Reservoir, water conning

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Reservoir, water conning

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www.elsevier.com/locate/petrol

Y. Ould-amer a, S. Chikh a,*, H. Naji b

a

Departement de Genie Mecanique, USTHB, B.P. 32 El Alia, Bab-Ezzouar, 16111 Algiers, Algeria

b

Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, UMR 8107, PolytechLille, USTL, France

Received 19 May 2003; accepted 14 April 2004

Abstract

Water coning causes a reduction of oil production and an increase of production costs. Dual completion (downhole

water sink) is one of the methods adopted to attenuate water coning. This work describes numerical results associated

with this completion technique. The water cone shape and water breakthrough time are investigated to define the

mechanism and performance of this technical procedure. The numerical results show that dual completion deforms the

shape of the cone. For instance, the top of the water oil interface is shifted away from the well yielding (under high

water production rates) oil breakthrough into water perforations. The water breakthrough is proportional to dimensionless

density difference and horizontal permeability and inversely proportional to oil production rate, mobility, and anisotropy

ratios. High oil production rates yield elevation of water coning height that intercepts oil flow. Paradoxically, high

production rate at water sink is not recommended, the improvement of water breakthrough begins when dimensionless

density difference is greater than 0.05. The dual completion technique delays water breakthrough time (BT*). In general,

the BT* is delayed by two times that of single completion and critical oil rate is augmented compared to single

completion.

D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Water coning; Dual completion; Downhole water sink; Breakthrough time

1. Introduction

Oil reservoirs with bottom water drive exhibit

high oil recovery due to supplemental energy

imparted by the aquifer. A large oil production rate

may cause water to be produced by upward flow

mixed with oil. This phenomenon is known as water

* Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: ould_ameryacine_dz@yahoo.fr

(Y. Ould-amer), salahchikh@yahoo.fr (S. Chikh),

hassen.naji@eudil.fr (H. Naji).

0920-4105/$ - see front matter D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.petrol.2004.04.004

interface which was initially horizontal.

Water coning has been a serious problem in

managing reservoir recoveries; numerous authors

addressed this phenomenon (Muskat and Wyckoff,

1935; Muskat, 1949; Elkins, 1958; Karp et al., 1962;

Fortunati, 1962; Smith and Pirson, 1963; Chierici et

al., 1964; Outmans, 1964; Romero-Juarez, 1964;

Blake and Kueera, 1988; Ould-amer and Chikh,

2002). Their research investigated several issues

such as critical rate and/or breakthrough time calculations. It was found that the maximum water-free

oil production rate corresponds to the critical rate

110

period required by bottom water to reach the wells

oil perforations. If oil production rate is above this

critical value, water breakthrough occurs. After

breakthrough, the water phase may dominate the

total production rate to the extent that further operation of the well becomes economically not valuable

and the well must be shut down (Muskat and

Wyckoff, 1935; Meyer and Garder, 1954; Chaney

et al., 1956; Schols, 1972; Kuo and Debbrisay, 1983;

Hoyland et al., 1986; Chaperon, 1986; Abass and

Bass, 1988; Giger, 1989; Papatzacos et al., 1989;

Yang and Wattenbarger, 1991; Suprunowicz and

Butler, 1992; Yang, 1992; Guo and Lee, 1993;

Menouar and Hakim, 1995; Ould-amer and Chikh,

2003).

Several solutions have been developed to minimise the impact of unwanted water in oil wells.

These methods are: (1) keeping production rate

below the critical value; (2) perforating far away

from the initial water oil contact; and (3) creating

a water blocking zone around the well by injecting

cross-linking polymers or gels. Unfortunately, none

of these conventional methods are able to solve the

water breakthrough problem. Horizontal wells also

are used to minimise water coning. However, horizontal wells are themselves not free of water influx

problems. Like the vertical wells, typical critical oil

rates for avoiding water influx into horizontal wells

are too low for any economic recovery. A detailed

investigation of the cost and profits of horizontal

wells reveals several disadvantages for their use:

vulnerability to poor cementing, limited re-completion potential, and design constraints imposed by

drilling technology (Chugbo et al., 1989; Irrgang,

1994).

