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6.1

6.1.1

Design Pressure

For safety purpose, the design pressure is 10 % above the operating pressure was

chosen.

Pi

= 3 bar x 1.1

= 3.3 bar

= 0.33 N/mm2

6.1.2

Design Temperature

The strength of metal decreased with the increasing of temperature. Therefore, the

maximum allowable design stress will depend on the material temperature. The

design temperature is taken as the maximum working temperature in the reactor.

Operating temperature

= 75oC

= 120 oC

Design temperature

= 1.1 x 120 oC

= 132 oC

6.1.3

Material Used

Stainless steel material is used as the construction because the chemical material

involved in this process is corrosive. Specifically, stainless steel Type 316 is used

because it is an alloy added with molybdenum to improve the corrosion resistance in

6-2

reducing conditions. From Chemical Engineering Vol 6, Table 13.2, the strength

property of this material is:

Design stress, f

6.1.4

= 140.4N/mm2

Joint efficiency selected is 1 because the lower joint factor will result in a thicker and

heavier vessel. The joint factor 1 implies that the joint is equally strong as virgin

plate.

6.1.5

Corrosion Allowance

The corrosion allowance is the additional thickness of metal added to allow for

material lost by corrosion and erosion or scaling. The allowance should be based on

experience with the material of construction under similar service condition to those

for the proposed design. Most design codes and standards specify a minimum

allowance of 1.0 mm, but since the process involves corrosive material, the

corrosion allowance is increased to 4.0 mm.

6.1.6

For cylindrical shell, the minimum thickness required to resist internal pressure is

determine from the following equation;

where;

Di is the internal diameter

= 2.430 m

=140.4N/mm2

=0.33 N/mm2

6-3

Therefore the wall thickness = e + corrosion allowance

= 2.859 + 4

= 6.859 mm

7mm

6.1.7

The ends of a cylindrical vessel are closed by head. There are four principal type of

closure; flat plates and formed flat heads, hemispherical heads, ellipsoidal heads,

and torispherical heads. Hemispherical, ellipsoidal and toripherical can be referred

as domed heads. They are formed by pressing or spinning. The diameter of the

head will be same with the diameter of the cylinder.

Table 6.1: The Comparison of Head Types

Flat

plates

and Hemispherical

heads

Ellipsoidal

Torispherical

heads

heads

Diagra

m

covers

Uses

for

manways, channel

covers

of

heat

vessels

exchengers

Shape

Flat

plates

with

flanges

Domed head,

all radius are

same

Strengt

can

high pressure or high pressure

large diameter

head,

radius ratio = radius

2:1

Not a structurally

efficient

ratio

is

about 6/100

can withstand

higher

torispherical

head

bar

6-4

Cheap but can be

Price

Cheapest

Highest

Less

hemispherical

increased

of

pressure

All of the minimum thickness of all types of head is calculated to choose the

best head for the reactor. The example of calculation for the torispherical head is;

Where

= crown radius

= knuckle radius

6-5

Therefore the wall thickness = ehead + corrosion allowance

= 5.05 + 4

= 9.05mm

10 mm

Table 6.2: Minimum thickness of different types of closure

Heads

Hemispherical

Ellipsoidal

Torispherical

10

Formula

Value

(mm)

From the calculation and consideration for choosing the heads, an ellipsoidal

head is chosen for the reactor because the thickness is same with the vessel

thickness. So there is no need to install a conical section (reducers) to make a

gradual reduction from one cylindrical section to another of smaller diameter.

Ellipsoidal head is also cheaper than hemispherical head.

6.1.8

Figure 6.1: Major and minor axis of the ellipsoidal dome closure

Major axis, the diameter is equal to internal diameter of the cylinder, which is 2.43m.

6-6

Minor axis, the radius, , can be calculated by

The height of the dome is equal to the radius at minor axis. Therefore,

Height = 0.6075 m

6.1.9

Weight Loads

1. Pressure

2. Dead weight of reactor and contents

3. Wind

4. Earthquake (seismic)

5. External loads imposed by piping and attached equipment

Since the plant is situated in Malaysia which is known as an earthquake-free and the

reactor is build on the ground, so the loads cause by earthquake can be neglected.

Dead weight of vessel

For preliminary calculations the approximate weight of a cylindrical vessel with

domed end, and uniform wall thickness can be estimated from the following

equation;

6-7

Where,

Wv

Cv

Hv

wall thickness, mm

Dm

Insulation material

= Mineral Wool

Density

= 130 kg/m3

Thickness

= 40 mm

Inner diameter

Outer diameter

Length of reactor

= 9.72 m

diameter

= 46.84 m3 45.34 m3

= 1.5 m3

6-8

Total weight

acceleration

= 130 kg/m3 x 1.5 m3 x 9.81 m/s2

= 1912.95 N

= 1.913 kN

Wrapper material

Density

= 8300 kg/m3

Thickness

= 6 mm

Inner diameter

= 2.477 m

Outer diameter

= 2.483 m

Length of reactor

= 9.72 m

Volume of steel

diameter

= 47.07 m3 46.84 m3

= 0.23 m3

Acceleration

= 8300 kg/m3 x 0.23 m3 x 9.81 m/s2

= 18727.29 N

= 18.727kN

Weight of catalyst

According to Biegler et al, (1997);

6-9

= 2.31 hr -1

Molar flowrate = 176.221 kgmol/hr

Molar density = 8.4713 kgmol/m3

Weight of fluid

6-10

of catalyst + Weight of insulation material and

wrapper

= 54.944kN + 82.353kN + 162.634kN + 1.913

+ 18.73

= 320.574kN

Dead weight stress

where,

W

= total weight

Di

= internal diameter

= thickness of vessel

Bending stresses

From Sinnott, 2003, a dynamic wind pressure of 1280 N/m 2 can be used in

preliminary design study where it is equivalent to a wind speed of 160 km/h for a

column with a height of 20 m and above. At any site, the wind velocity near the

ground will be lower than that higher up (due to the boundary layer), and in some

6-11

design methods a lower wind pressure is used at heights below about 20 m;

typically taken as one-half of the pressure above this height.

Where,

= Wind pressure = 640 N/m2

= Mean diameter

Where,

= Loading per meter

H2 = The height of concentrated load above the column base

Assume that the height of skirt support to tangent line is 1.5 meter.

The second moment of area of the vessel about the plane of bending, I v ;

6-12

Where,

So,

At bottom tangent line, primary stresses are given by the longitudinal and

circumferential stresses due to pressure (internal or external),

and

6-13

As assumed that there is no torsion shear stress, the principal stresses will be

and

.

26.08N/mm2

19.25N/mm2

57.28N/mm2

57.28N/mm2

Down-wind

Up-wind

The method used to support a reactor depends on the size, shape, and weight of

the reactor, the design temperature and pressure, the reactor location and

arrangement, and the internal and external fittings and attachments. Supports will

impose localised loads on the vessel wall, and the design must be checked to

ensure that the resulting stress concentrations are below the maximum allowable

6-14

design stress. Supports should be designed to allow easy access to the vessel and

fittings for inspection and maintenance.

Skirts support is suitable for the tall, vertical column. In this plant, a straight

skirt is chosen as a support. This is because as they do not impose concentrated

loads on the vessel shell; they are particularly suitable for use with tall columns

subject to wind loading

a) Stainless steel has been chosen as the material for straight skirt ( =

90o) with the design stress = 175 N/mm2 and Young's modulus 200,000

N/mm2 at ambient temperature

b) Assume height of skirt to tangent line is 1.5 m and the total weight of

reactor with content is 320.574kN

c) Wind loading, Fw is

= 2.29 N/mm2

6-15

Where,

Mx

Ds

ts

= Skirt thickness

The resultant stresses in the skirts will be;

Criteria for design, s (tensile) > fs J sin

-1.8 > 175

6.38 > 100.68

Both criteria are satisfied, add 2 mm for corrosion, that gives a design

thickness of 12 mm

6-16

6.1.12 Anchor Bolts and Base Rings

Scheiman has given a guide rules in selecting the anchor bolt;

1. Bolts smaller than 25 mm cannot be used.

2. Minimum number of bolts is 8

3. Use multiple of 4 bolts.

4. Bolt pitch should not less than 600 mm (2 feet)

=1m

= 1000

Number of bolts

= 1000/600

= 5.24

Closest multiple of 4

= 8 bolts

Where,

= Number of bolts

= Maximum allowable bolt stress, typically 125 N/mm2

= Bending moment at the base, Nm

= Bolt circle diameter, m

W

6-17

So, bolt size of M24 will be used in the design where the root area is 353 mm 2

Compressive load on the base ring, Fb

= 243.624kN/m

fc is the maximum allowable bearing pressure on the concrete foundation range from

3.5 7.0 N/mm2.

fc = 5 N/mm2 has been chosen.

