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P13.

1 The thin rectangular plate shown in Figure


P13.1/2 is uniformly deformed such that x = 230 , y =
480 , and xy = 760 rad. Using dimensions of a =
20 mm and b = 25 mm, determine the normal strain in the
plate in the direction defined by
(a) points O and A.
(b) points O and C.
FIGURE P13.1/2

Solution
(a) From the geometry of the plate:
2a 40 mm
tan OA

0.5333
3b 75 mm
The given strain values are:
x 230
y 480

OA 28.0725

xy 760 rad

Substitute these values into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in
the direction of line OA:
OA x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

(230 ) cos 2 (28.0725) ( 480 )sin 2 (28.0725)


( 760 rad) sin(28.0725) cos(28.0725)
242.8028 243
(b) From the geometry of the plate:
a 20
tan OC

0.2000
4b 100

Ans.

OC 11.3099

Substitute this angle and the given strains into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to
obtain in the direction of line OC:
OC x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

(230 ) cos 2 ( 11.3099) ( 480 )sin 2 ( 11.3099)


( 760 rad) sin( 11.3099) cos(11.3099)
348.8462 349

Ans.

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P13.2 The thin rectangular plate shown in Figure


P13.1/2 is uniformly deformed such that x = 360 , y
= 770 , and xy = 940 rad. Using dimensions of a =
25 mm and b = 40 mm, determine the normal strain in the
plate in the direction defined by
(a) points O and B.
(b) points O and D.

FIGURE P13.1/2

Solution
(a) From the geometry of the plate:
2a 50 mm
tan OB

1.2500
b 40 mm
The given strain values are:
x 360
y 770

OB 51.3402

xy 940 rad

Substitute these values into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in
the direction of line OB:
OB x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

( 360 ) cos 2 (51.3402) (770 )sin 2 (51.3402)


(940 rad) sin(51.3402) cos(51.3402)
787.5610 788
(b) From the geometry of the plate:
2a 50
tan OD

0.6250
2b
80

Ans.

OD 32.0054

Substitute this angle and the given strains into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to
obtain in the direction of line OD:
OD x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

( 360 ) cos 2 ( 32.0054) (770 )sin 2 ( 32.0054)


(940 rad) sin( 32.0054) cos( 32.0054)
465.0562 465

Ans.

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P13.3 The thin rectangular plate shown in Figure P13.3/4 is


uniformly deformed such that x = 120 , y = 860 , and
xy = 1,100 rad. If a = 25 mm, determine
(a) the normal strain n in the plate.
(b) the normal strain t in the plate.
(c) the shear strain nt in the plate.

FIGURE P13.3/4

Solution
(a) From the geometry of the plate, the n axis is oriented at an angle of
a 1
tan

18.4349
3a 3
The given strain values are:
x 120
y 860
xy 1,100 rad
Substitute these values into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in
the n direction:
n x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

(120 ) cos 2 (18.4349) ( 860 )sin 2 (18.4349)


(1,100 rad) sin(18.4349) cos(18.4349)
352.0000 352

Ans.

(b) To determine the normal strain in the t direction, use + 90 in the normal strain transformation
equation [Eq. (13.3)]:
t (120 ) cos 2 (18.4349 90) (860 )sin 2 (18.4349 90)
(1,100 rad)sin(18.4349 90) cos(18.4349 90)
1, 092.0000 1, 092

Ans.

(c) The shear strain nt is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:
nt 2( x y ) sin cos xy (cos 2 sin 2 )

2[(120 ) ( 860 )]sin(18.4349) cos(18.4349)


(1,100 rad)[ cos 2 (18.4349) sin 2 (18.4349)]
292.0000 rad 292 rad

Ans.

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P13.4 The thin rectangular plate shown in Figure P13.3/4 is


uniformly deformed such that x = 890 , y = 440 , and xy
= 310 rad. If a = 50 mm, determine
(a) the normal strain n' in the plate.
(b) the normal strain t' in the plate.
(c) the shear strain n't' in the plate.

FIGURE P13.3/4

Solution
(a) From the geometry of the plate, the n' axis is oriented at an angle of
2a
2
tan

33.6901
3a
3
The given strain values are:
x 890
y 440
xy 310 rad
Substitute these values into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in
the n' direction:
n ' x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

( 890 ) cos 2 ( 33.6901) (440 )sin 2 ( 33.6901)


( 310 rad) sin( 33.6901) cos(33.6901)
337.6923 338

Ans.

(b) To determine the normal strain in the t' direction, use + 90 in the normal strain transformation
equation [Eq. (13.3)]:
t ' ( 890 ) cos 2 ( 33.6901 90) (440 )sin 2 ( 33.6901 90)
( 310 rad)sin( 33.6901 90) cos( 33.6901 90)
112.3077 112.3

Ans.

(c) The shear strain n't' is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:
n 't ' 2[( 890 ) (440 )]sin( 33.6901) cos(33.6901)
( 310 rad)[ cos 2 ( 33.6901) sin 2 ( 33.6901)]
1,346.9231 rad 1,347 rad

Ans.

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P13.5 The thin square plate shown in Figure P13.5/6 is


uniformly deformed such that n = 660 , t = 910 , and
nt = 830 rad. Determine
(a) the normal strain x in the plate.
(b) the normal strain y in the plate.
(c) the shear strain xy in the plate.

FIGURE P13.5/6

Solution
The given strain values are:
n 660
t 910
nt 830 rad
The x axis is rotated 45 counterclockwise from the x axis; therefore, we can use = +45 (from the n to
the x axis) with the strains associated with the n and t axes to determine the strains in the x and y
directions.
x n cos 2 t sin 2 nt sin cos

(660 ) cos 2 (45) (910 )sin 2 (45) (830 rad)sin(45) cos(45)


1, 200

Ans.

The normal strain in the y direction is found by setting = 45 + 90 = 135 in the normal strain
transformation equation:
y (660 ) cos 2 (135) (910 )sin 2 (135) (830 rad)sin(135) cos(135)
370

Ans.

The shear strain nt is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:
xy 2( n t )sin cos nt (cos 2 sin 2 )
2[(660 ) (910 )]sin(45) cos(45) (830 rad)[ cos 2 (45) sin 2 (45)]
250 rad

Ans.

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P13.6 The thin square plate shown in Figure P13.5/6


is uniformly deformed such that x = 0 , y = 0 ,
and xy = 1,850 rad. Using a = 650 mm, determine
the deformed length of (a) diagonal AC and (b)
diagonal BD.

FIGURE P13.5/6

Solution
The given strain values are:
x 0
y 0

xy 1,850 rad

(a) For diagonal AC, = 45. Substitute these values into the normal strain transformation equation
[Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in the direction defined by AC:
AC x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

(0 ) cos 2 (45) (0 )sin 2 (45) ( 1,850 rad)sin(45) cos(45)


925
The original length of diagonal AC is
LAC (650 mm)2 (650 mm)2 919.2388 mm
The deformation of this diagonal is
AC AC LAC (925 106 )(919.2388 mm) 0.8503 mm
Thus, the deformed length of diagonal AC is
LAC
919.2388 mm 0.8503 mm 918.3885 mm 918 mm

Ans.

(b) For diagonal BD, = 45. Substitute this value into the normal strain transformation equation [Eq.
(13.3)] to obtain the strain in the direction defined by BD:
BD x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

(0 ) cos 2 ( 45) (0 )sin 2 ( 45) ( 1,850 rad)sin(45) cos( 45)


925
The deformation of this diagonal is
AC AC LAC (925 106 )(919.2388 mm) 0.8503 mm
Thus, the deformed length of diagonal BD is
LBD
919.2388 mm 0.8503 mm 920.0891 mm 920 mm

Ans.

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P13.7 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a


point in a body subjected to plane strain. Determine the
strain components n, t, and nt at the point if the n-t axes
are rotated with respect to the x-y axes by the amount and
in the direction indicated by the angle shown in either
Figure P13.7 or Figure P13.8. Sketch the deformed shape
of the element.
x = 1,050 y = 400 xy = 1,360 rad = 36

FIGURE P13.7

Solution
The n axis is rotated counterclockwise from the x axis; therefore, = +36. Use the normal strain
transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in the n direction:
n x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos
( 1, 050 ) cos 2 (36) (400 )sin 2 (36) (1,360 rad)sin(36) cos(36)
97.6811 97.7

Ans.

The normal strain in the t direction is found by setting = 36 + 90 = +126 in the normal strain
transformation equation:
t ( 1, 050 ) cos 2 (126) (400 )sin 2 (126) (1,360 rad)sin(126) cos(126)

747.6811 748

Ans.

The shear strain nt is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:
nt 2( x y )sin cos xy (cos 2 sin 2 )
2[( 1, 050 ) (400 )]sin(36) cos(36) (1,360 rad)[ cos 2 (36) sin 2 (36)]
1, 799.2951 rad 1, 799 rad

Ans.

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P13.8 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a


point in a body subjected to plane strain. Determine the
strain components n, t, and nt at the point if the n-t axes
are rotated with respect to the x-y axes by the amount and
in the direction indicated by the angle shown in either
Figure P13.7 or Figure P13.8. Sketch the deformed shape
of the element.
x = 350 y = 1,650 xy = 720 rad = 14
FIGURE P13.8

Solution
The n axis is rotated clockwise from the x axis; therefore, = 14. Use the normal strain transformation
equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in the n direction:
n x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos
( 350 ) cos 2 ( 14) (1, 650 )sin 2 ( 14) (720 rad)sin( 14) cos( 14)
401.9574 402

Ans.

The normal strain in the t direction is found by setting = 14 + 90 = +76 in the normal strain
transformation equation:
t ( 350 ) cos2 (76) (1, 650 )sin 2 (76) (720 rad)sin(76) cos(76)

1, 701.9574 1, 702

Ans.

The shear strain nt is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:
nt 2( x y )sin cos xy (cos 2 sin 2 )
2[( 350 ) (1,650 )]sin( 14)cos( 14) (720 rad)[cos 2 ( 14) sin 2 ( 14)]
303.2209 rad 303 rad

Ans.

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P13.9 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a


point in a body subjected to plane strain. Determine the
strain components n, t, and nt at the point if the n-t axes
are rotated with respect to the x-y axes by the amount and
in the direction indicated by the angle shown in either
Figure P13.7 or Figure P13.8. Sketch the deformed shape
of the element.
x = 940 y = 515 xy = 185 rad = 18

FIGURE P13.7

Solution
The n axis is rotated counterclockwise from the x axis; therefore, = +18. Use the normal strain
transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in the n direction:
n x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos
(940 )cos 2 (18) (515 )sin 2 (18) (185 rad)sin(18)cos(18)
953.7862 954

Ans.

The normal strain in the t direction is found by setting = 18 + 90 = +108 in the normal strain
transformation equation:
t (940 )cos 2 (108) (515 )sin 2 (108) (182 rad)sin(108)cos(108)

501.2138 501

Ans.

The shear strain nt is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:
nt 2( x y )sin cos xy (cos 2 sin 2 )
2[(940 ) (515 )]sin(18)cos(18) (185 rad)[cos 2 (18) sin 2 (18)]
100.1406 rad 100.1 rad

Ans.

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P13.10 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a


point in a body subjected to plane strain. Determine the
strain components n, t, and nt at the point if the n-t axes
are rotated with respect to the x-y axes by the amount and
in the direction indicated by the angle shown in either
Figure P13.7 or Figure P13.8. Sketch the deformed shape
of the element.
x = 2,180 y = 1,080 xy = 325 rad = 28
FIGURE P13.8

Solution
The n axis is rotated clockwise from the x axis; therefore, = 28. Use the normal strain transformation
equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in the n direction:
n x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos
(2,180 )cos 2 ( 28) (1,080 )sin 2 ( 28) (325 rad)sin( 28)cos( 28)
1,802.8375 1,803

Ans.

The normal strain in the t direction is found by setting = 28 + 90 = +62 in the normal strain
transformation equation:
t (2,180 )cos 2 (62) (1,080 )sin 2 (62) (325 rad)sin(62)cos(62)

1,457.1625 1,457

Ans.

The shear strain nt is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:
nt 2( x y )sin cos xy (cos 2 sin 2 )
2[(2,180 ) (1,080 )]sin( 28)cos( 28) (325 rad)[cos 2 ( 28) sin 2 ( 28)]
1,093.6790 rad 1,094 rad

Ans.