Downhole water sink technology (DWS) is one

of the solutions developed to reduce water coning

in vertical oil completions. This technique requires

a dually completed well in the oil and water zones.

The oil and water perforations are separated by a

packer. As a result, the produced oil is water-free.

DWS technology has been investigated theoretically

(Wojtanowicz et al., 1991; Swisher and Wojtanowicz, 1995a,b) and experimentally (Shirman and

Wojtanowicz, 1997a,b).

Shirman and Wojtanowicz (1997a,b) conducted a

model DWS completion investigation using a trans-

oil production from wells with DWS completion

may have high economic merit and is technically

feasible. Coning in dually completed wells also has

been investigated by Gunning et al. (1999). A

simple model for dual completion similar to that

of Wojtanowicz and Bassiouni (1994) was proposed. A sharp interface is used between the fluids,

across which no fluid may flow. An analytical

solution is proposed for low flow rates where

gravity has a dominant effect. In order to overcome

this limitation (low flow rates), a numerical model

was used by Gunning et al. In both numerical

models, the ratio of the distances between the initial

water oil interface and the water and oil completions was introduced. Their results indicate that in a

symmetric configuration corresponding to the ratio

of distances between the initial water oil interface

and the lower water and upper oil completions,

water-free oil production is possible at rates up to

five times greater than those available with single

completions. Less improvement is obtained in

asymmetric situations where the ratio is different

from unity.

Several parameters affect water coning in vertical

oil producing wells: (1) oil production rate, (2)

mobility ratio, (3) density difference between fluids,

(4) anisotropy, and (5) porosity. Our present parametric study simulated numerically the behaviour of

the water oil interface and computed water breakthrough time for a wide range of the cited parameters. This analysis allows us to obtain a detailed

and precise answer of dual completion performance

in a vertical well.

2. Formulation

A single well model (Azziz and Settari, 1986) is

used to evaluate the performance of the DWS

completion in the control of water coning in vertical

wells. The physical model and co-ordinate system

are shown in Fig. 1. The well is dually completed in

the oil and water zones (Fig. 2). The two completions are separated by a packer set inside the well at

the water oil contact and the two fluids are considered incompressible and immiscible with constant

properties. The porous medium is homogeneous and

111

kro

B

oa

j Po qo g /So Q

4

j K

Bt

lo

krw

B

wa

j K

j Pw qw g /Sw Q

Bt

lw

porous medium is completely saturated by the fluids,

then

kro

j Po qo g

j K

lo

krw

a

j K

j Pw qw g Q

6

lw

where

oa Q

wa

a Q

Q

below

Fig. 1. Schematic of the physical domain and co-ordinate system.

anisotropic (the vertical permeability is less or greater than the horizontal permeability).

Darcys law and the continuity equation describe the

flow of the two fluids.

Continuity:

B

!

la

j Vl /Sl Q

Bt

Sw So 1

Pc Po Pw

The capillary pressure Pc depends on water saturation and is given by Eq. (25).

Darcys law:

krl

!

Vl K

j Pl ql g

ll

oil (o) phase and the subscript (a) can indicate either

oil completion (oc) or water completion (wc).

Substituting the Darcy velocity in Eq. (2) into Eq.

(1), the following equation is obtained:

krl

B

la

j K

j Pl ql g /Sl Q

Bt

ll

3

Fig. 2. Schematic of dual completion technique.

112

pressure equation

kro

j K

j Pw j Pc qo g

lo

krw

a

j K

j Pw qw g Q

10

lw

No flow boundary conditions are imposed on a

closed boundary. A constant pressure of the bottom

aquifer is used. These conditions are mathematically

written as

! !

Vw n 0 at closed boundary or

!

jPw qw g n 0

11

12

dimensionless pressure Eq. (16), the water saturation

Eq. (15), and the total saturation Eq. (8).

