timothy pilophot mechanics of materials 3rd edition solution manual

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timothy pilophot mechanics of materials 3rd edition solution manual

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P13.1/2 is uniformly deformed such that x = 230 , y =

480 , and xy = 760 rad. Using dimensions of a =

20 mm and b = 25 mm, determine the normal strain in the

plate in the direction defined by

(a) points O and A.

(b) points O and C.

FIGURE P13.1/2

Solution

(a) From the geometry of the plate:

2a 40 mm

tan OA

0.5333

3b 75 mm

The given strain values are:

x 230

y 480

OA 28.0725

xy 760 rad

Substitute these values into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in

the direction of line OA:

OA x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

( 760 rad) sin(28.0725) cos(28.0725)

242.8028 243

(b) From the geometry of the plate:

a 20

tan OC

0.2000

4b 100

Ans.

OC 11.3099

Substitute this angle and the given strains into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to

obtain in the direction of line OC:

OC x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

( 760 rad) sin( 11.3099) cos(11.3099)

348.8462 349

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

P13.1/2 is uniformly deformed such that x = 360 , y

= 770 , and xy = 940 rad. Using dimensions of a =

25 mm and b = 40 mm, determine the normal strain in the

plate in the direction defined by

(a) points O and B.

(b) points O and D.

FIGURE P13.1/2

Solution

(a) From the geometry of the plate:

2a 50 mm

tan OB

1.2500

b 40 mm

The given strain values are:

x 360

y 770

OB 51.3402

xy 940 rad

Substitute these values into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in

the direction of line OB:

OB x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

(940 rad) sin(51.3402) cos(51.3402)

787.5610 788

(b) From the geometry of the plate:

2a 50

tan OD

0.6250

2b

80

Ans.

OD 32.0054

Substitute this angle and the given strains into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to

obtain in the direction of line OD:

OD x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

(940 rad) sin( 32.0054) cos( 32.0054)

465.0562 465

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

uniformly deformed such that x = 120 , y = 860 , and

xy = 1,100 rad. If a = 25 mm, determine

(a) the normal strain n in the plate.

(b) the normal strain t in the plate.

(c) the shear strain nt in the plate.

FIGURE P13.3/4

Solution

(a) From the geometry of the plate, the n axis is oriented at an angle of

a 1

tan

18.4349

3a 3

The given strain values are:

x 120

y 860

xy 1,100 rad

Substitute these values into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in

the n direction:

n x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

(1,100 rad) sin(18.4349) cos(18.4349)

352.0000 352

Ans.

(b) To determine the normal strain in the t direction, use + 90 in the normal strain transformation

equation [Eq. (13.3)]:

t (120 ) cos 2 (18.4349 90) (860 )sin 2 (18.4349 90)

(1,100 rad)sin(18.4349 90) cos(18.4349 90)

1, 092.0000 1, 092

Ans.

(c) The shear strain nt is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:

nt 2( x y ) sin cos xy (cos 2 sin 2 )

(1,100 rad)[ cos 2 (18.4349) sin 2 (18.4349)]

292.0000 rad 292 rad

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

uniformly deformed such that x = 890 , y = 440 , and xy

= 310 rad. If a = 50 mm, determine

(a) the normal strain n' in the plate.

(b) the normal strain t' in the plate.

(c) the shear strain n't' in the plate.

FIGURE P13.3/4

Solution

(a) From the geometry of the plate, the n' axis is oriented at an angle of

2a

2

tan

33.6901

3a

3

The given strain values are:

x 890

y 440

xy 310 rad

Substitute these values into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in

the n' direction:

n ' x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

( 310 rad) sin( 33.6901) cos(33.6901)

337.6923 338

Ans.

(b) To determine the normal strain in the t' direction, use + 90 in the normal strain transformation

equation [Eq. (13.3)]:

t ' ( 890 ) cos 2 ( 33.6901 90) (440 )sin 2 ( 33.6901 90)

( 310 rad)sin( 33.6901 90) cos( 33.6901 90)

112.3077 112.3

Ans.

(c) The shear strain n't' is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:

n 't ' 2[( 890 ) (440 )]sin( 33.6901) cos(33.6901)

( 310 rad)[ cos 2 ( 33.6901) sin 2 ( 33.6901)]

1,346.9231 rad 1,347 rad

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

uniformly deformed such that n = 660 , t = 910 , and

nt = 830 rad. Determine

(a) the normal strain x in the plate.

(b) the normal strain y in the plate.

(c) the shear strain xy in the plate.

FIGURE P13.5/6

Solution

The given strain values are:

n 660

t 910

nt 830 rad

The x axis is rotated 45 counterclockwise from the x axis; therefore, we can use = +45 (from the n to

the x axis) with the strains associated with the n and t axes to determine the strains in the x and y

directions.

x n cos 2 t sin 2 nt sin cos

1, 200

Ans.

The normal strain in the y direction is found by setting = 45 + 90 = 135 in the normal strain

transformation equation:

y (660 ) cos 2 (135) (910 )sin 2 (135) (830 rad)sin(135) cos(135)

370

Ans.

The shear strain nt is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:

xy 2( n t )sin cos nt (cos 2 sin 2 )

2[(660 ) (910 )]sin(45) cos(45) (830 rad)[ cos 2 (45) sin 2 (45)]

250 rad

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

is uniformly deformed such that x = 0 , y = 0 ,

and xy = 1,850 rad. Using a = 650 mm, determine

the deformed length of (a) diagonal AC and (b)

diagonal BD.

FIGURE P13.5/6

Solution

The given strain values are:

x 0

y 0

xy 1,850 rad

(a) For diagonal AC, = 45. Substitute these values into the normal strain transformation equation

[Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in the direction defined by AC:

AC x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

925

The original length of diagonal AC is

LAC (650 mm)2 (650 mm)2 919.2388 mm

The deformation of this diagonal is

AC AC LAC (925 106 )(919.2388 mm) 0.8503 mm

Thus, the deformed length of diagonal AC is

LAC

919.2388 mm 0.8503 mm 918.3885 mm 918 mm

Ans.

(b) For diagonal BD, = 45. Substitute this value into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq.

(13.3)] to obtain the strain in the direction defined by BD:

BD x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

925

The deformation of this diagonal is

AC AC LAC (925 106 )(919.2388 mm) 0.8503 mm

Thus, the deformed length of diagonal BD is

LBD

919.2388 mm 0.8503 mm 920.0891 mm 920 mm

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

point in a body subjected to plane strain. Determine the

strain components n, t, and nt at the point if the n-t axes

are rotated with respect to the x-y axes by the amount and

in the direction indicated by the angle shown in either

Figure P13.7 or Figure P13.8. Sketch the deformed shape

of the element.

x = 1,050 y = 400 xy = 1,360 rad = 36

FIGURE P13.7

Solution

The n axis is rotated counterclockwise from the x axis; therefore, = +36. Use the normal strain

transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in the n direction:

n x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

( 1, 050 ) cos 2 (36) (400 )sin 2 (36) (1,360 rad)sin(36) cos(36)

97.6811 97.7

Ans.

The normal strain in the t direction is found by setting = 36 + 90 = +126 in the normal strain

transformation equation:

t ( 1, 050 ) cos 2 (126) (400 )sin 2 (126) (1,360 rad)sin(126) cos(126)

747.6811 748

Ans.

The shear strain nt is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:

nt 2( x y )sin cos xy (cos 2 sin 2 )

2[( 1, 050 ) (400 )]sin(36) cos(36) (1,360 rad)[ cos 2 (36) sin 2 (36)]

1, 799.2951 rad 1, 799 rad

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

point in a body subjected to plane strain. Determine the

strain components n, t, and nt at the point if the n-t axes

are rotated with respect to the x-y axes by the amount and

in the direction indicated by the angle shown in either

Figure P13.7 or Figure P13.8. Sketch the deformed shape

of the element.

x = 350 y = 1,650 xy = 720 rad = 14

FIGURE P13.8

Solution

The n axis is rotated clockwise from the x axis; therefore, = 14. Use the normal strain transformation

equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in the n direction:

n x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

( 350 ) cos 2 ( 14) (1, 650 )sin 2 ( 14) (720 rad)sin( 14) cos( 14)

401.9574 402

Ans.

The normal strain in the t direction is found by setting = 14 + 90 = +76 in the normal strain

transformation equation:

t ( 350 ) cos2 (76) (1, 650 )sin 2 (76) (720 rad)sin(76) cos(76)

1, 701.9574 1, 702

Ans.

The shear strain nt is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:

nt 2( x y )sin cos xy (cos 2 sin 2 )

2[( 350 ) (1,650 )]sin( 14)cos( 14) (720 rad)[cos 2 ( 14) sin 2 ( 14)]

303.2209 rad 303 rad

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

point in a body subjected to plane strain. Determine the

strain components n, t, and nt at the point if the n-t axes

are rotated with respect to the x-y axes by the amount and

in the direction indicated by the angle shown in either

Figure P13.7 or Figure P13.8. Sketch the deformed shape

of the element.

x = 940 y = 515 xy = 185 rad = 18

FIGURE P13.7

Solution

The n axis is rotated counterclockwise from the x axis; therefore, = +18. Use the normal strain

transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in the n direction:

n x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

(940 )cos 2 (18) (515 )sin 2 (18) (185 rad)sin(18)cos(18)

953.7862 954

Ans.

The normal strain in the t direction is found by setting = 18 + 90 = +108 in the normal strain

transformation equation:

t (940 )cos 2 (108) (515 )sin 2 (108) (182 rad)sin(108)cos(108)

501.2138 501

Ans.

The shear strain nt is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:

nt 2( x y )sin cos xy (cos 2 sin 2 )

2[(940 ) (515 )]sin(18)cos(18) (185 rad)[cos 2 (18) sin 2 (18)]

100.1406 rad 100.1 rad

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

point in a body subjected to plane strain. Determine the

strain components n, t, and nt at the point if the n-t axes

are rotated with respect to the x-y axes by the amount and

in the direction indicated by the angle shown in either

Figure P13.7 or Figure P13.8. Sketch the deformed shape

of the element.

x = 2,180 y = 1,080 xy = 325 rad = 28

FIGURE P13.8

Solution

The n axis is rotated clockwise from the x axis; therefore, = 28. Use the normal strain transformation

equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in the n direction:

n x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

(2,180 )cos 2 ( 28) (1,080 )sin 2 ( 28) (325 rad)sin( 28)cos( 28)

1,802.8375 1,803

Ans.