Minimum width of the base ring;

Lr

= 76 mm

ts

= 10 mm

= 76 + 10 + 50

= 136mm

6-18

Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation, fc = 5.178 N/mm2 and fr is

typically 140 N/mm2

Base ring thickness;

15 mm

column such as:

1. Design pressure

2. Design temperature

3. Material of construction

4. Design stress

5. Wall thickness

6. Welded joint efficiency

7. Analysis of stresses

a. Dead weight load

b. Wind load

c. Pressure stress

d. Bending stress

8. Vessel support

9. Insulation

6.2.2 Design Pressure

6-19

Temperature and pressure are two important properties in order to design the

thickness and the stress of the material. A column must be design to withstand the

maximum pressure to prevent the column to rupture when excessive pressure was

applied. Safety factors are added as precaution by taking consideration of corrosion

factor, location and process characteristics. Generally, design pressure is taken as 5

to 10% above the operating pressure at the bottom of the column in order to avoid

spurious operating during minor process upsets.

Operating pressure, P0 = 0.27 bar but in order to design the mechanical equipment

base on the industrial survey the appropriate pressure is 4 bar.

PD = 1.1P0

= 1.1 x (4 bar)

= 4.4 bar

= 0.44 N/mm2

6.2.3 Design Temperature

The design temperature at which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as

the maximum working temperature of the material, with due to allowance for any

uncertainty involved in predicting vessel wall temperature.

designing the temperature. The strength of metal will be decrease as the

temperature increase.100C of temperatures were increase to avoid curious

operating during minor process upset

Operating temperature, T0 = 75.0 C

Design temperature, TD. (Take as 10% above the operating temperature)

TD

= 75 C x 1.1

= 82.5C

= 355.65 K

6-20

Selection of suitable material must be taking into account the suitability of material

for fabrication (particularly welding) as well as the compatibility of the material with

the process environment. In this production, it involves mixture of acrylic acid which

generally known as an active chemical that can cause corrosion to the surface of

material. Carbon steel is not recommended in this process design even though it

provides, low price and most availability metal used in industry. In this case, the

suitable material selection was stainless steel 304 (18Cr/8Ni, Mo 2 and half per

cent) this material can sustain high temperature and less corrosion. The design

stress at 82.5 C is taken from the table that attached in APPENDIX G.

In this case, stainless steel is chosen as the material of construction for several

purposes, such as:

1. Readily available

2. Low cost

3. Subjected to welding

4. Corrosion resistant to feed and product

5. Easily fabricated

6. High strength

Design stress,f = 99.422 N/mm2

Tensile strength = 510 N/mm2

Diameter vessel, Di = 3550 mm

Design pressure, Pi = 0.44 N/mm2

thicker wall will be needed at the column base to withstand the wind and dead weigh

load. Hence, the minimum thickness of column is calculated based on this equation:

6-21

where,

Pi = Design pressure

Di = Column diameter

f = design stress

therefore,

= 7.8763 mm

The calculation of minimum wall thickness is 7.8763 mm because the plant operates

under pressure. Generally, minimum wall thickness for 3.0 to 3.5 m vessel diameter

design is about 12 mm including 2 mm corrosion allowance. Therefore the wall

minimum thickness is 12 mm.

In order to close upper part of the vessel, head and closure will be added. There are

many types of head such as hemispherical, ellipsoidal and torispherical. The other

type of head is flat plate. Standard torispherical heads are the most commonly used

end closure for vessel. In this case, torispherical head had been choose because of

operating pressure below 10 bars and suitable for liquid vapour phase process in

inconsistent high pressure.

6-22

Rc = crown radius = Di

J = joints factor

Crown Radius, RC = Di = 3.55 m

Rk

= knuckle radius

= 0.06 x Rc

= 0.06 x 3.55 m

= 0.213 m

= 13.91mm

Total weight is the summation of the weight of dead weight, the weight of plates and

the weight of insulation.

Weight Loads

1. The vessel shell

2. The vessel fittings: manhole, nozzles

3. Internal fitting: plates

4. External fitting

5. Auxiliary equipment which is not self supported

6. Insulation

7. The weight of liquid to fill the vessel

a) Dead weight of vessel, W v

Dead weight of vessel can be calculated by using equation below;

W v = 240CvDm(Hv + 0.8 Dm )t

6-23

Where;

W v = total weight of the shell, excluding internal fittings such as plates, N

Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzles, manways, internal supports,

(Cv =1.15 for distillation column was taken)

Dm

= 3550 mm + 12 mm

= 3562 mm

=3.562 m

Hv = height, or length, between tangent lines (the length of the cylindrical section),m

= 15.4 m

t = wall thickness, m

= 0.012 m

Therefore,

W v = 240 x 1.15 x 3.562 [15.4 + 0.8 (3.562)] x 12 x10 -3

= 215.2968 kN

Weight of Accessories

a) Weight of Plate, W p

Based on Nelson Guide, page 833 Chemical Engineering Volume 6; contacting

plates value are take as 1.2 kN/m2. Therefore, weight of plate:

Weight of plate, W p

= 9.898 x 22 x 1.2

= 261.3072 kN

b) Weight of Ladder,W L

6-24

Based on Nelson Guide, page 833 Chemical Engineering Volume 6; value of caged

ladder is taken as 360 N/m.

Weight of ladder, W L = (360 x hc) x 10-3

= 360 x 15.4 x 10-3

= 5.544 kN

c) Weight of Insulation, W i

It is important that column need protection or insulation to reduce loss of heat. The

insulation required a vapor barrier at the outside to prevent condensation of

atmospheric moisture from reducing its effectiveness. There are many types of

insulating materials including calcium silicate, mineral wool, glass fiber, cellular

glass and foam glass. In this case, mineral wool was chosen as insulation material.

By referring to Coulson Richardson Chemical engineering volume 6, page 833.

Thickness = 50 mm = 0.05 m

Volume of insulation,Vi

= x Dm x hc x thickness of insulation

= x 3.562 x 15.4 x 0.05

= 8.6166 m3

Weight of insulation, W i

= Volume of insulation x x g

= 8.6166 x 130 x 9.81

= 10988.75 N

= 10.989 kN

Total Weight

6-25

Wt

= W v + Wp + Wi

= 215.2968 kN+ 261.3072 kN + 10.989 kN

= 10.989 kN

Objectives to determine the wind load are to ensure the design to withstand the

highest wind speed that placed at the open environment. Columns and chimney

stacks are usually free standing, mounted on skirt supports and not attached to

structural steel work. The vessel under wind loading will acts as a cantilever beam.