In the oil completion (until water breakthrough)

w* oc is zero; however,

only oil is produced and Q

w* oc

after breakthrough, Qo* oc decreases while Q

increases. In the water completion, oil breakthrough

may or may not take place. When oil breakthrough

o* wc does not

into the water perforations occurs, Q

increase continuously.

The boundary and initial conditions written in

dimensionless form, are

!

jPw* n 0 at a closed boundary

17

18

!

n is the unit vector normal to the closed boundary.

Initially the oil zone is saturated with oil at irreducible water saturation (Swi) and the water zone is

free of oil.

So 1 Swi and

Sw Swi at hw* < z < h*; rw* < r* < re*

19

So 0 and

Sw 1 at 0 < z* < hw*; rw* < r* < re*

20

rw < r < re

13

The introduction of dimensionless parameters related to rock characteristics, fluid properties, and

production (defined in the nomenclature) allows us

to rewrite Eqs. (5) and (10) as

B

BPw*

1 B

BPw*

Ra krw

r* krw

Bz*

Bz

r* Br*

Br*

1

B

/Sw Qwa

NDqNqw

*

15

DaH Bt*

and

B

Rkr

BPw*

Rkr

kro

krw

kro

Ra

Bz*

M

Bz*

M

BPc*

1 B

Rkr

BPw*

r* kro

Krw

Bz*

r* Br*

M

Br*

Rkr BPc*

Qa

r* kro

NDqNqw

M

Bz*

DaH

16

3. Numerical simulation

The governing equations are transformed into

algebraic equations by using the control volume

method (Patankar, 1980, 1981). The fully implicit

scheme is used and the relative permeabilities at

the block interfaces are evaluated using an asymmetric second-order approximation that considers

two upstream points (Azziz and Settari, 1986).

The set of algebraic equations is solved by a

block-iterative method. The iterative procedure is

stopped at each time step when a convergence

criterion is met between two consecutive iterations,

and it is set on the maximum relative error of

pressure less than 1%. A non-uniform grid of

40 24 nodes in r and z direction, respectively,

with a dimensionless time step of Dt* = 72 1011

are used to conduct the computations, with a finer

mesh grid near the well. The grid choice is based

on grid sensitivity analysis (Table 1).

Table 1

Grid sensitivity for M = 2, NDq = 0.1, DaH = 4 10 16, Ra = 0.2,

/ = 0.2, Qoc

* = 25 10 10, Qwc

* =0

Dt*

72 1011

72 1011

72 1011

29 1014

72 1011

144 1010

Number of nodes in

Radial

direction

Vertical

direction

30

40

50

40

40

40

18

24

30

24

24

24

BT*

Relative

difference

(%)

0.245 1018

0.274 1018

0.272 1018

0.270 1018

0.274 1018

0.277 1018

5.38

0.73

1.48

1.09

113

provide capillary pressure are considered in the present work. Their data was correlated using the following expressions:

kro 0:97=1 expSw 0:33=0:11 0:02

23

krw 1:90=1 expSw 0:91=0:26 1:80

24

Pc 2:09 106 =1 expSw 0:09=0:02

3190:60

work of Yang (1992), who studied, analytically,

water coning in vertical and horizontal wells. Fig.

3 illustrates the excellent agreement between our

results and those of Yang for water breakthrough

time prediction versus production rate.

Three groups of dimensionless parameters were

distinguished and considered: (1) total dimensionless production rates at oil and water completions;

(2) fluid properties (mobility ratio and dimensionless density difference); and (3) rock characteristics (anisotropy ratio, horizontal Darcy number

and porosity). These parameters vary in the

following ranges: 10 10 V Q oc

* V 25 10 10 ,

0 V Qwc

* V 1.5 Qoc

* , 0.1 V M V 20, 0 V NDq V 0.4,

0 <Ra V 1.4, 0 < Da H V 8 10 16 , 0.1 V / V 0.4,

which illustrate practical situations.

