIX G.

In this case, stainless steel is chosen as the material of construction for several
purposes, such as:
2. Low cost
3. Subjected to welding
4. Corrosion resistant to feed and product
5. Easily fabricated
6. High strength
Design stress,f = 99.422 N/mm2
Tensile strength = 510 N/mm2
Diameter vessel, Di = 3550 mm
Design pressure, Pi = 0.44 N/mm2

## Minimum thickness of vessels is required to resist the internal pressure. A much

thicker wall will be needed at the column base to withstand the wind and dead weigh
load. Hence, the minimum thickness of column is calculated based on this equation:

6-21

where,

Pi = Design pressure
Di = Column diameter
f = design stress

therefore,

= 7.8763 mm

The calculation of minimum wall thickness is 7.8763 mm because the plant operates
under pressure. Generally, minimum wall thickness for 3.0 to 3.5 m vessel diameter
design is about 12 mm including 2 mm corrosion allowance. Therefore the wall
minimum thickness is 12 mm.

In order to close upper part of the vessel, head and closure will be added. There are
many types of head such as hemispherical, ellipsoidal and torispherical. The other
type of head is flat plate. Standard torispherical heads are the most commonly used
end closure for vessel. In this case, torispherical head had been choose because of
operating pressure below 10 bars and suitable for liquid vapour phase process in
inconsistent high pressure.

6-22
Rc = crown radius = Di
J = joints factor
Crown Radius, RC = Di = 3.55 m

Rk

= 0.06 x Rc
= 0.06 x 3.55 m
= 0.213 m

= 13.91mm

## 6.2.7 Total Column Weight

Total weight is the summation of the weight of dead weight, the weight of plates and
the weight of insulation.

1. The vessel shell
2. The vessel fittings: manhole, nozzles
3. Internal fitting: plates
4. External fitting
5. Auxiliary equipment which is not self supported
6. Insulation
7. The weight of liquid to fill the vessel
a) Dead weight of vessel, W v
Dead weight of vessel can be calculated by using equation below;

W v = 240CvDm(Hv + 0.8 Dm )t

6-23

Where;
W v = total weight of the shell, excluding internal fittings such as plates, N
Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzles, manways, internal supports,
(Cv =1.15 for distillation column was taken)
Dm

## = mean diameter of vessel (Di + t) m

= 3550 mm + 12 mm
= 3562 mm
=3.562 m

Hv = height, or length, between tangent lines (the length of the cylindrical section),m
= 15.4 m

t = wall thickness, m
= 0.012 m

Therefore,
W v = 240 x 1.15 x 3.562 [15.4 + 0.8 (3.562)] x 12 x10 -3
= 215.2968 kN

Weight of Accessories

a) Weight of Plate, W p
Based on Nelson Guide, page 833 Chemical Engineering Volume 6; contacting
plates value are take as 1.2 kN/m2. Therefore, weight of plate:

Weight of plate, W p

## = Ac x Number of plate x 1.2

= 9.898 x 22 x 1.2
= 261.3072 kN

6-24
Based on Nelson Guide, page 833 Chemical Engineering Volume 6; value of caged
ladder is taken as 360 N/m.
Weight of ladder, W L = (360 x hc) x 10-3
= 360 x 15.4 x 10-3
= 5.544 kN

c) Weight of Insulation, W i
It is important that column need protection or insulation to reduce loss of heat. The
insulation required a vapor barrier at the outside to prevent condensation of
atmospheric moisture from reducing its effectiveness. There are many types of
insulating materials including calcium silicate, mineral wool, glass fiber, cellular
glass and foam glass. In this case, mineral wool was chosen as insulation material.
By referring to Coulson Richardson Chemical engineering volume 6, page 833.

## Density of mineral wool, = 130 kg/m3

Thickness = 50 mm = 0.05 m

Volume of insulation,Vi

= x Dm x hc x thickness of insulation
= x 3.562 x 15.4 x 0.05
= 8.6166 m3

Weight of insulation, W i

= Volume of insulation x x g
= 8.6166 x 130 x 9.81
= 10988.75 N
= 10.989 kN

## Double the value to allow fittings = 2 x 10.989 = 21.978 kN

Total Weight

6-25
Wt

= W v + Wp + Wi
= 215.2968 kN+ 261.3072 kN + 10.989 kN
= 10.989 kN

Objectives to determine the wind load are to ensure the design to withstand the
highest wind speed that placed at the open environment. Columns and chimney
stacks are usually free standing, mounted on skirt supports and not attached to
structural steel work. The vessel under wind loading will acts as a cantilever beam.

## For preliminary design, Win speed, Uw = 160 km/h

Semi-empirical equation can be used for a smooth cylindrical column to estimate the
wind pressure,

Pw = 0.05 Uw2

where,
Pw = wind pressure, N/m2
Uw = wind speed, km/h
Pw

= 0.05 (160)2
= 1280 N/m2

where,

## Pw = wind pressure (load per unit area)

Cd = drag coefficient (shape factor)
a = density of air
Uw = wind velocity
Mean diameter, including insulation

6-26

= Dc + Dc (t + tins)
= 3.55 + (3.55) (0.012+ 0.05)
= 3.7701 m

Fw

=1280 x 3.7701
= 4825.73 N/m

= 572.235 kNm

## a) Longitudinal stresses due to pressure:

Where,

P = operating pressure
Di = column diameter
t = thickness

6-27

= 35.542 N/mm2

= 65.083 N/mm2

Where:
w

Di

## = internal diameter vessel,mm

= thickness of vessel,mm

WT

## = total weight of vessel,N

Bending Stress

1. The wind loads on tall self-supported vessels
2. Seismic loads on tall column

6-28

## Bending stress can be calculated using this equation:

Where,
b = bending stress will be compressive or tensile, N/mm2
Mx = bending moment, kNm
Di = internal diameter, mm
t

Where,

Iv

Do

= Di + 2t
= 3550 + 2(12)
= 3574 mm

## 6.2.10 Resultant longitudinal stress

6-29
Resultant of longitudal stress is the summation of longitudinal stresses, dead weight
stresses and bending stress:
z = L + w b
w is compressive and therefore negative

For upwind,
z (upwind)

## = 35.542 3.631 + 4.8015 x 10-3

= +31.916 N/mm2

For downwind,
z (downwind) = 35.542 3.631 - 4.8015 x 10-3
= +31.904 N/mm2

31.904
31.916

65.08

65.08

Up-wind

Down-wind

As there is no torsional shear stress, the principal stress will be z and h and the

The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the downwind side

6-30
= h z (downwind)
= 65.083 31.904
= 33.989 N/mm2 (<130 N/mm2 Design stress for stainless steel, satisfactory)

## The resultant bulking stress, c

=172.5 N/mm2
The maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under pressure
Maximum compressive stress = w + h
= 3.631 + 65.083
= 68.714 N/mm2

Since the maximum stress is well below the critical buckling stress. Hence, design is
satisfactory.

## 6.2.11 Vessel support

Support should be designed to permit easy admission to the vessel and fitting for
inspection and maintenance. It depends on size, shape and weight of the vessel,
vessel location and arrangement and the internal and external fittings and
attachments. In this case, the skirt support is used due to height and vertical
arrangement column.

Skirt support can be cylindrical or conical shell welded to the base of the vessel. The
skirt may be welded to the bottom level of the vessel. The maximum dead weight
load on the skirt will occur when the vessel is full of water.

