Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 96

CO-PROCESSING OF JATROPHA OIL WITH

LINEAR RUN DIESEL

A PROJECT REPORT
Submitted by

YESWIN RAJA.R

212712203086

RASHESH GUPTA.D.V

212712203501

REMO PRATHAP

212712203502

In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree


Of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
In
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

SRI VENKATESWARA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


PENNALUR, SRIPERUMBUDUR-602 117

ANNA UNIVERSITY: CHENNAI 600 025


APRIL, 2016

ANNA UNIVERSITY: CHENNAI 600 025

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report CO-PROCESSING OF


JATROPHA OIL WITH LINEAR RUN DIESEL is the
b o n a f i d e w o r k o f YESWIN RAJA.R, RASHESH GUPTA.D.V
and REMO PRATHAP wh o c a r r i e d o u t t h e p r o j e c t w o r k
under my supervision.

SIGNATURE

SIGNATURE

Dr.N.Meyyappan, M.E.,Ph.D ,
PROFESSOR &
HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT

G.Hima Bindu, M.Tech.


ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
& SUPERVISOR

Dept of Chemical Engineering


Sri Venkateswara College of Engg
Pennalur
Sriperumbudur
Tamilnadu-602117

Dept of Chemical Engineering


Sri Venkateswara College of Engg
Pennalur
Sriperumbudur
Tamilnadu-602117

INTERNAL EXAMINER

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

Date:

Date:

ANNA UNIVERSITY: CHENNAI 600 025


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We

express

our

sincere

thanks

to

Professor

S.

GANESH

VAIDYANATHAN, Principal, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering for


being a source of inspiration throughout the study in this college.

We express our sincere thanks to Dr. N. MEYYAPPAN, Professor and Head,


Department of Chemical Engineering for his permission and encouragement
accorded to carry out this project.

We are also thankful to Dr. C. ANAND BABU, Professor, Department of


Chemical Engineering, Dr. D. SWAMINATHAN, Associate Professor,
Department of Chemical Engineering and Ms. G. HIMA BINDU, Assistant
Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, Project Coordinators, for their
continual support and assistance.

With profound respect, we express our deep sense of gratitude and sincere
thanks to our supervisor, Ms. G. HIMA BINDU, Assistant Professor,
Department of Chemical Engineering for her valuable guidance and
suggestions throughout this project.

We are very much thankful to Mr. M. MADASAMY, Senior Engineer


Production

and

the

management

of

CHENNAI

PETROLEUM

CORPORATION LTD for their valuable guidance.

Finally, we thank the faculty and staff of the Chemical Engineering Department,
Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering for their support.
i

ABSTRACT

CO-PROCESSING OF JATROPHA OIL WITH LINEAR STRAIGHT


RUN DIESEL IN PETROLEUM REFINERY

Jatropha curcas is a species of flowering and fruit bearing plant in the


genus Jatropha. It is cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions around the
world, becoming naturalized in some areas. The seeds contain 27-40% oil
(average: 34.4%) that can be processed to produce a high quality Bio-diesel
fuel, usable in a standard diesel engine. Jatropha oil is an effective alternate
fuel for the engines and equipment that use diesel as their fuel.
The cetane number of Jatropha oil is greater than the commercially available
diesel by more than 2 units which helps in low knocking in compressed
ignition engines. Also the sulphur content is low and the inlet temperature of
the reactor or engine for combustion could also be reduced by 1000C with
resultant energy savings.
The technology of Co-processing the Jatropha oil in Diesel Hydro Treating
(DHDT) units of a Petroleum Refinery overcomes the disadvantages of biodiesel produced conventionally and produces Bio-diesel with higher Cetane
number, good oxidation stability and lower density. In addition, Coprocessing technology can be deployed in an existing Petroleum Refinery
infrastructure with minor modifications and does not require a separate plant.
This process also costs less as operating cost is reduced by ~ 50% in
comparison to a conventional Biodiesel plant.

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER No.

TITLE

PAGE No.