The total dimensionless production rates are given

by

Qoc

* 2prw*

Z h*

Qwc

* 2prw*

h*hp*

oc

* dz*

Q

Z hw*

hw

*hwp

*

wc

* dz*

Q

25

The shape of water oil interface for single completion is considered as a reference for comparison.

In the plots (Figs. 5 9), the dual completion is

* = 1.5 Qoc

* and the single comreferenced with Qwc

pletion with Qwc

* = 0. High values of oil production

rates are considered with water production rates

within the water perforations being less or equal to

1.5 Qoc

*. This choice is justified by the fact that

higher values could be harmful to the hydraulic

performance of well completion.

To clarify the position of well perforations in the

plots, two dashed rectangles are added and they

represent the limits of the oil and water completions. The use of DWS technology deforms the

cone profile shape, as illustrated in Fig. 4, at

different times of production. The top of water

21

22

and relative permeability functions, there are several

commonly used empirical functions or data (Russel et

from Yang (1992).

114

Fig. 4. (a) Shape of the water cone in 3D view in dual completion at t*= 1.261 1018; (b) shape of the water oil interface at different time of

* = 10 10 10,

production when DWS, completion is used, (a) and (b) M = 2, NDq = 0.1, DaH = 4 10 16, Ra = 0.2, / = 0.2, Qoc

10

Q*

=

15

10

.

wc

well) yielding, in certain situations, oil breakthrough into the water sink.

Fig. 5 shows the development of water cone

profiles for two values of oil production rate with

and without dual completion at t* = 0.95 1018. In

the single completion case, the water oil interface

develops as a classical cone which is very sensitive to

production rate. At Qoc

* = 20 10 10 which corresponds to a very high value of the production rate,

the water invades rapidly in a wide region of the oil

water intercepts the oil flow into well perforations.

The well perforations in the water zone constitute a

water sink affecting considerably the shape of the

cone. Not only is water retained, but the top of the

cone is shifted to the right and is located at approximately r* = 1.5. At Qoc

* = 10 10 10, the dual completion technique retains the rapidly upcoming water

coning. Indeed, for a same period of production,

water has broken through into oil perforations for

the single completion; whereas, in dual completion

115

Fig. 5. (a) 3D view of the water cone shape in single completion for Qoc

* = 20 10 10; (b) shape of the water oil interface in single and dual

* = 10

completions for two values of dimensionless oil production rate, (a) and (b) M = 2, NDq = 0.1, DaH = 4 10 16, Ra = 0.2, / = 0.2, Qoc

10 10, t*= 0.95 1018.

dimensionless distance of 0.5 below the oil well. At a

Qoc

* = 20 10 10, which corresponds to a very high

value of oil production rate (Fig. 5), even if water has

not broken through oil perforations at this stage of

production, the development of the cone is important.

Indeed, its tendency to be higher and to move away

from the well could intercept the oil flow. It is

evident from these plots that multiplying oil production rate by a factor 2, in dual completion, causes

development of a cone and the position of its top is

alters the flow potential field around the well so that

the water oil interface is retained. At each point, the

upward vertical component of viscous force generated by the flow into the oil perforations is reduced by

the downward vertical component of the second

viscous force generated by the flow into the water

sink.

The effect of mobility ratio on water oil interface

development is illustrated in Fig. 6. With a single

completion, the water cone expands vertically towards

116

completions for two mobility ratios for NDq = 0.1, DaH = 4 10 16,

Ra = 0.2, / = 0.2, Qoc

*= 10 10 10, t*= 0.70 1018.

completion deforms the classical cone shape. The top

of the cone is shifted to the right. At this stage of

production, the oil breakthrough into water sink is still

taking place for M = 2, whereas for M = 6, oil stops

flowing into the water perforations. During the first

stage of production, the viscous force, generated by

the flow into the water sink, overcomes the viscous

force generated by the flow into oil perforations. The

inverse behaviour occurred at this stage of production

(t* = 0.70 1018). When viscous forces arise due to

the resistance of the flow they are important and

prevail, the oil mobility is reduced, this situation

accelerates the upward motion of water into oil

perforations.

