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CHAPTER 2

PHASORS AND
SYSTEM ARRANGEMENTS

Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements

PHASORS AND SYSTEM ARRANGEMENTS


Relationship between Current And Voltage In Various System
Elements
Resistor
Inductor
Capacitor
Complex Impedance
Three Phase Power Loads
Introduction
Problem 1
Relationship Between Currents and Voltages
Characteristics of Faults
Using Phasor Relationships to Design Directional Relays
Problem 2: V,I Phasor Relationships
Types of Distribution Systems

Radial System

Loop System (Ring Main Unit)

Primary Slective System

Secondary Selective System

Substation Bus Arrangements

Single Bus Arrangement

Doube Bus Double Breaker

Main and Transfer Bus

Double Bus Single Breaker

Ring Bus Arrangement

Breaker and a Half Scheme

Reliability Comparisons

IEEE Device Numbers


Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CURRENT AND VOLTAGE IN


VARIOUS SYSTEM COMPONENTS
Resistor
The current and voltage are in phase in a purely resistive circuit, as shown in Figure
2-1.

Figure 2-1. Resistor Circuit


Inductor
The current lags the voltage by /2 radians or 90o in a purely inductive circuit, as
shown in Figure 2-2.

Figure 2-2. Inductor Circuit

Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements

Capacitor
The current leads the voltage by /2 radians or 90o in a purely capacitive circuit, as
shown in Figure 2-3.

Figure 2-3. Capacitor Circuit

Complex Impedance
In general, impedance is a complex number of the form Z = R+ jX, where R
(resistance) is the real part and X (reactance) is the reactive or imaginary part.
The inductive reactance (XL) in a coil or wire that is measured in ohms () is equal to
2 times the frequency (f) times the inductance (L) of the coil that is measured in
Henries (H) or XL = 2fL. The capacitive reactance (XC) of a capacitor that is
measured in ohms () is equal to the reciprocal of 2 times the frequency (f) times
the capacitance that is measured in farads (F) or XC = 1/(2fC).
Because impedance is a complex number it may be represented on the complex
number plane; however, because resistance is never negative, only the first and
fourth quadrants are involved in the analysis. The resistance (R) is located on the
positive real axis, inductive reactance (XL) is located on the positive reactance
(imaginary) axis, and capacitive reactance (XC) is located on the negative reactance
(imaginary) axis, as shown in Figure 2-4.

Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements

Complex Impedance

Figure 2-4. Complex Impedance

An impedance triangle is often used as a graphical representation of impedance.


The impedance triangle consists of vectors that represent resistance (R) and
reactance ( jX), as shown in Figure 2-5. The vector Z is the sum of the two vectors
R and jX.

Figure 2-5. Impedance Triangle

Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements

THREE-PHASE POWER LOADS


Introduction
A three-phase system has three sources of power with a certain time interval
between each source. It is very easy to generate three-phase voltages by
connecting three windings 120o apart on a generator. Figure 2-6 shows a threephase system in an ABC phase rotation sequence.
Three wires of a three-phase system can provide 173% ( 3) more power than two
wires of a single-phase system. When both single-phase and three-phase loads are
supplied from the same power supply, a three-phase, four-wire system (3, 4-wire),
which is called a wye (Y) connection, is used to supply power. If there are only
three-phase loads, a three-phase, three wire system (3, 2-wire), which is called a
delta () connection, is used to supply power.

Figure 2-6. Three-Phase Power

Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements

PROBLEM 1:
Given a five breaker bus with power flows as indicated in Figure 2-7, and the system
elements that are indicated below, identify each breaker (insert the letter) with its
respective system component.
System elements:
a. p.f. correction capacitor
b. pure resistive heater
c. generator

d. induction motor
e. synchronous motor

Figure 2-7. Power Flow Phasors (Problem 1)

Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements

SOLUTION TO PROBLEM 1:

Figure 2-8. Solution to Problem 1

Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements

Summary
Voltage, Current, and Impedance:

E
I
Z
|Z|
cos
sin
tan

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

IZ
E/Z
E/I = R + j(XL - XC)
[R2 + (XL - XC)2]1/2
R/Z = p.f.
X/Z
X/R

Power (Single-Phase):

S
P
Q
cos
sin
tan

=
=
=
=
=
=

EI = (P2 + Q2)1/2
EI cos = S cos
EI sin = S sin
P/S = p.f.
Q/S
Q/P

Power (Three-Phase):