Type support

= skirt support

Material of construction

= stainless steel

Design stress

= 130 N/mm2

Young modulus

## Base support angle,

= 90

6-31
Skirt thickness,ts

= 12 mm

Skirt height,th

= 2.0 m

Total weight

= 487.593 kN

At this condition of ambient temperature, the maximum dead weight load on the skirt
will occur when the vessel is full of the mixture.

a)

Weight of Skirt

## Approximate weight, Wapprox = (/4 x Di2 x Hv ) x L x g

= (/4 x (3.55)2 x 15.4) x 2599.08274 x 9.81
= 3886479.85 N
= 3886.48kN

## Weight of vessel from previous calculation = 487.593 kN

Total weight

= Wv + W p + W i + W approx
= 215.2968 + 261.3072 + 10.989 + 3886.48
= 4374.073 kN

= 4.82573 kN/m

## Take skirt support height as 2 m,

Bending moment at base skirt,

= 730.519 kNm

6-32

where,

## Ms = maximum bending moment, evaluated at the base of the skirt (due to

the wind, seismic and deccentric loads)
Ds = inside diameter of the skirt, at the base
ts = skirt thickness

= 6.1297 N/mm2

## c) Dead weight stress in skirt, ws

Where,
ws (test) = dead weight stress in skirt, N/mm2
W = approximate weight of support
Ds = diameter vessel, mm
ts = thickness of the vessel, mm

=28.942N/mm2

6-33

= 3.631 N/mm2

## e) Resultant stress in skirt, s

s(tensile)

= bs + ws (test)
= 6.1297 + 28.942
= 35.072 N/mm2

s (compressive)

= bs - ws (operating)
= 6.1297 3.631
= 2.4987 N/mm2

## f) Criteria for design

Assume joint factor, J = 0.85
s (tensile)

< fs Jsin

35.072 N/mm2

35.072 N/mm2

s (compressive)

< 0.125E

2.4987 N/mm2

2.4987 N/mm2

## < 84.507 N/mm2

sin
sin 90

Both criteria are satisfied and add 2 mm for corrosion allowance. Therefore, the
thickness is 12mm + 2 mm = 14 mm.

## Base Ring and Anchor Bolt

The loads carried by the skirt are transmitted to the foundation slab by the skirt base
ring (bearing plate). The moment produced by wind and other lateral loads will tend

6-34
to overturn the vessel. A variety of base ring designs is used with skirt supports.The
preliminary design of base ring is base on Scheimans short cut method. Scheiman
gives the following guide rules which can be used for the selection of the anchor
bolts:

= 2.326 m

= 2326

Bolt pitch

= 0.6 m = 600 mm

## Number of bolt required

= 2326 / 600
= 13

Closets multiple of 4, Nb

= 13

= 125 N/mm2

a) Area of bolt

Where,

## Ab = area of one bolt at the root of the thread, mm2

Nb = number of bolts
fb = maximum allowable bolt stress
Ms = Bending moment at the base
W = Weight of the vessel
Db = bolt circle diameter, m

= 305.5225 mm2

6-35
b) Bolt root diameter

= 19.7232 mm

= 117.525 kN/m

## d) Minimum width of the base ring, Lb

Take the bearing pressure as fc = 5.00 N/ mm2
The minimum width of the base ring,

6-36

= 23.505 mm

## e) Minimum available standard bolt size

By referring, Appendix I

## Use M24 bolt size where root area = 353 mm LT = 76 mm

Actual width required
Lb

= LT + ts + 50
= 76 + 12 + 50
= 138 mm

= 0.8516 N/mm2

## Thus, actual minimum base thickness

where,
Fc = actual bearing pressure on base, N/mm2
fr = allowable design stress in the ring material, typically 140 N/mm2

= 10.267 mm
11 mm
Design of Nozzles

6-37

A proper choice of pipe diameter in column design is very important on the cost of
the pipe and the pumping cost. The capital cost of a pipe increases with diameter
but the pumping cost decreases with increasing diameter. In the first Ethylhexyl
acrylate column there 3 nozzles or pipe, which are pipe in feed inlet stream, top
product pipe stream and bottom product outlet stream. Type of the pipe that will use
in this column is stainless steel because of the resistance of the material to the
corrosion. The approximate optimum duct diameter for stainless steel is given by:

Where,
G

= density, kg/m3

## The pipe thickness, t can be calculate by using equation below;

where,
P = internal pressure, bar
= design stress for stainless steel pipe at working temperature N/mm 2

a) Feed inlet

= 846.5 kg/m3

## = (18059.532 kg/hr)(1 hr/ 3600 s)

= 5.0165 kg/s

= (260) (5.0165)0.52(846.5)-0.37
= 49.655 mm

6-38

= 980.1 kg/m3

## = (1783.5966 kg/hr)(1 hr/ 3600 s)

= 0.4954 kg/s

= (260) (0.4954)0.52(980.1)-0.37
= 14.1117 mm

= 787.3 kg/m3

## = (16275.9351 kg/hr)(1 hr/ 3600 s)

= 4.5211 kg/s

= (260) (4.5211)0.52(787.3)-0.37
= 48.3202 mm

## 6.2.12 Flanges Design

Generally, flanges joint are used for connecting pipes and instruments to vessels.
Manhole covers and removable vessel heads when ease of access is required. It
can also be used on the vessel body for transport or maintenance purposes.
Standard flanges are available in range of types, sizes and materials and are used
extensively for pipes, nozzles and other attachment to pressure vessels.

Flanges used in this design were chosen from the standard flanges. The standard
flanges are adapted from the British standard (BS 4504), which has nominal
pressure 6 bar. All tables below show standard value for flange where o.d is outside
diameter for pipe and all value in unit millimeter, mm.
Table 2.12: Standard flange

6-39
Strea

Nom.siz

Pip

o.d

Flange

60.

14

Raised

Boltin

face

d4

Bos
Drilling

No

11

80

50

25

11

d3

d1

Feed

50

17.
Top

10

Botto
m

50

75

60.

14

90

M12

1
35

90

M10

M12

80

## Table 2.13: Summary of mechemical design specification

Equipment

Distillation column
3.55

Unit
m

Diameter
15.4

bar

0.44

N/mm2

75

355.65

Height of Vessel
Operating pressure
Design Pressure
Operating temperature
Design Temperature
Material selection

Stainless steel
304
99.422

N/mm2

Design stress
12

mm

Vessel Thickness
Torispherical
Type
13.91
Thickness

mm

6-40

215.2968

kN

261.3072

kN

5.544

kN

10.989

kN

10.989

kN

160

km/h

3.7701

4825.73

N/m

572.235

kNm

35.542

N/mm2

65.083

N/mm2

3.631

N/mm2

4.8015x10-3

N/mm2

Weight of plate,
Weight of insulation
Total weight
Wind speed, Uw
Mean diameter including insulation
Bending moment at bottom of tangent
line
Analysis of stress vessel
Pressure stress
Longitudinal stresses due to pressure
Circumferential stresses due to
pressure
Bending stresses
Resultant longitudinal stress
(upwind)
(downwind)

31.916
31.904
33.989

N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm2

172.5

N/mm2

68.714

N/mm2

## Greatest difference between the

principal stresses
The resultant bulking stress
Critical buckling stress
Maximum compressive stress
Vessel support
Skirt support
Type support
Stainless steel 304
Material of construction
90

6-41
Base support angle,
3886.48

kN

730.519

kNm

6.1297

N/mm2

28.942

N/mm2

28.942

N/mm2

3.631

N/mm2

35.072

N/mm2

2.4987

N/mm2

110.5
84.507

N/mm2
N/mm2

Weight of skirt
Bending moment of skirt
Bending stress of skirt
Test
Operating
Resultant stress in skirt

s(tensile

s(compressive)
Criteria for design
s(tensile)
s(compressive)