The gravity force (dimensionless density difference) represents an important parameter that can

affect the cone profile considerably. When the viscous force resulting from natural drive due to oil

perforations overcomes the gravitational force induced by difference in fluid densities, water coning

occurs. As shown in Fig. 7, the cone is very developed in both directions (horizontal and vertical) and

reaches the oil perforations for a single completion

and at low values of dimensionless density difference

(NDq = 0.05 for example). At a dimensionless density difference (NDq = 0.2) four times greater than the

previous value, the water cone profile is less devel-

of 0.5 below the bottom of the oil perforations. With

dual completion, the water oil interface behaves

differently and the top of the cone is kept away from

the well. High values of NDq means that water

arrival at oil perforations is more delayed, yet the

duration of oil flow into the water sink is longer.

From these plots, the gravity force, aided by viscous

force generated by the flow into the water sink,

allows retention of rapid upward flow of water into

oil perforations.

Another parameter affecting the water coning

behaviour is the ratio of vertical to horizontal

permeability, also termed as anisotropy ratio (Ra).

Low values of this ratio result in a very dumped

upward motion of the water oil interface in single

completion as shown in Fig. 8. In dual completion

situations, the cone shape is greatly affected at low

values of Ra. The water oil interface motion is

reversed and oil breakthrough takes place. The top

of the cone in this case is shifted to the right and is

located at a dimensionless radial distance of approximately 3. At high values of Ra, the cone

shape is not affected; however, its motion toward

oil perforations is decreased compared to the single

completion. With a dual completion, and at high

anisotropy ratio, the upward flow of water into oil

perforations is delayed by viscous force due to the

completions for two values of dimensionless density difference for

M = 2, DaH = 4 10 16, Ra = 0.2, / = 0.2, Qoc

* = 10 10 10,

t*= 0.92 1018.

completions for two values of anisotropy ratio for M = 2, NDq = 0.1,

DaH = 4 10 16, / = 0.2, Qoc

* = 10 10 10, t*= 0.69 1018.

the downward vertical component of viscous force

generated by the flow to water perforations overcomes the upward vertical component of viscous

force due to the flow into oil perforations. This

situation causes oil to break into water perforations.

Nevertheless, this case may easily be avoided by

reducing the water production rate.

Oil recovery from the well is principally radial,

indicating the important role played by the horizontal

permeability. The placement of perforations in the

water zone in order to drain the water phase,

deforms the cone shape and causes the motion of

its top away from the well (Fig. 9). The radial

location of this top is proportional to the permeability. The water oil interface motion is faster for less

permeable reservoirs. Physically, this situation results

from slower flow in the radial direction for the less

permeable rocks.

From this analysis of the cone shape, it is apparent

that oil breaks into water perforations in certain

situations. The simulation results indicate that there

exists a critical flow rate in the water sink which

should not be exceeded in order to avoid oil breakthrough. In fact, there is competition between two

forces (upward and downward) owing to the dual

sink. For instance, one should optimise both oil and

water production so that the interface is always main-

117

completions for two values of horizontal permeability M = 2,

NDq = 0.1, / = 0.2, Q o*c = 10 10 1 0 , Da V = 8 10 1 7 ,

t*= 0.40 1018.

a graph that provides the oil breakthrough time BToil*

versus water production rate. When water production

rate (Qwc

* ) in the water sink is less or equal to

approximately 2 10 10 the oil breakthrough does

not occur.

The previous analysis of the water oil interface

behaviour provides an answer to the cone shape when

dual completion is used. It is shown by our data that

the interface is not stable for all ranges of parameters

Fig. 10. Influence of water production rate (in water sink) on oil

breakthrough time in dual completion for M = 2, NDq = 0.1,

DaH = 4 10 16, Ra = 0.2, / = 0.2, Qoc

* = 10 10 10.