Semi-empirical equation can be used for a smooth cylindrical column to estimate the

wind pressure,

Pw = 0.05 Uw2

where,

Pw = wind pressure, N/m2

Uw = wind speed, km/h

Pw

= 0.05 (160)2

= 1280 N/m2

where,

Cd = drag coefficient (shape factor)

a = density of air

Uw = wind velocity

Mean diameter, including insulation

6-26

= Dc + Dc (t + tins)

= 3.55 + (3.55) (0.012+ 0.05)

= 3.7701 m

Fw

=1280 x 3.7701

= 4825.73 N/m

= 572.235 kNm

Where,

P = operating pressure

Di = column diameter

t = thickness

6-27

= 35.542 N/mm2

= 65.083 N/mm2

c) Dead weight stresses, w

Where:

w

Di

= thickness of vessel,mm

WT

Bending Stress

1. The wind loads on tall self-supported vessels

2. Seismic loads on tall column

6-28

3. The dead weight and wind loads on piping and equipment

Where,

b = bending stress will be compressive or tensile, N/mm2

Mx = bending moment, kNm

Di = internal diameter, mm

t

Where,

Iv

Do

= Di + 2t

= 3550 + 2(12)

= 3574 mm

6-29

Resultant of longitudal stress is the summation of longitudinal stresses, dead weight

stresses and bending stress:

z = L + w b

w is compressive and therefore negative

For upwind,

z (upwind)

= +31.916 N/mm2

For downwind,

z (downwind) = 35.542 3.631 - 4.8015 x 10-3

= +31.904 N/mm2

31.904

31.916

65.08

65.08

Up-wind

Down-wind

As there is no torsional shear stress, the principal stress will be z and h and the

radial stress is negligible

The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the downwind side

6-30

= h z (downwind)

= 65.083 31.904

= 33.989 N/mm2 (<130 N/mm2 Design stress for stainless steel, satisfactory)

=172.5 N/mm2

The maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under pressure

Maximum compressive stress = w + h

= 3.631 + 65.083

= 68.714 N/mm2

Since the maximum stress is well below the critical buckling stress. Hence, design is

satisfactory.

Support should be designed to permit easy admission to the vessel and fitting for

inspection and maintenance. It depends on size, shape and weight of the vessel,

vessel location and arrangement and the internal and external fittings and

attachments. In this case, the skirt support is used due to height and vertical

arrangement column.

Skirt support can be cylindrical or conical shell welded to the base of the vessel. The

skirt may be welded to the bottom level of the vessel. The maximum dead weight

load on the skirt will occur when the vessel is full of water.

Type support

= skirt support

Material of construction

= stainless steel

Design stress

= 130 N/mm2

Young modulus

= 90

6-31

Skirt thickness,ts

= 12 mm

Skirt height,th

= 2.0 m

Total weight

= 487.593 kN

At this condition of ambient temperature, the maximum dead weight load on the skirt

will occur when the vessel is full of the mixture.

a)

Weight of Skirt

= (/4 x (3.55)2 x 15.4) x 2599.08274 x 9.81

= 3886479.85 N

= 3886.48kN

Total weight

= Wv + W p + W i + W approx

= 215.2968 + 261.3072 + 10.989 + 3886.48

= 4374.073 kN

= 4.82573 kN/m

Bending moment at base skirt,

= 730.519 kNm

6-32

where,

the wind, seismic and deccentric loads)

Ds = inside diameter of the skirt, at the base

ts = skirt thickness

= 6.1297 N/mm2

Where,

ws (test) = dead weight stress in skirt, N/mm2

W = approximate weight of support

Ds = diameter vessel, mm

ts = thickness of the vessel, mm

=28.942N/mm2

6-33

= 3.631 N/mm2

s(tensile)

= bs + ws (test)

= 6.1297 + 28.942

= 35.072 N/mm2

s (compressive)

= bs - ws (operating)

= 6.1297 3.631

= 2.4987 N/mm2

Assume joint factor, J = 0.85

s (tensile)

< fs Jsin

35.072 N/mm2

35.072 N/mm2

s (compressive)

< 0.125E

2.4987 N/mm2

2.4987 N/mm2

sin

sin 90

Both criteria are satisfied and add 2 mm for corrosion allowance. Therefore, the

thickness is 12mm + 2 mm = 14 mm.

The loads carried by the skirt are transmitted to the foundation slab by the skirt base

ring (bearing plate). The moment produced by wind and other lateral loads will tend

6-34

to overturn the vessel. A variety of base ring designs is used with skirt supports.The

preliminary design of base ring is base on Scheimans short cut method. Scheiman

gives the following guide rules which can be used for the selection of the anchor

bolts:

= 2.326 m

= 2326

Bolt pitch

= 0.6 m = 600 mm

= 2326 / 600

= 13

Closets multiple of 4, Nb

= 13

= 125 N/mm2

a) Area of bolt

Where,

Nb = number of bolts

fb = maximum allowable bolt stress

Ms = Bending moment at the base

W = Weight of the vessel

Db = bolt circle diameter, m

= 305.5225 mm2

6-35

b) Bolt root diameter

= 19.7232 mm

= 117.525 kN/m

Take the bearing pressure as fc = 5.00 N/ mm2

The minimum width of the base ring,

6-36

= 23.505 mm

By referring, Appendix I

Actual width required

Lb

= LT + ts + 50

= 76 + 12 + 50

= 138 mm

= 0.8516 N/mm2

where,

Fc = actual bearing pressure on base, N/mm2

fr = allowable design stress in the ring material, typically 140 N/mm2

= 10.267 mm

11 mm

Design of Nozzles

6-37

A proper choice of pipe diameter in column design is very important on the cost of

the pipe and the pumping cost. The capital cost of a pipe increases with diameter

but the pumping cost decreases with increasing diameter. In the first Ethylhexyl

acrylate column there 3 nozzles or pipe, which are pipe in feed inlet stream, top

product pipe stream and bottom product outlet stream. Type of the pipe that will use

in this column is stainless steel because of the resistance of the material to the

corrosion. The approximate optimum duct diameter for stainless steel is given by:

Where,

G

= density, kg/m3

where,

P = internal pressure, bar

= design stress for stainless steel pipe at working temperature N/mm 2

a) Feed inlet

= 846.5 kg/m3

= 5.0165 kg/s

= (260) (5.0165)0.52(846.5)-0.37

= 49.655 mm

6-38

= 980.1 kg/m3

= 0.4954 kg/s

= (260) (0.4954)0.52(980.1)-0.37

= 14.1117 mm

= 787.3 kg/m3

= 4.5211 kg/s

= (260) (4.5211)0.52(787.3)-0.37

= 48.3202 mm

Generally, flanges joint are used for connecting pipes and instruments to vessels.

Manhole covers and removable vessel heads when ease of access is required. It

can also be used on the vessel body for transport or maintenance purposes.

Standard flanges are available in range of types, sizes and materials and are used

extensively for pipes, nozzles and other attachment to pressure vessels.

Flanges used in this design were chosen from the standard flanges. The standard

flanges are adapted from the British standard (BS 4504), which has nominal

pressure 6 bar. All tables below show standard value for flange where o.d is outside

diameter for pipe and all value in unit millimeter, mm.

Table 2.12: Standard flange

6-39

Strea

Nom.siz

Pip

o.d

Flange

60.

14

Raised

Boltin

face

d4

Bos

Drilling

No

11

80

50

25

11

d3

d1

Feed

50

17.

Top

10

Botto

m

50

75

60.

14

90

M12

1

35

90

M10

M12

80

Equipment

Distillation column

3.55

Unit

m

Diameter

15.4

bar

0.44

N/mm2

75

355.65

Height of Vessel

Operating pressure

Design Pressure

Operating temperature

Design Temperature

Material selection

Stainless steel

304

99.422

N/mm2

Design stress

12

mm

Vessel Thickness

Head and Closures

Torispherical

Type

13.91

Thickness

mm

6-40

Weight loads

215.2968

kN

261.3072

kN

5.544

kN

10.989

kN

10.989

kN

160

km/h

3.7701

4825.73

N/m

572.235

kNm

35.542

N/mm2

65.083

N/mm2

3.631

N/mm2

4.8015x10-3

N/mm2

Weight of plate,

Weight of Ladder,W L

Weight of insulation

Total weight

Wind load

Wind speed, Uw

Mean diameter including insulation

Loading (per linear meter)

Bending moment at bottom of tangent

line

Analysis of stress vessel

Pressure stress

Longitudinal stresses due to pressure

Circumferential stresses due to

pressure

Dead weight stresses

Bending stresses

Resultant longitudinal stress

(upwind)

(downwind)