The normal strain in the t direction is found by setting = 28 + 90 = +62 in the normal strain

transformation equation:

t (2,180 )cos 2 (62) (1,080 )sin 2 (62) (325 rad)sin(62)cos(62)

1,457.1625 1,457

Ans.

The shear strain nt is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:

nt 2( x y )sin cos xy (cos 2 sin 2 )

2[(2,180 ) (1,080 )]sin( 28)cos( 28) (325 rad)[cos 2 ( 28) sin 2 ( 28)]

1,093.6790 rad 1,094 rad

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

point in a body subjected to plane strain. Determine the

strain components n, t, and nt at the point if the n-t axes

are rotated with respect to the x-y axes by the amount and

in the direction indicated by the angle shown in either

Figure P13.7 or Figure P13.8. Sketch the deformed shape

of the element.

x = 1,375 y = 1,825 xy = 650 rad = 15

FIGURE P13.7

Solution

The n axis is rotated counterclockwise from the x axis; therefore, = +15. Use the normal strain

transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in the n direction:

n x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

( 1,375 )cos 2 (15) ( 1,825 )sin 2 (15) (650 rad)sin(15)cos(15)

1,242.6443 1,243

Ans.

The normal strain in the t direction is found by setting = 15 + 90 = +105 in the normal strain

transformation equation:

t ( 1,375 )cos 2 (105) ( 1,825 )sin 2 (105) (650 rad)sin(105)cos(105)

1,957.3557 1,957

Ans.

The shear strain nt is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:

nt 2( x y )sin cos xy (cos 2 sin 2 )

2[( 1,375 ) ( 1,825 )]sin(15)cos(15) (650 rad)[cos 2 (15) sin 2 (15)]

337.9165 rad 338 rad

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

point in a body subjected to plane strain. Determine the

strain components n, t, and nt at the point if the n-t axes

are rotated with respect to the x-y axes by the amount and

in the direction indicated by the angle shown in either

Figure P13.7 or Figure P13.8. Sketch the deformed shape

of the element.

x = 590 y = 1,670 xy = 1,185 rad = 23

FIGURE P13.8

Solution

The n axis is rotated clockwise from the x axis; therefore, = 23. Use the normal strain transformation

equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in the n direction:

n x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

(590 )cos 2 ( 23) ( 1,670 )sin 2 ( 23) ( 1,185 rad)sin( 23)cos( 23)

671.1728 671

Ans.

The normal strain in the t direction is found by setting = 23 + 90 = +67 in the normal strain

transformation equation:

t (590 )cos 2 (67) ( 1,670 )sin 2 (67) ( 1,185 rad)sin(67)cos(67)

1,751.1728 1,751

Ans.

The shear strain nt is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:

nt 2( x y )sin cos xy (cos 2 sin 2 )

2[(590 ) ( 1,670 )]sin( 23)cos( 23) ( 1,185 rad)[cos 2 ( 23) sin 2 ( 23)]

802.5378 rad 803 rad

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

P13.13 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.

Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear

strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear

strain distortion on a sketch.

x = 550 y = 285 xy = 940 rad

Solution

The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

( 550 ) ( 285 )

( 550 ) ( 285 ) 940

2

2

2

2

417.5 488.3198

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

940

3.54717

( x y ) [( 550 ) ( 285 )]

p 37.1

Ans.

For plane strain, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear

strain is the maximum in-plane shear strain:

Ans.

abs max p1 p 2 70.8198 (905.8198 ) 977 rad

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

P13.14 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.

Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear

strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear

strain distortion on a sketch.

x = 940 y = 360 xy = 830 rad

Solution

The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

(940 ) ( 360 )

(940 ) ( 360 ) 830

2

2

2

2

290 771.1842

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

830

0.63846

( x y ) [(940 ) ( 360 )]

p 16.28

Ans.

For plane strain, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear

strain is the maximum in-plane shear strain:

Ans.

abs max p1 p 2 1,061.1842 (481.1842 ) 1,542 rad

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

P13.15 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.

Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear

strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear

strain distortion on a sketch.

x = 270 y = 510 xy = 1,150 rad

Solution

The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

( 270 ) (510 )

( 270 ) (510 ) 1,150

2

2

2

2

120 694.7841

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

1,150

1.47436

( x y ) [( 270 ) (510 )]

p 27.9

Ans.

For plane strain, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear

strain is the maximum in-plane shear strain:

Ans.

abs max p1 p 2 814.7841 (574.7841 ) 1,390 rad

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

P13.16 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.

Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear

strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear

strain distortion on a sketch.

x = 1,150 y = 1,950 xy = 1,800 rad

Solution

The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

(1,150 ) (1,950 )

(1,150 ) (1,950 ) 1,800

2

2

2

2

1,550 984.8858

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

1,800

2.2500

( x y ) [(1,150 ) (1,950 )]

p 33.0

Ans.

For plane strain, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 and p2 are both positive, the absolute maximum shear strain

is:

Ans.

abs max p1 p 3 2,534.8858 0 2,530 rad

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

P13.17 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.

Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear

strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear

strain distortion on a sketch.

x = 215 y = 1,330 xy = 890 rad

Solution

The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

( 215 ) ( 1,330 )

( 215 ) ( 1,330 ) 890

2

2

2

2

772.5 713.3241

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

890

0.79821

( x y ) [( 215 ) ( 1,330 )]

p 19.30

Ans.

For plane strain, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 and p2 are both negative, the absolute maximum shear strain

is:

Ans.

abs max p3 p 2 0 (1,485.8241 ) 1,486 rad

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

P13.18 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.

Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear

strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear

strain distortion on a sketch.

x = 670 y = 280 xy = 800 rad

Solution

The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

(670 ) ( 280 )

(670 ) ( 280 ) 800

2

2

2

2

195 620.9871

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

800

0.84211

( x y ) [(670 ) ( 280 )]

p 20.1

Ans.

For plane strain, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear

strain is the maximum in-plane shear strain:

Ans.

abs max p1 p 2 815.9871 (425.9871 ) 1,242 rad

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

P13.19 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.

Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear

strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear

strain distortion on a sketch.

x = 210 y = 615 xy = 420 rad

Solution

The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

( 210 ) (615 )

( 210 ) (615 ) 420

2

2

2

2

202.5 462.8782

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

420

0.50909

( x y ) [( 210 ) (615 )]

p 13.49

Ans.

For plane strain, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear

strain is the maximum in-plane shear strain:

Ans.

abs max p1 p 2 665.3782 (260.3782 ) 926 rad

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

P13.20 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.

Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear

strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear

strain distortion on a sketch.

x = 960 y = 650 xy = 350 rad

Solution

The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

(960 ) (650 )

(960 ) (650 ) 350

2

2

2

2

805 233.7734

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

350

1.12903

( x y ) [(960 ) (650 )]

p 24.2

Ans.

For plane strain, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 and p2 are both positive, the absolute maximum shear strain

is:

Ans.

abs max p1 p 3 1,038.7734 0 1,039 rad

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

P13.21 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.

Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear

strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear

strain distortion on a sketch.

x = 560 y = 340 xy = 1,475 rad

Solution

The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

(560 ) ( 340 )

(560 ) ( 340 ) 1, 475

2

2

2

2

110 863.9481

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

1,475

1.63889

( x y ) [(560 ) ( 340 )]

p 29.3

Ans.

For plane strain, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear

strain is the maximum in-plane shear strain:

Ans.

abs max p1 p 2 665.3782 (260.3782 ) 926 rad

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

P13.22 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.

Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear

strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear

strain distortion on a sketch.

x = 1,340 y = 380 xy = 1,240 rad

Solution

The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

(1,340 ) ( 380 )

(1,340 ) ( 380 ) 1, 240

2

2

2

2

480 1,060.1887

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

1,240

0.72093

( x y ) [(1,340 ) ( 380 )]

p 17.89

Ans.

For plane strain, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear

strain is the maximum in-plane shear strain:

Ans.

abs max p1 p 2 1,540.1887 (580.1887 ) 2,120 rad

The principal strains are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Construct Mohrs circle

and use it to

(a) determine the strains x, y, and xy. (Assume x > y)

(b) determine the maximum in-plane shear strain and the absolute maximum shear strain.

(c) draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane

shear strain distortions.

P13.23

p1 = 1,590

p2 = 540

p = 23.55

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

Solution

The center of Mohrs circle is at

p1 p 2 (1,590 ) ( 540 )

C

525

2

2

and the radius of Mohrs circle is equal to

p1 p 2 (1,590 ) ( 540 )

R

1,065

2

2

The angle p is given as 23.55, and we are told to assume

that x > y. From this information, we know that the p1

principal plane is rotated 23.55 in a clockwise direction

from the x face. Thus, to locate point x on Mohrs circle,

begin at p1 and rotate 2(23.55) = 47.10 in a

counterclockwise direction. The Mohrs circle is shown.

(a) The normal strain in the x direction is computed as:

x C R cos 2 p

1,250.0000 1, 250

Ans.

xy

2

R sin 2 p

(1,065 )sin(47.10)

780.1582 rad

xy 1,560.3164 rad 1,560 rad

y C R cos 2 p

199.9677 200

(b) The maximum shear strain is simply two times the radius of Mohrs circle:

max 2R 2(1,065 ) 2,130 rad

Ans.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

Since p1 and p2 are of different signs, the absolute maximum shear strain is equal to the maximum inplane shear strain:

Ans.

abs max max 2,130 rad

(c) A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is

shown below.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The principal strains are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Construct Mohrs circle

and use it to

(a) determine the strains x, y, and xy. (Assume x > y)

(b) determine the maximum in-plane shear strain and the absolute maximum shear strain.

(c) draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane

shear strain distortions.

P13.24

p1 = 530

p2 = 1,570

p = 14.29

Solution

The center of Mohrs circle is at

p1 p 2 (530 ) ( 1,570 )

C

520

2

2

and the radius of Mohrs circle is equal to

p1 p 2 (530 ) ( 1,570 )

R

1,050

2

2

The angle p is given as +14.29, and we are told to assume

that x > y. From this information, we know that the p1

principal plane is rotated 14.29 in a counterclockwise

direction from the x face. Thus, to locate point x on Mohrs

circle, begin at p1 and rotate 2(14.29) = 28.58 in a

clockwise direction. The Mohrs circle is shown.