118

Thus, other results on water breakthrough time are

documented and discussed.

For all of the parameters, three cases of water

production rate (Qwc

* ) in the water sink were

examined: Qwc

* = 0 that corresponds to single completion, Qwc

* = 0.8 Qoc

* and Q*wc = 1.5 Qoc

* in dually completed wells.

Fig. 11 shows a decrease of water breakthrough

time (BT*) when the production rate increases in both

single or dual completions. The use of DWS completion allows a delay of the water breakthrough for a

period of time that is not different for two values of

water production rate. In a dually completed well, the

BT* is improved by approximately a factor of two

compared to single completion. Also the analysis of

BT* in single completion shows that for an oil

production rate less than about 2.5 10 10, water

does not break into oil perforations, i.e., this value

corresponds to the critical oil rate. Dual completion

yields an increase in the critical oil production rate,

which goes from 2.5 10 10 in single completion to

5 10 10 in dual completion. As explained previously in the cone analysis, the upward vertical component of the viscous force due to oil perforations is

reduced by the downward vertical component of the

second viscous force due to the water sink.

The mobility ratio affects oil recovery. The higher

the mobility ratio (M), the faster the water breakthrough occurs, as shown in Fig. 12. For values of M

greater than 10, water coning is delayed only for a

As explained in the cone profile analysis, when

viscous forces are important and predominate, the

oil mobility is reduced yielding faster upward motion

of the water oil interface. The BT* is slightly greater

at Qwc

* /Qoc

* = 1.5 compared to BT* at Q*wc /Qoc

* = 0.8,

only for the range of M between 2.5 and 10. An

asymptotic behaviour of BT* is observed in single or

dual completions for values of M less than a certain

critical value. It is an indication of critical oil rate. It

starts from values of M less than 0.25 in single

completion and less than 1 for a dually completed

well.

Fig. 13 shows the effect of the dimensionless density

difference (NDq) on BT*. For the most part, use of a

breakthrough time in single and dual completions for M = 2,

NDq = 0.1, DaH = 4 10 16, Ra = 0.2, / = 0.2.

breakthrough time in single and dual completions for M = 2,

DaH = 4 10 16, Ra = 0.2, / = 0.2, Qoc

* = 10 10 10.

single and dual completions for NDq = 0.1, DaH = 4 10 16,

Ra = 0.2, / = 0.2, Qoc

* = 10 10 10.

119

single and dual completions for M = 2, NDq = 0.1, DaH = 4 10 16,

/ = 0.2, Qoc

* = 10 10 10.

and dual completions for M = 2, NDq = 0.1, Ra = 0.2,

DaH = 4 10 16, Qoc

* = 10 10 10.

at high values of NDq. The improvement due to DWS

yields a BT* at least two times greater when NDq is

increased from 0.1 to 0.2. Increasing water production

allows delay of water arrival at the oil perforations for

values of Qwc

* /Qoc

* = 1.5 and 0.8, owing to the stabilising effect of gravity at high values of NDq (Fig. 13).

The gravitational force, induced by the difference in

fluid densities, add to the downward vertical component of viscous force due to the water sink, hindering

water breakthrough. For NDq < 0.05, the effect of

DWS on BT* is still sensitive. Nevertheless, the effect

of water production rate on BT* seems to be negligible.

are shown in Figs. 14 16 through the anisotropy

ratio (Ra), the horizontal permeability (DaH) and

the porosity (/). An improvement of BT* is

recorded when the well is dually completed. The

augmentation of water production rate from Qwc

*/

Qoc

* = 0.8 to Qwc

* /Qoc

* = 1.5 does not significantly

improve the delay of water into oil perforations.

It is noticed that for good rock characteristics (low

values of Ra, high Da and /) a better enhancement

is reached. An asymptotic behaviour of BT* versus

Ra is shown in Fig. 14, it corresponds to a critical

oil production rate.

Results of numerical simulations related to water oil interface behaviour and BT* were analysed

and documented for single and dual completions.