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P13.11 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a


point in a body subjected to plane strain. Determine the
strain components n, t, and nt at the point if the n-t axes
are rotated with respect to the x-y axes by the amount and
in the direction indicated by the angle shown in either
Figure P13.7 or Figure P13.8. Sketch the deformed shape
of the element.
x = 1,375 y = 1,825 xy = 650 rad = 15

FIGURE P13.7

Solution
The n axis is rotated counterclockwise from the x axis; therefore, = +15. Use the normal strain
transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in the n direction:
n x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos
( 1,375 )cos 2 (15) ( 1,825 )sin 2 (15) (650 rad)sin(15)cos(15)
1,242.6443 1,243

Ans.

The normal strain in the t direction is found by setting = 15 + 90 = +105 in the normal strain
transformation equation:
t ( 1,375 )cos 2 (105) ( 1,825 )sin 2 (105) (650 rad)sin(105)cos(105)

1,957.3557 1,957

Ans.

The shear strain nt is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:
nt 2( x y )sin cos xy (cos 2 sin 2 )
2[( 1,375 ) ( 1,825 )]sin(15)cos(15) (650 rad)[cos 2 (15) sin 2 (15)]
337.9165 rad 338 rad

Ans.

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P13.12 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a


point in a body subjected to plane strain. Determine the
strain components n, t, and nt at the point if the n-t axes
are rotated with respect to the x-y axes by the amount and
in the direction indicated by the angle shown in either
Figure P13.7 or Figure P13.8. Sketch the deformed shape
of the element.
x = 590 y = 1,670 xy = 1,185 rad = 23
FIGURE P13.8

Solution
The n axis is rotated clockwise from the x axis; therefore, = 23. Use the normal strain transformation
equation [Eq. (13.3)] to obtain the strain in the n direction:
n x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos
(590 )cos 2 ( 23) ( 1,670 )sin 2 ( 23) ( 1,185 rad)sin( 23)cos( 23)
671.1728 671

Ans.

The normal strain in the t direction is found by setting = 23 + 90 = +67 in the normal strain
transformation equation:
t (590 )cos 2 (67) ( 1,670 )sin 2 (67) ( 1,185 rad)sin(67)cos(67)

1,751.1728 1,751

Ans.

The shear strain nt is found from the shear strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.5)]:
nt 2( x y )sin cos xy (cos 2 sin 2 )
2[(590 ) ( 1,670 )]sin( 23)cos( 23) ( 1,185 rad)[cos 2 ( 23) sin 2 ( 23)]
802.5378 rad 803 rad

Ans.

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P13.13 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.
Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear
strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
x = 550 y = 285 xy = 940 rad

Solution
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

( 550 ) ( 285 )
( 550 ) ( 285 ) 940

2
2
2
2

417.5 488.3198

p1 70.8 and p 2 906

Ans.

max 977 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
940

3.54717
( x y ) [( 550 ) ( 285 )]

p 37.1

(clockwise from the x axis to the direction of p 2 )

Ans.

For plane strain, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear
strain is the maximum in-plane shear strain:
Ans.
abs max p1 p 2 70.8198 (905.8198 ) 977 rad

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P13.14 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.
Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear
strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
x = 940 y = 360 xy = 830 rad

Solution
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

(940 ) ( 360 )
(940 ) ( 360 ) 830

2
2
2
2

290 771.1842

p1 1,061 and p 2 481

Ans.

max 1,542 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
830

0.63846
( x y ) [(940 ) ( 360 )]

p 16.28

(counterclockwise from the x axis to the direction of p1 )

Ans.

For plane strain, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear
strain is the maximum in-plane shear strain:
Ans.
abs max p1 p 2 1,061.1842 (481.1842 ) 1,542 rad

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P13.15 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.
Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear
strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
x = 270 y = 510 xy = 1,150 rad

Solution
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

( 270 ) (510 )
( 270 ) (510 ) 1,150

2
2
2
2

120 694.7841

p1 815 and p 2 575

Ans.

max 1,390 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
1,150

1.47436
( x y ) [( 270 ) (510 )]

p 27.9

(clockwise from the x axis to the direction of p 2 )

Ans.

For plane strain, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear
strain is the maximum in-plane shear strain:
Ans.
abs max p1 p 2 814.7841 (574.7841 ) 1,390 rad

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P13.16 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.
Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear
strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
x = 1,150 y = 1,950 xy = 1,800 rad

Solution
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

(1,150 ) (1,950 )
(1,150 ) (1,950 ) 1,800

2
2
2
2

1,550 984.8858

p1 2,530 and p 2 565

Ans.

max 1,970 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
1,800

2.2500
( x y ) [(1,150 ) (1,950 )]

p 33.0

(counterclockwise from the x axis to the direction of p 2 )

Ans.

For plane strain, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 and p2 are both positive, the absolute maximum shear strain
is:
Ans.
abs max p1 p 3 2,534.8858 0 2,530 rad

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P13.17 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.
Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear
strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
x = 215 y = 1,330 xy = 890 rad

Solution
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

( 215 ) ( 1,330 )
( 215 ) ( 1,330 ) 890

2
2
2
2

772.5 713.3241

p1 59.2 and p 2 1,486

Ans.

max 1,427 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
890

0.79821
( x y ) [( 215 ) ( 1,330 )]

p 19.30

(counterclockwise from the x axis to the direction of p1 )

Ans.

For plane strain, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 and p2 are both negative, the absolute maximum shear strain
is:
Ans.
abs max p3 p 2 0 (1,485.8241 ) 1,486 rad

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P13.18 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.
Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear
strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
x = 670 y = 280 xy = 800 rad

Solution
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

(670 ) ( 280 )
(670 ) ( 280 ) 800

2
2
2
2

195 620.9871

p1 816 and p 2 426

Ans.

max 1,242 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
800

0.84211
( x y ) [(670 ) ( 280 )]

p 20.1

(clockwise from the x axis to the direction of p1 )

Ans.

For plane strain, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear
strain is the maximum in-plane shear strain:
Ans.
abs max p1 p 2 815.9871 (425.9871 ) 1,242 rad

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P13.19 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.
Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear
strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
x = 210 y = 615 xy = 420 rad

Solution
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

( 210 ) (615 )
( 210 ) (615 ) 420

2
2
2
2

202.5 462.8782

p1 665 and p 2 260

Ans.

max 926 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
420

0.50909
( x y ) [( 210 ) (615 )]

p 13.49

(counterclockwise from the x axis to the direction of p 2 )

Ans.

For plane strain, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear
strain is the maximum in-plane shear strain:
Ans.
abs max p1 p 2 665.3782 (260.3782 ) 926 rad

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P13.20 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.
Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear
strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
x = 960 y = 650 xy = 350 rad

Solution
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

(960 ) (650 )
(960 ) (650 ) 350

2
2
2
2

805 233.7734

p1 1,039 and p 2 571

Ans.

max 468 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
350

1.12903
( x y ) [(960 ) (650 )]

p 24.2

(counterclockwise from the x axis to the direction of p1 )

Ans.

For plane strain, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 and p2 are both positive, the absolute maximum shear strain
is:
Ans.
abs max p1 p 3 1,038.7734 0 1,039 rad

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P13.21 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.
Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear
strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
x = 560 y = 340 xy = 1,475 rad

Solution
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

(560 ) ( 340 )
(560 ) ( 340 ) 1, 475

2
2
2
2

110 863.9481

p1 974 and p 2 754

Ans.

max 1,728 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
1,475

1.63889
( x y ) [(560 ) ( 340 )]

p 29.3

(clockwise from the x axis to the direction of p1 )

Ans.

For plane strain, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear
strain is the maximum in-plane shear strain:
Ans.
abs max p1 p 2 665.3782 (260.3782 ) 926 rad

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P13.22 The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain.
Determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute maximum shear
strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear
strain distortion on a sketch.
x = 1,340 y = 380 xy = 1,240 rad

Solution
The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

(1,340 ) ( 380 )
(1,340 ) ( 380 ) 1, 240

2
2
2
2

480 1,060.1887

p1 1,540 and p 2 580

Ans.

max 2,120 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
1,240

0.72093
( x y ) [(1,340 ) ( 380 )]

p 17.89

(counterclockwise from the x axis to the direction of p1 )

Ans.

For plane strain, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear
strain is the maximum in-plane shear strain:
Ans.
abs max p1 p 2 1,540.1887 (580.1887 ) 2,120 rad

The principal strains are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Construct Mohrs circle
and use it to
(a) determine the strains x, y, and xy. (Assume x > y)
(b) determine the maximum in-plane shear strain and the absolute maximum shear strain.
(c) draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane
shear strain distortions.
P13.23
p1 = 1,590
p2 = 540
p = 23.55

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Solution
The center of Mohrs circle is at
p1 p 2 (1,590 ) ( 540 )
C

525
2
2
and the radius of Mohrs circle is equal to
p1 p 2 (1,590 ) ( 540 )
R

1,065
2
2
The angle p is given as 23.55, and we are told to assume
that x > y. From this information, we know that the p1
principal plane is rotated 23.55 in a clockwise direction
from the x face. Thus, to locate point x on Mohrs circle,
begin at p1 and rotate 2(23.55) = 47.10 in a
counterclockwise direction. The Mohrs circle is shown.
(a) The normal strain in the x direction is computed as:
x C R cos 2 p

525 (1,065 )cos(47.10)


1,250.0000 1, 250

Ans.

and the shear strain xy is computed from:

xy
2

R sin 2 p
(1,065 )sin(47.10)
780.1582 rad
xy 1,560.3164 rad 1,560 rad

(negative since point x plots above the axis) Ans.

The normal strain in the y direction is computed from:


y C R cos 2 p

525 (1,065 )cos(47.10)


199.9677 200
(b) The maximum shear strain is simply two times the radius of Mohrs circle:
max 2R 2(1,065 ) 2,130 rad

Ans.

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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Since p1 and p2 are of different signs, the absolute maximum shear strain is equal to the maximum inplane shear strain:
Ans.
abs max max 2,130 rad
(c) A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is
shown below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The principal strains are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Construct Mohrs circle
and use it to
(a) determine the strains x, y, and xy. (Assume x > y)
(b) determine the maximum in-plane shear strain and the absolute maximum shear strain.
(c) draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane
shear strain distortions.
P13.24
p1 = 530
p2 = 1,570
p = 14.29

Solution
The center of Mohrs circle is at
p1 p 2 (530 ) ( 1,570 )
C

520
2
2
and the radius of Mohrs circle is equal to
p1 p 2 (530 ) ( 1,570 )
R

1,050
2
2
The angle p is given as +14.29, and we are told to assume
that x > y. From this information, we know that the p1
principal plane is rotated 14.29 in a counterclockwise
direction from the x face. Thus, to locate point x on Mohrs
circle, begin at p1 and rotate 2(14.29) = 28.58 in a
clockwise direction. The Mohrs circle is shown.
(a) The normal strain in the x direction is computed as:
x C R cos 2 p

520 (1,050 )cos(28.58)


402.0575 402

Ans.

and the shear strain xy is computed from:

xy
2

R sin 2 p
(1,050 )sin(28.58)
502.3046 rad
xy 1,004.6092 rad 1,005 rad

(positive since point x plots below the axis) Ans.

The normal strain in the y direction is computed from:


y C R cos 2 p

520 (1,050 )cos(28.58)


1,442.0575 1,442
(b) The maximum shear strain is simply two times the radius of Mohrs circle:
max 2R 2(1,050 ) 2,100 rad

Ans.

Ans.

Since p1 and p2 are of different signs, the absolute maximum shear strain is equal to the maximum inplane shear strain:
abs max max 2,100 rad
Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(c) A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is
shown below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The principal strains are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Construct Mohrs circle
and use it to
(a) determine the strains x, y, and xy. (Assume x > y)
(b) determine the maximum in-plane shear strain and the absolute maximum shear strain.
(c) draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane
shear strain distortions.
P13.25
p1 = 780
p2 = 590
p = 35.66

Solution
The center of Mohrs circle is at
p1 p 2 (780 ) (590 )
C

685
2
2
and the radius of Mohrs circle is equal to
p1 p 2 (780 ) (590 )
R

95.0
2
2
The angle p is given as 35.66, and we are told to assume
that x > y. From this information, we know that the p1
principal plane is rotated 35.66 in a counterclockwise
direction from the x face. Thus, to locate point x on Mohrs
circle, begin at p1 and rotate 2(35.66) = 71.32 in a
clockwise direction. The Mohrs circle is shown.
(a) The normal strain in the x direction is computed as:
x C R cos 2 p

685 (95 )cos(71.32)


715.4268 715

Ans.

and the shear strain xy is computed from:

xy
2

R sin 2 p
(95 )sin(71.32)
89.9956 rad
xy 179.9912 rad 180.0 rad

(positive since point x plots below the axis)

Ans.