ABSTRACT

ii

LIST OF FIGURES

vii

LIST OF TABLES

viii

LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS

ix

INTRODUCTION

1.1 History of process

1.2 Properties of Jatropha

AIM & SCOPE

PROCESS SELECTION AND DESCRIPTION

3.1 The new technology ( co-processing)

3.2 Process flow diagram

3.3 Issues in co-processing technology

MATERIAL BALANCE

10

4.1 Material balance around hydrogenator


10

reactor
4.2 Material balance around hot separator

14

4.3 Material balance around cold separator

16

4.4 Material balance around scrubber

18

4.5 Material balance around stripper

19

4.6 Material balance around condenser

21

4.7 Overall material balance

22

iii

ENERGY BALANCE

23

5.1 Energy balance around feed pre-heater

23

5.2 Energy balance around hydrogenator


reactor

24

5.3 Energy balance around heat exchanger 1

31

5.4 Energy balance around hot separator

33

5.5 Energy balance around condenser 1

36

5.6 Energy balance around condenser 2

37

5.7 Energy balance around stripper

39

5.8 Energy balance around scrubber

40

5.9 Energy balance around cold separator

43

5.10 Energy balance around cooler

44

5.11 Overall energy balance

46

PROCESS EQUIPMENT DESIGN

47

6.1.1. Design of reactor

47

6.1.1 Volume of plug flow reactor

50

6.1.2 Volume of packed bed

50

6.1.3 Height of the reactor(H)

51

6.1.4 Diameter of the reactor (d)

51

6.1.5 Height of the packed bed(H)

51

6.1.6 Catalyst used

51

6.1.7 Operating temperature and pressure

51

6.2 DESIGN OF HEATEXCHANGER

52

6.2.1 Film heat transfer coefficient tube side

54

6.2.2 Film heat transfer coefficient shell side

55

6.2.3 % Excess area

57

iv

INSTRUMENTATION AND PROCESS CONTROL

7.1 INSTRUMENTATION IN WHOLE PROCESS

59
60

7.1.1 Flow measuring Instruments


7.1.2 Temperature Measurement

60
60

7.1.3 Pressure Measurement

61

7.2 CONTROL SYSTEM FOR HYDROGENATOR REACTOR

61

7.2.1 Reactor feed control

61

7.2.2 Reactor Pressure control

62

7.3 DISPLAY

63

7.4 ALARM

64

7.5 DATA ACQUISITION AND STORAGE

64

65

COST ESTIMATION

8.1 Estimation of process equipment cost (pec)

65

8.2 Project cost estimation

66

8.3 Raw material cost

67

8.4 Cost of utilities

68

8.5 Operating cost

69

8.6 Total production cost

70

8.7 Depreciation

70

8.7.1 civil works

71

8.8 Sales

71

8.9 Pay back period

72

8.10 Rate of return

72

PLANT LOCATION AND LAYOUT

73

9.1 Factors affecting the layout

73

9.2 Objective of the plant layout

73

9.3 Advantages of scientific layout

74

9.4 Major consideration for layout

74
v

9.5 Plant layout procedure

78

9.6 Plant layout

79

10

11

PROCESS SAFETY

80

10.1 Facts about h2s

80

10.2 Hazard

81

10.3 Facts about sulphur dioxide (so2)

82

10.4 Hazard of diesel

82

10.5 Basic rescue procedure

82

10.6 Environment considerations

83

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


11.1 Environmental benefits

12

84
84

REFERENCES

86

vi

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE No.

TITLE

PAGE No.

3.1

Process flow diagram

4.1

Material balance around hydrogenator reactor

10

4.2

Material balance around hot separator

14

4.3

Material balance around cold separator

16

4.4

Material balance around scrubber

18

4.5

Material balance around stripper

19

4.6

Material balance around condenser

21

4.7

Overall material balance

22

5.1

Energy balance around feed pre-heater

23

5.2

Energy balance around hydrogenator reactor

24

5.3

Energy balances around heat exchanger-1

32

5.4

Energy balance around hot separator

33

5.5

Energy balance around condenser-1

36

5.6

Energy balance around condenser-2

37

5.7

Energy balance around stripper

39

5.8

Energy balance around scrubber

40

5.9

Energy balance around cold separator

43

5.10

Energy balance around cooler

44

5.11

Overall energy balance

46

6.1

Design of reactor and heat exchanger

47

9.1

Plant layout

vii

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE No.