With a parametric study of dual completion technology, the cone profile shape and the performance

of this technique were discussed arriving at the

following conclusions:

time in single and dual completions for M = 2, NDq = 0.1,

DaV = 8 10 17, / = 0.2, Qoc

* = 10 10 10.

profile shape in most cases. The top of water oil

interface moves away from the well.

(b) The use of high oil production rates yields an

elevation of water coning height that would

intercept oil flow.

120

than 2 10 10 , the oil breaks into water

perforations. The water breakthrough time is

proportional to dimensionless density difference

and horizontal permeability and inversely proportional to oil production rate, mobility, and

anisotropy ratios.

(d) For rock reservoir with high anisotropy ratio,

the cone shape, induced by DWS technology,

takes the classical behaviour occurring in

single completion after a short period of

production.

(e) At low NDq numbers, the values of BT* for Qwc

*/

Qoc

* = 0.8 and Qwc

* /Qoc

* = 1.5 are not too different,

thus the use of high production rate at water sink

is not recommended. The improvement begins

when dimensionless density difference is greater

than 0.05.

(f) Using the dual completion, water breakthrough is

delayed. In general, the BT* is doubly delayed

compared to single completion situation.

(g) The critical oil production rate is improved

compared to a single completion.

krwor

kV

M

!

n

NDq

Nqw

Paq

Pc

Pc*

Pl

Pl*

Pwoc

Qa

Qa*

a

Q

la

Q

*la

Q

wc

Q

*

Nomenclature

DaH

radial Darcy number (DaH = kH/ho2)

DaV

vertical Darcy number (DaV = kV/ho2)

Dq

density difference (Dq = qw qo)

DWS downhole water sink

g

gravity acceleration (m/s2)

h

total height of the physical domain (h = ho +

hw, m)

h*

dimensionless total height of the physical

domain

ho

oil zone height (m)

ho*

dimensionless oil zone height

hp

oil perforation height (m)

hp*

dimensionless oil perforation height

hw

water zone height (m)

hw*

dimensionless water zone height

hwp

water perforation height (m)

hwp

*

dimensionless water perforations height

K

permeability tensor

kH

horizontal permeability (m2)

krl

relative permeability to phase l

kroiw

relative permeability to oil at irreducible

water saturation

r

r*

Ra

re

re*

Rkr

rw*

rw

Sl

Sor

Swi

t

t*

!

Vl

z

z*

saturation

vertical permeability (m2)

mobility ratio (M = RKr lo/lw)

normal vector to boundary

dimensionless density difference (NDq=

(qw qo)/qw)

dimensionless expression (Nqw = qw gho/

Pwoc)

pressure at bottom aquifer (Pa)

capillary pressure (Pa)

dimensionless capillary pressure (Pc* =(Pc

Dqgz)/(Dqgho))

phase pressure (Pa)

dimensionless pressure phase (Pl*=(Pl +

qwgz Pwoc)/(Dqgho))

initial pressure at water oil contact (Pa)

total production rate (m3/s)

total dimensionless production rate (Eq. (21))

total production rate by unit reservoir volume

(s 1)

phase production rate by unit reservoir

volume (s 1)

dimensionless phase production rate

dimensionless water production rate in water

sink

radial co-ordinate (m)

dimensionless radial co-ordinate (r*= r/ho)

anisotropy ratio, Ra = DaV/DaH

total radius of the physical domain (m)

total dimensionless radius

relative permeability ratio Rkr krwor =

kroiw

dimensionless well radius

well radius (m)

phase saturation

residual oil saturation

irreducible water saturation

time (s)

dimensionless time (t*= Pwoc t/lw)

phase filtration vector (m/s)

vertical co-ordinate (m)

dimensionless vertical co-ordinate (z*= z/

ho)

Greek symbols

ql

fluid phase density (kg/m3)

/

porosity

ll

j

gradient operator

Subscripts

a

zone completion (a = oc, wc)

l

phase (l = o, w)

*

dimensionless

References

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