31.916

31.904

33.989

N/mm2

N/mm2

N/mm2

172.5

N/mm2

68.714

N/mm2

principal stresses

The resultant bulking stress

Critical buckling stress

Maximum compressive stress

Vessel support

Skirt support

Type support

Stainless steel 304

Material of construction

90

6-41

Base support angle,

3886.48

kN

730.519

kNm

6.1297

N/mm2

28.942

N/mm2

28.942

N/mm2

3.631

N/mm2

35.072

N/mm2

2.4987

N/mm2

110.5

84.507

N/mm2

N/mm2

Weight of skirt

Bending moment of skirt

Bending stress of skirt

Dead weight stress in skirt

Test

Operating

Resultant stress in skirt

s(tensile

s(compressive)

Criteria for design

s(tensile)

s(compressive)

13

Number of bolt required

125

N/mm2

305.5225

mm2

19.7232

mm

117.525

kN/m

23.505

mm

138

mm

52

mm

Area of bolt

Bolt root diameter

Total compressive load

Minimum width of the base ring

Minimum available standard bolt size

Nozzles

Pipe thickness,feed inlet

6.3

6.3.1 Introduction

Several factors need to be considered in the mechanical design of distillation

column such as:

1 Design pressure

6-42

2 Design temperature

3 Material of construction

4 Design stress

5 Wall thickness

6 Welded joint efficiency

7 Analysis of stresses

a. Dead weight load

b. Wind load

c. Pressure stress

d. Bending stress

8 Vessel support

9 Insulation

A vessel must be designed to withstand the maximum pressure to which it is

likely to be subjected in operation. For the vessels under internal pressure, the

design pressure is normally taken as the pressure at which the relief device is set.

This normally be 5 10% above the normal working pressure, to avoid spurious

operation during minor process upsets. The operation of the column are under

vacuum pressure of 1kpa to 3 kpa, but because of leak test that must be done to the

column before operation which is 6 bar ,the design pressure are choosen to 6 bar

with addition of 5 to 10 % as a safety requirement

Take as 10 % above the operating pressure

Operating pressure = 6 x 1.1

= 6.6 bar

= 0.66 N/mm2

6-43

allowable stress will depend on the material temperature. The design temperature at

which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as the maximum working

temperature of the material with due allowance for any uncertainty involved in

predicting the vessel wall temperature.

Design Temperature

= 535 K

Operating temperature

= 535 x 1.1

= 588.5 K

6.3.4

Material of Construction

Selection of suitable material must be taking into account the suitability of material

for fabrication (particularly welding) as well as the compatibility of the material with

the process environment. In this case the material used in the construction of the

distillation column is stainless steel 304 (18Cr/8Ni, Mo 2 and half per cent) because

it suitable in high temperature and resistance to corrosion. For this material, the

design stress at 588.5 K is obtained from table that attached in Appendix.

Design stress, f

= 105.5 N/mm

Tensile strength

= 510 N/mm

Join factor

=1

Diameter vessel, D

= 9390 mm

Operating pressure

= 0.66 N/mm

6-44

The minimum thickness of column required and other designs are calculated based

on equation below ;

where,

6-45

Pi

Di = internal diameter, m

f

= Joint factor

= 2.93 mm

6, page 811, this minimum thickness should be added 5 mm where this value

including the corrosion allowances, to withstand its own weight and any incidental

loads. Add 5 mm for corrosion allowance

e = 2.94 mm + 5 mm = 7.94 mm

withstand the wind and dead weight loads. As a first trial, divide the column into five

sections, with the thickness increasing by 2 mm per section. Try 10, 12, 14, 16 and

18mm. The average wall thickness 11.6 0r 12 mm.

6.3.6

Torispherical head had been chosen because of operating pressure for this

below 10 bars and suitable for liquid vapor phase process in inconsistent high

pressure. There are two junctions in a torispherical end closure: that between the

cylindrical section and the head, and the junction of the crown and the knuckle radii.

The thickness of torispherical head can be calculated by using equation :

6-46

where,

Rc

= Crown radius = D

Rk

= 0.06 x 939

= 56.34 mm

Cs = Stress concentration

Cs = 1.77

eD = 5.17 mm

Round up to 5.2 mm

6.3.7

Weight Loads

1. The vessel shell

6-47

2. The vessel fittings: manhole, nozzles

3. Internal fitting: plates, heating cooling coils

4. External fittings: ladders, platforms, piping

5. Auxiliary equipment which is not self supported, condensers, agitators

6. Insulation

7. The weight of liquid to fill the vessel.

Dead Weight of Vessel

Wv

where,

W v = total weight of shell, excluding internal fitting such as

plates

Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzles, man ways and

internal supports. (In this case for distillation column take

Cv as 1.15)

Dm = mean diameter of vessel = ( D + t) m

= ( 0.939+0.0012)

= 0.9402 m

H = height or length between tangent lines, m

t = wall thickness, m

6-48

W v = 240 x 1.15 x 0.9402 (10 + 0.8 (0.9402)) x 0.016

= 44.64 kN

Weight of Accessories

1. Weight of Plate W P

From Nelson Guide, page 833 Chemical Engineering Volume 6; take contacting

plates, 1.2 kN/m . The total of weight of plate determine by multiply the value with

number of 2 plate design.

= 0.46 x 16 x 1.2

= 9.22 kN

2. Weight of Ladder W L

From Nelson Guide, page 833 Chemical Engineering Volume 6; take caged ladder

where the weight is 360 N/m. The total of weight of ladder determine by multiply the

value with high of column.

= (360 x 10) x 10-3

= 3.6 kN

Weight of Insulation

6-49

The mineral wool was choosing as insulation material. By referring to Coulson

Richardson Chemical engineering volume 6, page 833,

Thickness

= 50 mm = 0.05 m

=3.142 x 0.9402x 10 x 0.05

= 1.48 m3

xg

= 1785.43.00 N

= 1.785 kN

Total weight

The total weight is the summation of dead weight of vessel, weight of accessories

and weight of insulation

Total weight = W V + W A + W I

=44.64 + (9.22+3.6) + 1.785

= 59.25 kN

6-50

6.3.8 Wind Load

A wind loading must be designed to withstand the highest wind speed that is likely to

encounter at the site during the life of the plant. From the British Standard Code of

Practice BS CP 3: 1972 Basic Data for the Design of Buildings, Chapter V Loading:

Part 2 Winds Load, (Sinnott, 1999), a wind speed of 160km/h (100mph) can be

used for preliminary design.

Pw

= 0.05 x uw2

Where,

Pw

uw

= 0.05 (160)2

Pw

= 1280 N/m2

= 939+ 2(12 + 50)

= 1063 mm

= 1.06 m

= PwDeff

= 1280 x 1.06

= 1356.8 N/m

= 67,840 Nm

= 67.84 kNm

6.3.9

Pressure Stress

6-51

1. Thickness is taken as 9 mm as maximum.

= 10.96 N/mm2

= 28.49 N/mm2

Dead weight stresses is significant for tall columns. This stress can be tensile for

points below the column support or compressive for points above the support. Dead

weight stresses are given by:

Bending Stress

The bending stress will be compressive or tensile, depending on location and are

given by:

6-52

Where,

Mx

Do

= Outside diameter

= Di + 2t

= 1900 + 2(16)

= 1932 mm

Iv

The Resultant Longitudinal Stress

The resultant of longitudinal stress is the summation of longitudinal stresses, dead

weight stresses and bending stress.

For upwind,

= 12.90 N/mm2

For downwind,

= 9.57 N/mm2

= 3.33 N/mm2

The value obtained is well below the maximum allowable design stress which is 115

N/mm2

6-53

Local bulking will normally occur at stress than that required buckling the

complete. A column design must be checked to ensure that the maximum value of

the resultant axial stress does not exceed the critical value at which buckling will

occur.

= 169.33 N/mm2

The maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under pressure

= 1.94 + 1.31 x 10-3

= 1.94131 N/mm2

Since the result of maximum compressive stress is below the critical buckling stress

of 157.07 N/mm2. Thus, the design is satisfactory.

The method used to support a vessel will depend on the size, shape and

weight of the vessel; the design temperature and pressure, the vessel location and

arrangement; and the internal and external fittings and attachment. Since the

distillation column is a vertical vessel, skirt support is used in this design.

the vessel. A flange at the bottom of the skirt transmits the load to the foundations.