S
P
Q
cos
sin
tan

=
3 EI =(P2 + Q2)1/2
3 EI cos = S cos
=
=
3 EI sin = S sin
= P/S = p.f.
= Q/S
= Q/P

Motors:

kWin = (hpout x .746 kW/hpout)/()


kVAin = kWin/p.f.
I
= (hpout x .746 kW/hpout)/( 3 x kV x x p.f.)
= kVA/( 3 x kV)
Note: If x p.f. .746 then kVAin = hpout

Transformers:

kVA
Ipri
Isec

Chapter 2

=
3 x kV x I
= kVA/( 3 x kVpri)
= kVA/( 3 x kVsec)

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Phasors and System Arrangements

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CURRENTS AND VOLTAGES

Van
Vab
Ia

Vbc
Vcn

Ib

Ic

Vbn
Vbc
Figure 2-9.
Relationship between Current and Voltage for a System with Unity Power
Factor

At unity power factor


Ia leads Vbc by 90 degrees
Ib leads Vca by 90 degrees
Ic leads Vab by 90 degrees

Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements

CHARACTERISTICS OF FAULTS
SYSTEM VOLTAGE

FAULT ANGLES

7.2 23 kV

20 to 45 lag

23 69 kV

45 to 75 lag

69 230 kV

60 to 80 lag

230 kV and above

75 to 85 lag

Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements

USING PHASOR RELATIONSHIPS TO DESIGN


DIRECTIONAL RELAYS

Back-Feed
67
Ia
Vbc
Ia and Van are in Phase
Ia leads Vbc by 90 degrees

Fault on
Transformer
Primary
67

Ia
Vbc

Ia lags Ia(before fault) by approx. 60 degrees


Ia leads Vbc by 30 degrees

Normal Load

67
Vbc
Ia

Ia lags Ia (before fault) by 180 degrees


Ia lags Vbc by 90 degrees

Figure 2-10 Ninety Degrees Connection for Directional Relays

Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements

PROBLEM 2: V, I PHASOR RELATIONSHIPS


Given the circuit diagram that is shown in Figure 2-11a with current flows and V, I
phasor relationships as shown in Figure 2-11b, match the following elements in the
circuit diagram (insert the letter).
a. pure capacitor
b. pure inductor

c. pure resistor
d. generator

A
VAB

I2

I1

I3

I4

B
(a) Circuit Diagram
I4

I3

I1

VAB

I2
(b) Phasor Relationships
Figure 2-11. V, I Phasor Relationships (Problem 3)

Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements

TYPES OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS


RADIAL SYSTEM

(a)

(b)

Figure 2-12. Examples of Radial Systems


Advantages

Low initial investment

Reduced Fault level compared to other systems

Simple to operate

Simple Relaying (no need for directional relays)

Disadvantages

No redundancy

Taking out any component for maintenance causes power interruption to


part or all of the system

Comments
Used to feed non-critical loads

Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements

LOOP SYSTEM (RING MAIN UNIT)

(a)

(b)

Figure 2-13. Examples of Loop Systems


Advantages

Provides some redundancy

Faults on the high side loop do not cause outages, if the loop is closed, and
proper relaying is used

Disadvantages

High initial investment

High Fault level, compared to the radial systems

More complex to operate

Need directional relaying

Comments
Used to feed critical loads

Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements

PRIMARY SELECTIVE SYSTEM

Figure 2-14. Example of a Primary Selective Radial System


Advantages

Relatively low initial investment

Reduced Fault level compared to loop system

Simple to operate

Simple Relaying (no need for directional relays)

Disadvantages

Only provides redundancy for faults on the primary side of the selector
switch

Comments
Provides some degree of redundancy

Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements

SECONDARY SELECTIVE SYSTEM

Normally Open Tie Breaker


or
Normally Closed Tie Breaker

(a)

(b)

Figure 2-15. Example of Secondary Selective System


Advantages

Relatively Low initial investment

Same fault level as radial system (if tie breaker is open)

Simple to operate

No need for directional relays (if tie breaker is open)

Disadvantages

High fault level (if tie breaker is closed)

Need directional relaying (if tie breaker is closed)

Comments
Provides good degree of redundancy

Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements

SUBSTATION BUS ARRANGEMENTS


SINGLE BUS ARRANGEMENT
Line

Bus
Disc. Switch
Circuit Breaker

Lines
Figure 2-16. Example of a Single Bus Arrangement

The single-bus scheme is not normally used for major substations. Dependence on
one main bus can cause serious outage in the event of breakers or bus failure. The
station must be de-energized in order to carry out bus maintenance or add bus
extensions. Although the protective relaying is relatively simple, the single bus
scheme is considered inflexible and subject to complete outage.

Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements

DOUBLE BUS - DOUBLE BREAKER


Line

Line

Transformer
Figure 2-17. Examples of Double Bus-Double Breaker Scheme

The double-bus-double-breaker scheme requires two circuit breakers for each feeder
circuit. Normally each circuit is connected to both busses. In some cases, half of the
circuits could operate on each bus. For these cases, bus or breaker failure would
cause the loss of half the circuits. The location of the main bus must be such as to
prevent faults spreading to both buses. The use of two breakers per circuit makes
this scheme expensive. However, it represents a high order of reliability when all
circuits are connected to operate on both busses.

Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements

MAIN AND TRANSFER BUS


Line

Line

Main Bus
Bus
Tie
Breaker

Transfer Bus
Transformer

Figure 2-18. Examples of a Main and Transfer Bus Scheme

The main-and-transfer-bus scheme adds a transfer bus to the single-bus scheme.


An extra bus-tie circuit breaker is provided to tie the main and transfer busses
together.
When a circuit breaker is removed from service for maintenance, the bus tie circuit
breaker is used to keep that circuit energized. Unless the protective relays are also
transferred, the bus-ti relaying must be capable of protecting transmission lines or
generators. This is considered rather unsatisfactory since relaying selectivity is poor.
A satisfactory alternative consists of connecting the line and bus relaying to current
transformers located on the lines rather than on the breakers. For this arrangement
line and bus relaying need not be transferred when a circuit breaker is taken out of
service for maintenance, with the bus-tie breaker used to keep the circuit energized.
If the main bus is ever taken out of service for maintenance, no circuit breakers
remain to protect any of the feeder circuits. Failure of any breaker or failure of the
main bus can cause complete loss of service of the station.
Disconnect switch operation with the main-and-transfer-bus scheme can lead to
operator error, injury, and possible shutdown.

Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements

DOUBLE BUS SINGLE BREAKER


Bus No. 1

Bus No. 2

Bus tie breaker

Line

Line

Figure 2-19. Example of a Double Bus Arrangement Scheme


This scheme used two main busses, and each circuit includes two bus selector
disconnect switches. A bus tie circuit connects to the two main busses and, when
closed, allows transfer of a feeder from one bus to the other bus without deenergizing the feeder circuit by operating the bus selector disconnect switches. The
circuits may all operate from the No. 1 main bus, or half of the circuits may be
operated off either bus. In the first case, the station will be out of service for bus or
breaker failure. In the second case, half of the circuits would be lost for bus or
breaker failure.
In some cases circuits operate from both the No. 1 and No. 2 bus and the bus-tie
breaker is normally operated closed. For this type of operation a very selective bus
protective relaying scheme is required in order to prevent complete loss of the
station for a fault on either bus.
Disconnect switch operation becomes quite involved with the possibility of operator
error, injury and possible shutdown. The double-bus-single-breaker scheme is poor
in reliability and is not used for important substations.

Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements

RING BUS ARRANGEMENT

Transformer
Line

Transformer

Line

Figure 2-20. Example of a Ring Bus Arrangement

In the ring-bus scheme, the breakers are arranged in a ring with circuits connected
between breakers. There is the same number of circuits as there are breakers.
During normal operation, all breakers are closed. For a circuit fault, two breakers are
tripped, and in the event one of the breakers fails to operate to clear the fault, an
additional circuit will be tripped by operation of breaker-failure backup relays. During
breaker maintenance, the ring is broken, but all lines remain in service.
The circuits connecter to the ring are arranged so that sources are alternated with
loads. For an extended circuit outage, the line disconnects switch may be opened
and the ring can be closed
No changes to protective relays are required for any of the various operating
conditions or during maintenance.
The ring bus scheme is economical in cost, has good reliability, is safe for operation,
is flexible, and is normally considered suitable for important substations up to a limit
of five circuits. Protective relaying and automatic reclosing are more complex than
for previous schemes described. It is common practice to build major substations
initially as a ringbus; for more than five outgoing circuits, the ring bus is usually
developed to the breaker-and-a-half scheme.

Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements

BREAKER AND A HALF SCHEME


Line

Line

Bus No. 1

Tie
Breaker

Bus No. 2

Line
Line

Figure 2-21. Examples of Breaker and a Half Scheme

The breaker-and-a-half scheme, sometimes called the three-switch scheme, has


three breakers in series between the main busses. Two circuits are connected
between the three breakers, hence the term breaker and a half. This pattern is
repeated along the main busses so that one and a half breakers are used for each
circuit.
Under normal operating conditions, all breakers are closed and both busses are
energized. AA circuit is tripped by opening the two associated circuit breakers. Tie
breaker failure will trip one additional circuit, but no additional circuit is lost if a line
trip involves failure of a bus tie breaker.
Either bus may be taken out of service at any time with no loss of service. With
sources connected opposite loads, it is possible to operate with both busses out of
service. Breaker maintenance can be done with no loss of service, no relay changes,
and simple operation of the breaker disconnects.
The breaker and a half arrangement is more expensive than the other schemes,
except the double breaker-double-bus scheme. However, the breaker-and-a-half
scheme is superior in flexibility, reliability, and safety. Protective relaying and
automatic reclosing schemes are more complex than for other schemes.

Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements

RELIABILITY COMPARISONS
The various schemes have been compared to emphasize their advantages and
disadvantages. The basis of comparison to be employed is the economic justification
of a particular degree of reliability. The determination of the degree of reliability
involves an appraisal of anticipated operating conditions and the continuity of service
required by the load to be served.

Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements

SUMMARY OF COMPARISON OF SWITCHING SCHEMES


Switching

Advantages

Disadvantages

Scheme
Single Bus

1. Lowest Cost

Double bus,
double breaker

1. Each circuit has two


dedicated breakers
2. Has flexibility In permitting
feeder circuits to be
connected to either bus.
3. Any breaker can be taken
out of service for
maintenance
4. High reliability
1. Low initial and ultimate cost
2. Any breaker can be taken
out of service for
maintenance
3. Potential devices may be
used on the main bus for
relaying

Main and
Transfer

Double bus,
single breaker

Chapter 2

1. Permits some flexibility with


two operating busses
2. Either main bus may be
isolated for maintenance
3. Circuits can be transferred
readily from one bus to the
other bus by use of bus-tie
breaker and bus selector
disconnect switches.

Page 25

2. Failure of bus or any circuit


breaker results in shutdown of
entire substation
3. Difficult to do any maintenance
4. Bus cannot be extended without
completely de-energizing the
substation
5. Can be used only where loads can
be interrupted or have other supply
arrangements
1. Most expensive
2. Would lose half of the circuits for
breaker failure if circuits are not
connected to both busses

1. Requires one extra breaker for the


bus tie
2. Switching is somewhat
complicated when maintaining a
breaker
3. Failure of bus or any circuit
breaker results in shutdown of
entire substation
1. One extra breaker is required for
the bus tie
2. Four switches are required per
circuit
3. Bus protection schemes may
cause loss of substation when it
operates if all circuits are
connected to that bus
4. High exposure to bus faults
5. Line breaker failure takes all
circuits connected to that bus out
of service
6. Bus-tie breaker failure takes entire
substation out of service

Phasors and System Arrangements

SUMMARY OF COMPARISON OF SWITCHING SCHEMES (Cont'd.)

Switching

Advantages

Disadvantages

Scheme
Ring bus

1. Low initial and ultimate cost


2. Flexible operation for
breaker maintenance
3. Any breaker can be
removed for maintenance
without interrupting load
4. Requires only one breaker
per circuit
5. Does not use main bus
6. Each circuit is fed by two
breakers
7. All switching is done with
breakers

1.

2.
3.

4.

5.

Breaker and a
Half

Chapter 2

1. Most flexible operation


2. Highly reliable
3. Breaker failure of bus side
breakers removes only one
circuit from service
4. All switching is done with
breakers
5. Simple operation; no
disconnect switching
required for normal
operation
6. Either main bus can be
taken out of service at any
time for maintenance
7. Bus failure does not remove
any feeder circuits from
service

Page 26

1.
2.

If a fault occurs during a breaker


maintenance period, the ring can be
separated into two sections
Automatic reclosing and protective
relaying circuitry rather complex
If a single set of relays are used, the
circuit must be taken out of service
to maintain the relays (Common on
all schemes)
Requires potential devices on all
circuits since there is no definite
potential reference point. These
devices may be required in all cases
for synchronizing, live line, or
voltage indication
Breaker failure during a fault on one
of the circuits causes loss of one
additional circuit owing to operation
of breaker-failure relaying
1 breakers per circuit
Relaying and automatic reclosing
are somewhat involved since the
middle breaker must be responsive
to either of its associate circuits

Phasors and System Arrangements

Chapter 2

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Phasors and System Arrangements