## Base ring and anchor bolt

13
Number of bolt required
125

N/mm2

305.5225

mm2

19.7232

mm

117.525

kN/m

23.505

mm

138

mm

52

mm

## Bolt design stress

Area of bolt
Bolt root diameter
Minimum width of the base ring
Minimum available standard bolt size
Nozzles
Pipe thickness,feed inlet

6.3

## MECHANICAL DESIGN OF DISTILLATION COLUMN 2

6.3.1 Introduction
Several factors need to be considered in the mechanical design of distillation
column such as:
1 Design pressure

6-42
2 Design temperature
3 Material of construction
4 Design stress
5 Wall thickness
6 Welded joint efficiency
7 Analysis of stresses
c. Pressure stress
d. Bending stress
8 Vessel support
9 Insulation

## 6.3.2 Design Pressure

A vessel must be designed to withstand the maximum pressure to which it is
likely to be subjected in operation. For the vessels under internal pressure, the
design pressure is normally taken as the pressure at which the relief device is set.
This normally be 5 10% above the normal working pressure, to avoid spurious
operation during minor process upsets. The operation of the column are under
vacuum pressure of 1kpa to 3 kpa, but because of leak test that must be done to the
column before operation which is 6 bar ,the design pressure are choosen to 6 bar
with addition of 5 to 10 % as a safety requirement

## Operating pressure = 6 bar

Take as 10 % above the operating pressure
Operating pressure = 6 x 1.1
= 6.6 bar
= 0.66 N/mm2

6-43

## The strength of metals decreases with increasing temperatures so the maximum

allowable stress will depend on the material temperature. The design temperature at
which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as the maximum working
temperature of the material with due allowance for any uncertainty involved in
predicting the vessel wall temperature.

Design Temperature

= 535 K

## Take as 10 % above the operating temperature

Operating temperature

= 535 x 1.1
= 588.5 K

6.3.4

Material of Construction

Selection of suitable material must be taking into account the suitability of material
for fabrication (particularly welding) as well as the compatibility of the material with
the process environment. In this case the material used in the construction of the
distillation column is stainless steel 304 (18Cr/8Ni, Mo 2 and half per cent) because
it suitable in high temperature and resistance to corrosion. For this material, the
design stress at 588.5 K is obtained from table that attached in Appendix.

Design stress, f

= 105.5 N/mm

Tensile strength

= 510 N/mm

Join factor

=1

Diameter vessel, D

= 9390 mm

Operating pressure

= 0.66 N/mm

6-44

## 6.3.5 Vessel Thickness

The minimum thickness of column required and other designs are calculated based
on equation below ;

where,

6-45
Pi

## = internal pressure, N/mm2

Di = internal diameter, m
f

= Joint factor

= 2.93 mm

## Based on Table 13.4, Coulson & Richardson, Chemical Engineering, Volume

6, page 811, this minimum thickness should be added 5 mm where this value
including the corrosion allowances, to withstand its own weight and any incidental
e = 2.94 mm + 5 mm = 7.94 mm

## Round up to 8 mm. A much thicker wall is needed at the column base to

withstand the wind and dead weight loads. As a first trial, divide the column into five
sections, with the thickness increasing by 2 mm per section. Try 10, 12, 14, 16 and
18mm. The average wall thickness 11.6 0r 12 mm.

6.3.6

below 10 bars and suitable for liquid vapor phase process in inconsistent high
pressure. There are two junctions in a torispherical end closure: that between the
cylindrical section and the head, and the junction of the crown and the knuckle radii.
The thickness of torispherical head can be calculated by using equation :

6-46

where,

Rc

Rk

## = Knuckle radius = 0.06 R

= 0.06 x 939
= 56.34 mm

Cs = Stress concentration

Cs = 1.77

eD = 5.17 mm
Round up to 5.2 mm

6.3.7

1. The vessel shell

6-47
2. The vessel fittings: manhole, nozzles
3. Internal fitting: plates, heating cooling coils
4. External fittings: ladders, platforms, piping
5. Auxiliary equipment which is not self supported, condensers, agitators
6. Insulation
7. The weight of liquid to fill the vessel.

Wv

## = 240 x Cv x Dm x (Hv + 0.8 Dm) t x 10-3

where,
W v = total weight of shell, excluding internal fitting such as
plates
Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzles, man ways and
internal supports. (In this case for distillation column take
Cv as 1.15)
Dm = mean diameter of vessel = ( D + t) m
= ( 0.939+0.0012)
= 0.9402 m
H = height or length between tangent lines, m
t = wall thickness, m

6-48
W v = 240 x 1.15 x 0.9402 (10 + 0.8 (0.9402)) x 0.016
= 44.64 kN

Weight of Accessories

1. Weight of Plate W P
From Nelson Guide, page 833 Chemical Engineering Volume 6; take contacting
plates, 1.2 kN/m . The total of weight of plate determine by multiply the value with
number of 2 plate design.

## Weight of plate = Ac x Number of plate x 1.2

= 0.46 x 16 x 1.2
= 9.22 kN

2. Weight of Ladder W L
From Nelson Guide, page 833 Chemical Engineering Volume 6; take caged ladder
where the weight is 360 N/m. The total of weight of ladder determine by multiply the
value with high of column.

## Weight of ladder = (360 x hc) x 10-3

= (360 x 10) x 10-3
= 3.6 kN

Weight of Insulation

6-49
The mineral wool was choosing as insulation material. By referring to Coulson
Richardson Chemical engineering volume 6, page 833,

Thickness

= 50 mm = 0.05 m

## Volume of insulation, V = x D x h x thickness of insulation

=3.142 x 0.9402x 10 x 0.05
= 1.48 m3

xg

## = 1.48 x 130 x 9.81

= 1785.43.00 N
= 1.785 kN

Total weight
The total weight is the summation of dead weight of vessel, weight of accessories
and weight of insulation

Total weight = W V + W A + W I
=44.64 + (9.22+3.6) + 1.785
= 59.25 kN

6-50
A wind loading must be designed to withstand the highest wind speed that is likely to
encounter at the site during the life of the plant. From the British Standard Code of
Practice BS CP 3: 1972 Basic Data for the Design of Buildings, Chapter V Loading:
Part 2 Winds Load, (Sinnott, 1999), a wind speed of 160km/h (100mph) can be
used for preliminary design.

Pw

= 0.05 x uw2

Where,
Pw

uw

= 0.05 (160)2

Pw

= 1280 N/m2

## Mean diameter, including insulation = Di + 2(t + tins)

= 939+ 2(12 + 50)
= 1063 mm
= 1.06 m

= PwDeff
= 1280 x 1.06
= 1356.8 N/m

= 67,840 Nm
= 67.84 kNm

6.3.9

## Analysis of Stresses of Vessel

Pressure Stress

6-51
1. Thickness is taken as 9 mm as maximum.

= 10.96 N/mm2

## 2. Circumferencial stresses due to pressure are given by:

= 28.49 N/mm2

Dead weight stresses is significant for tall columns. This stress can be tensile for
points below the column support or compressive for points above the support. Dead
weight stresses are given by:

## = 1.94 N/mm2 (compressive)

Bending Stress
The bending stress will be compressive or tensile, depending on location and are
given by:

6-52
Where,
Mx

## = Total bending moment

Do

= Outside diameter
= Di + 2t
= 1900 + 2(16)
= 1932 mm

Iv

## = 1.31 x 10-3 N/mm2

The Resultant Longitudinal Stress
The resultant of longitudinal stress is the summation of longitudinal stresses, dead
weight stresses and bending stress.