(a) The normal strain in the x direction is computed as:

x C R cos 2 p

402.0575 402

Ans.

xy

2

R sin 2 p

(1,050 )sin(28.58)

502.3046 rad

xy 1,004.6092 rad 1,005 rad

y C R cos 2 p

1,442.0575 1,442

(b) The maximum shear strain is simply two times the radius of Mohrs circle:

max 2R 2(1,050 ) 2,100 rad

Ans.

Ans.

Since p1 and p2 are of different signs, the absolute maximum shear strain is equal to the maximum inplane shear strain:

abs max max 2,100 rad

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(c) A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is

shown below.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The principal strains are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Construct Mohrs circle

and use it to

(a) determine the strains x, y, and xy. (Assume x > y)

(b) determine the maximum in-plane shear strain and the absolute maximum shear strain.

(c) draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane

shear strain distortions.

P13.25

p1 = 780

p2 = 590

p = 35.66

Solution

The center of Mohrs circle is at

p1 p 2 (780 ) (590 )

C

685

2

2

and the radius of Mohrs circle is equal to

p1 p 2 (780 ) (590 )

R

95.0

2

2

The angle p is given as 35.66, and we are told to assume

that x > y. From this information, we know that the p1

principal plane is rotated 35.66 in a counterclockwise

direction from the x face. Thus, to locate point x on Mohrs

circle, begin at p1 and rotate 2(35.66) = 71.32 in a

clockwise direction. The Mohrs circle is shown.

(a) The normal strain in the x direction is computed as:

x C R cos 2 p

715.4268 715

Ans.

xy

2

R sin 2 p

(95 )sin(71.32)

89.9956 rad

xy 179.9912 rad 180.0 rad

Ans.

y C R cos 2 p

654.5732 655

Ans.

(b) The maximum shear strain is simply two times the radius of Mohrs circle:

max 2R 2(95 ) 190.0 rad

Ans.

Since p1 and p2 are both positive, the absolute maximum shear strain is numerically equal to p1:

abs max 780 rad

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(c) A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is

shown below.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The principal strains are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Construct Mohrs circle

and use it to

(a) determine the strains x, y, and xy. (Assume x > y)

(b) determine the maximum in-plane shear strain and the absolute maximum shear strain.

(c) draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane

shear strain distortions.

P13.26

p1 = 350

p2 = 890

p = 19.50

Solution

The center of Mohrs circle is at

p1 p 2 ( 350 ) (890 )

C

620

2

2

and the radius of Mohrs circle is equal to

p1 p 2 ( 350 ) (890 )

R

270

2

2

The angle p is given as 19.50, and we are told to

assume that x > y. From this information, we know that

the p1 principal plane is rotated 19.50 in a clockwise

direction from the x face. Thus, to locate point x on

Mohrs circle, begin at p1 and rotate 2(19.50) = 39 in a

counterclockwise direction. The Mohrs circle is shown.

(a) The normal strain in the x direction is computed as:

x C R cos 2 p

410.1706 410

Ans.

xy

2

R sin 2 p

(270 )sin(39)

169.9165 rad

xy 339.8330 rad 340 rad

y C R cos 2 p

829.8294 830

(b) The maximum shear strain is simply two times the radius of Mohrs circle:

max 2R 2(270 ) 540 rad

Ans.

Ans.

Since p1 and p2 are both negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is numerically equal to the

absolute value of p2:

abs max 890 rad

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(c) A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is

shown below.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using

Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute

maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the

maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.

P13.27

x = 185

y = 655

xy = 500 rad

Solution

The basic Mohrs circle is shown.

( 185 ) (655 )

C

235

2

R ( 420 ) 2 (250 ) 2 488.7740

p 2 C R 235 488.7740 254

max 2 R 978 rad

The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and point

2 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p2) is found

from:

500

500

tan 2 p

0.59524 2 p 30.7627

( 185 ) (655 ) 840

thus, p 15.38

Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane

shear strain:

Ans.

abs max max 978 rad

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown

below.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using

Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute

maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the

maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.

P13.28

x = 940

y = 1,890

xy = 2,000 rad

Solution

The basic Mohrs circle is shown.

( 940 ) ( 1,890 )

C

1, 415

2

R (475 ) 2 (1,000 ) 2 1,107.0795

p 2 C R 1, 415 1,107.0795 2,520

max 2 R 2, 210 rad

The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and point

1 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p1) is found

from:

2,000

2,000

tan 2 p

2.10526

( 940 ) ( 1,890 )

950

2 p 64.5923

thus, p 32.3

Since both p1 and p2 are negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is greater than the maximum

in-plane shear strain:

Ans.

abs max p3 p 2 0 (2,522.0795 ) 2,520 rad

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown

below.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using

Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute

maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the

maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.

P13.29

x = 140

y = 160

xy = 1,940 rad

Solution

The basic Mohrs circle is shown.

( 140 ) (160 )

C

10

2

R ( 150 ) 2 (970 ) 2 981.5294

p1 C R 10 981.5294 992

p 2 C R 10 981.5294 972

max 2 R 1,963 rad

The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and

point 2 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p2) is

found from:

1,940

530

tan 2 p

6.46667 2 p 81.2095

( 140 ) (160 ) 300

thus, p 40.6

Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane

shear strain:

Ans.

abs max p1 p 2 991.5294 (971.5294 ) 1,963 rad

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown

below.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using

Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute

maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the

maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.

P13.30

x = 380

y = 770

xy = 650 rad

Solution

The basic Mohrs circle is shown.

(380 ) ( 770 )

C

195

2

R (575 ) 2 (325 ) 2 660.4922

p 2 C R 195 660.4922 855

max 2 R 1,321 rad

The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and point

1 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p1) is found

from:

tan 2 p

650

650

0.56522

(380 ) ( 770 ) 1,150

2 p 29.4759

thus, p 14.74

Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane

shear strain:

Ans.

abs max max 1,321 rad

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown

below.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using

Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute

maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the

maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.

P13.31

x = 760

y = 590

xy = 360 rad

Solution

The basic Mohrs circle is shown.

(760 ) (590 )

C

675

2

R (85 ) 2 ( 180 ) 2 199.0603

p 2 C R 675 199.0603 476

max 2 R 398 rad

The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and

point 1 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p1) is

found from:

360

360

tan 2 p

(760 ) (590 ) 170

By inspection, the angle p from point x to point 1 is turned clockwise.

Since both p1 and p2 are positive, the absolute maximum shear strain is greater than the maximum

in-plane shear strain:

Ans.

abs max p1 p3 874.0603 (0 ) 874 rad

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown

below.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using

Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute

maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the

maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.

P13.32

x = 1,570

y = 430

xy = 950 rad

Solution

The basic Mohrs circle is shown.

( 1,570 ) ( 430 )

C

1,000

2

R ( 570 ) 2 (475 ) 2 741.9737

p 2 C R 1,000 741.9737 1,742

max 2 R 1, 484 rad

The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and point

2 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p2) is found

from:

950

950

tan 2 p

0.83333 2 p 39.8056

( 1,570 ) ( 430 ) 1,140

thus, p 19.90

Since both p1 and p2 are negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is greater than the maximum

in-plane shear strain:

Ans.

abs max p3 p 2 0 (1,741.9737 ) 1,742 rad

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown

below.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using

Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute

maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the

maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.

P13.33

x = 920

y = 1,125

xy = 550 rad

Solution

The basic Mohrs circle is shown.

(920 ) (1,125 )

C

1,022.5

2

R ( 102.5 ) 2 (275 ) 2 293.4813

p 2 C R 1,022.5 293.4813 729

max 2 R 587 rad

The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and point

2 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p2) is found

from:

550

550

tan 2 p

2.68293 2 p 69.5582

(920 ) (1,125 ) 205

thus, p 34.8

Since both p1 and p2 are positive, the absolute maximum shear strain is greater than the maximum

in-plane shear strain:

Ans.

abs max p1 p3 (1,315.9813 ) 0 1,316 rad

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown

below.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using

Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute

maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the

maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.

P13.34

x = 515

y = 265

xy = 1,030 rad

Solution

The basic Mohrs circle is shown.

(515 ) ( 265 )

C

125

2

R (390 ) 2 (515 ) 2 646.0070

p 2 C R 125 646.0070 521

max 2 R 1, 292 rad

The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and

point 1 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p1) is

found from:

tan 2 p

1,030

1,030

(515 ) ( 265 )

780

Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane

shear strain:

Ans.

abs max max 1,292 rad

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown

below.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using

Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute

maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the

maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.

P13.35

x = 475

y = 685

xy = 150 rad

Solution

The basic Mohrs circle is shown.

(475 ) (685 )

C

580

2

R ( 105 ) 2 (75 ) 2 129.0349

p 2 C R 580 129.0349 451

max 2 R 709 rad

The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and

point 2 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p2) is

found from:

150

150

tan 2 p

0.71429

2 p 35.5377

(475 ) (685 ) 210

thus, p 17.77

Since both p1 and p2 are positive, the absolute maximum shear strain is greater than the maximum

in-plane shear strain:

Ans.

abs max p1 p3 709.0349 (0 ) 709 rad

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown

below.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using

Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute

maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the

maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.

P13.36

x = 670

y = 455

xy = 900 rad

Solution

The basic Mohrs circle is shown.

(670 ) (455 )

C

562.5

2

R (107.5 ) 2 (450 ) 2 462.6621

p 2 C R 562.5 462.6621 99.8

max 2 R 925 rad

The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and point

1 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p1) is found

from:

900

900

tan 2 p

4.18605

2 p 76.5645 thus, p 38.3

(670 ) (455 ) 215

By inspection, the angle p from point x to point 1 is turned clockwise.

Since both p1 and p2 are positive, the absolute maximum shear strain is greater than the maximum

in-plane shear strain:

Ans.

abs max p1 p3 1,025.1621 (0 ) 1,025 rad

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown

below.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using

Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute

maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the

maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.

P13.37

x = 0

y = 320

xy = 260 rad

Solution

The basic Mohrs circle is shown.

