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PRESSURE DROP CALCULATION EQUATIONS FOR PIPING AND PIPELINE

Ajay S. Satpute
Sr. Process Engineer
M. Tech. (Chemical)
I.I.T., Madras, INDIA
Ramboll Oil & Gas, QATAR
Introduction:
This spreadsheet is the compilation of pressure drop calculation equations for piping and pipeline.
The purpose of this exercise is to have most reliable equations for pressure drop calculations at one place.
YELLOW boxes are for input parameters and BLUE boxes are the calculated values.

PIPE SIZING
Single phase (Liquid)

Single phase (Water)

Darcy - Weichbach equation (Ref. Crane handbook, 1986)

From Wikipedia
HazenWilliams equation
Where;

Laminar

Turbulent

Haaland equation (approximation of Colebrook White equation)


Where;
L
V
d

Pressure drop in Pa
Darcy friction factor
Pipe length in meter
Liquid velocity in m/s
Pipe ID in meter
Reynold's number
Relative roughness

198,851
0.021
100
3.438
5.00E-02
137,520
9.00E-04

Liquid density in kg/m3


Liquid viscosity in Pa.s

800
6.05E-04

PIPELINE SIZING
Single phase (Crude oil)
Service pipeline company equation (Ref. IPS-E-PR-440, March 1996)
(For DN 750)

(For DN > 750)

(Laminar, if Nrem 0.135)

Where;

Pressure drop in kPa / 100 m


Liquid flow rate in m3/hr
f

Kinematic viscosity, m2/s


Friction factor
Pipe ID in mm
Modified Reynold's number
Specific gravity of liquid

267.9
24.3
1.00E-05
0.0068
50
2.2 (NRem = NRe / 7742)
0.8

(Turbulent)

Pressure drop in meter water column


L

Pipe length in meter

Q
C
d

Volumetric flow rate in m3/s


Roughness coefficient
Pipe ID in meter

17
50
0.005890486
100
5.00E-02

Note: Darcy-Weichbach equation can also be used for liquids in PIPELINE.

PIPE SIZING
Single phase (Gas) (> 10")

Single phase (Gas) ( 12")

Where;

Weymouth equation

Panhandle equation

API 14E, 5th edition

API 14E, 5th edition

Gas flow rate in mmscfd


D
P1
P2

Pipe ID in inch
Upstream pressure in psia

L'
S
Z
T1

Pipe length in ft
Specific gravity of gas at standard condition
Compressibility factor

1.074

Where;

Downstream pressure in psia

90
150
1
0.9961

S
Z
T1

550

Gas inlet temperature in oR

Gas flow rate in mmscfd


D
P1
P2

2
100

Note: Weymouth equation can be used for piping and pipeline for ID 12".

173.932

Pipe ID in inch
Upstream pressure in psia

12
100

Downstream pressure in psia

90

Pipe length in miles


Specific gravity of gas at standard condition
Compressibility factor

0.028575
1
0.9961
550

Gas inlet temperature in oR


Efficiency factor;
1 for brand new pipe
0.95 for good operating conditions
0.92 for average operating conditions
0.85 for unfavorable operating conditions

Note: Panhandle equation can be used for piping and pipeline for ID > 10".

PIPELINE SIZING
Single phase (Gas) (> 10")

Single phase (Gas) ( 12")

Where;

Gas flow rate in mmscfd


D
P1
P2
L'
S
Z
T1

Weymouth equation

Panhandle equation

API 14E, 5th edition

API 14E, 5th edition

1.074

Pipe ID in inch
Upstream pressure in psia

2
100

Downstream pressure in psia


Pipe length in ft

90
150

Specific gravity of gas at standard condition


Compressibility factor
Gas inlet temperature in oR

1
0.9961
550

Where;

Gas flow rate in mmscfd


D
P1
P2

Pipe ID in inch
Upstream pressure in psia

Specific gravity of gas at standard condition


Compressibility factor

Z
T1
E

Downstream pressure in psia


Pipe length in miles

Gas inlet temperature in oR


Efficiency factor;
1 for brand new pipe
0.95 for good operating conditions
0.92 for average operating conditions
0.85 for unfavorable operating conditions

173.932
12
100
90
0.028575
1
0.9961
550
1

Note: Weymouth equation can be used for piping and pipeline for ID 12".

Note: Panhandle equation can be used for piping and pipeline for ID > 10".

PIPE SIZING
Single phase (Gas) (Near atmospheric operating pressure lines)

Single phase (Steam)

Spitzglass equation

Babcock equation

API 14E, 5th edition

(From internet)
Where;

Where;

Two phase

Gas flow rate in mmscfd


Pressure drop in inch of water column

D
W
L'
'

0.0777
10

Pipe ID in inch

S
L'

Specific gravity of gas at standard condition


Pipe length in ft

Pressure drop in psi


Pipe ID in inch

Modified Darcy equation


API 14E, 5th edition
7.3
2

Steam mass flow rate in lb/hr


Pipe length in ft
Steam density in lb/ft3

Erosional velocity equation

1500
150
0.146

API 14E, 5th edition


Where;

1
150

Pressure drop in psi/100 ft


f
W
D
C

Note: Spitzglass equation can be used for piping and pipeline for single phase gas at near
atmospheric operating pressure.

Note: Babcock equation can be used for piping and pipeline for steam.

Erosional velocity in ft/s


Moody / Darcy friction factor
Mass flow rate in lb/hr
Pipe ID in inch

0.365
137.0
0.02
15000
6

Average mixture density, lb/ft3


Empirical constant
100 for continuous service
125 for non-continuous service

1
100

Note: Modified Darcy equation can be used for piping and pipeline for two phase
fluid.

PIPELINE SIZING
Single phase (Gas) (Near atmospheric operating pressure lines)

Single phase (Steam)

Spitzglass equation

Two phase
Babcock equation

Modified Darcy equation

API 14E, 5th edition

API 14E, 5th edition


Where;

Where;

Gas flow rate in mmscfd


Pressure drop in inch of water column
D
S

Pipe ID in inch
Specific gravity of gas at standard condition

L'

Pipe length in ft

0.0777
10
2
1

D
W
L'
'

Pressure drop in psi


Pipe ID in inch
Steam mass flow rate in lb/hr
Pipe length in ft
Steam density in lb/ft3

7.3
2

Erosional velocity equation

1500
150
0.146

API 14E, 5th edition


Where;

Pressure drop in psi/100 ft


Erosional velocity in ft/s
f

150

W
D
C

Note: Spitzglass equation can be used for piping and pipeline for single phase gas at near
atmospheric operating pressure.

Note: Babcock equation can be used for piping and pipeline for steam.

Moody / Darcy friction factor


Mass flow rate in lb/hr
Pipe ID in inch
Average mixture density, lb/ft3
Empirical constant
100 for continuous service
125 for non-continuous service

0.365
137.0
0.02
15000
6
1
100

Note: Modified Darcy equation can be used for piping and pipeline for two phase
fluid.

Note: Spitzglass equation can be used for piping and pipeline for single phase gas at near
atmospheric operating pressure.

Note: Babcock equation can be used for piping and pipeline for steam.

Note: Modified Darcy equation can be used for piping and pipeline for two phase
fluid.