For upwind,
= 12.90 N/mm2

For downwind,
= 9.57 N/mm2

## Therefore, the greatest difference between the principles stresses,

= 3.33 N/mm2

The value obtained is well below the maximum allowable design stress which is 115
N/mm2

6-53

## The Resultant Bulking Stress

Local bulking will normally occur at stress than that required buckling the
complete. A column design must be checked to ensure that the maximum value of
the resultant axial stress does not exceed the critical value at which buckling will
occur.

= 169.33 N/mm2

The maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under pressure
= 1.94 + 1.31 x 10-3
= 1.94131 N/mm2

Since the result of maximum compressive stress is below the critical buckling stress
of 157.07 N/mm2. Thus, the design is satisfactory.

## 6.3.11 Vessel Support Design

The method used to support a vessel will depend on the size, shape and
weight of the vessel; the design temperature and pressure, the vessel location and
arrangement; and the internal and external fittings and attachment. Since the
distillation column is a vertical vessel, skirt support is used in this design.

## A skirt support consists of a cylindrical or conical shell welded to the base of

the vessel. A flange at the bottom of the skirt transmits the load to the foundations.
The skirt may be welded to the bottom, level of the vessel. Skirt supports are
recommended for vertical vessels as they do not imposed concentrated loads on the

6-54
vessel shells; they are particularly suitable for use with tall columns subject to wind

Type of support

## = Straight cylindrical skirt

= 90

Material of construction

= carbon steel

Design stress, f

= 360 N/mm2

Youngs modulus

= 210,000 N/mm2

Skirt height, hs

=4m

Skirt thickness, ts

= 9 mm

Joint factor

=1

## Weight of the Skirt

Approximate weight, W approx = (/4 x Di2 x Hv) x L x 9.81
= (/4 x 1.0632 x 10) x 969.64 x 9.81
= 5352.53 N
= 5.353 kN

Weight of vessel, W

= 59.25 kN

Total weight

= 59.25 + 5.35
= 64.60 kN

## 1. Bending moment of skirt, Ms

Bending moment at base skirt, Ms

## = 0.5 x Fw(Hv + Hs)2

= 0.5 x 1356.8(10 + 4)2
= 133 kNm

## 2. Bending stress of skirt, bs

= 14.67 N/mm2

6-55
3. Dead weight stress in skirt, ws

= 0.166 N/mm2

= 20.09 N/mm2
4. Resultant stress in skirt, s
Maximum s (tensile) = bs + ws test
= 20.256 N/mm2
Maximum s (compressive) = bs - ws operating
= 21.498 N/mm2
5. Criteria for Design
Take the joint factor, J as 0.85
Where s = 90
s (tensile)

<

97.75 N/mm2

s (compressive)

<

fs J sin s

## 21.498 N/mm2 <

199.47 N/mm2

Both criteria are satisfied, add 2 mm for corrosion; gives a design thickness, t s of 11
mm.

## The type of this equipment is assumed to be completely satisfactory thus the

corrosion rate is 0.25 mm/y. Since the operation of this equipment is assumed to be
operated for 20 years, thus the corrosion rate will be added:

6-56
0.25 mm/y x 20

= 5 mm

The design thickness must be added with the corrosion rate, gives actual design
thickness, ts of 16 mm.

## 6.3.12 Base Ring and Anchor Bolts

The loads carried by the skirt are transmitted to the foundation slab by the skirt
base ring (bearing plate). The moment produced by wind and other lateral will tend
to overturn vessel. A variety of base ring designs is used with skirt supports. The
simplest types, suitable for small vessel, are rolled angle. The preliminary design of
base ring is done by using Scheimans short cut method. Scheiman gives the
following guide rules which can be used for the selection of the anchor bolts.
Refer to Coulson and Richardsons, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, page 848.

## 1. Bolts smaller than 25 mm diameter should not be used.

2. Minimum number of bolts = 8
3. Use multiple of 4 bolts
4. Bolts pitch should not be less than 600 mm

= 3.2 m

## Circumference of bolt circle = 2200

Closest multiple of 4, Nb

= 16 bolts

Fw

= 1356.8 N/m

Ms

kNm

## Number of bolts required, at minimum recommended bolt spacing

= Circumference of bolt circle / 600
= 2200 / 600
= 11.52
12 bolts

6-57

= 104.4 mm2

= 11.5294 mm

## Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length:

Where,
Fb

= the compressive load on the base ring, Newtons per linear metre

Ds

= skirt diameter, m

= 35.418 kN/m

Where,
Lb

fc

## = the maximum allowable bearing pressure in the concrete foundation pad,

which will depend on the mix sed, and will typically range from 3.5 to 7 N/mm2 (500
to 1000 psi)

6-58

= 7.0836 mm

This is the minimum width required; actual width will depend on the chair design.
Actual width required (Coulson and Richardsons, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6,
page 849, figure 13.30)

= Lr + ts + 50 mm
= 76 + 16 + 50
= 142 mm

= 0.249 N/mm2

## The minimum thickness is given by,

Where,
Lr

= the distance from the edge of the skirt to the outer edge of the ring, mm

tb

fc

fr

## = allowable design stress in the ring material, typically 140 N/mm2

= 5.55 mm

The chair dimensions from figure 13.30 for bolt size M24.

## Skirt is to be welded flush with outer diameter of column shell.

6.3.13 Design of Nozzles

6-59
There are three nozzles in the distillation column, which are nozzles in feed inlet, top
product outlet and bottom product outlet. By assuming that the flow of the pipe is
turbulent flow, therefore to determine the optimum duct diameter is:
Optimum duct diameter, dopt = 293 G0.53-0.37

Where,
G

= flowrate, kg/s

= density, kg/m3

Feed Stream
G

= 4.522 kg/s

mix

= 728.3 kg/m3

dopt

## = 293 (4.522)0.53 (728.3)-0.37

= 56.90 mm
65 mm

Where,
Ps

= operating pressure

= 0.0073 mm

= 2 + 0.0071
= 2.0071 mm

6-60
Top Stream
G

= 15980 kg/h
= 4.4389 kg/s

mix

= 815.2 kg/m3

dopt

= 54.05 mm
65 mm

= 0.0064 mm

= 2 + 0.0064
= 2.0064 mm

Bottom Stream
G

= 299.2kg/h
= 0.083 kg/s

mix

= 728.3 kg/m3

dopt

= 6.84 mm
10 mm

= 0.0008 mm

## = corrosion allowance + 0.0036

= 2 + 0.0008

6-61
= 2.0008 mm
6.3.14 Flange Design
The flange class number required for a particular duty will depend on the design
pressure and temperature and the flange material. The flange design is from the
Volume 6, page 863, figure 13.37.