The normal strain in the y direction is computed from:


y C R cos 2 p

685 (95 )cos(71.32)


654.5732 655

Ans.

(b) The maximum shear strain is simply two times the radius of Mohrs circle:
max 2R 2(95 ) 190.0 rad

Ans.

Since p1 and p2 are both positive, the absolute maximum shear strain is numerically equal to p1:
abs max 780 rad

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(c) A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is
shown below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The principal strains are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Construct Mohrs circle
and use it to
(a) determine the strains x, y, and xy. (Assume x > y)
(b) determine the maximum in-plane shear strain and the absolute maximum shear strain.
(c) draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the maximum in-plane
shear strain distortions.
P13.26
p1 = 350
p2 = 890
p = 19.50

Solution
The center of Mohrs circle is at
p1 p 2 ( 350 ) (890 )
C

620
2
2
and the radius of Mohrs circle is equal to
p1 p 2 ( 350 ) (890 )
R

270
2
2
The angle p is given as 19.50, and we are told to
assume that x > y. From this information, we know that
the p1 principal plane is rotated 19.50 in a clockwise
direction from the x face. Thus, to locate point x on
Mohrs circle, begin at p1 and rotate 2(19.50) = 39 in a
counterclockwise direction. The Mohrs circle is shown.
(a) The normal strain in the x direction is computed as:
x C R cos 2 p

620 (270 )cos(39)


410.1706 410

Ans.

and the shear strain xy is computed from:

xy
2

R sin 2 p
(270 )sin(39)
169.9165 rad
xy 339.8330 rad 340 rad

(negative since point x plots above the axis) Ans.

The normal strain in the y direction is computed from:


y C R cos 2 p

620 (270 )cos(39)


829.8294 830
(b) The maximum shear strain is simply two times the radius of Mohrs circle:
max 2R 2(270 ) 540 rad

Ans.
Ans.

Since p1 and p2 are both negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is numerically equal to the
absolute value of p2:
abs max 890 rad
Ans.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(c) A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is
shown below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using
Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute
maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.
P13.27
x = 185
y = 655
xy = 500 rad

Solution
The basic Mohrs circle is shown.
( 185 ) (655 )
C
235
2
R ( 420 ) 2 (250 ) 2 488.7740

p1 C R 235 488.7740 724


p 2 C R 235 488.7740 254
max 2 R 978 rad
The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and point
2 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p2) is found
from:
500
500
tan 2 p

0.59524 2 p 30.7627
( 185 ) (655 ) 840

thus, p 15.38

By inspection, the angle p from point x to point 2 is turned counterclockwise.


Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane
shear strain:
Ans.
abs max max 978 rad
A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using
Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute
maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.
P13.28
x = 940
y = 1,890
xy = 2,000 rad

Solution
The basic Mohrs circle is shown.
( 940 ) ( 1,890 )
C
1, 415
2
R (475 ) 2 (1,000 ) 2 1,107.0795

p1 C R 1, 415 1,107.0795 308


p 2 C R 1, 415 1,107.0795 2,520
max 2 R 2, 210 rad
The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and point
1 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p1) is found
from:
2,000
2,000
tan 2 p

2.10526
( 940 ) ( 1,890 )
950

2 p 64.5923

thus, p 32.3

By inspection, the angle p from point x to point 1 is turned counterclockwise.


Since both p1 and p2 are negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is greater than the maximum
in-plane shear strain:
Ans.
abs max p3 p 2 0 (2,522.0795 ) 2,520 rad
A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using
Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute
maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.
P13.29
x = 140
y = 160
xy = 1,940 rad

Solution
The basic Mohrs circle is shown.
( 140 ) (160 )
C
10
2
R ( 150 ) 2 (970 ) 2 981.5294

p1 C R 10 981.5294 992
p 2 C R 10 981.5294 972
max 2 R 1,963 rad
The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and
point 2 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p2) is
found from:
1,940
530
tan 2 p

6.46667 2 p 81.2095
( 140 ) (160 ) 300

thus, p 40.6

By inspection, the angle p from point x to point 2 is turned clockwise.


Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane
shear strain:
Ans.
abs max p1 p 2 991.5294 (971.5294 ) 1,963 rad
A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using
Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute
maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.
P13.30
x = 380
y = 770
xy = 650 rad

Solution
The basic Mohrs circle is shown.
(380 ) ( 770 )
C
195
2
R (575 ) 2 (325 ) 2 660.4922

p1 C R 195 660.4922 465


p 2 C R 195 660.4922 855
max 2 R 1,321 rad
The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and point
1 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p1) is found
from:
tan 2 p

650
650

0.56522
(380 ) ( 770 ) 1,150

2 p 29.4759

thus, p 14.74

By inspection, the angle p from point x to point 1 is turned clockwise.


Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane
shear strain:
Ans.
abs max max 1,321 rad
A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using
Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute
maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.
P13.31
x = 760
y = 590
xy = 360 rad

Solution
The basic Mohrs circle is shown.
(760 ) (590 )
C
675
2
R (85 ) 2 ( 180 ) 2 199.0603

p1 C R 675 199.0603 874


p 2 C R 675 199.0603 476
max 2 R 398 rad
The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and
point 1 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p1) is
found from:
360
360
tan 2 p

2.11765 2 p 64.7223 thus, p 32.4


(760 ) (590 ) 170
By inspection, the angle p from point x to point 1 is turned clockwise.
Since both p1 and p2 are positive, the absolute maximum shear strain is greater than the maximum
in-plane shear strain:
Ans.
abs max p1 p3 874.0603 (0 ) 874 rad
A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using
Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute
maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.
P13.32
x = 1,570
y = 430
xy = 950 rad

Solution
The basic Mohrs circle is shown.
( 1,570 ) ( 430 )
C
1,000
2
R ( 570 ) 2 (475 ) 2 741.9737

p1 C R 1,000 741.9737 258


p 2 C R 1,000 741.9737 1,742
max 2 R 1, 484 rad
The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and point
2 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p2) is found
from:
950
950
tan 2 p

0.83333 2 p 39.8056
( 1,570 ) ( 430 ) 1,140

thus, p 19.90

By inspection, the angle p from point x to point 2 is turned counterclockwise.


Since both p1 and p2 are negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is greater than the maximum
in-plane shear strain:
Ans.
abs max p3 p 2 0 (1,741.9737 ) 1,742 rad
A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using
Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute
maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.
P13.33
x = 920
y = 1,125
xy = 550 rad

Solution
The basic Mohrs circle is shown.
(920 ) (1,125 )
C
1,022.5
2
R ( 102.5 ) 2 (275 ) 2 293.4813

p1 C R 1,022.5 293.4813 1,316


p 2 C R 1,022.5 293.4813 729
max 2 R 587 rad
The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and point
2 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p2) is found
from:
550
550
tan 2 p

2.68293 2 p 69.5582
(920 ) (1,125 ) 205

thus, p 34.8

By inspection, the angle p from point x to point 2 is turned clockwise.


Since both p1 and p2 are positive, the absolute maximum shear strain is greater than the maximum
in-plane shear strain:
Ans.
abs max p1 p3 (1,315.9813 ) 0 1,316 rad
A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

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The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using
Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute
maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.
P13.34
x = 515
y = 265
xy = 1,030 rad

Solution
The basic Mohrs circle is shown.
(515 ) ( 265 )
C
125
2
R (390 ) 2 (515 ) 2 646.0070

p1 C R 125 646.0070 771


p 2 C R 125 646.0070 521
max 2 R 1, 292 rad
The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and
point 1 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p1) is
found from:
tan 2 p

1,030
1,030

1.32051 2 p 52.8640 thus, p 26.4


(515 ) ( 265 )
780

By inspection, the angle p from point x to point 1 is turned clockwise.


Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane
shear strain:
Ans.
abs max max 1,292 rad
A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using
Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute
maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.
P13.35
x = 475
y = 685
xy = 150 rad

Solution
The basic Mohrs circle is shown.
(475 ) (685 )
C
580
2
R ( 105 ) 2 (75 ) 2 129.0349

p1 C R 580 129.0349 709


p 2 C R 580 129.0349 451
max 2 R 709 rad
The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and
point 2 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p2) is
found from:
150
150
tan 2 p

0.71429
2 p 35.5377
(475 ) (685 ) 210

thus, p 17.77

By inspection, the angle p from point x to point 2 is turned counterclockwise.


Since both p1 and p2 are positive, the absolute maximum shear strain is greater than the maximum
in-plane shear strain:
Ans.
abs max p1 p3 709.0349 (0 ) 709 rad
A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using
Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute
maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.
P13.36
x = 670
y = 455
xy = 900 rad

Solution
The basic Mohrs circle is shown.
(670 ) (455 )
C
562.5
2
R (107.5 ) 2 (450 ) 2 462.6621

p1 C R 562.5 462.6621 1,025


p 2 C R 562.5 462.6621 99.8
max 2 R 925 rad
The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and point
1 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p1) is found
from:
900
900
tan 2 p

4.18605
2 p 76.5645 thus, p 38.3
(670 ) (455 ) 215
By inspection, the angle p from point x to point 1 is turned clockwise.
Since both p1 and p2 are positive, the absolute maximum shear strain is greater than the maximum
in-plane shear strain:
Ans.
abs max p1 p3 1,025.1621 (0 ) 1,025 rad
A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using
Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute
maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.
P13.37
x = 0
y = 320
xy = 260 rad

Solution
The basic Mohrs circle is shown.
(0 ) (320 )
C
160
2
R ( 160 ) 2 (130 ) 2 206.1553

p1 C R 160 206.1553 366


p 2 C R 160 206.1553 46.2
max 2 R 412 rad
The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and point
2 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p2) is found
from:
tan 2 p

260
260

0.81250
(0 ) ( 320 ) 320

2 p 39.0939

thus, p 19.55

By inspection, the angle p from point x to point 2 is turned clockwise.


Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane
shear strain:
Ans.
abs max max 412 rad
A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point in a body subjected to plane strain. Using
Mohrs circle, determine the principal strains, the maximum in-plane shear strain, and the absolute
maximum shear strain at the point. Show the angle p, the principal strain deformations, and the
maximum in-plane shear strain distortion in a sketch.
P13.38
x = 180
y = 1,480
xy = 425 rad

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Solution
The basic Mohrs circle is shown.
( 180 ) ( 1, 480 )
C
830
2
R (630 ) 2 (212.5 ) 2 683.8540

p1 C R 830 683.8540 146.1


p 2 C R 830 683.8540 1,514
max 2 R 1,368 rad
The magnitude of the angle 2p between point x and point
1 (i.e., the principal plane associated with p1) is found
from:
425
425
tan 2 p

0.32692 2 p 18.1038
( 180 ) ( 1,480 ) 1300

thus, p 9.05

By inspection, the angle p from point x to point 1 is turned counterclockwise.


Since both p1 and p2 are negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is greater than the maximum
in-plane shear strain:
Ans.
abs max p3 p 2 0 (1,513.8540 ) 1,514 rad
A sketch of the principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions is shown
below.

P13.39 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain
normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.
(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear
strain at the point.
(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain
deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear strain.

a = 410 , b = 540 , c = 330 , = 0.30

FIGURE P13.39

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Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.
(a)
410 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)

540 x cos2 (45) y sin 2 (45) xy sin(45)cos(45)

(b)

330 x cos2 (90) y sin 2 (90) xy sin(90)cos(90)


From Eq. (a):
x 410

(c)
Ans.

and from Eq. (c):


y 330

Ans.

Using these two results, solve Eq. (b) to find xy:


540 (410 )cos 2 (45) ( 330 )sin 2 (45) xy sin(45)cos(45)
xy 1,160 rad

Ans.

(b) Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

(410 ) ( 330 )
(410 ) ( 330 ) 1,160

2
2
2
2

40 687.9680

p1 728 and p 2 648

Ans.

max 1,376 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
1,160
1,160

1.5676
( x y ) [(410 ) ( 330 )]
740

p 28.7 (clockwise from the x axis to the direction of p1 )


Ans.
(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on
the sketch below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.
From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third
principal strain z = p3 is not equal to zero. The normal strain in the z direction can be computed
from Eq. 13.15:

0.30
z
( x y )
[(410 ) (330 )] 34.2857
1
1 0.30
Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane
shear strain:
Ans.
abs max max 1,376 rad

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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P13.40 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain
normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.
(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear
strain at the point.
(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain
deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear strain.

a = 215 , b = 710 , c = 760 , = 0.12


FIGURE P13.40

Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.
215 x cos2 (270) y sin 2 (270) xy sin(270)cos(270)
(a)

710 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)

(b)

760 x cos2 (135) y sin 2 (135) xy sin(135)cos(135)


From Eq. (a):
y 215

Ans.

and from Eq. (b):


x 710

Ans.