The skirt may be welded to the bottom, level of the vessel. Skirt supports are

recommended for vertical vessels as they do not imposed concentrated loads on the

6-54

vessel shells; they are particularly suitable for use with tall columns subject to wind

loading.

Type of support

= 90

Material of construction

= carbon steel

Design stress, f

= 360 N/mm2

Youngs modulus

= 210,000 N/mm2

Skirt height, hs

=4m

Skirt thickness, ts

= 9 mm

Joint factor

=1

Approximate weight, W approx = (/4 x Di2 x Hv) x L x 9.81

= (/4 x 1.0632 x 10) x 969.64 x 9.81

= 5352.53 N

= 5.353 kN

Weight of vessel, W

= 59.25 kN

Total weight

= 59.25 + 5.35

= 64.60 kN

Bending moment at base skirt, Ms

= 0.5 x 1356.8(10 + 4)2

= 133 kNm

= 14.67 N/mm2

6-55

3. Dead weight stress in skirt, ws

= 0.166 N/mm2

= 20.09 N/mm2

4. Resultant stress in skirt, s

Maximum s (tensile) = bs + ws test

= 20.256 N/mm2

Maximum s (compressive) = bs - ws operating

= 21.498 N/mm2

5. Criteria for Design

Take the joint factor, J as 0.85

Where s = 90

s (tensile)

<

97.75 N/mm2

s (compressive)

<

fs J sin s

199.47 N/mm2

Both criteria are satisfied, add 2 mm for corrosion; gives a design thickness, t s of 11

mm.

corrosion rate is 0.25 mm/y. Since the operation of this equipment is assumed to be

operated for 20 years, thus the corrosion rate will be added:

6-56

0.25 mm/y x 20

= 5 mm

The design thickness must be added with the corrosion rate, gives actual design

thickness, ts of 16 mm.

The loads carried by the skirt are transmitted to the foundation slab by the skirt

base ring (bearing plate). The moment produced by wind and other lateral will tend

to overturn vessel. A variety of base ring designs is used with skirt supports. The

simplest types, suitable for small vessel, are rolled angle. The preliminary design of

base ring is done by using Scheimans short cut method. Scheiman gives the

following guide rules which can be used for the selection of the anchor bolts.

Refer to Coulson and Richardsons, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6, page 848.

2. Minimum number of bolts = 8

3. Use multiple of 4 bolts

4. Bolts pitch should not be less than 600 mm

= 3.2 m

Closest multiple of 4, Nb

= 16 bolts

Fw

= 1356.8 N/m

Ms

kNm

= Circumference of bolt circle / 600

= 2200 / 600

= 11.52

12 bolts

6-57

= 104.4 mm2

= 11.5294 mm

Where,

Fb

= the compressive load on the base ring, Newtons per linear metre

Ds

= skirt diameter, m

= 35.418 kN/m

Where,

Lb

fc

which will depend on the mix sed, and will typically range from 3.5 to 7 N/mm2 (500

to 1000 psi)

6-58

= 7.0836 mm

This is the minimum width required; actual width will depend on the chair design.

Actual width required (Coulson and Richardsons, Chemical Engineering, Volume 6,

page 849, figure 13.30)

= Lr + ts + 50 mm

= 76 + 16 + 50

= 142 mm

= 0.249 N/mm2

Where,

Lr

= the distance from the edge of the skirt to the outer edge of the ring, mm

tb

fc

fr

= 5.55 mm

The chair dimensions from figure 13.30 for bolt size M24.

6.3.13 Design of Nozzles

6-59

There are three nozzles in the distillation column, which are nozzles in feed inlet, top

product outlet and bottom product outlet. By assuming that the flow of the pipe is

turbulent flow, therefore to determine the optimum duct diameter is:

Optimum duct diameter, dopt = 293 G0.53-0.37

Where,

G

= flowrate, kg/s

= density, kg/m3

Feed Stream

G

= 4.522 kg/s

mix

= 728.3 kg/m3

dopt

= 56.90 mm

65 mm

Where,

Ps

= operating pressure

= 0.0073 mm

= 2 + 0.0071

= 2.0071 mm

6-60

Top Stream

G

= 15980 kg/h

= 4.4389 kg/s

mix

= 815.2 kg/m3

dopt

= 54.05 mm

65 mm

= 0.0064 mm

= 2 + 0.0064

= 2.0064 mm

Bottom Stream

G

= 299.2kg/h

= 0.083 kg/s

mix

= 728.3 kg/m3

dopt

= 6.84 mm

10 mm

= 0.0008 mm

= 2 + 0.0008

6-61

= 2.0008 mm

6.3.14 Flange Design

The flange class number required for a particular duty will depend on the design

pressure and temperature and the flange material. The flange design is from the

typical standard flange design in Coulson and Richardsons, Chemical Engineering,

Volume 6, page 863, figure 13.37.

Feed Stream

dopt

65

d1

76.1

Raised

Flange

face

Drilling

Bolting

d4

160

14

32

110

M12

Boss

No

d2

d3

14

130

100

Top Stream

dopt

65

d1

76.1

Raised

Flange

face

Drilling

Bolting

d4

160

14

32

110

M12

Boss

No

d2

d3

14

130

100

Bottom Stream

dopt

10

d1

17.2

Raised

Flange

face

Drilling

Bolting

d4

75

12

20

35

M10

Boss

No

d2

d3

11

50

25

Summary of design distillation column are shown in table below:

6-62

Pressure Vessel

Operating Pressure, Po

0.027 N/mm2

Design Pressure, P1

0.660 N/mm2

Operating Temperature

262.00 oC

Design Temperature

315.15 oC

Column Material

stainless Steel

Safety Factor

10%

Design Stress

105.5 N/mm2

Head and Closure

Types

Torispherical Head

Crown Radius, Rc

0.939 m

Knuckle Radius, Rk

0.006 m

Joint Factor, J

Cs

1.77

Minimum thickness, e

10 mm

Column Weight

44.64 kN

Weight of Plates, W p

9.22 kN

Weight of Insulation, W i

1.785kN

Total Weight, W t

59.25 kN

Wind Speed, Uw

160 km/h

Bending Moment, Mx

210.0429 kN/m

Insulation Material

Mineral Wool

Insulation Thickness

50 mm

Skirt Support

Type of Support

Material of Construction

Carbon Steel

Youngs Modulus

210,000 N/mm2

Bending Moment, Mx

133 kNm

Skirt Thickness, ts

9 mm

Skirt Height, Hs

4m

Stiffness Ring

140 N/mm2

6-63

6.4

Mechanical design is the last step in designing distillation column equipment.

In this section, several factors are needed to be considering in the mechanical

design of distillation column which is:-

1. Design pressure

2. Design temperature

3. Material of the construction

4. Design stress

5. Wall thickness

6. Heads and closure

7. Column height

8. Analysis of stress

9. Vessel support

10. Piping sizing

The mechanical design and the data that given is very sufficient for the

preliminary design of conventional vessel, to check the feasibility of the proposed

equipment design, to estimate the vessel cost for the economic and to determine the

general vessel proportion and weight for the plant layout.

6.4.2

Design Pressure

pressure that it subjected in operation where it is also known as the maximum

allowable working pressure. For the vessel under the internal pressure, normally is

taking 5 to 10% above the normal working pressure to avoid spurious operation of

the relief valve. For the recommended practice is sets 10% margin between the

normal operating pressure and the design pressure.

6-64

6.4.3

Design Temperature

Usually, the maximum design temperature was depending on the type of the

material temperature. The maximum design temperature is the maximum allowable

stress that can evaluated as the maximum working temperature of material. It also

was involved the vessel wall temperature. The temperature was increase caused by

the strength of the metal is decrease thus the design stress will depend on the

temperature of material.

temperature, auto-refrigeration, process upsets and the sources of the cooling.

6.4.4

Material Construction

The suitable selection material is the most important because it takes into

account the suitability of the material for the fabrication as well as the compatibility

of the material. For the 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate plant, stainless steel is most suitable

because of the low cost for maintenance. The main reason is because of 2Ethylhexyl Acrylate is a corrosion compound.