(0 ) (320 )

C

160

2

R ( 160 ) 2 (130 ) 2 206.1553

p 2 C R 160 206.1553 46.2

max 2 R 412 rad

The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and point

2 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p2) is found

from:

tan 2 p

260

260

0.81250

(0 ) ( 320 ) 320

2 p 39.0939

thus, p 19.55

Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane

shear strain:

Ans.

abs max max 412 rad

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown

below.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using

Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute

maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the

maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.

P13.38

x = 180

y = 1,480

xy = 425 rad

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

Solution

The basic Mohrs circle is shown.

( 180 ) ( 1, 480 )

C

830

2

R (630 ) 2 (212.5 ) 2 683.8540

p 2 C R 830 683.8540 1,514

max 2 R 1,368 rad

The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and point

1 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p1) is found

from:

425

425

tan 2 p

0.32692 2 p 18.1038

( 180 ) ( 1,480 ) 1300

thus, p 9.05

Since both p1 and p2 are negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is greater than the maximum

in-plane shear strain:

Ans.

abs max p3 p 2 0 (1,513.8540 ) 1,514 rad

A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown

below.

P13.39 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain

normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.

(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.

(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear

strain at the point.

(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain

deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions.

(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear strain.

FIGURE P13.39

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

Solution

(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is

the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be

referenced from the positive x axis.

(a)

410 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)

(b)

From Eq. (a):

x 410

(c)

Ans.

y 330

Ans.

540 (410 )cos 2 (45) ( 330 )sin 2 (45) xy sin(45)cos(45)

xy 1,160 rad

Ans.

(b) Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

(410 ) ( 330 )

(410 ) ( 330 ) 1,160

2

2

2

2

40 687.9680

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

1,160

1,160

1.5676

( x y ) [(410 ) ( 330 )]

740

Ans.

(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on

the sketch below.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.

From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third

principal strain z = p3 is not equal to zero. The normal strain in the z direction can be computed

from Eq. 13.15:

0.30

z

( x y )

[(410 ) (330 )] 34.2857

1

1 0.30

Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane

shear strain:

Ans.

abs max max 1,376 rad

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

P13.40 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain

normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.

(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.

(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear

strain at the point.

(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain

deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions.

(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear strain.

FIGURE P13.40

Solution

(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is

the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be

referenced from the positive x axis.

215 x cos2 (270) y sin 2 (270) xy sin(270)cos(270)

(a)

(b)

From Eq. (a):

y 215

Ans.

x 710

Ans.

(c)

760 ( 710 )cos 2 (135) (215 )sin 2 (135) xy sin(135)cos(135)

xy 1,025 rad

Ans.

(b) Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

( 710 ) (215 )

( 710 ) (215 ) 1,025

2

2

2

2

247.5 690.3351

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

1,025

1,025

1.1081

( x y ) [( 710 ) (215 )] 925

Ans.

(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on

the sketch below.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.

From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third

principal strain z = p3 is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can

be computed as:

0.12

z

( x y )

[( 710 ) (215 )] 67.5

1

1 0.12

Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane

shear strain:

Ans.

abs max max 1,381 rad

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

P13.41 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain

normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.

(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.

(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear

strain at the point.

(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain

deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions.

(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear strain.

FIGURE P13.41

Solution

(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is

the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be

referenced from the positive x axis.

510 x cos2 (45) y sin 2 (45) xy sin(45)cos(45)

(a)

(b)

From Eq. (b):

y 415

(c)

Ans.

Using this result, solve Eqs. (a) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:

x 525 and xy 80 rad

Ans.

(b) The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

(525 ) (415 )

(525 ) (415 ) 80

2

2

2

2

470 68.0074

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

80

80

0.7273

( x y ) [(525 ) (415 )] 110

p 18.01

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on

the sketch below.

(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.

From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third

principal strain z = p3 is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can

be computed as:

0.33

z

( x y )

[(525 ) (415 )] 462.9851

1

1 0.33

Since both p1 and p2 are positive, the absolute maximum shear strain will be greater than the maximum

in-plane shear strain. Since this is a plane stress situation, we must remember to take into account the

non-zero value of p3:

Ans.

abs max p1 p3 538.0074 (462.9851 ) 1,001 rad

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

P13.42 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain

normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.

(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.

(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear

strain at the point.

(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain

deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions.

(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear strain.

FIGURE P13.42

Solution

(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is

the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be

referenced from the positive x axis.

960 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)

(a)

(b)

From Eq. (a):

x 960

(c)

Ans.

Using this result, solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:

y 560.0000 560 and xy 357.9572 rad 358 rad

Ans.

(b) The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

( 960 ) ( 560 )

( 960 ) ( 560 ) 357.9572

2

2

2

2

760 268.3903

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

357.9572

357.9572

0.8949

( x y ) [( 960 ) ( 560 )]

400

Ans.

(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on

the sketch below.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.

From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third

principal strain z = p3 is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can

be computed as:

0.33

z

( x y )

[(960 ) (560 )] 748.6567

1

1 0.33

Since both p1 and p2 are negative, the absolute maximum shear strain will be greater than the maximum

in-plane shear strain. Since this is a plane stress situation, we must remember to take into account the

non-zero value of p3:

Ans.

abs max p3 p 2 748.6567 (1,028.3903 ) 1,777 rad

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

P13.43 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain

normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.

(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.

(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear

strain at the point.

(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain

deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions.

(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear strain.

FIGURE P13.43

Solution

(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is

the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be

referenced from the positive x axis.

360 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)

(a)

(b)

From Eq. (a):

x 360

(c)

Ans.

Using this result, solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:

y 510

and xy 1,206.6621 rad 1,207 rad

Ans.

(b) Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

( 360 ) (510 )

( 360 ) (510 ) 1, 206.6621

2

2

2

2

75 743.7966

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

1,206.6621

1,206.6621

1.3870

( x y ) [( 360 ) (510 )]

870

p 27.1

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on

the sketch below.

From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third

principal strain z = p3 is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can

be computed as:

0.15

z

( x y )

[(360 ) (510 )] 26.4706

1

1 0.15

Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane

shear strain:

Ans.

abs max max 1,488 rad

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

P13.44 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain

normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.

(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.

(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear

strain at the point.

(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain

deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions.

(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear strain.

FIGURE P13.44

Solution

(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is

the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be

referenced from the positive x axis.

775 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)

(a)

(b)

From Eq. (a):

x 775

Ans.

Using this result, solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:

y 325

and xy 1,073.8715 rad 1,074 rad

Ans.

(c)

(b) Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

(775 ) ( 325 )

(775 ) ( 325 ) 1,073.8715

2

2

2

2

225 768.6352

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

1,073.8715

1,073.8715

0.9762

( x y ) [(775 ) ( 325 )]

1,100

p 22.2

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on

the sketch below.

From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third

principal strain z = p3 is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can

be computed as:

0.30

z

( x y )

[(775 ) (325 )] 192.8571

1

1 0.30

Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane

shear strain:

Ans.

abs max max 1,537 rad

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

P13.45 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain

normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.

(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.

(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear

strain at the point.

(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain

deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions.

(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear strain.

FIGURE P13.45

Solution

(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is

the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be

referenced from the positive x axis.

830 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)

(a)

(b)

From Eq. (a):

x 830

Ans.

Using this result, solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:

y 460

and xy 890 rad

Ans.

(c)

(b) The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

( 830 ) ( 460 )

( 830 ) ( 460 ) 890

2

2

2

2

645 481.9232

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

890

890

2.4054

( x y ) [( 830 ) ( 460 )] 370

p 33.7

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

the sketch below.

From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third

principal strain z = p3 is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can

be computed as:

0.15

z

( x y )

[(830 ) (460 )] 227.6471

1

1 0.15

Since both p1 and p2 are negative, the absolute maximum shear strain will be greater than the maximum

in-plane shear strain. Since this is a plane stress situation, we must remember to take into account the

non-zero value of p3:

Ans.

abs max p3 p 2 227.6471 (1,126.9232 ) 1,355 rad

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

obtain normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a

machine part.

(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the

point.

(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum inplane shear strain at the point.

(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain

deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain

distortions.

(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear

strain.

FIGURE P13.46

Solution

(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is

the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be

referenced from the positive x axis.

1,480 x cos2 (270) y sin 2 (270) xy sin(270)cos(270)

(a)

(b)

From Eq. (a):

y 1,480

(c)

Ans.

x 1,863 and xy 1,599 rad

Ans.

(b) The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

(1,863.3333 ) (1, 480 ) 1,599.2602

2

2

2

2

1,671.6667 822.28

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

1,599.2602

1,599.2602

4.1720

( x y ) [(1,863.3333 ) (1,480 )] 383.3333

p 38.3

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

the sketch below.

From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third

principal strain z = p3 is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can

be computed as:

0.33

z

( x y )

[(1,863.3333 ) (1,480 )] 1,646.7164

1

1 0.33

Since both p1 and p2 are positive, the absolute maximum shear strain will be greater than the maximum

in-plane shear strain. Since this is a plane stress situation, we must remember to take into account the

non-zero value of p3:

Ans.

abs max p1 p3 2,493.9467 (1,646.7164 ) 4,140 rad

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

P13.47 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain

normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.

(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.

(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane

shear strain at the point.

(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain

deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain

distortions.

(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear

strain.

FIGURE P13.47

Solution

(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is

the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be

referenced from the positive x axis.

625 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)

(a)

(b)

From Eq. (a):

x 625

Ans.

Using this result, solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:

y 125.0

and

xy 1,440 rad

Ans.

(c)

(b) Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

(625 ) (125 )

(625 ) (125 ) 1, 440

2

2

2

2

375 762.1680

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

1,440

1,440

2.8800

( x y ) [(625 ) (125 )]

500

p 35.4

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

the sketch below.

From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third

principal strain z = p3 is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can

be computed as:

0.12

z

( x y )

[(625 ) (125 )] 102.2727

1

1 0.12

Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane

shear strain:

Ans.

abs max max 1,524 rad

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

P13.48 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain

normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.

(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.

(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane

shear strain at the point.

(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain

deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain

distortions.

(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear

strain.

FIGURE P13.48

Solution

(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is

the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be

referenced from the positive x axis.