4.1

TITLE

PAGE No.

Flow rates of components of stream from hot separator


to cold separator

15

5.1

Values of Standard Heat of Formation

25

5.2

Values of a,b,c,d for H2S

26

5.3

Values of a,b,c,d for H2

26

5.4

Values of a,b,c,d for H2O

29

5.5

Values of a,b,c,d for N2

30

5.6

Values of a,b,c,d for NH3

30

6.1

Design of heat exchanger

50

8.1

Equipment cost

65

8.2

Fixed cost

66

8.3

Raw material cost

67

8.4

Utility cost estimation

68

8.5

Employees salary

69

8.6

Plant and machinery

70

vii

LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS


T

Absolute Temperature

Mass Flow Rate

Cp

Specific Heat Capacity

Difference in Temperature

Heat Energy

ni

Number of Moles of Component i

Hf0

Standard Heat of Formation at 298K

DHDS -

Diesel Hydrodesulphurisation

DHDT -

Diesel Hydrotreating

GHG -

Green House Gases

FFA

Free Fatty Acid

FAME -

Fatty Acid Methyl Ester

R&D -

Research & Development

JO

Jatropha Oil

HSD

High Speed Diesel

MEA -

Mono-ethanolamine

PIC

Proportional Integral Controller

ix

1. INTRODUCTION
The need for the technologies to produce alternative, sustainable energy sources,
preferably renewable energy sources has been increasing across the world due to the
concern over limited fossil fuel sources, increasing petroleum prices, governments
directives and commitment to reduce GREEN HOUSE GASES emissions. Immediate
opportunities to fill the gap in the transportation fuels sector lie in finding the suitable
technologies using renewable resources such as Sugars, Starches, Lignocelluloses, Algal
Oil, Bio-mass, Garbage etc. to produce corresponding compatible fuels. All or many of
these routes have difficulties of cost of production, effect on food chain or demand of a
new infrastructure, which doesnt attract the present refineries.

Renewable energy sources will fascinate better if the similar fuels to the existing
hydrocarbons are produced to meet the conventional engine technology and compatible to
the existing distribution of infrastructure. Biodiesel [Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, FAME], Di
Methyl Ether [DME] and Synthetic diesel are few alternatives, projected recently in this
direction.

Hydroprocessing of non-edible vegetable oils, rather co-processing of non-edible


vegetable oils with diesel in existing DHDS/DHDT(Diesel hydrodesulphurization/Diesel
hydrotreating) unit will suffice to meet the above discussed issues. Indian Oil [Indian Oil
Corporation Limited] developed a new technology to convert non-edible vegetable oils to
hydrocarbons over indigenous catalyst, which is a simple, sustainable, economical and ecofriendly process.

1.1 HISTORY OF PROCESS:


Transesterification reaction:
Transesterification process is a well known process to produce bio-diesel. This process
is very complex and capital intensive. Both base and acid catalyzed transesterification
processes are associated with several inherent problems. The Free Fatty Acids (FFA)
present in the vegetable oils interfere with transesterification and deactivate the basic
1

catalyst. Water deactivates both basic and acidic catalyst, necessitating the drying up of oil.
The soaps formed with basic catalyst from emulsion and soap, which are difficult to
remove. Acids and alkali-based processes produce waste stream and side products resulting
in loss of biodiesel yields.
Enzymatic Transesterification overcomes some of these disadvantages, but the
process is significantly costlier. Super critical transesterification is much simpler among all
transesterification processes. But very high temperature and pressure [3500C and 45MPa]
makes the process less attractive on a commercial scale. Heterogeneous catalysts in this
process have yet to prove their viability. Thus the process though simple suffers from
several disadvantages. The removal of free fatty acids for avoiding saponification in
subsequent steps, removal of product raw glycerin & recovery of excess alcohol used in the
process for complete conversion pose problem during the process.