(c)

Using these two results, solve Eq. (c) to find xy:


760 ( 710 )cos 2 (135) (215 )sin 2 (135) xy sin(135)cos(135)
xy 1,025 rad

Ans.

(b) Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

( 710 ) (215 )
( 710 ) (215 ) 1,025

2
2
2
2

247.5 690.3351

p1 443 and p 2 938

Ans.

max 1,381 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
1,025
1,025

1.1081
( x y ) [( 710 ) (215 )] 925

p 24.0 (clockwise from the x axis to the direction of p 2 )


Ans.
(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on
the sketch below.
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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.
From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third
principal strain z = p3 is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can
be computed as:

0.12
z
( x y )
[( 710 ) (215 )] 67.5
1
1 0.12
Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane
shear strain:
Ans.
abs max max 1,381 rad

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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P13.41 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain
normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.
(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear
strain at the point.
(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain
deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear strain.

a = 510 , b = 415 , c = 430 , = 0.33


FIGURE P13.41

Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.
510 x cos2 (45) y sin 2 (45) xy sin(45)cos(45)
(a)

415 x cos2 (90) y sin 2 (90) xy sin(90)cos(90)

(b)

430 x cos (135) y sin (135) xy sin(135)cos(135)


From Eq. (b):
y 415

(c)
Ans.

Using this result, solve Eqs. (a) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
x 525 and xy 80 rad

Ans.

(b) The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

(525 ) (415 )
(525 ) (415 ) 80

2
2
2
2

470 68.0074

p1 538 and p 2 402

Ans.

max 136.0 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
80
80

0.7273
( x y ) [(525 ) (415 )] 110

p 18.01

(counterclockwise from the x axis to the direction of p1 )

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on
the sketch below.

(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.
From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third
principal strain z = p3 is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can
be computed as:

0.33
z
( x y )
[(525 ) (415 )] 462.9851
1
1 0.33
Since both p1 and p2 are positive, the absolute maximum shear strain will be greater than the maximum
in-plane shear strain. Since this is a plane stress situation, we must remember to take into account the
non-zero value of p3:
Ans.
abs max p1 p3 538.0074 (462.9851 ) 1,001 rad

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

P13.42 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain
normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.
(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear
strain at the point.
(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain
deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear strain.

a = 960 , b = 815 , c = 505 , = 0.33

FIGURE P13.42

Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.
960 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)
(a)

815 x cos2 (60) y sin 2 (60) xy sin(60)cos(60)

(b)

505 x cos2 (120) y sin 2 (120) xy sin(120)cos(120)


From Eq. (a):
x 960

(c)
Ans.

Using this result, solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
y 560.0000 560 and xy 357.9572 rad 358 rad

Ans.

(b) The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

( 960 ) ( 560 )
( 960 ) ( 560 ) 357.9572

2
2
2
2

760 268.3903

p1 491 and p 2 1,028

Ans.

max 537 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
357.9572
357.9572

0.8949
( x y ) [( 960 ) ( 560 )]
400

p 20.9 (counterclockwise from the x axis to the direction of p 2 )


Ans.
(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on
the sketch below.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.
From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third
principal strain z = p3 is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can
be computed as:

0.33
z
( x y )
[(960 ) (560 )] 748.6567
1
1 0.33
Since both p1 and p2 are negative, the absolute maximum shear strain will be greater than the maximum
in-plane shear strain. Since this is a plane stress situation, we must remember to take into account the
non-zero value of p3:
Ans.
abs max p3 p 2 748.6567 (1,028.3903 ) 1,777 rad

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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P13.43 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain
normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.
(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear
strain at the point.
(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain
deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear strain.

a = 360 , b = 230 , c = 815 , = 0.15


FIGURE P13.43

Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.
360 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)
(a)

230 x cos2 (120) y sin 2 (120) xy sin(120)cos(120)

(b)

815 x cos (240) y sin (240) xy sin(240)cos(240)


From Eq. (a):
x 360

(c)
Ans.

Using this result, solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
y 510
and xy 1,206.6621 rad 1,207 rad

Ans.

(b) Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

( 360 ) (510 )
( 360 ) (510 ) 1, 206.6621

2
2
2
2

75 743.7966

p1 819 and p 2 669

Ans.

max 1,488 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
1,206.6621
1,206.6621

1.3870
( x y ) [( 360 ) (510 )]
870

p 27.1

(clockwise from the x axis to the direction of p 2 )

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on
the sketch below.

(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.
From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third
principal strain z = p3 is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can
be computed as:

0.15
z
( x y )
[(360 ) (510 )] 26.4706
1
1 0.15
Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane
shear strain:
Ans.
abs max max 1,488 rad

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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P13.44 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain
normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.
(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear
strain at the point.
(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain
deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear strain.
FIGURE P13.44

a = 775 , b = 515 , c = 415 , = 0.30

Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.
775 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)
(a)

515 x cos2 (120) y sin 2 (120) xy sin(120)cos(120)

(b)

415 x cos2 (60) y sin 2 (60) xy sin(60)cos(60)


From Eq. (a):
x 775

Ans.

Using this result, solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
y 325
and xy 1,073.8715 rad 1,074 rad

Ans.

(c)

(b) Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

(775 ) ( 325 )
(775 ) ( 325 ) 1,073.8715

2
2
2
2

225 768.6352

p1 994 and p 2 544

Ans.

max 1,537 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
1,073.8715
1,073.8715

0.9762
( x y ) [(775 ) ( 325 )]
1,100

p 22.2

(counterclockwise from the x axis to the direction of p1 )

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on
the sketch below.

(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.
From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third
principal strain z = p3 is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can
be computed as:

0.30
z
( x y )
[(775 ) (325 )] 192.8571
1
1 0.30
Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane
shear strain:
Ans.
abs max max 1,537 rad

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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P13.45 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain
normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.
(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear
strain at the point.
(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain
deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear strain.
FIGURE P13.45

a = 830 , b = 1,090 , c = 200 , = 0.15

Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.
830 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)
(a)

1,090 x cos2 (45) y sin 2 (45) xy sin(45)cos(45)

(b)

200 x cos2 (135) y sin 2 (135) xy sin(135)cos(135)


From Eq. (a):
x 830

Ans.

Using this result, solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
y 460
and xy 890 rad

Ans.

(c)

(b) The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

( 830 ) ( 460 )
( 830 ) ( 460 ) 890

2
2
2
2

645 481.9232

p1 163.1 and p 2 1,127

Ans.

max 964 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
890
890

2.4054
( x y ) [( 830 ) ( 460 )] 370

p 33.7

(counterclockwise from the x axis to the direction of p 2 )

Ans.

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(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on
the sketch below.

(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.
From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third
principal strain z = p3 is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can
be computed as:

0.15
z
( x y )
[(830 ) (460 )] 227.6471
1
1 0.15
Since both p1 and p2 are negative, the absolute maximum shear strain will be greater than the maximum
in-plane shear strain. Since this is a plane stress situation, we must remember to take into account the
non-zero value of p3:
Ans.
abs max p3 p 2 227.6471 (1,126.9232 ) 1,355 rad

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P13.46 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to


obtain normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a
machine part.
(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the
point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum inplane shear strain at the point.
(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain
deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain
distortions.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear
strain.

FIGURE P13.46

a = 1,480 , b = 2,460 , c = 1,075 , = 0.33

Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.
1,480 x cos2 (270) y sin 2 (270) xy sin(270)cos(270)
(a)

2,460 x cos2 (30) y sin 2 (30) xy sin(30)cos(30)

(b)

1,075 x cos2 (150) y sin 2 (150) xy sin(150)cos(150)


From Eq. (a):
y 1,480

(c)
Ans.

Solve Eqs. (a) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:


x 1,863 and xy 1,599 rad

Ans.

(b) The principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

(1,863.3333 ) (1, 480 )


(1,863.3333 ) (1, 480 ) 1,599.2602

2
2
2
2

1,671.6667 822.28

p1 2,490 and p 2 849

Ans.

max 1,645 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
1,599.2602
1,599.2602

4.1720
( x y ) [(1,863.3333 ) (1,480 )] 383.3333

p 38.3

(counterclockwise from the x axis to the direction of p1 )

Ans.

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(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on
the sketch below.

(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.
From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third
principal strain z = p3 is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can
be computed as:

0.33
z
( x y )
[(1,863.3333 ) (1,480 )] 1,646.7164
1
1 0.33
Since both p1 and p2 are positive, the absolute maximum shear strain will be greater than the maximum
in-plane shear strain. Since this is a plane stress situation, we must remember to take into account the
non-zero value of p3:
Ans.
abs max p1 p3 2,493.9467 (1,646.7164 ) 4,140 rad

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P13.47 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain
normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.
(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane
shear strain at the point.
(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain
deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain
distortions.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear
strain.
FIGURE P13.47

a = 625 , b = 1,095 , c = 345 , = 0.12

Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.
625 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)
(a)

1,095 x cos2 (135) y sin 2 (135) xy sin(135)cos(135)

(b)

345 x cos2 (225) y sin 2 (225) xy sin(225)cos(225)


From Eq. (a):
x 625

Ans.

Using this result, solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
y 125.0
and
xy 1,440 rad

Ans.

(c)

(b) Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

(625 ) (125 )
(625 ) (125 ) 1, 440

2
2
2
2

375 762.1680

p1 1,137 and p 2 387

Ans.

max 1,524 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
1,440
1,440

2.8800
( x y ) [(625 ) (125 )]
500

p 35.4

(clockwise from the x axis to the direction of p1 )

Ans.

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(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on
the sketch below.

(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.
From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third
principal strain z = p3 is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can
be computed as:

0.12
z
( x y )
[(625 ) (125 )] 102.2727
1
1 0.12
Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative, the absolute maximum shear strain is the maximum in-plane
shear strain:
Ans.
abs max max 1,524 rad

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P13.48 The strain rosette shown in the figure was used to obtain
normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine part.
(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane
shear strain at the point.
(c) Draw a sketch showing the angle p, the principal strain
deformations, and the maximum in-plane shear strain
distortions.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear
strain.
FIGURE P13.48

a = 185 , b = 390 , c = 60 , = 0.30

Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.
185 x cos2 (30) y sin 2 (30) xy sin(30)cos(30)
(a)

390 x cos2 (150) y sin 2 (150) xy sin(150)cos(150)

(b)

60 x cos2 (90) y sin 2 (90) xy sin(90)cos(90)


From Eq. (c):
y 363

Ans.

Solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:


x 60.0
and
xy 237 rad

Ans.

(c)

(b) Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

( 363.3333 ) ( 60 )
( 363.3333 ) ( 60 ) 236.7136

2
2
2
2

211.6667 192.3827

p1 19.28 and p 2 404

Ans.

max 385 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
236.7136
236.7136

0.7804
( x y ) [( 363.3333 ) ( 60 )] 303.3333

p 19.0

(clockwise from the x axis to the direction of p 2 )

Ans.

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(c) The principal strain deformations and the maximum in-plane shear strain distortions are shown on
the sketch below.

(d) The problem states that the strain readings were obtained from the free surface of a machine part.
From this statement, we can conclude that a state of plane stress exists. For plane stress, the third
principal strain z = p3 is not equal to zero. From Eq. 13.15, the normal strain in the z direction can
be computed as:

0.30
z
( x y )
[(363.3333 ) (60 )] 181.4286
1
1 0.30
Since both p1 and p2 are negative, the absolute maximum shear strain will be greater than the maximum
in-plane shear strain. Since this is a plane stress situation, we must remember to take into account the
non-zero value of p3:
Ans.
abs max p3 p 2 181.4286 (404.0494 ) 585 rad

P13.49 An 8-mm-thick brass [E =83 GPa; = 0.33] plate


is subjected to biaxial stress with x = 180 MPa and y =
65 MPa. The plate dimensions are b = 350 mm and h =
175 mm (see Figure P13.49). Determine
(a) the change in length of edges AB and AD.
(b) the change in length of diagonal AC.
(c) the change in thickness of the plate.
FIGURE P13.49

Solution
(a) From the generalized Hookes Law equations for plane stress, the normal strains produced in the
plate can be computed from Eqs. (13.21):
1
1
x ( x y )
[180 MPa (0.33)(65 MPa)] 1,910.24 10 6 mm/mm
E
83,000 MPa
1
1
y ( y x )
[65 MPa (0.33)(180 MPa)] 67.47 10 6 mm/mm
E
83,000 MPa

0.33
z ( x y )
[180 MPa 65 MPa] 974.10 10 6 mm/mm
E
83,000 MPa
Plate edge AB is aligned with the x direction; therefore, the change in length of edge AB can be
computed from the product of x and plate dimension b:
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AB xb (1,910.24 106 mm/mm)(375 mm) 0.66858 mm 0.669 mm

Ans.