185 x cos2 (30) y sin 2 (30) xy sin(30)cos(30)

(a)

(b)

From Eq. (c):

y 363

Ans.

x 60.0

and

xy 237 rad

Ans.

(c)

(b) Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

( 363.3333 ) ( 60 )

( 363.3333 ) ( 60 ) 236.7136

2

2

2

2

211.6667 192.3827

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

236.7136

236.7136

0.7804

( x y ) [( 363.3333 ) ( 60 )] 303.3333

p 19.0

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

the sketch below.

From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third

principal strain z = p3 is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can

be computed as:

0.30

z

( x y )

[(363.3333 ) (60 )] 181.4286

1

1 0.30

Since both p1 and p2 are negative, the absolute maximum shear strain will be greater than the maximum

in-plane shear strain. Since this is a plane stress situation, we must remember to take into account the

non-zero value of p3:

Ans.

abs max p3 p 2 181.4286 (404.0494 ) 585 rad

is subjected to biaxial stress with x = 180 MPa and y =

65 MPa. The plate dimensions are b = 350 mm and h =

175 mm (see Figure P13.49). Determine

(a) the change in length of edges AB and AD.

(b) the change in length of diagonal AC.

(c) the change in thickness of the plate.

FIGURE P13.49

Solution

(a) From the generalized Hookes Law equations for plane stress, the normal strains produced in the

plate can be computed from Eqs. (13.21):

1

1

x ( x y )

[180 MPa (0.33)(65 MPa)] 1,910.24 10 6 mm/mm

E

83,000 MPa

1

1

y ( y x )

[65 MPa (0.33)(180 MPa)] 67.47 10 6 mm/mm

E

83,000 MPa

0.33

z ( x y )

[180 MPa 65 MPa] 974.10 10 6 mm/mm

E

83,000 MPa

Plate edge AB is aligned with the x direction; therefore, the change in length of edge AB can be

computed from the product of x and plate dimension b:

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

Ans.

Plate edge AD is aligned with the y direction; therefore, the change in length of edge AD can be

computed from the product of y and plate dimension h:

AD y h (67.47 106 mm/mm)(175 mm) 0.01181 mm 0.01181 mm

Ans.

(b) A strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)]

n x cos2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

can be written to determine the normal strain in the direction of diagonal AC. Since there is no shear

stress acting on the plate, we know that xy = 0 (since Hookes Law relating shear stress and shear strain

is xy = Gxy).

The angle between edge AB and diagonal AC is:

175 mm

tan

0.5

26.565

350 mm

Therefore, the normal strain in the direction of diagonal AC is:

AC (1,910.24 106 mm/mm)cos 2 (26.565) (67.47 10 6 mm/mm)sin 2 (26.565)

The initial length of diagonal AC is:

The change in length of diagonal AC is computed from the product of AC and the initial diagonal length:

Ans.

AC AC LAC (1,541.69 106 mm/mm)(391.312 mm) 0.6034 mm 0.603 mm

Alternate Method: The change in length of diagonal AC can also be computed using the Pythagorean

theorem. After deformation, the final length of side AB of the plate is 350.66868 mm. The final length

of side AD is 175.01181 mm. From the Pythagorean theorem, the deformed length of diagonal AC is:

LAC

(350.66868 mm)2 (175.01181 mm)2 391.9153 mm

and therefore, the elongation of diagonal AC is

AC 391.9153 mm 391.3119 mm 0.6034mm 0.603 mm

Ans.

(c) The change in plate thickness is computed from the product of z and the plate thickness:

thick z (thickness) (974.0964 106 mm/mm)(8 mm) 0.00779 mm

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

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0.37] casting is subjected to biaxial stresses of x = 2,500

psi and y = 8,300 psi, acting in the directions shown in

Figure P13.50. The dimensions of the casting are b =

12.0 in. and h = 8.0 in. Determine

(a) the change in length of edges AB and AD.

(b) the change in length of diagonal AC.

(c) the change in thickness of the plate.

FIGURE P13.50

Solution

(a) From the generalized Hookes Law equations for plane stress, the normal strains produced in the

plate can be computed from Eqs. (13.21):

1

1

x ( x y )

[2,500 psi (0.37)( 8,300 psi)] 11,853.19 106 in./in.

E

470,000 psi

1

1

y ( y x )

[ 8,300 psi (0.37)(2,500 psi)] 19,627.66 106 in./in.

E

470,000 psi

0.37

z ( x y )

[2,500 psi ( 8,300 psi)] 4,565.96 10 6 in./in.

E

470,000 psi

Plate edge AB is aligned with the x direction; therefore, the change in length of edge AB can be

computed from the product of x and plate dimension b:

Ans.

AB xb (11,853.19 106 in./in.)(12 in.) 0.1422 in.

Plate edge AD is aligned with the y direction; therefore, the change in length of edge AD can be

computed from the product of y and plate dimension h:

AD y h (19,627.66 106 in./in.)(8.00 in.) 0.1570 in.

Ans.

(b) A strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)]

n x cos2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

can be written to determine the normal strain in the direction of diagonal AC. Since there is no shear

stress acting on the plate, we know that xy = 0 (since Hookes Law relating shear stress and shear strain

is xy = Gxy).

The angle between edge AB and diagonal AC is:

8.00 in.

tan

0.6667

33.690

12.00 in.

Therefore, the normal strain in the direction of diagonal AC is:

AC (11,853.19 106 in./in.)cos 2 (33.690) ( 19,627.66 106 in./in.)sin 2 (33.690)

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The change in length of diagonal AC is computed from the product of AC and the initial diagonal length:

Ans.

AC AC LAC (2,166.77 106 in./in.)(14.42221 in.) 0.0328 in.

Alternate Method: The change in length of diagonal AC can also be computed using the Pythagorean

theorem. After deformation, the final length of side AB of the plate is 12.14224 in. The final length of

side AD is 7.84298 in. From the Pythagorean theorem, the deformed length of diagonal AC is:

LAC

(12.14224 in.)2 (7.84298 in.)2 14.45497 in.

and therefore, the elongation of diagonal AC is

AC 14.45497 in. 14.42221 in. 0.00328 in.

Ans.

(c) The change in plate thickness is computed from the product of z and the plate thickness:

thick z (thickness) (4,565.96 106 in./in.)(0.750 in.) 0.00342 in.

Ans.

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subjected to biaxial stress (Figure P13.51/52). The strains

measured in the plate are x = 3,500 and y = 2,850 .

Determine x and y.

FIGURE P13.51/52

Solution

From Eq. (13.23):

E

x

( x y )

1 2

190,000 MPa

2

1 (0.12)

Ans.

and

E

( y x )

1 2

190,000 MPa

1 (0.12) 2

Ans.

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ksi and y = 17 ksi (Figure P13.51/52). The corresponding

strains measured in the plate are x = 930 and y = 620 .

Determine Poissons ratio and the elastic modulus E for the

material.

FIGURE P13.51/52

Solution

Rewrite Eqs. (13.21) as:

E x x y

E y y x

Substitute the stress and strain values, taking care to convert the strain values to dimensionless

quantities.

E (930 106 in./in.) 21 ksi (17 ksi)

Rearrange the equations to the form:

E (930 106 in./in.) (17 ksi) 21 ksi

E (620 106 in./in.) (21 ksi) 17 ksi

and solve simultaneously for the unknowns E and :

E 16,907.675 ksi 16,908 ksi

0.310345 0.310

Ans.

Ans.

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plate is subjected to biaxial stress (Figure P13.53/54). The

strains measured in the plate are x = 810 and z = 1,350

. Determine x and z.

FIGURE P13.53/54

Solution

Derive an expression for from Eq. (13.18):

E

G

2(1 )

E

1

2G

E

1

2G

Determine Poissons ratio from this expression:

E

10, 000 ksi

1

1 0.3158

2G

2(3,800 ksi)

The normal stresses can now be computed from Eq. (13.23):

E

x

( x z )

1 2

10,000 ksi

1 (0.3158) 2

Ans.

and

E

( z x )

1 2

10,000 ksi

1 (0.3158)2

Ans.

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GPa] plate is subjected to biaxial stress (Figure P13.53/54).

The strains measured in the plate are x = 275 and z =

1,150 . Determine x and z.

FIGURE P13.53/54

Solution

Derive an expression for from Eq. (13.18):

E

G

2(1 )

E

1

2G

E

1

2G

Determine Poissons ratio from this expression:

E

190 GPa

1

1 0.10465

2G

2(86 GPa)

The normal stresses can now be computed from Eq. (13.23):

E

x

( x z )

1 2

190,000 MPa

1 (0.10465) 2

Ans.

and

E

( z x )

1 2

190,000 MPa

2

1 (0.10465)

Ans.

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Figure P13.55/56 is subjected to a normal stress of x = 19 ksi. A

strain gage is mounted on the bar at an orientation of = 25 as

shown in the figure. What normal strain reading would be

expected from the strain gage at the specified stress?

FIGURE P13.55/56

Solution

The stresses in the bar are x = 19 ksi, y = 0, and xy = 0. The normal strains in the x and y directions

can be computed from Eqs. (13.21):

1

1

x ( x y )

[19 ksi (0.307)(0 ksi)]

E

16,700 ksi

1,137.725 106 in./in.

1

1

( y x )

[0 ksi (0.307)(19 ksi)]

E

16,700 ksi

Since xy = 0, the shear strain xy = 0. Using the strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)]

n x cos2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

the expected normal strain in the direction of strain gage can be calculated:

n (1,137.725 106 in./in.)cos2 (25) (349.281 106 in./in.)sin 2 (25)

872.136 106 in./in. 872

Ans.

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= 0.33] bar at an angle of = 35 as shown in Figure P13.55/56.

If the strain gage records a normal strain of n = 470 , what is

the magnitude of the normal stress x?

FIGURE P13.55/56

Solution

We observe that y = 0 and xy = 0 for this bar. The normal strains in the x and y directions for the bar

can be expressed as:

1

1

x ( x y ) x

E

E

1

y ( y x ) x

E

E

Since xy = 0, the shear strain xy = 0.

Write a strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] for the normal strain in the n direction using these

results:

n x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

E

E

E

Solve this expression for x:

(470 106 in./in.)(12,000 ksi)

x

10.03 ksi

cos 2 (35) (0.33)sin 2 (35)

Ans.