In the 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate plant, the material used in the construction of the

continuous distillation column is stainless steel 304 where it contains of 18 Cr/ 8 Ni,

Mo 2 and half percent. Stainless steel is suitable for the high temperature and it less

corrosive.

6.4.5

Design Stress

The value for the maximum allowable stress can be accepted for the design

purpose in the material of the construction. This is can determine by applying a

suitable safety factor to the maximum stress that the material could be expected to

withstand without failure under standard test conditions. Safety factor that consider

in the design methods are the loading, the quality of the material and workmanship.

6-65

The table 4.3 shows of the typical maximum allowable stresses for plate

under ASME BPV Code Sec. VIII D.1. The table showed the maximum allowable

stress at varies types of material.

Table 4.3: Typical Maximum Allowable Stresses For Plate Under ASME BPV Code

Sec. VIII D.1. (The appropriate material standards should be consulted for particular

grades and plate thickness)

Material

Grade

Carbon

A285

steel

Gr A

Killed

A515

Min.

Min. Yield

tensile

strength

strengt

(ksi)

h (ksi)

Max.

Temp (F)

100

300

500

700

900

45

24

900

12.9

12.9

12.9

11.5

5.9

60

32

1000

17.1

17.1

17.1

14.3

5.9

60

30

1200

17.1

16.6

16.6

16.6

13.6

carbon

steel

Gr A

Low alloy

A387

steel

Gr A

Stainless

410

65

30

1200

18.6

17.8

17.2

16.2

12.3

304

75

30

1500

20.0

15.0

12.9

11.7

10.8

347

75

30

1500

20.0

17.1

15.0

13.8

13.4

321

75

30

1500

20.0

16.5

14.3

13.0

12.3

316

75

30

1500

20.0

15.6

13.3

12.1

11.5

steel

Stainless

steel

Stainless

steel

Stainless

steel

Stainless

steel

Source: Ray Sinnott & Gavin Towler, Chemical Engineering Design, Vol. 5, page

1001.

6-66

6.4.6

Vessel Thickness

withstand on the weight and the loads. Specifies minimum wall thickness is not

including corrosion allowance and regardless of the vessel of the dimension and

material of the construction. The wall thickness should not be less than 1m; the

corrosion allowance is 2mm. The table 4.4 shows the minimum thickness at the

different vessel diameter.

Vessel Diameter (m)

1 to 2

2 to 2.5

2.5 to 3.0

10

3.0 to 3.5

12

Source : Ray Sinnott & Gavin Towler, Chemical Engineering Design, Vol. 5, page

1004.

The minimum thickness for the cylindrical shell is required to resist internal

pressure. It can determine by the following equation:-

(4.15)

Where,

Pi

Di

Internal diameter, m

Joint factor

5, page 1005, the minimum thickness should be added 2mm where the value is

including the corrosion allowances for the weight and incidental loads.

6-67

6.4.7

The cylindrical vessel was closed by heads of the various shapes such as

flat plates and formed flat heads, hemispherical heads, ellipsoidal heads and

torispherical heads. The figure 4.2 was show the different type of the domed heads.

Figure 4.2: Domed heads. (a) Hemispherical. (b) Ellipsoidal. (c) Torispherical

The flat plates are usually used for cover man ways and the channel cover of

heat exchangers. Figure 4.2 was show the flat-end closures such as flanged plate,

welded plate and bolted cover. By comparing the different type of flat end closure,

the flanged plate is the cheapest type of the former head to manufacture but it

limited to the low pressure and small diameter vessel. The ASME BPV Code

specifies the minimum thickness as following equation:-

(4.16)

6-68

Where,

De

joint efficiency

Figure 4.3: Flat-end closures. (a) Flanged plate. (b) Welded plate (c) welded plate

(d) bolted cover (e) bolted cover.

Torispherical head is the common used as end closure for the vessel up to

the operating pressure of 15 bars. It also can use for higher pressure above 10 bar

but the cost is equivalent with the ellipsoidal head. In ASME BPV Code gives the

design equation:-

(4.17)

Where,

Rc

crown radius

Ellipsoidal head is used for the operating pressure vessel that above 15 bars

and it usually prove to be the most economical closure to use.

6-69

(4.18)

The hemispherical head is commonly used for the vessel that capable of

resisting about twice the pressure of a torispherical head at the same thickness. The

hemispherical head are used for the high pressure.

(4.19)

6.4.8

Weight Loads

1. The vessel shell

2. The vessel fittings: manways, nozzles

3. Internal fittings: plates (plus the fluid on the plates); heating and cooling coils

4. External fitting: ladders, platform, piping

5. Auxiliary equipment that is not self-supported; condensers, agitators

6. Insulation

7. The weight of liquid to fill the vessel. The vessel will be filled with water for

the hydraulic pressure test, and may fill with process liquid due to misoperation.

The approximate weight of a cylinder vessel with domed ends and uniform

wall thickness can be estimated by following equation:-

(4.20)

Where

Wv

such as plates.

6-70

Cw

supports, etc

1.08 for vessel with only a few internal fittings

1.15 for distillation columns

Hv

wall thickness, mm

Dm

By referring the value from Nelson (1963), page 1022 Chemical Engineering

volume 5, the rough guide to weight of fittings. Take:a) Platforms, steel, for vertical column, 1.7kN/m2 plate area. The weight of

platforms, W p can determine by the following equation:-

(4.21)

b) Caged ladders, steel, 360N/m length. The weight of ladder, W L can

determine by the following equation:-

(4.22)

c) Insulating material

Insulating material

Density (kg/m3)

Foam glass

150

Mineral wool

130

Fiberglass

100

Calcium silicate

200

Source : Ray Sinnott & Gavin Towler, Chemical Engineering Design, Vol. 5, page

1022.

attachment fitting, sealing and the moisture adsorption. In the production of 2Ethylhexyl Acrylate, mineral wool is most suitable as the insulating material. Mineral

6-71

wool was made from the natural or synthetic mineral and metal oxides. It also used

as the thermal insulation, filtration, sound proofing and germination of seeding.

Mineral wool also used for the fire resistance of fiberglass, sound absorber, very

excellent heat insulator, and it can conduct heat very well but it unattractive to

rodents. The weight of insulation, W i can determine by the following equation:-

(4.23)

Where

Wi

Vi

Gravity

Wind Loading

Wind loading is depends on the dynamic wind pressure and column area.

Due to the high of distillation column height and its open space installation, wind

loading becomes significant. A column must be designed to withstand the highest

wind speed that is likely to be considered at the site during the life of the plant. By

referring the British Standard Code Practice BSCP: Part 2 Winds Load, a wind

speed of preliminary design is 160km/h.

For the cylinder column, semi empirical equation can be used to estimate the

wind pressure, Pw can calculate by following equation:-

(4.24)

Where

Pw

uw

equation:-

)

(4.25)

6-72

(4.26)

Where

Fw

Pw

Wind pressure

Deff

mean diameter

(4.27)

Where

Mx

Bending moment

Hv

height vessel

The total weight is the summation of dead weight of vessel, weight of plates,

weight of ladder and weight of insulation.

(4.28)

Where

6.4.9

WT

Total weight

Wv

weight of vessel

Wp

Weight of plates

WL

Weight of ladder

Wi

Weight of insulation

Analysis Stress

Pressure Stress

following equation:-

(4.29)

Where

longitudinal stresses

Pi

pressure internal

Di

Diameter internal

6-73

t

thickness

(4.30)

h

Where

circumferential stresses

c) Dead weight stresses is significant for the tall columns. The stress can be

tensile for points below the column support or compressive for points above the

support.