Plate edge AD is aligned with the y direction; therefore, the change in length of edge AD can be
computed from the product of y and plate dimension h:
AD y h (67.47 106 mm/mm)(175 mm) 0.01181 mm 0.01181 mm
Ans.
(b) A strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)]
n x cos2 y sin 2 xy sin cos
can be written to determine the normal strain in the direction of diagonal AC. Since there is no shear
stress acting on the plate, we know that xy = 0 (since Hookes Law relating shear stress and shear strain
is xy = Gxy).
The angle between edge AB and diagonal AC is:
175 mm
tan
0.5
26.565
350 mm
Therefore, the normal strain in the direction of diagonal AC is:
AC (1,910.24 106 mm/mm)cos 2 (26.565) (67.47 10 6 mm/mm)sin 2 (26.565)

1,541.69 106 mm/mm


The initial length of diagonal AC is:

LAC (350 mm)2 (175 mm)2 391.312 mm


The change in length of diagonal AC is computed from the product of AC and the initial diagonal length:
Ans.
AC AC LAC (1,541.69 106 mm/mm)(391.312 mm) 0.6034 mm 0.603 mm
Alternate Method: The change in length of diagonal AC can also be computed using the Pythagorean
theorem. After deformation, the final length of side AB of the plate is 350.66868 mm. The final length
of side AD is 175.01181 mm. From the Pythagorean theorem, the deformed length of diagonal AC is:

LAC
(350.66868 mm)2 (175.01181 mm)2 391.9153 mm
and therefore, the elongation of diagonal AC is
AC 391.9153 mm 391.3119 mm 0.6034mm 0.603 mm

Ans.

(c) The change in plate thickness is computed from the product of z and the plate thickness:
thick z (thickness) (974.0964 106 mm/mm)(8 mm) 0.00779 mm

Ans.

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P13.50 A 0.75-in.-thick polymer [E = 470,000 psi; =


0.37] casting is subjected to biaxial stresses of x = 2,500
psi and y = 8,300 psi, acting in the directions shown in
Figure P13.50. The dimensions of the casting are b =
12.0 in. and h = 8.0 in. Determine
(a) the change in length of edges AB and AD.
(b) the change in length of diagonal AC.
(c) the change in thickness of the plate.
FIGURE P13.50

Solution
(a) From the generalized Hookes Law equations for plane stress, the normal strains produced in the
plate can be computed from Eqs. (13.21):
1
1
x ( x y )
[2,500 psi (0.37)( 8,300 psi)] 11,853.19 106 in./in.
E
470,000 psi
1
1
y ( y x )
[ 8,300 psi (0.37)(2,500 psi)] 19,627.66 106 in./in.
E
470,000 psi

0.37
z ( x y )
[2,500 psi ( 8,300 psi)] 4,565.96 10 6 in./in.
E
470,000 psi
Plate edge AB is aligned with the x direction; therefore, the change in length of edge AB can be
computed from the product of x and plate dimension b:
Ans.
AB xb (11,853.19 106 in./in.)(12 in.) 0.1422 in.
Plate edge AD is aligned with the y direction; therefore, the change in length of edge AD can be
computed from the product of y and plate dimension h:
AD y h (19,627.66 106 in./in.)(8.00 in.) 0.1570 in.
Ans.
(b) A strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)]
n x cos2 y sin 2 xy sin cos
can be written to determine the normal strain in the direction of diagonal AC. Since there is no shear
stress acting on the plate, we know that xy = 0 (since Hookes Law relating shear stress and shear strain
is xy = Gxy).
The angle between edge AB and diagonal AC is:
8.00 in.
tan
0.6667
33.690
12.00 in.
Therefore, the normal strain in the direction of diagonal AC is:
AC (11,853.19 106 in./in.)cos 2 (33.690) ( 19,627.66 106 in./in.)sin 2 (33.690)

2,166.77 106 in./in.

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The initial length of diagonal AC is:

LAC (12.00 in.)2 (8.00 in.)2 14.42221 in.


The change in length of diagonal AC is computed from the product of AC and the initial diagonal length:
Ans.
AC AC LAC (2,166.77 106 in./in.)(14.42221 in.) 0.0328 in.
Alternate Method: The change in length of diagonal AC can also be computed using the Pythagorean
theorem. After deformation, the final length of side AB of the plate is 12.14224 in. The final length of
side AD is 7.84298 in. From the Pythagorean theorem, the deformed length of diagonal AC is:

LAC
(12.14224 in.)2 (7.84298 in.)2 14.45497 in.
and therefore, the elongation of diagonal AC is
AC 14.45497 in. 14.42221 in. 0.00328 in.

Ans.

(c) The change in plate thickness is computed from the product of z and the plate thickness:
thick z (thickness) (4,565.96 106 in./in.)(0.750 in.) 0.00342 in.

Ans.

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P13.51 A stainless steel [E = 190 GPa; = 0.12] plate is


subjected to biaxial stress (Figure P13.51/52). The strains
measured in the plate are x = 3,500 and y = 2,850 .
Determine x and y.

FIGURE P13.51/52

Solution
From Eq. (13.23):
E
x
( x y )
1 2
190,000 MPa

[(3,500 10 6 mm/mm) (0.12)(2,850 10 6 mm/mm)]


2
1 (0.12)

740.6453 MPa 741 MPa

Ans.

and

E
( y x )
1 2
190,000 MPa

[(2,850 106 mm/mm) (0.12)(3,500 106 mm/mm)]


1 (0.12) 2

630.3774 MPa 630 MPa

Ans.

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P13.52 A metal plate is subjected to tensile stresses of x = 21


ksi and y = 17 ksi (Figure P13.51/52). The corresponding
strains measured in the plate are x = 930 and y = 620 .
Determine Poissons ratio and the elastic modulus E for the
material.

FIGURE P13.51/52

Solution
Rewrite Eqs. (13.21) as:
E x x y

E y y x
Substitute the stress and strain values, taking care to convert the strain values to dimensionless
quantities.
E (930 106 in./in.) 21 ksi (17 ksi)

E (620 106 in./in.) 17 ksi (21 ksi)


Rearrange the equations to the form:
E (930 106 in./in.) (17 ksi) 21 ksi
E (620 106 in./in.) (21 ksi) 17 ksi
and solve simultaneously for the unknowns E and :
E 16,907.675 ksi 16,908 ksi

0.310345 0.310

Ans.
Ans.

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P13.53 A thin aluminum [E = 10,000 ksi; G = 3,800 ksi]


plate is subjected to biaxial stress (Figure P13.53/54). The
strains measured in the plate are x = 810 and z = 1,350
. Determine x and z.

FIGURE P13.53/54

Solution
Derive an expression for from Eq. (13.18):
E
G
2(1 )
E
1
2G
E

1
2G
Determine Poissons ratio from this expression:
E
10, 000 ksi

1
1 0.3158
2G
2(3,800 ksi)
The normal stresses can now be computed from Eq. (13.23):
E
x
( x z )
1 2
10,000 ksi

[(810 106 in./in.) (0.3158)(1,350 106 in./in.)]


1 (0.3158) 2

13.733 ksi 13.73 ksi

Ans.

and

E
( z x )
1 2
10,000 ksi

[(1,350 106 in./in.) (0.3158)(810 106 in./in.)]


1 (0.3158)2

17.837 ksi 17.84 ksi

Ans.

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P13.54 A thin stainless steel plate [E = 190 GPa; G = 86


GPa] plate is subjected to biaxial stress (Figure P13.53/54).
The strains measured in the plate are x = 275 and z =
1,150 . Determine x and z.

FIGURE P13.53/54

Solution
Derive an expression for from Eq. (13.18):
E
G
2(1 )
E
1
2G
E

1
2G
Determine Poissons ratio from this expression:
E
190 GPa

1
1 0.10465
2G
2(86 GPa)
The normal stresses can now be computed from Eq. (13.23):
E
x
( x z )
1 2
190,000 MPa

[(275 10 6 mm/mm) (0.10465)(1,150 10 6 mm/mm)]


1 (0.10465) 2

75.948 MPa 75.9 MPa

Ans.

and

E
( z x )
1 2
190,000 MPa

[(1,150 10 6 mm/mm) (0.10465)(275 10 6 mm/mm)]


2
1 (0.10465)

226.448 MPa 226 MPa

Ans.

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P13.55 The thin brass [E = 16,700 ksi; = 0.307] bar shown in


Figure P13.55/56 is subjected to a normal stress of x = 19 ksi. A
strain gage is mounted on the bar at an orientation of = 25 as
shown in the figure. What normal strain reading would be
expected from the strain gage at the specified stress?
FIGURE P13.55/56

Solution
The stresses in the bar are x = 19 ksi, y = 0, and xy = 0. The normal strains in the x and y directions
can be computed from Eqs. (13.21):
1
1
x ( x y )
[19 ksi (0.307)(0 ksi)]
E
16,700 ksi
1,137.725 106 in./in.

1
1
( y x )
[0 ksi (0.307)(19 ksi)]
E
16,700 ksi

349.281 106 in./in.

Since xy = 0, the shear strain xy = 0. Using the strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)]
n x cos2 y sin 2 xy sin cos
the expected normal strain in the direction of strain gage can be calculated:
n (1,137.725 106 in./in.)cos2 (25) (349.281 106 in./in.)sin 2 (25)
872.136 106 in./in. 872

Ans.

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P13.56 A strain gage is mounted on a thin brass [E = 12,000 ksi;


= 0.33] bar at an angle of = 35 as shown in Figure P13.55/56.
If the strain gage records a normal strain of n = 470 , what is
the magnitude of the normal stress x?
FIGURE P13.55/56

Solution
We observe that y = 0 and xy = 0 for this bar. The normal strains in the x and y directions for the bar
can be expressed as:
1
1
x ( x y ) x
E
E
1

y ( y x ) x
E
E
Since xy = 0, the shear strain xy = 0.
Write a strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)] for the normal strain in the n direction using these
results:
n x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

x cos 2 (35) x sin 2 (35)


E
E

cos 2 (35) sin 2 (35)


E
Solve this expression for x:
(470 106 in./in.)(12,000 ksi)
x
10.03 ksi
cos 2 (35) (0.33)sin 2 (35)

Ans.

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P13.57 A thin brass [E = 100 GPa; G = 39 GPa] plate is subjected


to biaxial stress as shown in Figure P13.57/58. The normal stress
in the y direction is known to be y = 160 MPa. The strain gage
measures a normal strain of 920 at an orientation of = 35 in
the indicated direction. What is the magnitude of x that acts on
the plate?

FIGURE P13.57/58

Solution
Derive an expression for from Eq. (13.18):
E
E
G

1
2(1 )
2G
Determine Poissons ratio from this expression:
E
100 GPa

1
1 0.28205
2G
2(39 GPa)
A strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)]
n x cos2 y sin 2 xy sin cos
can be written for the normal strain in the direction of strain gage:
920 x cos2 (35) y sin 2 (35) xy sin(35)cos(35)
Note that the shear strain xy is related to the shear stress xy by Eq. (13.22):
1
xy xy
G
Since xy = 0, the shear strain xy must also equal zero, and the strain transformation equation reduces to:
920 920 106 mm/mm x cos2 (35) y sin 2 (35)
Substitute Eqs. (13.21) for x and y to obtain an expression in terms of x and y:
920 10 6 x cos 2 (35) y sin 2 (35)
1
1
( x y )cos 2 (35) ( y x )sin 2 (35)
E
E
1
1
[ x cos 2 (35) x sin 2 (35)] [ y sin 2 (35) y cos 2 (35)]
E
E

[cos 2 (35) sin 2 (35)]

[sin 2 (35) cos 2 (35)]

E
E
Substitute the known value of y = 160 MPa and solve for x:
100,000 MPa
160 MPa

x
920 106
[sin 2 (35) (0.28205)cos 2 (35)]
2
2

[cos (35) (0.28205)sin (35)]


100,000 MPa

120.444 MPa 120.4 MPa

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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P13.58 A thin brass [E = 14,500 ksi; G = 5,500 ksi] plate is


subjected to biaxial stress (Figure P13.57/58). The normal stress
in the x direction is known to be twice as large as the normal
stress in the y direction. The strain gage measures a normal strain
of 775 at an orientation of = 50 in the indicated direction.
Determine the magnitudes of the normal stresses x and y acting
on the plate.