Feed Stream

dopt

65

d1

76.1

Raised

Flange

face

Drilling

Bolting

d4

160

14

32

110

M12

Boss

No

d2

d3

14

130

100

Top Stream

dopt

65

d1

76.1

Raised

Flange

face

Drilling

Bolting

d4

160

14

32

110

M12

Boss

No

d2

d3

14

130

100

Bottom Stream

dopt

10

d1

17.2

Raised

Flange

face

Drilling

Bolting

d4

75

12

20

35

M10

Boss

No

d2

d3

11

50

25

## Summary of Mechanical Design

Summary of design distillation column are shown in table below:

6-62

## Table 3.2 The Summary of Mechanical Design

Pressure Vessel
Operating Pressure, Po

0.027 N/mm2

Design Pressure, P1

0.660 N/mm2

Operating Temperature

262.00 oC

Design Temperature

315.15 oC

Column Material

stainless Steel

Safety Factor

10%

Design Stress

105.5 N/mm2

Types

0.939 m

0.006 m

Joint Factor, J

Cs

1.77

Minimum thickness, e

10 mm
Column Weight

## Dead weight of Vessel, W v

44.64 kN

Weight of Plates, W p

9.22 kN

Weight of Insulation, W i

1.785kN

Total Weight, W t

59.25 kN

Wind Speed, Uw

160 km/h

Bending Moment, Mx

210.0429 kN/m

Insulation Material

Mineral Wool

Insulation Thickness

50 mm
Skirt Support

Type of Support

## Straight Cylindrical Skirt

Material of Construction

Carbon Steel

Youngs Modulus

210,000 N/mm2

Bending Moment, Mx

133 kNm

Skirt Thickness, ts

9 mm

Skirt Height, Hs

4m
Stiffness Ring

140 N/mm2

6-63

6.4

## 6.4.1 MECHANICAL DESIGN

Mechanical design is the last step in designing distillation column equipment.
In this section, several factors are needed to be considering in the mechanical
design of distillation column which is:-

1. Design pressure
2. Design temperature
3. Material of the construction
4. Design stress
5. Wall thickness
7. Column height
8. Analysis of stress
9. Vessel support
10. Piping sizing

The mechanical design and the data that given is very sufficient for the
preliminary design of conventional vessel, to check the feasibility of the proposed
equipment design, to estimate the vessel cost for the economic and to determine the
general vessel proportion and weight for the plant layout.

6.4.2

Design Pressure

## Design pressure in the vessel should design to withstand the maximum

pressure that it subjected in operation where it is also known as the maximum
allowable working pressure. For the vessel under the internal pressure, normally is
taking 5 to 10% above the normal working pressure to avoid spurious operation of
the relief valve. For the recommended practice is sets 10% margin between the
normal operating pressure and the design pressure.

6-64

6.4.3

Design Temperature

Usually, the maximum design temperature was depending on the type of the
material temperature. The maximum design temperature is the maximum allowable
stress that can evaluated as the maximum working temperature of material. It also
was involved the vessel wall temperature. The temperature was increase caused by
the strength of the metal is decrease thus the design stress will depend on the
temperature of material.

## It also should consider the lowest operating temperature, ambient

temperature, auto-refrigeration, process upsets and the sources of the cooling.

6.4.4

Material Construction

The suitable selection material is the most important because it takes into
account the suitability of the material for the fabrication as well as the compatibility
of the material. For the 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate plant, stainless steel is most suitable
because of the low cost for maintenance. The main reason is because of 2Ethylhexyl Acrylate is a corrosion compound.

In the 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate plant, the material used in the construction of the
continuous distillation column is stainless steel 304 where it contains of 18 Cr/ 8 Ni,
Mo 2 and half percent. Stainless steel is suitable for the high temperature and it less
corrosive.

6.4.5

Design Stress

The value for the maximum allowable stress can be accepted for the design
purpose in the material of the construction. This is can determine by applying a
suitable safety factor to the maximum stress that the material could be expected to
withstand without failure under standard test conditions. Safety factor that consider
in the design methods are the loading, the quality of the material and workmanship.

6-65
The table 4.3 shows of the typical maximum allowable stresses for plate
under ASME BPV Code Sec. VIII D.1. The table showed the maximum allowable
stress at varies types of material.

Table 4.3: Typical Maximum Allowable Stresses For Plate Under ASME BPV Code
Sec. VIII D.1. (The appropriate material standards should be consulted for particular

Material
Carbon

A285

steel

Gr A

Killed

A515

Min.

Min. Yield

tensile

strength

strengt

(ksi)

h (ksi)

## Max. Allowable stress at temp. oF

Max.
Temp (F)

100

300

500

700

900

45

24

900

12.9

12.9

12.9

11.5

5.9

60

32

1000

17.1

17.1

17.1

14.3

5.9

60

30

1200

17.1

16.6

16.6

16.6

13.6

carbon
steel

Gr A

Low alloy

A387

steel

Gr A

Stainless

410

65

30

1200

18.6

17.8

17.2

16.2

12.3

304

75

30

1500

20.0

15.0

12.9

11.7

10.8

347

75

30

1500

20.0

17.1

15.0

13.8

13.4

321

75

30

1500

20.0

16.5

14.3

13.0

12.3

316

75

30

1500

20.0

15.6

13.3

12.1

11.5

steel
Stainless
steel
Stainless
steel
Stainless
steel
Stainless
steel
Source: Ray Sinnott & Gavin Towler, Chemical Engineering Design, Vol. 5, page
1001.

6-66

6.4.6

Vessel Thickness

## The wall thickness is required to ensure the vessel is sufficiently rigid to

withstand on the weight and the loads. Specifies minimum wall thickness is not
including corrosion allowance and regardless of the vessel of the dimension and
material of the construction. The wall thickness should not be less than 1m; the
corrosion allowance is 2mm. The table 4.4 shows the minimum thickness at the
different vessel diameter.

## Table 4.4: Minimum Thickness at Different Vessel Diameter

Vessel Diameter (m)

## Minimum Thickness (mm)

1 to 2

2 to 2.5

2.5 to 3.0

10

3.0 to 3.5

12

Source : Ray Sinnott & Gavin Towler, Chemical Engineering Design, Vol. 5, page
1004.

The minimum thickness for the cylindrical shell is required to resist internal
pressure. It can determine by the following equation:-

(4.15)
Where,

Pi

## Internal pressure, N/mm2

Di

Internal diameter, m

Joint factor

## By referring, Ray Sinnott and Gavin Towler, Chemical Engineering, Volume

5, page 1005, the minimum thickness should be added 2mm where the value is
including the corrosion allowances for the weight and incidental loads.

6-67

6.4.7

The cylindrical vessel was closed by heads of the various shapes such as
torispherical heads. The figure 4.2 was show the different type of the domed heads.

Figure 4.2: Domed heads. (a) Hemispherical. (b) Ellipsoidal. (c) Torispherical

The flat plates are usually used for cover man ways and the channel cover of
heat exchangers. Figure 4.2 was show the flat-end closures such as flanged plate,
welded plate and bolted cover. By comparing the different type of flat end closure,
the flanged plate is the cheapest type of the former head to manufacture but it
limited to the low pressure and small diameter vessel. The ASME BPV Code
specifies the minimum thickness as following equation:-

(4.16)

6-68

Where,

De

## maximum allowable stress

joint efficiency

Figure 4.3: Flat-end closures. (a) Flanged plate. (b) Welded plate (c) welded plate
(d) bolted cover (e) bolted cover.

Torispherical head is the common used as end closure for the vessel up to
the operating pressure of 15 bars. It also can use for higher pressure above 10 bar
but the cost is equivalent with the ellipsoidal head. In ASME BPV Code gives the
design equation:-

(4.17)
Where,

Rc

Ellipsoidal head is used for the operating pressure vessel that above 15 bars
and it usually prove to be the most economical closure to use.

6-69

(4.18)
The hemispherical head is commonly used for the vessel that capable of
resisting about twice the pressure of a torispherical head at the same thickness. The
hemispherical head are used for the high pressure.