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to biaxial stress as shown in Figure P13.57/58. The normal stress

in the y direction is known to be y = 160 MPa. The strain gage

measures a normal strain of 920 at an orientation of = 35 in

the indicated direction. What is the magnitude of x that acts on

the plate?

FIGURE P13.57/58

Solution

Derive an expression for from Eq. (13.18):

E

E

G

1

2(1 )

2G

Determine Poissons ratio from this expression:

E

100 GPa

1

1 0.28205

2G

2(39 GPa)

A strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)]

n x cos2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

can be written for the normal strain in the direction of strain gage:

920 x cos2 (35) y sin 2 (35) xy sin(35)cos(35)

Note that the shear strain xy is related to the shear stress xy by Eq. (13.22):

1

xy xy

G

Since xy = 0, the shear strain xy must also equal zero, and the strain transformation equation reduces to:

920 920 106 mm/mm x cos2 (35) y sin 2 (35)

Substitute Eqs. (13.21) for x and y to obtain an expression in terms of x and y:

920 10 6 x cos 2 (35) y sin 2 (35)

1

1

( x y )cos 2 (35) ( y x )sin 2 (35)

E

E

1

1

[ x cos 2 (35) x sin 2 (35)] [ y sin 2 (35) y cos 2 (35)]

E

E

E

E

Substitute the known value of y = 160 MPa and solve for x:

100,000 MPa

160 MPa

x

920 106

[sin 2 (35) (0.28205)cos 2 (35)]

2

2

100,000 MPa

Ans.

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subjected to biaxial stress (Figure P13.57/58). The normal stress

in the x direction is known to be twice as large as the normal

stress in the y direction. The strain gage measures a normal strain

of 775 at an orientation of = 50 in the indicated direction.

Determine the magnitudes of the normal stresses x and y acting

on the plate.

FIGURE P13.57/58

Solution

Derive an expression for from Eq. (13.18):

E

E

G

1

2(1 )

2G

Determine Poissons ratio from this expression:

E

14,500 ksi

1

1 0.3182

2G

2(5,500 ksi)

(a) A strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)]

n x cos2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

can be written for the normal strain in the direction of strain gage:

775 x cos2 (50) y sin 2 (50) xy sin(50)cos(50)

Note that the shear strain xy is related to the shear stress xy by Eq. (13.22):

1

xy xy

G

Since xy = 0, the shear strain xy must also equal zero, and the strain transformation equation reduces to:

775 775 106 in./in. x cos 2 (50) y sin 2 (50)

Substitute Eqs. (13.21) for x and y to obtain an expression in terms of x and y:

775 106 x cos 2 (50) y sin 2 (50)

1

1

( x y )cos 2 (50) ( y x )sin 2 (50)

E

E

It is known that x = 2y. Make this substitution to obtain the following expression:

(775 106 ) E (2 y y )cos 2 (50) ( y 2 y )sin 2 (50)

y [(2 )cos 2 (50) (1 2 )sin 2 (50)]

(775 106 ) E

(2 )cos 2 (50) (1 2 )sin 2 (50)

Compute y:

12.3723 ksi 12.37 ksi

(2 0.3182)cos 2 (50) [1 2(0.3182)]sin 2 (50)

and x:

x 2 y 2(12.3723 ksi) 24.7446 ksi 24.7 ksi

Ans.

Ans.

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0.33] component, the strain rosette shown in Figure P13.59 was

used to obtain the following normal strain data: a = 440 b =

550 , and c = 870 . Determine

(a) the normal stress x.

(b) the normal stress y.

(c) the shear stress xy.

FIGURE P13.59

Solution

Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is the

measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be

referenced from the positive x axis.

(a)

440 x cos2 (315) y sin 2 (315) xy sin(315)cos(315)

550 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)

870 x cos2 (45) y sin 2 (45) xy sin(45)cos(45)

From Eq. (b):

x 550

Using this result, solve Eqs. (a) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:

y 760

and

xy 430 rad

(b)

(c)

E

10,000 ksi

x

( x y )

[(550 106 in./in.) (0.33)(760 10 6 in./in.)]

2

2

1

1 (0.33)

Ans.

E

10,000 ksi

y

( y x )

[(760 10 6 in./in.) (0.33)(550 10 6 in./in.)]

2

2

1

1 (0.33)

(c) From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

E

10, 000 ksi

G

3, 759.4 ksi

2(1 ) 2(1 0.33)

and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):

xy G xy (3,759.4 ksi)(430 106 rad) 1.6165 ksi 1.617 ksi

Ans.

Ans.

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component, the strain rosette shown in Figure P13.60 was used to

obtain the following normal strain data: a = 300 b = 735 ,

and c = 410 . Determine

(a) the normal stress x.

(b) the normal stress y.

(c) the shear stress xy.

FIGURE P13.60

Solution

Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is the

measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be

referenced from the positive x axis.

(a)

300 x cos2 (30) y sin 2 (30) xy sin(30)cos(30)

735 x cos2 (90) y sin 2 (90) xy sin(90)cos(90)

(b)

From Eq. (b):

y 735

Using this result, solve Eqs. (a) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:

x 171.667 and

xy 819.837 rad

(c)

E

70, 000 MPa

x

( x y )

[(171.667 106 ) (0.35)(735 106 )]

2

2

1

1 (0.35)

Ans.

E

70, 000 MPa

y

( y x )

[(735 106 ) (0.35)(171.667 106 )]

2

2

1

1 (0.35)

(c) From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

E

70,000 MPa

G

25,925.926 MPa

2(1 )

2(1 0.35)

and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):

xy G xy (25,925.926 MPa)(819.8374 106 rad) 21.2550 MPa 21.3 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

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0.29] component, a strain rosette located at point A in

Figure P13.61 was used to obtain the following normal

strain data: a = 133 b = 92 , and c = 319 .

If = 50, determine the stresses n, t, and nt that act

at point A.

FIGURE P13.61

Solution

Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, using the

measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be

referenced from the positive x axis.

(a)

133 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)

92 x cos2 (120) y sin 2 (120) xy sin(120)cos(120)

From Eq. (a):

x 133

Using this result, solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:

y 318.333

and

xy 262.117 rad

2

(b)

(c)

E

207,000 MPa

x

( x y )

[(133 106 ) (0.29)( 318.333 10 6 )]

2

2

1

1 (0.29)

9.195 MPa

and y:

E

207,000 MPa

y

( y x )

[( 318.333 10 6 ) (0.29)(133 10 6 )]

2

2

1

1 (0.29)

63.229 MPa

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

E

207,000 MPa

G

80,232.558 MPa

2(1 )

2(1 0.29)

and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):

xy G xy (80,232.558 MPa)(-262.117 106 rad) 21.030 MPa

To summarize, normal and shear stresses in the x-y plane are:

x 9.195 MPa, y 63.229 MPa, xy 262.117 MPa

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A normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-3)] can now be written to determine the normal stress

at an orientation of = 50:

n x cos 2 y sin 2 2 xy sin cos

(9.195 MPa)cos 2 (50) ( 63.229 MPa)sin 2 (50) 2( 21.030 MPa)sin(50)cos(50)

54.016 MPa 54.0 MPa (C)

Ans.

t x cos 2 y sin 2 2 xy sin cos

(9.195 MPa)cos 2 (140) ( 63.229 MPa)sin 2 (140) 2( 21.030 MPa)sin(140)cos(140)

0.01800 MPa 0.01800 MPa (C)

Ans.

A shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)] can now be written to determine the shear stress at

an orientation of = 50:

nt ( x y )sin cos 2 xy (cos 2 sin 2 )

32.010 MPa 32.0 MPa

Ans.

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The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point on the free surface of a machine component.

Determine the stresses x, y, and xy at the point.

Problem

E

x

y

xy

310

90

420 rad

28,000 ksi

0.12

P13.62

Solution

From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:

E

28,000 ksi

x

( x y )

[(310 106 ) (0.12)(90 106 )]

2

1

1 (0.12)2

Ans.

and y:

E

28,000 ksi

( y x )

[(90 106 ) (0.12)(310 106 )]

2

1

1 (0.12) 2

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

E

28,000 ksi

G

12,500.0 ksi

2(1 ) 2(1 0.12)

and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):

xy G xy (12,500.0 ksi)(420 106 rad) 5.25 ksi

Ans.

Ans.

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The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point on the free surface of a machine component.

Determine the stresses x, y, and xy at the point.

Problem

E

x

y

xy

860

510

370 rad

73 GPa

0.30

P13.63

Solution

From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:

E

73,000 MPa

x

( x y )

[( 860 106 ) (0.30)(510 106 )]

2

1

1 (0.30) 2

Ans.

and y:

E

73,000 MPa

( y x )

[(510 106 ) (0.30)(860 106 )]

2

1

1 (0.30) 2

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

E

73,000 MPa

G

28,076.9 MPa

2(1 )

2(1 0.30)

and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):

xy G xy (28,076.9 MPa)(370 106 rad) 10.388 MPa 10.39 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

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The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point on the free surface of a machine component.

Determine the stresses x, y, and xy at the point.

Problem

E

x

y

xy

180

790

350 rad

14,000 ksi

0.32

P13.64

Solution

From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:

E

14,000 ksi

x

( x y )

[(180 106 ) (0.32)( 790 106 )]

2

1

1 (0.32) 2

Ans.

and y:

E

14,000 ksi

( y x )

[( 790 106 ) (0.32)(180 106 )]

2

1

1 (0.32) 2

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

E

14,000 ksi

G

5,303.0 ksi

2(1 ) 2(1 0.32)

and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):

xy G xy (5,303.0 ksi)(350 106 rad) 1.856 ksi 1.856 ksi

Ans.

Ans.

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Determine the stresses x, y, and xy at the point.

Problem

E

x

y

xy

470

1,150

880 rad

190 GPa

0.10

P13.65

Solution

From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:

E

190,000 MPa

x

( x y )

[( 470 106 ) (0.10)( 1,150 106 )]

2

1

1 (0.10)2

Ans.

and y:

E

190,000 MPa

( y x )

[( 1,150 106 ) (0.10)( 470 106 )]

2

1

1 (0.10)2

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

E

190,000 MPa

G

86,373.6 MPa

2(1 )

2(1 0.10)

and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):

xy G xy (86,373.6 MPa)( 880 106 rad) 76.000 MPa 76.0 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

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Determine the stresses x, y, and xy at the point.