(4.31)

Where

direct stress

Wz

total weight

Bending Stress

The bending moments will be caused by the following loading conditions:a. The wind loads on the tall self supported vessels

b. Seismic loads on the tall vessels

c. The dead weight and wind loads on piping and equipment which is attached

to the vessel, but offset from the vessel centre line

and are given by the following equation:-

(4.32)

Where

bending stress

6-74

Mx

Do

outside diameter

Iv

stresses, dead weight stresses and the bending stress. The equation of resultant

longitudal stress is given by the following equation:-

(4.33)

Up wind

down wind

Figure 4.4: Analyses of stress

the following equation:-

(4.34)

Where

The local bulking will normally occur at stress than that required buckling the

complete. A column design must be checked to ensure that the maximum value of

6-75

the resultant axial stress does not exceed the critical value at which buckling will

occur. The critical buckling stress, c can determine by the following equation:-

(4.35)

Where

Do

outside diameter

The maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under

the pressure. The maximum compressive stress can be determined by the following

equation:-

(4.36)

Where

direct stress

bending stress

The technique that used to support a vessel will depend on the size, shape

and weight of the vessel, the design temperature and pressure; the vessel location

and arrangement; and the internal and external fittings and attachment. The types of

skirt support are straight skirt and conical skirt.

Figure 4.5: Typical skirt-support designs (a) Straight skirt (b) Conical Skirt.

6-76

the vessel. A flange at the bottom of the skirt transmits the load to the foundations.

The skirt may be welded to the bottom, level of the vessel. The skirt supports also

recommended for vertical vessels as they do not imposed concentrated loads on the

vessel shells; they are particularly suitable for use with tall columns subject to wind

loading.

In the design, the skirt support is used to support the equipment. The

conditions at the ambient temperature are:Type of support

Material of construction

Design Stress, fs

135 N/mm2

Young Modulus, E

Skirt height, Hs

1.5 m

Pressure Stress

The maximum dead weight load of the skirt support will occur when the

vessel is full of the mixture. The approximate weight of the skirt support can be

calculated by the following equation:-

(4.37)

Where

weight of skirt

Hv

height of vessel

gravitational

density liquid

Di

diameter internal

(4.38)

6-77

Where

Ws

weight of skirt

Wv

Weight of vessel

Weight approximate

Bending Stress

The bending moment at the base skirt can measure by the following

equation:-

(4.39)

Where

Ms

Fw

Hv

= height of vessel

Hs

wind forces

height of skirt

The skirt thickness must be sufficient to withstand the dead weight loads and

bending moments imposed on it by the vessel; it will not be under the vessel

pressure. Take the skirt thickness as the same as that of the bottom section of the

vessel, 10 mm. The resultant stresses in the skirt will be:-

(4.40)

(4.41)

Where

bs

ws

(4.42)

6-78

Where

Ms

Ds

ts

skirt thickness

The dead weight stress in the skirt (test) and the dead weight stress in skirt

(operating) can determine by the following equation:-

(4.43)

(4.44)

Where

Weight approximate

WT

Weight total

The maximum stress, s (compressive) and maximum stress s(tensile) can

determine by the equation:-

(4.45)

(4.46)

The skirt thickness should be such that under the worst combination of wind

and dead weight loading the following design criteria are not exceeded:-

(4.47)

(4.48)

If the both are satisfied, 2 mm was added for corrosion.

6-79

The loads carried by the skirt are transmitted to the foundation slab by the

skirt base ring (bearing). The moment produced by wind and other lateral loads will

tend to overturn the vessel. Since the reactor can be considered as the small vessel,

the simplest types, rolled angle ring are used. The preliminary design of base ring is

done by using Scheimans short cut method. By referring J.M Coulson and J.F

Richardson, Chemical Engineering, volume 6, page 1036. Scheiman gives the

following rules which can be used for selection of the anchor bolts which is:1. Bolts smaller than 25 mm diameter should not be used

2. Minimum number of bolts is 8

3. Use multiple of 4 bolts

4. Bolts pitch should not be less than 600mm

(4.49)

Where

Ab

Nb

Numbers of bolts

fb

Ms

Db

(4.50)

Where

Db

The total compressive load on the base ring per unit length can determine by

the following equation:-

6-80

(4.51)

Where

Fb

Ds

skirt diameter, m

pads, fc. the minimum width of the base ring can determine by the following

equation:-

(4.52)

Where

Lb

fc

foundation pad

The required thickness for the base ring is found by the treating the ring as a

cantilever beam. The actual minimum base thickness, t b can determine by the

following equation:-

(4.53)

Where

tb

fc

fr

140N/mm2

6-81

Figure 4.6: Flange ring dimension and all the contacting edges fillet welded.

6.4.12 Piping Sizing and Flange

The best choice of the pipe diameter is compromise between the cost of the

pipe and the pumping cost. The capital cost of the pipe was increase with the

diameter pipe but the pumping cost was decrease with increasing diameter. The

type of the pipe is carbon steel because of the resistance to the corrosion and the

cost is cheaper than the stainless steel. Moreover, it also can easily to the

maintenance the piping system.

The approximate optimum duct diameter for the carbon steel is given by:-

6-82

(4.54)

Where

flowrate, kg/s

density, kg/m3

(4.55)

Where

temperature, N/mm2

bar

6-83

6.4.13 Summary of Mechanical Design

Identification: Distillation Column

Item No:

By:

NORASYIKIN BT ZOLKIFILE

T-103

Function: To separate 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate and 2-Ethylhexanol.

Operation: Continuous

6-84

Type: Sieve trays distillation column.

Column Specification

Operating Pressure:

6 bar

380 K

Material of construction:

Stainless Steel

Column diameter:

1.645 m

Number of plate:

38

2.0 mm

6.5 mm

Hemispherical

Weight of shell

55 kN

Weight of plate

3.611 kN

Total weight

139 kN

line, Mx

350.26 Nm

Pressure stress:

Circumferential stresses, h

83.505 N/mm2

Longitudinal stresses, L

41.753 N/mm2

0.0016 N/mm2

Bending stress, b

1.005 N/mm2

42.76N/mm2

40.75 N/mm2

Critical buckling stress

Maximum compressive stress

78.42

1.01 N/mm2 < C

6-85

Skirt

Angle of skirt

90

Skirt height

Bending moment at base of skirt

Bending stress in the skirt, bs

1.5 m

413 kNm

30.28 N/mm2

Test

10.84 N/mm2

Operating

12.49 N/mm2

Compressive

41.12 N/mm2

Tensile

17.78 N/mm2

Pitch circle diameter (approx.)

2.2 m

2200 mm

11.52 mm

11.52 bolts

25.77 mm

base

ring, Fb

32911KN/m

6.582 mm

206.5 mm

8.18 mm

6. Design of flange

Feed

Diameter

50 mm

Top Column

Diameter

50 mm

Bottom Column

Diameter

65 mm

6-86

6.5.1

Mechanical Design

Every heat exchanger must either mounted on the floor or ground in a room

or open environment or in a system along with other components. The

structural support for the heat exchanger needs to be designed properly with

proper tabs, brackets, and other mounting features on the heat exchanger to

ensure no failure of the supporting structure due to vibration, impact loads,

fatigue, and so on. In a mechanical design, consideration is also given to

maintenance requirements such as cleaning, repairing, serviceability and

general inspection. Every heat exchanger must comply with applicable local,

state, national or international codes and standards such as ASME pressure

vessel codes and TEMA standards. Heat exchanger should be designed

accordingly for good mechanical design that will also result in good thermal

design.

6.5.2

6-87

At design temperature = 100.5 C, with 10% of design temperature, T = 150

C: Using stainless steel (316), the design stress (f) = 135 N/mm2, and the

Minimum thickness,

Pi Di

2 J f - Pi

= 0.98mm

Where,

Design stress, f = 135 N/mm2;

Inner Pressure, Pi =0.61N/mm2;

Inner Diameter, Di = 433.14 mm;

Fully welded (no joint), J=1. (Refer Appendix 6.5.B)

e

= 0.98 + 2

=2.98 mm

6.5.3

1) Ellipsoidal head

=

=

Pi Di

2 Jf 0.2 Pi

0.61 (433.14)

2(1) (135) 0.2(0.61)

0.87 mm

Where;

Pi = 0.61N/mm2,

Di = 384.69 mm,

f = 135 N/mm2,

J = 1.0

6-88

e

0.87 + 2

2.87 mm

e = 0.885PiRc / (J x f 0.1Pi)

Where

Pi = internal pressure, N/mm2

Rc = Ds = Shell diameter, mm

J = Joint factor = 1

fs = design stress of shell-side, N/mm2

Where;

Pi = 0.61N/mm2,

Di = 384.69 mm,

f = 135N/mm2,

J = 1.0

e = 0.885PiRc / (J x f 0.1Pi)

= (0.885 x 0.61 x 384.69) / (1 x 135 (0.1)0.61)

= 1.539 mm

Adding corrosion allowance of 2 mm

e = 1.539 mm + 2 mm

= 3.54 mm

Thus proving that ellipsoidal head is more economical to use for this design.