(4.19)

6.4.8

1. The vessel shell
2. The vessel fittings: manways, nozzles
3. Internal fittings: plates (plus the fluid on the plates); heating and cooling coils
4. External fitting: ladders, platform, piping
5. Auxiliary equipment that is not self-supported; condensers, agitators
6. Insulation
7. The weight of liquid to fill the vessel. The vessel will be filled with water for
the hydraulic pressure test, and may fill with process liquid due to misoperation.

The approximate weight of a cylinder vessel with domed ends and uniform
wall thickness can be estimated by following equation:-

(4.20)

Where
Wv

such as plates.

6-70
Cw

## A factor to account for the weight of nozzles, internal

supports, etc
1.08 for vessel with only a few internal fittings
1.15 for distillation columns
Hv

## gravitational acceleration, 9.81 m/s2

wall thickness, mm

Dm

## mean diameter of vessel, m

By referring the value from Nelson (1963), page 1022 Chemical Engineering
volume 5, the rough guide to weight of fittings. Take:a) Platforms, steel, for vertical column, 1.7kN/m2 plate area. The weight of
platforms, W p can determine by the following equation:-

(4.21)
b) Caged ladders, steel, 360N/m length. The weight of ladder, W L can
determine by the following equation:-

(4.22)
c) Insulating material

## Table 4.5: The density of Insulating Material

Insulating material

Density (kg/m3)

Foam glass

150

Mineral wool

130

Fiberglass

100

Calcium silicate

200

Source : Ray Sinnott & Gavin Towler, Chemical Engineering Design, Vol. 5, page
1022.

## The densities of the insulating material should be doubled to allow for

attachment fitting, sealing and the moisture adsorption. In the production of 2Ethylhexyl Acrylate, mineral wool is most suitable as the insulating material. Mineral

6-71
wool was made from the natural or synthetic mineral and metal oxides. It also used
as the thermal insulation, filtration, sound proofing and germination of seeding.
Mineral wool also used for the fire resistance of fiberglass, sound absorber, very
excellent heat insulator, and it can conduct heat very well but it unattractive to
rodents. The weight of insulation, W i can determine by the following equation:-

(4.23)
Where

Wi

Vi

## Density of insulation material

Gravity

Wind loading is depends on the dynamic wind pressure and column area.
Due to the high of distillation column height and its open space installation, wind
loading becomes significant. A column must be designed to withstand the highest
wind speed that is likely to be considered at the site during the life of the plant. By
referring the British Standard Code Practice BSCP: Part 2 Winds Load, a wind
speed of preliminary design is 160km/h.

For the cylinder column, semi empirical equation can be used to estimate the
wind pressure, Pw can calculate by following equation:-

(4.24)
Where

Pw

uw

equation:-

)
(4.25)

6-72

(4.26)

Where

Fw

Pw

Wind pressure

Deff

mean diameter

## The bending moment, Mx can be calculated by the following equation:-

(4.27)
Where

Mx

Bending moment

Hv

height vessel

The total weight is the summation of dead weight of vessel, weight of plates,
weight of ladder and weight of insulation.

(4.28)
Where

6.4.9

WT

Total weight

Wv

weight of vessel

Wp

Weight of plates

WL

Wi

Weight of insulation

Analysis Stress

Pressure Stress

## a) The longitudinal due to pressure (internal or external) can give by

following equation:-

(4.29)
Where

longitudinal stresses

Pi

pressure internal

Di

Diameter internal

6-73
t

thickness

## b) Circumferential stresses due to pressure by the following equation:-

(4.30)
h

Where

circumferential stresses

c) Dead weight stresses is significant for the tall columns. The stress can be
tensile for points below the column support or compressive for points above the
support.

## Dead weight stresses are given by following equation:-

(4.31)
Where

direct stress

Wz

total weight

Bending Stress

The bending moments will be caused by the following loading conditions:a. The wind loads on the tall self supported vessels
b. Seismic loads on the tall vessels
c. The dead weight and wind loads on piping and equipment which is attached
to the vessel, but offset from the vessel centre line

## The bending stress will be compressive or tensile, depending on the location

and are given by the following equation:-

(4.32)
Where

bending stress

6-74
Mx

Do

outside diameter

Iv

## The resultant of longitudal stress is the summation of the longitudinal

stresses, dead weight stresses and the bending stress. The equation of resultant
longitudal stress is given by the following equation:-

(4.33)

Up wind

down wind
Figure 4.4: Analyses of stress

## The greatest difference between the principles stresses can be calculated by

the following equation:-

(4.34)
Where

## The Resultant Bulking stress

The local bulking will normally occur at stress than that required buckling the
complete. A column design must be checked to ensure that the maximum value of

6-75
the resultant axial stress does not exceed the critical value at which buckling will
occur. The critical buckling stress, c can determine by the following equation:-

(4.35)
Where

## critical buckling stress

Do

outside diameter

The maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under
the pressure. The maximum compressive stress can be determined by the following
equation:-

(4.36)
Where

direct stress

bending stress

## 6.4.10 Vessel Support

The technique that used to support a vessel will depend on the size, shape
and weight of the vessel, the design temperature and pressure; the vessel location
and arrangement; and the internal and external fittings and attachment. The types of
skirt support are straight skirt and conical skirt.

Figure 4.5: Typical skirt-support designs (a) Straight skirt (b) Conical Skirt.

6-76

## A skirt support consists of cylindrical or conical shell welded to the base of

the vessel. A flange at the bottom of the skirt transmits the load to the foundations.
The skirt may be welded to the bottom, level of the vessel. The skirt supports also
recommended for vertical vessels as they do not imposed concentrated loads on the
vessel shells; they are particularly suitable for use with tall columns subject to wind

In the design, the skirt support is used to support the equipment. The
conditions at the ambient temperature are:Type of support

## Straight cylindrical skirt (s = 900)

Material of construction

## Plain Carbon Steel

Design Stress, fs

135 N/mm2

Young Modulus, E

## 200 000 N/mm2

Skirt height, Hs

1.5 m

Pressure Stress

The maximum dead weight load of the skirt support will occur when the
vessel is full of the mixture. The approximate weight of the skirt support can be
calculated by the following equation:-

(4.37)

Where

weight of skirt

Hv

height of vessel

gravitational

density liquid

Di

diameter internal

## The weight of the vessel can be determined by the following equation:-

(4.38)

6-77

Where

Ws

weight of skirt

Wv

Weight of vessel

Weight approximate

Bending Stress

The bending moment at the base skirt can measure by the following
equation:-

(4.39)
Where

Ms

## =bending moment at base skirt

Fw

Hv

= height of vessel

Hs

wind forces

height of skirt

The skirt thickness must be sufficient to withstand the dead weight loads and
bending moments imposed on it by the vessel; it will not be under the vessel
pressure. Take the skirt thickness as the same as that of the bottom section of the
vessel, 10 mm. The resultant stresses in the skirt will be:-

(4.40)

(4.41)
Where

bs

ws

(4.42)

6-78
Where

Ms

Ds

## =Inside diameter of the skirt at the base

ts

skirt thickness

The dead weight stress in the skirt (test) and the dead weight stress in skirt
(operating) can determine by the following equation:-

(4.43)

(4.44)
Where

Weight approximate

WT

Weight total

## The Resultant stress

The maximum stress, s (compressive) and maximum stress s(tensile) can
determine by the equation:-

(4.45)

(4.46)

The skirt thickness should be such that under the worst combination of wind

(4.47)

(4.48)
If the both are satisfied, 2 mm was added for corrosion.