Problem

E

x

y

xy

1,330

240

560 rad

100 GPa

0.11

P13.66

Solution

From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:

E

100,000 MPa

x

( x y )

[(1,330 106 ) (0.11)(240 106 )]

2

1

1 (0.11)2

Ans.

and y:

E

100,000 MPa

( y x )

[(240 106 ) (0.11)(1,330 106 )]

2

1

1 (0.11) 2

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

E

100,000 MPa

G

45,045.0 MPa

2(1 )

2(1 0.11)

and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):

xy G xy (45,045.0 MPa)( 560 106 rad) 22.225 MPa 22.2 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

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The strain rosette shown in the Figures P13.67P13.72 was used to obtain

normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine component.

Determine:

(a) the stress components x, y, and xy at the point.

(b) the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress at the point;

show these stresses on an appropriate sketch that indicates the orientation

of the principal planes and the planes of maximum in-plane shear stress.

(c) the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Problem

P13.67

165

180

105

E

10,600 ksi

FIGURE P13.67

0.33

Solution

(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is

the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be

referenced from the positive x axis.

(a)

165 x cos2 (45) y sin 2 (45) xy sin(45)cos(45)

180 x cos2 (90) y sin 2 (90) xy sin(90)cos(90)

(b)

(c)

Solve Eq. (a) and Eq. (c) simultaneously to determine: x 120 and xy 270 rad.

From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:

E

10,600 ksi

x

( x y )

[(120 106 ) (0.33)( 180 106 )]

2

1

1 (0.33)2

Ans.

and y:

E

10,600 ksi

( y x )

[( 180 106 ) (0.33)(120 106 )]

2

1

1 (0.33)2

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

E

10, 600 ksi

G

3,984.96 ksi

2(1 ) 2(1 0.33)

and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):

xy G xy (3,984.96 ksi)( 270 106 rad) 1.0759 ksi 1.076 ksi

Ans.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(b) The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y

xy2

2

2

(0.7209) ( 1.6701)

(0.7209) ( 1.6701)

2

( 1.0759)

2

2

2

p1 1.134 ksi and p 2 2.08 ksi

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

Ans.

xy

1.0759

1.0759

0.9000

( x y ) / 2 [(0.7209) ( 1.6701)] / 2 1.1955

p 20.99

abs max max 1.608 ksi

Ans.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

obtain normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine

component. Determine:

(a) the stress components x, y, and xy at the point.

(b) the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress at the

point; show these stresses on an appropriate sketch that indicates

the orientation of the principal planes and the planes of maximum

in-plane shear stress.

(c) the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Problem

P13.68

220

340

145

E

100 GPa

FIGURE P13.68

0.28

Solution

(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is

the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be

referenced from the positive x axis.

(a)

220 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)

340 x cos2 (90) y sin 2 (90) xy sin(90)cos(90)

(b)

(c)

Solve Eq. (c) to find: xy 410 rad

From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:

E

100,000 MPa

x

( x y )

[(220 106 ) (0.28)( 340 106 )]

2

2

1

1 (0.28)

Ans.

and y:

E

100,000 MPa

( y x )

[( 340 106 ) (0.28)(220 106 )]

2

2

1

1 (0.28)

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

E

100,000 MPa

G

39,062.5 MPa

2(1 )

2(1 0.28)

and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):

xy G xy (39,062.5 MPa)(410 106 rad) 16.0156 MPa 16.02 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(b) The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y

xy2

(13.5417) ( 30.2083)

(13.5417) (30.2083)

2

(16.0156)

2

2

2

p1 18.78 MPa and p 2 35.4 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

Ans.

xy

16.0156

16.0156

0.7321

( x y ) / 2 [(13.5417) ( 30.2083)] / 2 27.8750

p 18.10

abs max max 27.1 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

obtain normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine

component. Determine:

(a) the stress components x, y, and xy at the point.

(b) the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress at

the point; show these stresses on an appropriate sketch that

indicates the orientation of the principal planes and the planes of

maximum in-plane shear stress.

(c) the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at the

point.

Problem

P13.69

710

1,005

E

75 28,000 ksi

FIGURE P13.69

0.12

Solution

(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is

the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be

referenced from the positive x axis.

(a)

710 x cos2 (270) y sin 2 (270) xy sin(270)cos(270)

1,005 x cos2 (45) y sin 2 (45) xy sin(45)cos(45)

(b)

(c)

Solve Eqs. (a) and (c) to find: x 370 and xy 930 rad

From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:

E

28,000 ksi

x

( x y )

[(370 106 ) (0.12)(710 106 )]

2

1

1 (0.12)2

Ans.

and y:

E

28,000 ksi

( y x )

[(710 106 ) (0.12)(370 106 )]

2

1

1 (0.12) 2

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

E

28,000 ksi

G

12,500 ksi

2(1 ) 2(1 0.12)

and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):

xy G xy (12,500 ksi)(930 106 rad) 11.6250 ksi 11.63 ksi

Ans.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(b) The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y

xy2

2

2

(12.9318) (21.4318)

(12.9318) (21.4318)

2

(11.6250)

2

2

2

p1 29.6 ksi and p 2 4.80 ksi

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

Ans.

xy

11.6250

11.6250

2.7353

( x y ) / 2 [(12.9318) (21.4318)] / 2 4.2500

p 34.96

29.5593 ksi

abs max p1

14.78 ksi

2

2

Ans.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

obtain normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine

component. Determine:

(a) the stress components x, y, and xy at the point.

(b) the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress at

the point; show these stresses on an appropriate sketch that

indicates the orientation of the principal planes and the planes

of maximum in-plane shear stress.

(c) the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at the

point.

Problem

a

P13.70 115

750

E

15 210 GPa

FIGURE P13.70

0.31

Solution

(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is

the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be

referenced from the positive x axis.

(a)

115 x cos2 (180) y sin 2 (180) xy sin(180)cos(180)

750 x cos2 (300) y sin 2 (300) xy sin(300)cos(300)

(b)

(c)

Solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to find: y 528.3333 and xy 883.3459 rad

From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:

E

210,000 MPa

x

( x y )

[( 115 106 ) (0.31)(528.3333 10 6 )]

2

1

1 (0.31) 2

Ans.

and y:

E

210,000 MPa

( y x )

[(528.3333 10 6 ) (0.31)( 115 10 6 )]

2

2

1

1 (0.31)

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

E

210,000 MPa

G

80,152.7 MPa

2(1 )

2(1 0.31)

and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):

xy G xy (80,152.7 MPa)(-883.3459 106 rad) 70.8025 MPa 70.8 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(b) The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y

xy2

2

2

(11.3337) (114.4634)

(11.3337) (114.4634)

2

( 70.8025)

2

2

2

p1 150.5 MPa and p 2 24.7 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

Ans.

xy

70.8025

70.8025

1.3731

( x y ) / 2 [(11.3337) (114.4634)] / 2 51.5649

p 26.97

abs max max 87.6 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

obtain normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine

component. Determine:

(a) the stress components x, y, and xy at the point.

(b) the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress at

the point; show these stresses on an appropriate sketch that

indicates the orientation of the principal planes and the planes of

maximum in-plane shear stress.

(c) the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at the

point.

Problem

P13.71

220

150

E

280 15,000 ksi

FIGURE P13.71

0.15

Solution

(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is

the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be

referenced from the positive x axis.

(a)

220 x cos2 (180) y sin 2 (180) xy sin(180)cos(180)

150 x cos2 (135) y sin 2 (135) xy sin(135)cos(135)

(b)

(c)

Solve Eq. (b) to find: xy 240 rad

From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:

E

15,000 ksi

x

( x y )

[(220 106 ) (0.15)( 280 106 )]

2

1

1 (0.15) 2

Ans.

and y:

E

15,000 ksi

( y x )

[( 280 106 ) (0.15)(220 106 )]

2

1

1 (0.15) 2

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

E

15,000 ksi

G

6,521.7 ksi

2(1 ) 2(1 0.15)

and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):

xy G xy (6,521.7 ksi)(240 106 rad) 1.5652 ksi 1.565 ksi

Ans.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(b) The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y

xy2

(2.7315) ( 3.7903)

(2.7315) ( 3.7903)

2

(1.5652)

2

2

2

p1 3.09 ksi and p 2 4.15 ksi

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

Ans.

xy

1.5652

1.5652

0.4800

( x y ) / 2 [(2.7315) ( 3.7903)] / 2 3.2609

p 12.82

abs max max 3.62 ksi

Ans.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain rosette shown in the Figures P13.67P13.72 was used to obtain

normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine component.

Determine:

(a) the stress components x, y, and xy at the point.

(b) the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress at the

point; show these stresses on an appropriate sketch that indicates the

orientation of the principal planes and the planes of maximum inplane shear stress.

(c) the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.

Problem

P13.72

80

170

90

E

96 GPa

FIGURE P13.72

0.33

Solution

(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is

the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be

referenced from the positive x axis.

(a)

80 x cos2 (180) y sin 2 (180) xy sin(180)cos(180)

170 x cos2 (120) y sin 2 (120) xy sin(120)cos(120)

(b)

(c)

Solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to find: y 80 and xy 300.2221 rad

From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:

E

96,000 MPa

x

( x y )

[( 80 106 ) (0.33)(80 106 )]

2

2

1

1 (0.33)

Ans.

and y:

E

96,000 MPa

( y x )

[(80 106 ) (0.33)( 80 106 )]

2

2

1

1 (0.33)

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:

E

96,000 MPa

G

36,090.2 MPa

2(1 )

2(1 0.33)

and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):

xy G xy (36,090.2 MPa)(-300.2221 106 rad) 10.8351 MPa 10.84 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(b) The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y

xy2

( 5.7744) (5.7744)

( 5.7744) (5.7744)

2

( 10.8351)

2

2

2

p1 12.28 MPa and p 2 12.28 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

avg 0 MPa

tan 2 p

Ans.

xy

10.8351

10.8351

1.8764

( x y ) / 2 [( 5.7744) (5.7744)] / 2 5.7744

p 30.97

abs max max 12.28 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

obtain normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine

component.

(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.

(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear

strain at the point.

(c) Using the results from part (b), determine the principal stresses

and the maximum in-plane shear stress. Show these stresses on

an appropriate sketch that indicates the orientation of the

principal planes and the planes of maximum in-plane shear

stress.