6.5.4

Nozzles are used for entering and leaving the inlet and outlet stream of the cooler

condenser. The nozzles are for channel side and the shell side of the heat

exchanger.

Standard steel pipe will be used for the inlet and outlet nozzles. It is important to

avoid flow restrictions at the inlet and outlet nozzles. It is also to prevent excessive

6-89

pressure drop flow induced vibration of the tubes. Material of construction for

nozzles will be the same as the cooler body.

1) Diameter for Liquid In:

Pipe size for water at inlet

Material of construction

Flow rate

=1.63kg/s

Density

= 998.00kg/m3

d, optimum

= 260G

0.53

0.37

= 125.7 mm 126 mm

Pipe size for water at outlet

Material of construction

Flow rate

= 1.63 kg/s

Density

= 998.00 kg/m3

d, optimum

= 260G

0.53

0.37

= 125.7 mm 125 mm

1) Diameter for 2-EHA in

Pipe size for process fluid at inlet

Material of construction

Flow rate

= 0.16 kg/s

Density

=811.09kg/m3

d, optimum

= 260G

0.53

0.37

= 98.44 mm 98 mm

6-90

Pipe size for process fluid at outlet

Material of construction

Flow rate

= 0.16 kg/s

Density

=880.37kg/m3

d, optimum

= 260G

0.53

0.37

= 95.81 mm 96 mm

By taking ID = 6.07 In, the selected tube size nozzle (for inlet and outlet):

Table 6.5.1: Properties of Steel Pipe for inlet and Outlet of Fluid water

Nominal pipe

6.5.5

Schedule

Flow

area

size, in

OD, in

No

ID, in

pipe, in2

4.5

40

4.03

12.7

per

Flanged joints are used for connecting pipes and instruments to vessel, for

manholes cover and for removable vessel head when ease of access is required.

Flanged may also be used on the vessel body, when it is necessary to divide the

vessel into sections for transport or maintenance. Flanged joints are also used to

connect pipe to the equipments such as pumps and valves.

A flange ranges size from a few millimeters diameter for small pipes to

several meters diameter for those used as body or head flanges on vessels.

Flanges dimension must be able to withstand the hydrostatic ends loads and the

bolt loads necessary to ensure tight joint in service.

For the design of this heat exchanger, welding-neck flange are used. It is

because welding-neck flanges have a long tapered hub between the flange ring and

the welded joint. This gradual transition of the section reduces the discontinuity

stresses between the flange and branch. It is also can increase the strength of the

flange assembly.

6-91

Welding-neck flanges are suitable for extreme service conditions, where

flange are likely to be subjected to temperature, shear and vibration loads. They will

normally be specified for the connections and nozzles on process vessels and

process equipment. The dimensions of welding-neck flanges is chosen base on the

nominal pipe size of the nozzle pipe. All dimensions are listed below.

From Coulson & Richardsons, Volume 6

Dimension of selected flanges (BS 4504) (Refer Appendix 6.5.D)

Table 6.5.2: Design of Flange Joints

type

Nom

.

pipe

pipe

od, d1

D

tube side

(both

side)

shell side

(both

side)

raised

face

flange

h1

d4

bolt

drilling

no.

neck

d1

2

d3

18

6

12

10

13

2

10

152

170.2

267

18

48

204

3 M16

18

22

7

102

116.3

212

16

45

150

3 M16

18

17

2

h2

6-92

6.5.6

Baffles

Baffles are used in the shell to direct the fluid flow across tube and increase the fluid

velocity. When the fluid velocity increases, its improving the rate of heat transfer.

The assembly of baffles and tubes is hold together by support rods and spacers.

The most commonly used type of baffle is the single-segmental baffle. Baffle

cut used to specify the dimensions of a segmental baffle. Generally, baffle cut of

20% - 25% will be optimum. The value will give good heat transfer rate without

excessive drop.

Baffle spacing IB = Ds / 5

= 384.69 / 5

= 76.94

Number of baffle segmental = 5000 / 384.69

= 13

6.5.7

Weight Load

The vessel shell

The tubes

The fluid to fill the vessel

The fluid to fill the tubes

The insulator

For preliminary calculation, the approximate weight of a cylindrical vessel with

domes ends, and uniform wall thickness, can be estimated from the following

equation:

Wv = Cv x x m x Dm x g x (Hv + 0.8Dm)t x 10-3

Where

Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzles, manways, internal supports

Hv = Length (the length of cylindrical section), m

6-93

g = gravitational acceleration, 9.81 m/s2

t = wall thickness, mm

m = density of vessel material, kg/m3

Dm = mean diameter of vessel = (Di + t x 10 -3), m

Table 6.5.3: Vessel Shell Weight

total weight of shell

Wv

Cv

1.08

Hv

9.81

kg/m3

density(m)

8030

Ds

0.38

2.87

Dm=Ds +te-3

0.383

length

between

tangeng

line,m

gravitational

acceleration,m/s2

density of vessel material,

Wv = 1.08 x x 8030 x 0.383 x 9.81 x (5.00+ 0.8 x 0.383)2.87 x 10 -3

= 1558.97 N

Wt = Nt x x (do2 di2) x L x m x g

Where

Nt = number of tubes

do = outside diameter of tube-side, m

di = inside diameter of tube-side, m

L = length, m

m = density of tube material, kg/m3

g = gravitational acceleration = 9.81 m/s2

Table 6.5.4: Tube Weight

6-94

number of tube per shell

Nt

121

do

0.02

di

0.016

Dmt

0.018

tube length,m

Lt

density(m)

8030

= 22.285 N

Ws = ( x Ds2 / 4) x L x s x g

Where

Ds = diameter of shell-side, m

L = length, m

s = density of shell-side, kg/m3

g = gravitational acceleration, m/s2

Ws = ( x 0.382 / 4) x 5.00 x 845.73 x 9.81

= 4704.66 N

Wt = Nt( x (do2 di2) / 4) x L x s x g

Where

Nt = number of tubes

do = outside diameter of tube-side, m

di = inside diameter of tube-side, m

L = length, m

t = density of tube-side, kg/m3

g = gravitational acceleration, m/s2

6-95

Wt = 121 ( x (0.022 0.0162) / 4) x 5.00 x 998.00 x 9.81

= 669.9 N

5. Weight of insulator

Wi = x Ds x L x Iw x m x g

Where

Ds = diameter of shell, m

L = length, m

Iw = thickness of insulation, m

m = density of material insulation, kg/m3

g = gravitational acceleration, m/s2

Wi = x 0.38 x 5.00 x 0.075 x 130 x 9.81

= 570.92 N

6.5.8

weight of sources

values,kN

1.558

tube weight

0.022

HC in shell weight

4.705

0.67

weight of insulator

0.571

total weight

7.526

7.902

Vessel Support

and pressure, vessel location and arrangement, and the internal and external

fittings.

6-96

Support should be design to allow easy access to the vessel for inspection

and maintenance.

Horizontal vessels are usually mounted on two saddle supports. Since cooler

is in horizontal arrangement, saddle support is chosen as the support or the cooler.

The saddle must be designed to withstand the load imposed by the weight of the

vessel and its contents.

vessel, which is the weight of cooler itself. From the previous calculation of cooler

weight, the total weight is 14.05 kN.

from Coulson & Richardsons, Volume 6 (Refer Appendix 6.5.E)

For outer vessel or shell diameter of 0.369m 0.4m

Table 6.5.6: Design of Saddle for Vessel

dimensions,m

maximum

vessel

weight,

diameter,m

kN

0.38 = 0.4

20

mm

bold

bolt

t2

t1

diam.

holes

20

25

6-97

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