6-79

## 6.4.11 Base Ring and Anchor Bolts

The loads carried by the skirt are transmitted to the foundation slab by the
skirt base ring (bearing). The moment produced by wind and other lateral loads will
tend to overturn the vessel. Since the reactor can be considered as the small vessel,
the simplest types, rolled angle ring are used. The preliminary design of base ring is
done by using Scheimans short cut method. By referring J.M Coulson and J.F
Richardson, Chemical Engineering, volume 6, page 1036. Scheiman gives the
following rules which can be used for selection of the anchor bolts which is:1. Bolts smaller than 25 mm diameter should not be used
2. Minimum number of bolts is 8
3. Use multiple of 4 bolts
4. Bolts pitch should not be less than 600mm

(4.49)
Where
Ab

Nb

Numbers of bolts

fb

Ms

Db

(4.50)
Where

Db

## bolt root diameter

The total compressive load on the base ring per unit length can determine by
the following equation:-

6-80

(4.51)
Where

Fb

## total compressive load on the base ring

Ds

skirt diameter, m

## Take the bearing pressure as 5 N/mm is one of the concrete foundation

pads, fc. the minimum width of the base ring can determine by the following
equation:-

(4.52)
Where

Lb

fc

## the maximum allowable bearing on the concrete

The required thickness for the base ring is found by the treating the ring as a
cantilever beam. The actual minimum base thickness, t b can determine by the
following equation:-

(4.53)
Where

tb

fc

fr

## Allowable design stress in the ring material, typically

140N/mm2

6-81

Figure 4.6: Flange ring dimension and all the contacting edges fillet welded.

## Source: Coulson & Richardson, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6.

6.4.12 Piping Sizing and Flange

The best choice of the pipe diameter is compromise between the cost of the
pipe and the pumping cost. The capital cost of the pipe was increase with the
diameter pipe but the pumping cost was decrease with increasing diameter. The
type of the pipe is carbon steel because of the resistance to the corrosion and the
cost is cheaper than the stainless steel. Moreover, it also can easily to the
maintenance the piping system.

The approximate optimum duct diameter for the carbon steel is given by:-

6-82

(4.54)
Where

flowrate, kg/s

density, kg/m3

(4.55)
Where

## design stress for carbon steel pipe at working

temperature, N/mm2

bar

6-83

## Source:Coulson & Richardson, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6.

6.4.13 Summary of Mechanical Design

## MECHANICAL DESIGN SPECIFICATION SHEET

Identification: Distillation Column
Item No:

By:

NORASYIKIN BT ZOLKIFILE

T-103
Function: To separate 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate and 2-Ethylhexanol.
Operation: Continuous

6-84
Type: Sieve trays distillation column.
Column Specification
Operating Pressure:

6 bar

## Operating temperature (max):

380 K

Material of construction:

Stainless Steel

Column diameter:

1.645 m

Number of plate:

38

2.0 mm

6.5 mm

Hemispherical

Weight of shell

55 kN

Weight of plate

3.611 kN

Total weight

139 kN

## Bending moment at bottom tangent

line, Mx

350.26 Nm

Pressure stress:
Circumferential stresses, h

83.505 N/mm2

Longitudinal stresses, L

41.753 N/mm2

0.0016 N/mm2

Bending stress, b

1.005 N/mm2

42.76N/mm2

40.75 N/mm2

## 3. Check elastic stability (Bucking)

Critical buckling stress
Maximum compressive stress

78.42
1.01 N/mm2 < C

6-85

## Vessel support type

Skirt

Angle of skirt

90

Skirt height
Bending moment at base of skirt
Bending stress in the skirt, bs

1.5 m
413 kNm
30.28 N/mm2

Test

10.84 N/mm2

Operating

12.49 N/mm2

Compressive

41.12 N/mm2

Tensile

17.78 N/mm2

## 5. Design of base ring and Anchor bolts

Pitch circle diameter (approx.)

2.2 m

2200 mm

11.52 mm

11.52 bolts

25.77 mm

base

ring, Fb

32911KN/m

6.582 mm

206.5 mm

## Minimum thickness of base ring

8.18 mm

6. Design of flange
Feed
Diameter

50 mm

Top Column
Diameter

50 mm

Bottom Column
Diameter

65 mm

6-86

6.5.1

Mechanical Design

Every heat exchanger must either mounted on the floor or ground in a room
or open environment or in a system along with other components. The
structural support for the heat exchanger needs to be designed properly with
proper tabs, brackets, and other mounting features on the heat exchanger to
ensure no failure of the supporting structure due to vibration, impact loads,
fatigue, and so on. In a mechanical design, consideration is also given to
maintenance requirements such as cleaning, repairing, serviceability and
general inspection. Every heat exchanger must comply with applicable local,
state, national or international codes and standards such as ASME pressure
vessel codes and TEMA standards. Heat exchanger should be designed
accordingly for good mechanical design that will also result in good thermal
design.
6.5.2

## Mechanical design of shell wall

6-87
At design temperature = 100.5 C, with 10% of design temperature, T = 150

C: Using stainless steel (316), the design stress (f) = 135 N/mm2, and the

## tensile strength () = 520 N/mm2. (Refer Appendix 6.5.A)

Minimum thickness,

Pi Di
2 J f - Pi

= 0.98mm
Where,
Design stress, f = 135 N/mm2;
Inner Pressure, Pi =0.61N/mm2;
Inner Diameter, Di = 433.14 mm;
Fully welded (no joint), J=1. (Refer Appendix 6.5.B)

e

= 0.98 + 2
=2.98 mm

6.5.3

## Minimum thickness for ellipsoidal heads;

=
=

Pi Di
2 Jf 0.2 Pi
0.61 (433.14)
2(1) (135) 0.2(0.61)

0.87 mm

Where;
Pi = 0.61N/mm2,
Di = 384.69 mm,
f = 135 N/mm2,
J = 1.0

6-88
e

0.87 + 2

2.87 mm

## 2) For confirmation, a torispherical head calculation was done:

e = 0.885PiRc / (J x f 0.1Pi)

Where
Pi = internal pressure, N/mm2
Rc = Ds = Shell diameter, mm
J = Joint factor = 1
fs = design stress of shell-side, N/mm2

Where;
Pi = 0.61N/mm2,
Di = 384.69 mm,
f = 135N/mm2,
J = 1.0
e = 0.885PiRc / (J x f 0.1Pi)
= (0.885 x 0.61 x 384.69) / (1 x 135 (0.1)0.61)
= 1.539 mm
Adding corrosion allowance of 2 mm
e = 1.539 mm + 2 mm
= 3.54 mm

Thus proving that ellipsoidal head is more economical to use for this design.
6.5.4

## Tube and shell side nozzle

Nozzles are used for entering and leaving the inlet and outlet stream of the cooler
condenser. The nozzles are for channel side and the shell side of the heat
exchanger.

Standard steel pipe will be used for the inlet and outlet nozzles. It is important to
avoid flow restrictions at the inlet and outlet nozzles. It is also to prevent excessive

6-89
pressure drop flow induced vibration of the tubes. Material of construction for
nozzles will be the same as the cooler body.