FIGURE P13.57/58

Solution
Derive an expression for from Eq. (13.18):
E
E
G

1
2(1 )
2G
Determine Poissons ratio from this expression:
E
14,500 ksi

1
1 0.3182
2G
2(5,500 ksi)
(a) A strain transformation equation [Eq. (13.3)]
n x cos2 y sin 2 xy sin cos
can be written for the normal strain in the direction of strain gage:
775 x cos2 (50) y sin 2 (50) xy sin(50)cos(50)
Note that the shear strain xy is related to the shear stress xy by Eq. (13.22):
1
xy xy
G
Since xy = 0, the shear strain xy must also equal zero, and the strain transformation equation reduces to:
775 775 106 in./in. x cos 2 (50) y sin 2 (50)
Substitute Eqs. (13.21) for x and y to obtain an expression in terms of x and y:
775 106 x cos 2 (50) y sin 2 (50)

1
1
( x y )cos 2 (50) ( y x )sin 2 (50)
E
E
It is known that x = 2y. Make this substitution to obtain the following expression:
(775 106 ) E (2 y y )cos 2 (50) ( y 2 y )sin 2 (50)
y [(2 )cos 2 (50) (1 2 )sin 2 (50)]

(775 106 ) E
(2 )cos 2 (50) (1 2 )sin 2 (50)

Compute y:

(775 106 )(14,500 ksi)


12.3723 ksi 12.37 ksi
(2 0.3182)cos 2 (50) [1 2(0.3182)]sin 2 (50)

and x:
x 2 y 2(12.3723 ksi) 24.7446 ksi 24.7 ksi

Ans.

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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P13.59 On the free surface of an aluminum [E = 10,000 ksi; =


0.33] component, the strain rosette shown in Figure P13.59 was
used to obtain the following normal strain data: a = 440 b =
550 , and c = 870 . Determine
(a) the normal stress x.
(b) the normal stress y.
(c) the shear stress xy.
FIGURE P13.59

Solution
Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is the
measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.
(a)
440 x cos2 (315) y sin 2 (315) xy sin(315)cos(315)
550 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)
870 x cos2 (45) y sin 2 (45) xy sin(45)cos(45)
From Eq. (b):
x 550
Using this result, solve Eqs. (a) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
y 760
and
xy 430 rad

(b)
(c)

(a) From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:


E
10,000 ksi
x
( x y )
[(550 106 in./in.) (0.33)(760 10 6 in./in.)]
2
2
1
1 (0.33)

8.9866 ksi 8.99 ksi (T)

Ans.

(b) From Eqs. (13.23), compute y:


E
10,000 ksi
y
( y x )
[(760 10 6 in./in.) (0.33)(550 10 6 in./in.)]
2
2
1
1 (0.33)

10.5656 ksi 10.57 ksi (T)


(c) From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:
E
10, 000 ksi
G

3, 759.4 ksi
2(1 ) 2(1 0.33)
and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):
xy G xy (3,759.4 ksi)(430 106 rad) 1.6165 ksi 1.617 ksi

Ans.

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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P13.60 On the free surface of an aluminum [E = 70 GPa; = 0.35]


component, the strain rosette shown in Figure P13.60 was used to
obtain the following normal strain data: a = 300 b = 735 ,
and c = 410 . Determine
(a) the normal stress x.
(b) the normal stress y.
(c) the shear stress xy.
FIGURE P13.60

Solution
Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is the
measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.
(a)
300 x cos2 (30) y sin 2 (30) xy sin(30)cos(30)
735 x cos2 (90) y sin 2 (90) xy sin(90)cos(90)

(b)

410 x cos2 (150) y sin 2 (150) xy sin(150) cos(150)


From Eq. (b):
y 735
Using this result, solve Eqs. (a) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
x 171.667 and
xy 819.837 rad

(c)

(a) From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:


E
70, 000 MPa
x
( x y )
[(171.667 106 ) (0.35)(735 106 )]
2
2
1
1 (0.35)

6.8272 MPa 6.83 MPa (T)

Ans.

(b) From Eqs. (13.23), compute y:


E
70, 000 MPa
y
( y x )
[(735 106 ) (0.35)(171.667 106 )]
2
2
1
1 (0.35)

53.8395 MPa 53.8 MPa (T)


(c) From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:
E
70,000 MPa
G

25,925.926 MPa
2(1 )
2(1 0.35)
and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):
xy G xy (25,925.926 MPa)(819.8374 106 rad) 21.2550 MPa 21.3 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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P13.61 On the free surface of a steel [E = 207 GPa; =


0.29] component, a strain rosette located at point A in
Figure P13.61 was used to obtain the following normal
strain data: a = 133 b = 92 , and c = 319 .
If = 50, determine the stresses n, t, and nt that act
at point A.

FIGURE P13.61

Solution
Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, using the
measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.
(a)
133 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)
92 x cos2 (120) y sin 2 (120) xy sin(120)cos(120)

319 x cos (60) y sin (60) xy sin(60)cos(60)


From Eq. (a):
x 133
Using this result, solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
y 318.333
and
xy 262.117 rad
2

(b)
(c)

From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:


E
207,000 MPa
x
( x y )
[(133 106 ) (0.29)( 318.333 10 6 )]
2
2
1
1 (0.29)
9.195 MPa
and y:
E
207,000 MPa
y
( y x )
[( 318.333 10 6 ) (0.29)(133 10 6 )]
2
2
1
1 (0.29)
63.229 MPa
From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:
E
207,000 MPa
G

80,232.558 MPa
2(1 )
2(1 0.29)
and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):
xy G xy (80,232.558 MPa)(-262.117 106 rad) 21.030 MPa
To summarize, normal and shear stresses in the x-y plane are:
x 9.195 MPa, y 63.229 MPa, xy 262.117 MPa

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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A normal stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-3)] can now be written to determine the normal stress
at an orientation of = 50:
n x cos 2 y sin 2 2 xy sin cos
(9.195 MPa)cos 2 (50) ( 63.229 MPa)sin 2 (50) 2( 21.030 MPa)sin(50)cos(50)
54.016 MPa 54.0 MPa (C)

Ans.

For t, use = 140:


t x cos 2 y sin 2 2 xy sin cos
(9.195 MPa)cos 2 (140) ( 63.229 MPa)sin 2 (140) 2( 21.030 MPa)sin(140)cos(140)
0.01800 MPa 0.01800 MPa (C)

Ans.

A shear stress transformation equation [Eq. (12-4)] can now be written to determine the shear stress at
an orientation of = 50:
nt ( x y )sin cos 2 xy (cos 2 sin 2 )

[(9.195 MPa) ( 63.229 MPa)]sin(50)cos(50) 2( 21.030 MPa)[cos 2 (50) sin 2 (50)]


32.010 MPa 32.0 MPa

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point on the free surface of a machine component.
Determine the stresses x, y, and xy at the point.
Problem
E
x
y
xy

310
90
420 rad
28,000 ksi
0.12
P13.62

Solution
From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:
E
28,000 ksi
x
( x y )
[(310 106 ) (0.12)(90 106 )]
2
1
1 (0.12)2

9.114 ksi 9.11 ksi (T)

Ans.

and y:

E
28,000 ksi
( y x )
[(90 106 ) (0.12)(310 106 )]
2
1
1 (0.12) 2

3.614 ksi 3.61 ksi (T)


From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:
E
28,000 ksi
G

12,500.0 ksi
2(1 ) 2(1 0.12)
and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):
xy G xy (12,500.0 ksi)(420 106 rad) 5.25 ksi

Ans.

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point on the free surface of a machine component.
Determine the stresses x, y, and xy at the point.
Problem
E
x
y
xy

860
510
370 rad
73 GPa
0.30
P13.63

Solution
From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:
E
73,000 MPa
x
( x y )
[( 860 106 ) (0.30)(510 106 )]
2
1
1 (0.30) 2

56.715 MPa 56.7 MPa (C)

Ans.

and y:

E
73,000 MPa
( y x )
[(510 106 ) (0.30)(860 106 )]
2
1
1 (0.30) 2

20.215 MPa 20.2 MPa (T)


From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:
E
73,000 MPa
G

28,076.9 MPa
2(1 )
2(1 0.30)
and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):
xy G xy (28,076.9 MPa)(370 106 rad) 10.388 MPa 10.39 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point on the free surface of a machine component.
Determine the stresses x, y, and xy at the point.
Problem
E
x
y
xy

180
790
350 rad
14,000 ksi
0.32
P13.64

Solution
From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:
E
14,000 ksi
x
( x y )
[(180 106 ) (0.32)( 790 106 )]
2
1
1 (0.32) 2

1.135 ksi 1.135 ksi (C)

Ans.

and y:

E
14,000 ksi
( y x )
[( 790 106 ) (0.32)(180 106 )]
2
1
1 (0.32) 2

11.423 ksi 11.42 ksi (C)


From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:
E
14,000 ksi
G

5,303.0 ksi
2(1 ) 2(1 0.32)
and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):
xy G xy (5,303.0 ksi)(350 106 rad) 1.856 ksi 1.856 ksi

Ans.

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point on the free surface of a machine component.
Determine the stresses x, y, and xy at the point.
Problem
E
x
y
xy

470
1,150
880 rad
190 GPa
0.10
P13.65

Solution
From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:
E
190,000 MPa
x
( x y )
[( 470 106 ) (0.10)( 1,150 106 )]
2
1
1 (0.10)2

112.273 MPa 112.3 MPa (C)

Ans.

and y:

E
190,000 MPa
( y x )
[( 1,150 106 ) (0.10)( 470 106 )]
2
1
1 (0.10)2

229.727 MPa 230 MPa (C)


From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:
E
190,000 MPa
G

86,373.6 MPa
2(1 )
2(1 0.10)
and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):
xy G xy (86,373.6 MPa)( 880 106 rad) 76.000 MPa 76.0 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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The strain components x, y, and xy are given for a point on the free surface of a machine component.
Determine the stresses x, y, and xy at the point.
Problem
E
x
y
xy

1,330
240
560 rad
100 GPa
0.11
P13.66

Solution
From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:
E
100,000 MPa
x
( x y )
[(1,330 106 ) (0.11)(240 106 )]
2
1
1 (0.11)2

137.301 MPa 137.3 MPa (T)

Ans.

and y:

E
100,000 MPa
( y x )
[(240 106 ) (0.11)(1,330 106 )]
2
1
1 (0.11) 2

39.103 MPa 39.1 MPa (T)


From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:
E
100,000 MPa
G

45,045.0 MPa
2(1 )
2(1 0.11)
and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):
xy G xy (45,045.0 MPa)( 560 106 rad) 22.225 MPa 22.2 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain rosette shown in the Figures P13.67P13.72 was used to obtain
normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine component.
Determine:
(a) the stress components x, y, and xy at the point.
(b) the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress at the point;
show these stresses on an appropriate sketch that indicates the orientation
of the principal planes and the planes of maximum in-plane shear stress.
(c) the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.
Problem
P13.67

165

180

105

E
10,600 ksi

FIGURE P13.67

0.33

Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.
(a)
165 x cos2 (45) y sin 2 (45) xy sin(45)cos(45)
180 x cos2 (90) y sin 2 (90) xy sin(90)cos(90)

(b)

105 x cos (135) y sin (135) xy sin(135)cos(135)

(c)

From Eq. (b): y 180


Solve Eq. (a) and Eq. (c) simultaneously to determine: x 120 and xy 270 rad.
From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:
E
10,600 ksi
x
( x y )
[(120 106 ) (0.33)( 180 106 )]
2
1
1 (0.33)2

0.7209 ksi 0.721 ksi (T)

Ans.

and y:

E
10,600 ksi
( y x )
[( 180 106 ) (0.33)(120 106 )]
2
1
1 (0.33)2

1.6701 ksi 1.670 ksi (C)


From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:
E
10, 600 ksi
G

3,984.96 ksi
2(1 ) 2(1 0.33)
and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):
xy G xy (3,984.96 ksi)( 270 106 rad) 1.0759 ksi 1.076 ksi

Ans.

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(b) The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y

xy2

2
2

(0.7209) ( 1.6701)
(0.7209) ( 1.6701)
2

( 1.0759)

2
2
2

0.4746 ksi 1.6084 ksi


p1 1.134 ksi and p 2 2.08 ksi

Ans.

max 1.608 ksi

Ans.