(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress

at the point.

Problem

P13.73

590

140

130

E

9,000 ksi

FIGURE P13.73

0.24

Solution

(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is

the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be

referenced from the positive x axis.

(a)

590 x cos2 (270) y sin 2 (270) xy sin(270)cos(270)

140 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)

(b)

From Eqs. (a) and (b):

x 140 and y 590

Ans.

xy 470 rad

Ans.

(c)

(b) Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

(140 ) (590 )

(140 ) (590 ) 470

2

2

2

2

365 325.3460

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

470

470

1.0444

( x y ) [(140 ) (590 )] 450

p 23.12

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

E

9,000 ksi

p1

( p1 p 2 )

[(690.3460 10 6 ) (0.24)(39.6540 10 6 )]

2

1

1 (0.24) 2

Ans.

and p2:

p2

E

9,000 ksi

( p 2 p1 )

[(39.6540 106 ) (0.24)(690.3460 106 )]

2

1

1 (0.24) 2

The maximum in-plane shear stress can be computed from the two principal stresses:

p1 p 2

(6.6838 ksi) (1.9610 ksi)

max

2

2

and the normal stress on the plane of maximum shear stress is

p 2 (6.6838 ksi) (1.9610 ksi)

avg p1

2

2

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

abs max

p1

2

6.6838 ksi

3.34 ksi

2

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

obtain normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine

component.

(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.

(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear

strain at the point.

(c) Using the results from part (b), determine the principal stresses

and the maximum in-plane shear stress. Show these stresses on

an appropriate sketch that indicates the orientation of the principal

planes and the planes of maximum in-plane shear stress.

(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at

the point.

Problem

P13.74

295

90

E

c

680 103 GPa

FIGURE P13.74

0.28

Solution

(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is

the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be

referenced from the positive x axis.

(a)

295 x cos2 (30) y sin 2 (30) xy sin(30)cos(30)

90 x cos2 (90) y sin 2 (90) xy sin(90)cos(90)

(b)

From Eq. (b):

y 90

(c)

Ans.

Using this result, solve Eqs. (a) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:

x 680 680

and xy 444.5597 rad 445 rad

Ans.

(b) Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

(680 ) ( 90 )

(680 ) ( 90 ) 444.5597

2

2

2

2

295 444.5597

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

444.5597

444.5597

0.5774

( x y ) [(680 ) ( 90 )]

770

p 15.00

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

p1

E

103,000 MPa

( p1 p 2 )

[(739.5597 10 6 ) (0.28)( 149.5597 10 6 )]

2

2

1

1 (0.28)

Ans.

and p2:

p2

E

103,000 MPa

( p 2 p1 )

[( 149.5597 10 6 ) (0.28)(739.5597 10 6 )]

2

2

1

1 (0.28)

The maximum in-plane shear stress can be computed from the two principal stresses:

p1 p 2

(77.9746 MPa) (6.4282 MPa)

max

2

2

and the normal stress on the plane of maximum shear stress is

p 2 (77.9746 MPa) (6.4282 MPa)

avg p1

2

2

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

abs max

p1

2

77.9746 MPa

39.0 MPa

2

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain rosette shown in the Figures P13.73P13.76 was used to obtain

normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine component.

(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.

(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear

strain at the point.

(c) Using the results from part (b), determine the principal stresses and

the maximum in-plane shear stress. Show these stresses on an

appropriate sketch that indicates the orientation of the principal planes

and the planes of maximum in-plane shear stress.

(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at the

point.

Problem

P13.75

680

220

E

80 17,000 ksi

FIGURE P13.75

0.18

Solution

(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is

the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be

referenced from the positive x axis.

(a)

680 x cos2 (300) y sin 2 (300) xy sin(300)cos(300)

220 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)

(b)

From Eq. (b):

x 220

(c)

Ans.

y 580 and xy 692.8203 rad 693 rad

Ans.

(b) Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

(220 ) ( 580 )

(220 ) ( 580 ) 692.8203

2

2

2

2

180 529.1503

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

692.8203

692.8203

0.8660

( x y ) [(220 ) ( 580 )]

800

p 20.45

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

E

17,000 ksi

p1

( p1 p 2 )

[(349.1503 10 6 ) (0.18)( 709.1503 106 )]

2

1

1 (0.18) 2

Ans.

and p2:

p2

E

17,000 ksi

( p 2 p1 )

[( 709.1503 10 6 ) (0.18)(349.1503 106 )]

2

1

1 (0.18) 2

The maximum in-plane shear stress can be computed from the two principal stresses:

p1 p 2

(3.8916 ksi) ( 11.3551 ksi)

max

2

2

and the normal stress on the plane of maximum shear stress is

p 2 (3.8916 ksi) ( 11.3551 ksi)

avg p1

2

2

abs max max 7.62 ksi

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

obtain normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine

component.

(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.

(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear

strain at the point.

(c) Using the results from part (b), determine the principal stresses

and the maximum in-plane shear stress. Show these stresses on

an appropriate sketch that indicates the orientation of the principal

planes and the planes of maximum in-plane shear stress.

(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at

the point.

Problem

P13.76

55

110

E

c

35 212 GPa

FIGURE P13.76

0.30

Solution

(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is

the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be

referenced from the positive x axis.

(a)

55 x cos2 (315) y sin 2 (315) xy sin(315)cos(315)

110 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)

(b)

From Eq. (b):

x 110

(c)

Using this result, solve Eqs. (a) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:

y 130

and

xy 90 rad

(b) Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y

2

x y xy

2 2

2

( 110 ) (130 )

( 110 ) (130 ) 90

2

2

2

2

10 128.1601

Ans.

Ans.

tan 2 p

xy

90

90

0.3750

( x y ) [( 110 ) (130 )] 240

p 10.28

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

p1

E

212,000 MPa

( p1 p 2 )

[(138.1601 10 6 ) (0.3)( 118.1601 10 6 )]

2

2

1

1 (0.3)

Ans.

and p2:

p2

E

212,000 MPa

( p 2 p1 )

[( 118.1601 10 6 ) (0.3)(138.1601 10 6 )]

2

2

1

1 (0.3)

The maximum in-plane shear stress can be computed from the two principal stresses:

p1 p 2

(23.9285 MPa) ( 17.8714 MPa)

max

2

2

and the normal stress on the plane of maximum shear stress is

p 2 (23.9285 MPa) ( 17.8714 MPa)

avg p1

2

2

abs max max 20.9 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

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an axial load P. The shaft is made of aluminum [E =

70 GPa; = 0.33]. A strain gage is mounted on the

shaft at the orientation shown in Figure P13.77.

(a) If P = 14.7 kN, determine the strain reading that

would be expected from the gage.

(b) If the gage indicates a strain value of = 810 ,

determine the axial force P applied to the shaft.

FIGURE P13.77

Solution

(a) From the given diameter, the cross-sectional area of the shaft is

4

and thus, the normal stress in the shaft is

P (14.7 kN)(1,000 N/kN)

x

57.767 MPa

A

254.46900 mm2

At the location of the strain gage, the stresses in the shaft can be summarized as

x 57.767 MPa,

y 0 MPa,

xy 0 MPa

From Eqs. (13.21), the normal strains in the x and y directions are

1

1

x ( x y )

[57.767 MPa (0.33)(0 MPa)] 825.248 10 6 mm/mm

E

70,000 MPa

1

1

( y x )

[0 MPa (0.33)(57.767 MPa)] 272.332 10 6 mm/mm

E

70,000 MPa

and since the shear stress is zero, the shear strain is also zero: xy = 0.

Write a normal strain transformation equation for the gage oriented at = 145:

n x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

464.155

Therefore, the strain gage should be expected to read a normal strain of

n 464

Ans.

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(b) A normal strain transformation equation can be written for the gage:

n x cos2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

810 x cos 2 (145) y sin 2 (145)

From Eqs. (13.21), substitute for x and y:

1

1

810 ( x y )cos2 (145) ( y x )sin 2 (145)

E

E

and eliminate terms of y since y = 0 for the shaft:

E

E

Solve for x:

(810 )E

x

2

[cos (145) sin 2 (145)]

(810 106 )(70,000 MPa)

[cos 2 (145) (0.33)sin 2 (145)]

100.810 MPa

P x A (100.810 N/mm2 )(254.46900 mm2 ) 25,653.06 N 25.7 kN

Ans.

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permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

57 mm and an inside diameter of 47 mm is

subjected to torque T. The shaft is made of

aluminum [E = 70 GPa; = 0.33]. A strain gage is

mounted on the shaft at the orientation shown in

Figure P13.78.

(a) If T = 900 N-m, determine the strain reading

that would be expected from the gage.

(b) If the gage indicates a strain value of =

1,400 , determine the torque T applied to the

shaft.

FIGURE P13.78

Solution

(a) The cross-sectional area of the hollow shaft is

4

4

and the polar moment of inertia for the shaft is

D4 d 4

(57 mm)4 (47 mm)4 557,271.413 mm4

J

32

32

The maximum shear stress in the hollow aluminum shaft (i.e., the shear stress on the outer surface) is

found from the elastic torsion formula:

Tc (900 N-m)(57 mm / 2)(1,000 mm/m)

max

46.028 MPa

J

557,271.413 mm4

The normal stresses in the x and y directions are zero; therefore, the stresses in the shaft at the location

of the strain gage can be summarized as

x 0 MPa,

y 0 MPa,

xy 46.028 MPa

Note: The negative sign on xy is determined by inspection. The stress element at the location of the

strain gage looks like this:

E

70, 000 MPa

G

26,315.8 MPa

2(1 )

2(1 0.33)

and compute the shear strain xy from Eq. (13.22):

46.028 MPa

xy xy

1,749.058 106 rad

G 26,315.8 MPa

Write a normal strain transformation equation for the gage oriented at = 55:

n x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

821.788

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n 822

Ans.

(b) A normal strain transformation equation can be written for the gage:

n x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

1,400 xy sin(55)cos(55)

recognizing that the normal stresses in the x and y directions are zero.

xy

1,400

sin(55)cos(55)

G

Solve for xy:

( 1,400 106 rad)(26,315.8 MPa)

xy

78.413 MPa

sin(55)cos(55)

The torque T that causes this shear stress is

xy J (78.413 N/mm2 )(557,271.413 mm 4 )

T

c

(57 mm / 2)

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

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