The bio-diesel produced from the conventional process of transesterification reaction


has several problems, some of which are:
Requirement of removal of free fatty acids for avoiding saponification in
subsequent steps.
Removal and sale of by-product raw glycerin.
Recovery of excess alcohol used in the process for complete conversion.
Water washing is required to remove the caustic employed for neutralization of free
fatty acids & this adds to the plant effluent.
Moreover if the vegetable oil is rancid, an addition step of esterification is
necessary. The process is suitable only for oils having low Free Fatty Acid (FFA)
<0.5%.
Biodiesel has a density of about 0.88 g/cc against the diesel density of 0.825 to
0.845 g/cc and hence, it is difficult to meet the diesel specifications with respect to
density.
It also has a narrow boiling range 3400C+ of which around 20% boils above
specifications of BS-IV diesel i.e. 3600C. Both density and distillation of bio-diesel
2

requires blending with lighter diesel to meet the diesel specifications, which will
affect the refiners profitability adversely.
The presence of oxygen in biodiesel also results in higher emission of NOx. Also,
FAME is not well accepted by the auto industry in all proportions as these are
responsible for injector choking.

These demerits can be overcome by the co-processing technique. Moreover the


properties of Jatropha make it more feasible.

1.2 PROPERTIES OF JATROPHA


It is drought resistant.
It can be grown almost anywhere - even in sandy, saline, or infertile soil.
It adapts well to marginal soils with low nutrient content.
It is relatively easy to propagate.
It is not invasive or damaging.
It is capable of stabilizing sand dunes, acting as a windbreak or combating
desertification.
It naturally repels insects and animals do not browse it.
It lives for over 50 years producing seeds all the time.
It is resilient against the cold.
It does not exhaust the nutrients in the land; rather, it rejuvenates overused
land.
It does not require expensive crop rotation.
It does not require fertilizers.
It grows quickly and establishes itself easily.
It has a high yield.
No displacement of food crops is necessary.
The biodiesel byproduct, glycerin, is profitable in itself.
3

The waste plant mass after oil extraction can be used as a fertilizer.
The plant itself recycles 100% of the CO2 emissions produced by burning the
biodiesel; two mature plants can absorb 1 metric ton of carbon every year.

2. AIM & SCOPE


The aim of this project is to develop a new alternate for production of bio-diesel by using
the method of co-processing.
100% vegetable oils can be processed by integrating demetallation process in the
DHDT units to get 90-97% paraffinic hydrocarbons and 3 10 % aromatics and cyclic
compounds, with a promising life of the catalyst.
On treating the non edible vegetable oil ( Jatropha oil) to remove metals; the process is
well applicable to process even 100 % Jatropha oil, but with little modifications.
Process engineering design also needs little modifications and optimization of the
operating conditions. This is under way at Indian Oil, R&D Center. The product thus
obtained can be blended in regular diesel to meet the existing engine requirements. But
this process needs more metallurgical and catalytic innovations to run sustainable.
Process modifications can be done to produce jet fuels/jet fuel blend stocks.
The process has bright chances to produce lubricants and waxes too.

3. PROCESS SELECTION AND DESCRIPTION

In view of the problems associated with use and production of biodiesel, the refiners
are exploring hydro-processing route as an alternative option. Co-processing results in
improvement in quality of diesel particularly with respect to cetane number and density.
This will enable integrated refining and marketing companies to meet stipulation of
blending bio-fuels in diesel that may be mandated by the government in near future. The
process is capable of handling different vegetable oils & conversions are quantitative.

3.1 THE NEW TECHNOLOGY (CO-PROCESSING)


In this process, triglycerides of fatty acids contained in the vegetable and/or animal oil are
hydrodeoxygenated to form normal C14 to C18 paraffins. Hydrodeoxygenation reactions of
vegetable oils occurs simultaneously with hydrodesulphurization reactions of diesel feed.
Minor cyclization and aromatization to alkyl cyclohexane and alkyl benzene also occur.
The deoxygenation preferably comprises removal of oxygen in the form of water and
carbon oxides from the triglycerides. Hydrodeoxygenation reactions are more exothermic
and also consume more hydrogen in comparison to hydrodesulphurization.

The reactions also remove the Sulphur and Nitrogen content in the oil and hence produce a
more quality diesel.