(maximum in-plane shear stress)

avg 0.475 ksi (C)


tan 2 p

(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress)

Ans.

xy
1.0759
1.0759

0.9000
( x y ) / 2 [(0.7209) ( 1.6701)] / 2 1.1955

p 20.99

(clockwise from the x axis to the direction of p1 )

(c) For plane stress, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative,


abs max max 1.608 ksi

Ans.

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain rosette shown in the Figures P13.67P13.72 was used to


obtain normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine
component. Determine:
(a) the stress components x, y, and xy at the point.
(b) the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress at the
point; show these stresses on an appropriate sketch that indicates
the orientation of the principal planes and the planes of maximum
in-plane shear stress.
(c) the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.
Problem
P13.68

220

340

145

E
100 GPa

FIGURE P13.68

0.28

Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.
(a)
220 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)
340 x cos2 (90) y sin 2 (90) xy sin(90)cos(90)

(b)

145 x cos2 (225) y sin 2 (225) xy sin(225)cos(225)

(c)

From Eqs. (a) and (b): x 220 and y 340


Solve Eq. (c) to find: xy 410 rad
From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:
E
100,000 MPa
x
( x y )
[(220 106 ) (0.28)( 340 106 )]
2
2
1
1 (0.28)

13.5417 MPa 13.54 MPa (T)

Ans.

and y:

E
100,000 MPa
( y x )
[( 340 106 ) (0.28)(220 106 )]
2
2
1
1 (0.28)

30.2083 MPa 30.2 MPa (C)


From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:
E
100,000 MPa
G

39,062.5 MPa
2(1 )
2(1 0.28)
and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):
xy G xy (39,062.5 MPa)(410 106 rad) 16.0156 MPa 16.02 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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(b) The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y

xy2

(13.5417) ( 30.2083)
(13.5417) (30.2083)
2

(16.0156)

2
2
2

8.3333 MPa 27.1112 MPa


p1 18.78 MPa and p 2 35.4 MPa

Ans.

max 27.1 MPa

Ans.

(maximum in-plane shear stress)

avg 8.33 MPa (C)


tan 2 p

(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress)

Ans.

xy
16.0156
16.0156

0.7321
( x y ) / 2 [(13.5417) ( 30.2083)] / 2 27.8750

p 18.10

(counterclockwise from the x axis to the direction of p1 )

(c) For plane stress, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative,


abs max max 27.1 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain rosette shown in the Figures P13.67P13.72 was used to


obtain normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine
component. Determine:
(a) the stress components x, y, and xy at the point.
(b) the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress at
the point; show these stresses on an appropriate sketch that
indicates the orientation of the principal planes and the planes of
maximum in-plane shear stress.
(c) the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at the
point.
Problem
P13.69

710

1,005

E
75 28,000 ksi

FIGURE P13.69

0.12

Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.
(a)
710 x cos2 (270) y sin 2 (270) xy sin(270)cos(270)
1,005 x cos2 (45) y sin 2 (45) xy sin(45)cos(45)

(b)

75 x cos2 (135) y sin 2 (135) xy sin(135)cos(135)

(c)

From Eq. (a): y 710


Solve Eqs. (a) and (c) to find: x 370 and xy 930 rad
From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:
E
28,000 ksi
x
( x y )
[(370 106 ) (0.12)(710 106 )]
2
1
1 (0.12)2

12.9318 ksi 12.93 ksi (T)

Ans.

and y:

E
28,000 ksi
( y x )
[(710 106 ) (0.12)(370 106 )]
2
1
1 (0.12) 2

21.4318 ksi 21.4 ksi (T)


From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:
E
28,000 ksi
G

12,500 ksi
2(1 ) 2(1 0.12)
and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):
xy G xy (12,500 ksi)(930 106 rad) 11.6250 ksi 11.63 ksi

Ans.

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(b) The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y

xy2

2
2

(12.9318) (21.4318)
(12.9318) (21.4318)
2

(11.6250)

2
2
2

17.1818 ksi 12.3775 ksi


p1 29.6 ksi and p 2 4.80 ksi

Ans.

max 12.38 ksi

Ans.

(maximum in-plane shear stress)

avg 17.18 ksi (T)


tan 2 p

(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress)

Ans.

xy
11.6250
11.6250

2.7353
( x y ) / 2 [(12.9318) (21.4318)] / 2 4.2500

p 34.96

(clockwise from the x axis to the direction of p 2 )

(c) For plane stress, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 and p2 are both positive,

29.5593 ksi
abs max p1
14.78 ksi
2
2

Ans.

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain rosette shown in the Figures P13.67P13.72 was used to


obtain normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine
component. Determine:
(a) the stress components x, y, and xy at the point.
(b) the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress at
the point; show these stresses on an appropriate sketch that
indicates the orientation of the principal planes and the planes
of maximum in-plane shear stress.
(c) the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at the
point.
Problem
a
P13.70 115

750

E
15 210 GPa

FIGURE P13.70

0.31

Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.
(a)
115 x cos2 (180) y sin 2 (180) xy sin(180)cos(180)
750 x cos2 (300) y sin 2 (300) xy sin(300)cos(300)

(b)

15 x cos2 (60) y sin 2 (60) xy sin(60)cos(60)

(c)

From Eq. (a): x 115


Solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to find: y 528.3333 and xy 883.3459 rad
From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:
E
210,000 MPa
x
( x y )
[( 115 106 ) (0.31)(528.3333 10 6 )]
2
1
1 (0.31) 2

11.3337 MPa 11.33 MPa (T)

Ans.

and y:

E
210,000 MPa
( y x )
[(528.3333 10 6 ) (0.31)( 115 10 6 )]
2
2
1
1 (0.31)

114.4634 MPa 114.5 MPa (T)


From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:
E
210,000 MPa
G

80,152.7 MPa
2(1 )
2(1 0.31)
and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):
xy G xy (80,152.7 MPa)(-883.3459 106 rad) 70.8025 MPa 70.8 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(b) The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y

xy2

2
2

(11.3337) (114.4634)
(11.3337) (114.4634)
2

( 70.8025)

2
2
2

62.8986 MPa 87.5896 MPa


p1 150.5 MPa and p 2 24.7 MPa

Ans.

max 87.6 MPa

Ans.

(maximum in-plane shear stress)

avg 62.9 MPa (T)


tan 2 p

(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress)

Ans.

xy
70.8025
70.8025

1.3731
( x y ) / 2 [(11.3337) (114.4634)] / 2 51.5649

p 26.97

(counterclockwise from the x axis to the direction of p 2 )

(c) For plane stress, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative,


abs max max 87.6 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain rosette shown in the Figures P13.67P13.72 was used to


obtain normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine
component. Determine:
(a) the stress components x, y, and xy at the point.
(b) the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress at
the point; show these stresses on an appropriate sketch that
indicates the orientation of the principal planes and the planes of
maximum in-plane shear stress.
(c) the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at the
point.
Problem
P13.71

220

150

E
280 15,000 ksi

FIGURE P13.71

0.15

Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.
(a)
220 x cos2 (180) y sin 2 (180) xy sin(180)cos(180)
150 x cos2 (135) y sin 2 (135) xy sin(135)cos(135)

(b)

280 x cos2 (90) y sin 2 (90) xy sin(90)cos(90)

(c)

From Eqs. (a) and (c): x 220 and y 280


Solve Eq. (b) to find: xy 240 rad
From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:
E
15,000 ksi
x
( x y )
[(220 106 ) (0.15)( 280 106 )]
2
1
1 (0.15) 2

2.7315 ksi 2.73 ksi (T)

Ans.

and y:

E
15,000 ksi
( y x )
[( 280 106 ) (0.15)(220 106 )]
2
1
1 (0.15) 2

3.7903 ksi 3.79 ksi (C)


From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:
E
15,000 ksi
G

6,521.7 ksi
2(1 ) 2(1 0.15)
and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):
xy G xy (6,521.7 ksi)(240 106 rad) 1.5652 ksi 1.565 ksi

Ans.

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(b) The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y

xy2

(2.7315) ( 3.7903)
(2.7315) ( 3.7903)
2

(1.5652)

2
2
2

0.5294 ksi 3.6171 ksi


p1 3.09 ksi and p 2 4.15 ksi

Ans.

max 3.62 ksi

Ans.

(maximum in-plane shear stress)

avg 0.529 ksi (C)


tan 2 p

(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress)

Ans.

xy
1.5652
1.5652

0.4800
( x y ) / 2 [(2.7315) ( 3.7903)] / 2 3.2609

p 12.82

(counterclockwise from the x axis to the direction of p1 )

(c) For plane stress, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative,


abs max max 3.62 ksi

Ans.

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain rosette shown in the Figures P13.67P13.72 was used to obtain
normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine component.
Determine:
(a) the stress components x, y, and xy at the point.
(b) the principal stresses and the maximum in-plane shear stress at the
point; show these stresses on an appropriate sketch that indicates the
orientation of the principal planes and the planes of maximum inplane shear stress.
(c) the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at the point.
Problem
P13.72

80

170

90

E
96 GPa

FIGURE P13.72

0.33

Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.
(a)
80 x cos2 (180) y sin 2 (180) xy sin(180)cos(180)
170 x cos2 (120) y sin 2 (120) xy sin(120)cos(120)

(b)

90 x cos2 (60) y sin 2 (60) xy sin(60)cos(60)

(c)

From Eq. (a): x 80


Solve Eqs. (b) and (c) simultaneously to find: y 80 and xy 300.2221 rad
From Eqs. (13.23), compute x:
E
96,000 MPa
x
( x y )
[( 80 106 ) (0.33)(80 106 )]
2
2
1
1 (0.33)

5.7744 MPa 5.77 MPa (C)

Ans.

and y:

E
96,000 MPa
( y x )
[(80 106 ) (0.33)( 80 106 )]
2
2
1
1 (0.33)

5.7744 MPa 5.77 MPa (T)


From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:
E
96,000 MPa
G

36,090.2 MPa
2(1 )
2(1 0.33)
and compute the shear stress xy from Eq. (13.20):
xy G xy (36,090.2 MPa)(-300.2221 106 rad) 10.8351 MPa 10.84 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(b) The principal stress magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (12-12):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y

xy2

( 5.7744) (5.7744)
( 5.7744) (5.7744)
2

( 10.8351)

2
2
2

0 MPa 12.2778 MPa


p1 12.28 MPa and p 2 12.28 MPa

Ans.

max 12.28 MPa

Ans.

avg 0 MPa
tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear stress)

(normal stress on planes of maximum in-plane shear stress)

Ans.

xy
10.8351
10.8351

1.8764
( x y ) / 2 [( 5.7744) (5.7744)] / 2 5.7744

p 30.97

(counterclockwise from the x axis to the direction of p 2 )

(c) For plane stress, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 is positive and p2 is negative,


abs max max 12.28 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain rosette shown in the Figures P13.73P13.76 was used to


obtain normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine
component.
(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear
strain at the point.
(c) Using the results from part (b), determine the principal stresses
and the maximum in-plane shear stress. Show these stresses on
an appropriate sketch that indicates the orientation of the
principal planes and the planes of maximum in-plane shear
stress.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress
at the point.
Problem
P13.73

590

140

130

E
9,000 ksi

FIGURE P13.73

0.24

Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.
(a)
590 x cos2 (270) y sin 2 (270) xy sin(270)cos(270)
140 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)

(b)

130 x cos (135) y sin (135) xy sin(135)cos(135)


From Eqs. (a) and (b):
x 140 and y 590

Ans.

Using these values, solve Eq. (c) to obtain:


xy 470 rad

Ans.