## Tube Side Nozzle

1) Diameter for Liquid In:
Pipe size for water at inlet
Material of construction

## = stainless steel 316

Flow rate

=1.63kg/s

Density

= 998.00kg/m3

d, optimum

= 260G

0.53

0.37

= 125.7 mm 126 mm

## 2) Diameter for Liquid Outlet:

Pipe size for water at outlet
Material of construction

## = stainless steel 316

Flow rate

= 1.63 kg/s

Density

= 998.00 kg/m3

d, optimum

= 260G

0.53

0.37

= 125.7 mm 125 mm

## Shell Side Nozzle

1) Diameter for 2-EHA in
Pipe size for process fluid at inlet
Material of construction

Flow rate

= 0.16 kg/s

Density

=811.09kg/m3

d, optimum

= 260G

0.53

0.37

= 98.44 mm 98 mm

## 2) Diameter for 2-EHA outlet

6-90
Pipe size for process fluid at outlet
Material of construction

Flow rate

= 0.16 kg/s

Density

=880.37kg/m3

d, optimum

= 260G

0.53

0.37

= 95.81 mm 96 mm

## From Stanley M. Walas, Chemical Process Equipment

By taking ID = 6.07 In, the selected tube size nozzle (for inlet and outlet):

Table 6.5.1: Properties of Steel Pipe for inlet and Outlet of Fluid water
Nominal pipe

6.5.5

Schedule

Flow

area

size, in

OD, in

No

ID, in

pipe, in2

4.5

40

4.03

12.7

per

## Flanged for Nozzle

Flanged joints are used for connecting pipes and instruments to vessel, for
manholes cover and for removable vessel head when ease of access is required.
Flanged may also be used on the vessel body, when it is necessary to divide the
vessel into sections for transport or maintenance. Flanged joints are also used to
connect pipe to the equipments such as pumps and valves.

A flange ranges size from a few millimeters diameter for small pipes to
several meters diameter for those used as body or head flanges on vessels.
Flanges dimension must be able to withstand the hydrostatic ends loads and the
bolt loads necessary to ensure tight joint in service.

For the design of this heat exchanger, welding-neck flange are used. It is
because welding-neck flanges have a long tapered hub between the flange ring and
the welded joint. This gradual transition of the section reduces the discontinuity
stresses between the flange and branch. It is also can increase the strength of the
flange assembly.

6-91
Welding-neck flanges are suitable for extreme service conditions, where
flange are likely to be subjected to temperature, shear and vibration loads. They will
normally be specified for the connections and nozzles on process vessels and
process equipment. The dimensions of welding-neck flanges is chosen base on the
nominal pipe size of the nozzle pipe. All dimensions are listed below.
From Coulson & Richardsons, Volume 6
Dimension of selected flanges (BS 4504) (Refer Appendix 6.5.D)
Table 6.5.2: Design of Flange Joints

type

Nom
.
pipe

pipe
od, d1

D
tube side
(both
side)
shell side
(both
side)

raised
face

flange

h1

d4

bolt

drilling

no.

neck

d1
2

d3
18
6

12

10

13
2

10

152

170.2

267

18

48

204

3 M16

18

22
7

102

116.3

212

16

45

150

3 M16

18

17
2

## Figure 6.5.1: Flanged joint standards

h2

6-92
6.5.6

Baffles

Baffles are used in the shell to direct the fluid flow across tube and increase the fluid
velocity. When the fluid velocity increases, its improving the rate of heat transfer.
The assembly of baffles and tubes is hold together by support rods and spacers.

The most commonly used type of baffle is the single-segmental baffle. Baffle
cut used to specify the dimensions of a segmental baffle. Generally, baffle cut of
20% - 25% will be optimum. The value will give good heat transfer rate without
excessive drop.

Baffle spacing IB = Ds / 5
= 384.69 / 5
= 76.94

## Baffle cut = 25%

Number of baffle segmental = 5000 / 384.69
= 13
6.5.7

The vessel shell
The tubes
The fluid to fill the vessel
The fluid to fill the tubes
The insulator

## 1. The vessel shell weight

For preliminary calculation, the approximate weight of a cylindrical vessel with
domes ends, and uniform wall thickness, can be estimated from the following
equation:
Wv = Cv x x m x Dm x g x (Hv + 0.8Dm)t x 10-3

Where
Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzles, manways, internal supports
Hv = Length (the length of cylindrical section), m

6-93
g = gravitational acceleration, 9.81 m/s2
t = wall thickness, mm
m = density of vessel material, kg/m3
Dm = mean diameter of vessel = (Di + t x 10 -3), m
Table 6.5.3: Vessel Shell Weight
total weight of shell

Wv

Cv

1.08

Hv

9.81

kg/m3

density(m)

8030

Ds

0.38

2.87

## mean diameter of vessel, m

Dm=Ds +te-3

0.383

length

between

tangeng

line,m
gravitational
acceleration,m/s2
density of vessel material,

## Note: factor weigh of nozzles is 1.08 if few internal fittings

Wv = 1.08 x x 8030 x 0.383 x 9.81 x (5.00+ 0.8 x 0.383)2.87 x 10 -3
= 1558.97 N

## 2. The tube weight

Wt = Nt x x (do2 di2) x L x m x g

Where
Nt = number of tubes
do = outside diameter of tube-side, m
di = inside diameter of tube-side, m
L = length, m
m = density of tube material, kg/m3
g = gravitational acceleration = 9.81 m/s2
Table 6.5.4: Tube Weight

6-94
number of tube per shell

Nt

121

do

0.02

di

0.016

Dmt

0.018

tube length,m

Lt

density(m)

8030

= 22.285 N

## 3. Weight of HC mixture to fill the vessel

Ws = ( x Ds2 / 4) x L x s x g

Where
Ds = diameter of shell-side, m
L = length, m
s = density of shell-side, kg/m3
g = gravitational acceleration, m/s2
Ws = ( x 0.382 / 4) x 5.00 x 845.73 x 9.81
= 4704.66 N

## 4. Weight of water to fill the tubes

Wt = Nt( x (do2 di2) / 4) x L x s x g

Where
Nt = number of tubes
do = outside diameter of tube-side, m
di = inside diameter of tube-side, m
L = length, m
t = density of tube-side, kg/m3
g = gravitational acceleration, m/s2

6-95
Wt = 121 ( x (0.022 0.0162) / 4) x 5.00 x 998.00 x 9.81
= 669.9 N

5. Weight of insulator
Wi = x Ds x L x Iw x m x g

Where
Ds = diameter of shell, m
L = length, m
Iw = thickness of insulation, m
m = density of material insulation, kg/m3
g = gravitational acceleration, m/s2
Wi = x 0.38 x 5.00 x 0.075 x 130 x 9.81
= 570.92 N

## Table 6.5.5: Total Weight of Heat Exchanger

6.5.8

weight of sources

values,kN

## vessel shell weight

1.558

tube weight

0.022

HC in shell weight

4.705

## water in tube weight

0.67

weight of insulator

0.571

total weight

7.526

7.902

Vessel Support

## Determination of support for a vessel will be depending on the design temperature

and pressure, vessel location and arrangement, and the internal and external
fittings.

6-96
Support should be design to allow easy access to the vessel for inspection
and maintenance.

Horizontal vessels are usually mounted on two saddle supports. Since cooler
is in horizontal arrangement, saddle support is chosen as the support or the cooler.
The saddle must be designed to withstand the load imposed by the weight of the
vessel and its contents.

## In the design of cooler, the design of saddle is depends on the weight of

vessel, which is the weight of cooler itself. From the previous calculation of cooler
weight, the total weight is 14.05 kN.

## From the value of weight, the dimensions of saddle is choosing as referred

from Coulson & Richardsons, Volume 6 (Refer Appendix 6.5.E)
For outer vessel or shell diameter of 0.369m 0.4m
Table 6.5.6: Design of Saddle for Vessel
dimensions,m

maximum
vessel

weight,

diameter,m

kN

0.38 = 0.4

20

mm

bold

bolt

t2

t1

diam.

holes

20

25

6-97