(c)

(b) Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

(140 ) (590 )
(140 ) (590 ) 470

2
2
2
2

365 325.3460

p1 690.3460 690 and p 2 39.6540 39.7

Ans.

max 650.6919 rad 651 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
470
470

1.0444
( x y ) [(140 ) (590 )] 450

p 23.12

(clockwise from the x axis to the direction of p 2 )

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(c) Use p1 and p2 in Eqs. (13.23) to compute p1:


E
9,000 ksi
p1
( p1 p 2 )
[(690.3460 10 6 ) (0.24)(39.6540 10 6 )]
2
1
1 (0.24) 2

6.6838 ksi 6.68 ksi (T)

Ans.

and p2:

p2

E
9,000 ksi
( p 2 p1 )
[(39.6540 106 ) (0.24)(690.3460 106 )]
2
1
1 (0.24) 2

1.9610 ksi 1.961 ksi (T)


The maximum in-plane shear stress can be computed from the two principal stresses:
p1 p 2
(6.6838 ksi) (1.9610 ksi)
max

2.3614 ksi 2.36 ksi


2
2
and the normal stress on the plane of maximum shear stress is
p 2 (6.6838 ksi) (1.9610 ksi)
avg p1

4.3224 ksi 4.32 ksi (T)


2
2

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

(d) For plane stress, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 and p2 are both positive,

abs max

p1
2

6.6838 ksi
3.34 ksi
2

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain rosette shown in the Figures P13.73P13.76 was used to


obtain normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine
component.
(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear
strain at the point.
(c) Using the results from part (b), determine the principal stresses
and the maximum in-plane shear stress. Show these stresses on
an appropriate sketch that indicates the orientation of the principal
planes and the planes of maximum in-plane shear stress.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at
the point.
Problem
P13.74

295

90

E
c
680 103 GPa

FIGURE P13.74

0.28

Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.
(a)
295 x cos2 (30) y sin 2 (30) xy sin(30)cos(30)
90 x cos2 (90) y sin 2 (90) xy sin(90)cos(90)

(b)

680 x cos2 (150) y sin 2 (150) xy sin(150)cos(150)


From Eq. (b):
y 90

(c)
Ans.

Using this result, solve Eqs. (a) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
x 680 680
and xy 444.5597 rad 445 rad

Ans.

(b) Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

(680 ) ( 90 )
(680 ) ( 90 ) 444.5597

2
2
2
2

295 444.5597

p1 739.5597 740 and p 2 149.5597 149.6

Ans.

max 889.1194 rad 889 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
444.5597
444.5597

0.5774
( x y ) [(680 ) ( 90 )]
770

p 15.00

(clockwise from the x axis to the direction of p1 )

Ans.

(c) Use p1 and p2 in Eqs. (13.23) to compute p1:


Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

p1

E
103,000 MPa
( p1 p 2 )
[(739.5597 10 6 ) (0.28)( 149.5597 10 6 )]
2
2
1
1 (0.28)

77.9746 MPa 78.0 MPa (T)

Ans.

and p2:

p2

E
103,000 MPa
( p 2 p1 )
[( 149.5597 10 6 ) (0.28)(739.5597 10 6 )]
2
2
1
1 (0.28)

6.4282 MPa 6.43 MPa (T)


The maximum in-plane shear stress can be computed from the two principal stresses:
p1 p 2
(77.9746 MPa) (6.4282 MPa)
max

35.7732 MPa 35.8 MPa


2
2
and the normal stress on the plane of maximum shear stress is
p 2 (77.9746 MPa) (6.4282 MPa)
avg p1

42.2014 MPa 42.2 MPa (T)


2
2

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

(d) For plane stress, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 and p2 are both positive,

abs max

p1
2

77.9746 MPa
39.0 MPa
2

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain rosette shown in the Figures P13.73P13.76 was used to obtain
normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine component.
(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear
strain at the point.
(c) Using the results from part (b), determine the principal stresses and
the maximum in-plane shear stress. Show these stresses on an
appropriate sketch that indicates the orientation of the principal planes
and the planes of maximum in-plane shear stress.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at the
point.
Problem
P13.75

680

220

E
80 17,000 ksi

FIGURE P13.75

0.18

Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.
(a)
680 x cos2 (300) y sin 2 (300) xy sin(300)cos(300)
220 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)

(b)

80 x cos2 (60) y sin 2 (60) xy sin(60)cos(60)


From Eq. (b):
x 220

(c)
Ans.

Solve Eqs. (a) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:


y 580 and xy 692.8203 rad 693 rad

Ans.

(b) Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

(220 ) ( 580 )
(220 ) ( 580 ) 692.8203

2
2
2
2

180 529.1503

p1 349.1503 349 and p 2 709.1503 709

Ans.

max 1,058.3005 rad 1,058 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
692.8203
692.8203

0.8660
( x y ) [(220 ) ( 580 )]
800

p 20.45

(counterclockwise from the x axis to the direction of p1 )

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

(c) Use p1 and p2 in Eqs. (13.23) to compute p1:


E
17,000 ksi
p1
( p1 p 2 )
[(349.1503 10 6 ) (0.18)( 709.1503 106 )]
2
1
1 (0.18) 2

3.8916 ksi 3.89 ksi (T)

Ans.

and p2:

p2

E
17,000 ksi
( p 2 p1 )
[( 709.1503 10 6 ) (0.18)(349.1503 106 )]
2
1
1 (0.18) 2

11.3551 ksi 11.36 ksi (C)


The maximum in-plane shear stress can be computed from the two principal stresses:
p1 p 2
(3.8916 ksi) ( 11.3551 ksi)
max

7.6234 ksi 7.62 ksi


2
2
and the normal stress on the plane of maximum shear stress is
p 2 (3.8916 ksi) ( 11.3551 ksi)
avg p1

3.7317 ksi 3.73 ksi (C)


2
2

(d) For plane stress, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 and p2 are of opposite signs,


abs max max 7.62 ksi

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only
to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The strain rosette shown in the Figures P13.73P13.76 was used to


obtain normal strain data at a point on the free surface of a machine
component.
(a) Determine the strain components x, y, and xy at the point.
(b) Determine the principal strains and the maximum in-plane shear
strain at the point.
(c) Using the results from part (b), determine the principal stresses
and the maximum in-plane shear stress. Show these stresses on
an appropriate sketch that indicates the orientation of the principal
planes and the planes of maximum in-plane shear stress.
(d) Determine the magnitude of the absolute maximum shear stress at
the point.
Problem
P13.76

55

110

E
c
35 212 GPa

FIGURE P13.76

0.30

Solution
(a) Write three normal strain transformation equations [Eq. (13.3)], one for each strain gage, where n is
the measured normal strain. In each equation, the angle associated with each strain gage will be
referenced from the positive x axis.
(a)
55 x cos2 (315) y sin 2 (315) xy sin(315)cos(315)
110 x cos2 (0) y sin 2 (0) xy sin(0)cos(0)

(b)

35 x cos2 (45) y sin 2 (45) xy sin(45)cos(45)


From Eq. (b):
x 110

(c)

Using this result, solve Eqs. (a) and (c) simultaneously to obtain:
y 130
and
xy 90 rad
(b) Using these results, the principal strain magnitudes can be computed from Eq. (13.10):

p1, p 2

x y
2

x y xy

2 2
2

( 110 ) (130 )
( 110 ) (130 ) 90

2
2
2
2

10 128.1601

p1 138.1601 138.2 and p 2 118.1601 118.2

Ans.

max 256.3201 rad 256 rad

Ans.

tan 2 p

(maximum in-plane shear strain)

xy
90
90

0.3750
( x y ) [( 110 ) (130 )] 240

p 10.28

(counterclockwise from the x axis to the direction of p 2 )

Ans.

(c) Use p1 and p2 in Eqs. (13.23) to compute p1:


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p1

E
212,000 MPa
( p1 p 2 )
[(138.1601 10 6 ) (0.3)( 118.1601 10 6 )]
2
2
1
1 (0.3)

23.9285 MPa 23.9 MPa (T)

Ans.

and p2:

p2

E
212,000 MPa
( p 2 p1 )
[( 118.1601 10 6 ) (0.3)(138.1601 10 6 )]
2
2
1
1 (0.3)

17.8714 MPa 17.87 MPa (C)


The maximum in-plane shear stress can be computed from the two principal stresses:
p1 p 2
(23.9285 MPa) ( 17.8714 MPa)
max

20.8999 MPa 20.9 MPa


2
2
and the normal stress on the plane of maximum shear stress is
p 2 (23.9285 MPa) ( 17.8714 MPa)
avg p1

3.0286 MPa 3.03 MPa (T)


2
2

(d) For plane stress, z = p3 = 0. Since p1 and p2 are of opposite signs,


abs max max 20.9 MPa

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

Ans.

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P13.77 A solid 18-mm-diameter shaft is subjected to


an axial load P. The shaft is made of aluminum [E =
70 GPa; = 0.33]. A strain gage is mounted on the
shaft at the orientation shown in Figure P13.77.
(a) If P = 14.7 kN, determine the strain reading that
would be expected from the gage.
(b) If the gage indicates a strain value of = 810 ,
determine the axial force P applied to the shaft.
FIGURE P13.77

Solution
(a) From the given diameter, the cross-sectional area of the shaft is

A (18 mm)2 254.46900 mm2


4
and thus, the normal stress in the shaft is
P (14.7 kN)(1,000 N/kN)
x
57.767 MPa
A
254.46900 mm2
At the location of the strain gage, the stresses in the shaft can be summarized as
x 57.767 MPa,
y 0 MPa,
xy 0 MPa

From Eqs. (13.21), the normal strains in the x and y directions are
1
1
x ( x y )
[57.767 MPa (0.33)(0 MPa)] 825.248 10 6 mm/mm
E
70,000 MPa
1
1
( y x )
[0 MPa (0.33)(57.767 MPa)] 272.332 10 6 mm/mm
E
70,000 MPa
and since the shear stress is zero, the shear strain is also zero: xy = 0.

Write a normal strain transformation equation for the gage oriented at = 145:
n x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

(825.248 )cos 2 (145) ( 272.332 )sin 2 (145) (0 rad)sin(145)cos(145)


464.155
Therefore, the strain gage should be expected to read a normal strain of
n 464

Ans.

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(b) A normal strain transformation equation can be written for the gage:
n x cos2 y sin 2 xy sin cos
810 x cos 2 (145) y sin 2 (145)

Recognize that there is no shear stress xy = 0, and hence, xy = 0.


From Eqs. (13.21), substitute for x and y:
1
1
810 ( x y )cos2 (145) ( y x )sin 2 (145)
E
E
and eliminate terms of y since y = 0 for the shaft:

810 x cos 2 (145) x sin 2 (145)


E
E
Solve for x:
(810 )E
x
2
[cos (145) sin 2 (145)]
(810 106 )(70,000 MPa)
[cos 2 (145) (0.33)sin 2 (145)]
100.810 MPa

The axial load P that causes this normal stress is


P x A (100.810 N/mm2 )(254.46900 mm2 ) 25,653.06 N 25.7 kN

Ans.

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P13.78 A hollow shaft with an outside diameter of


57 mm and an inside diameter of 47 mm is
subjected to torque T. The shaft is made of
aluminum [E = 70 GPa; = 0.33]. A strain gage is
mounted on the shaft at the orientation shown in
Figure P13.78.
(a) If T = 900 N-m, determine the strain reading
that would be expected from the gage.
(b) If the gage indicates a strain value of =
1,400 , determine the torque T applied to the
shaft.
FIGURE P13.78

Solution
(a) The cross-sectional area of the hollow shaft is

A ( D 2 d 2 ) [(57 mm)2 (47 mm)2 ] 816.814 mm2


4
4
and the polar moment of inertia for the shaft is

D4 d 4
(57 mm)4 (47 mm)4 557,271.413 mm4
J
32
32
The maximum shear stress in the hollow aluminum shaft (i.e., the shear stress on the outer surface) is
found from the elastic torsion formula:
Tc (900 N-m)(57 mm / 2)(1,000 mm/m)
max

46.028 MPa
J
557,271.413 mm4
The normal stresses in the x and y directions are zero; therefore, the stresses in the shaft at the location
of the strain gage can be summarized as
x 0 MPa,
y 0 MPa,
xy 46.028 MPa
Note: The negative sign on xy is determined by inspection. The stress element at the location of the
strain gage looks like this:

From Eq. (13.18), determine the shear modulus G:


E
70, 000 MPa
G

26,315.8 MPa
2(1 )
2(1 0.33)
and compute the shear strain xy from Eq. (13.22):

46.028 MPa
xy xy
1,749.058 106 rad
G 26,315.8 MPa
Write a normal strain transformation equation for the gage oriented at = 55:
n x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos

(0 )cos 2 (55) (0 )sin 2 (55) ( 1,749.058 rad)sin(55)cos(55)


821.788
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Therefore, the strain gage should be expected to read a normal strain of


n 822

Ans.

(b) A normal strain transformation equation can be written for the gage:
n x cos 2 y sin 2 xy sin cos
1,400 xy sin(55)cos(55)
recognizing that the normal stresses in the x and y directions are zero.

From Eq. (13.22), substitute for xy:


xy
1,400
sin(55)cos(55)
G
Solve for xy:
( 1,400 106 rad)(26,315.8 MPa)
xy
78.413 MPa
sin(55)cos(55)
The torque T that causes this shear stress is
xy J (78.413 N/mm2 )(557,271.413 mm 4 )
T

1,533,241 N-mm 1.533 kN-m


c
(57 mm / 2)

Ans.

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