3.3

ISSUES IN CO-PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY:

Metal content in Vegetable oils:


Typically, all edible and non-edible oils contains metal( Na, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Cu, Si etc)
in the range of 100-800 ppm, which are required to be removed below 5ppm to make
oil suitable for co-processing. These metals are the poisons for all hydroprocessing
catalysts.

Metallurgy for storage and handling:

Vegetable oil contains Free Fatty Acids (FFAs) typically varying from 0.5-10.0 wt %.
Hence storage & handling of these oils require specific metallurgy to avoid the
corrosion.

Exothermicity of reactions:
The high degree of exothermicity is expected due to high content of oxygen (~10 wt%)
in vegetable oils and high heat of reactions. Co-processing of vegetable oil results
about 30C increase in reactor temperature per % of vegetable oil co-processed. This
problem was handled by decreasing inlet temperature to reactor resulting in reduced
fuel consumption.

Chemical H2 consumption:
The vegetable oils contain typically about 10% oxygen which is converted into water,
CO & CO2 respectively by hydrodeoxygenation, hydrodecarbonylation and
hydrodecarboxylation routes. The typical hydrogen consumption is about 2.0 wt% of
vegetable oil processed. For the process, additional H2 requirement was met by
increasing make up H2.
.

Oxidation stability of vegetable oils:


Vegetable oil deteriorates during long storage at elevated temperature which can be
avoided by nitrogen blanketing and adding oxidation
stability additives.

CO/CO2 Inhibition:
The CO inhibits the activity of the catalyst by adsorption on active sites, although
inhibition is temporary & less pronounced with NiMo catalyst & higher pressure.
During processing of vegetable oils, water (6.0-8.0% of vegetable processed), CO2
(4.0-6.0% of vegetable processed) and CO (0.5-1.0% of vegetable processed) are
generated depending on the operating conditions and catalyst system. The water can be
separated via boot provided in the separator vessel. The buildup of CO and CO2 in the
recycle gas is therefore required to be controlled. The proper system need to be
installed to reduce CO & CO2 content in recycle gas. Water gas shift & CO methanator
systems may be required. In this process, CO2 was removed by Amine scrubbing and
concentration of CO was controlled by purging of gas from separator.

4. MATERIAL BALANCE
For either total material balance or component material balance we use a simple basic
formula which may be stated as:
Input mass flow rate Output mass flow rate = Rate of Accumulation

4.1 MATERIAL BALANCE AROUND HYDROGENATOR REACTOR

Hydrogen 330 Kg/hr

Product
28763 Kg/hr
Feed ( JO + HSD)
28433 Kg/hr
Fig. 4.1: Material balance around hydrogenator reactor
Basis:
30m3/h of Diesel
3m3/h of Jatropha oil
Density of feed

= 861.6 kg/m3

Density of product

= 836.9 kg/m3

Feed Composition in ( wt%)


C

84.4
10

13.2

0.6

0.1

1.7

Assuming Overall conversion in the Reactor is 95%.


Hydrogen is supplied in 350% excess.
Basis:
33m3/h 861.6(kg/m3) = 28432.8(kg/h) = 28433(kg/h)
28433(kg/h) as Feed
Weight of components in (kg/h)
C

23997

3753

170.598

28.433

483.361

Major chemical reaction:H2

H2S

32

34

H2

0.5 O2

H2O

16

18

3H2

N2

---

2NH3

28

34

11

(1)

(2)

(3)

H2 required for the H2S Reaction (100% conversion)


2/32 170.598

10.662 Kg/h of H2

H2 required for the H2S Reaction (95% conversion)


10.662 0.95 =

10.13 Kg/h of H2

H2 required for the H2O Reaction (100% conversion)


2/16 4830361

60.42 Kg/h of H2

H2 required for the H2O Reaction (95% conversion)


60.42 0.95

57.4 Kg/h of H2

H2 required for the NH3 Reaction (100% conversion)


6/28 28.433 =

6.09 Kg/h of H2

H2 required for the NH3 Reaction (95% conversion)


6.09 0.95

Total H2 required for 95% conversion


350% excess H2 supplied

73.314 Kg/h of H2

= 73.314 3.5 = 256.6 Kg/h of H2

Total H2 supplied
H2 Unreacted

5.785 Kg/h of H2

73.314+256.6= 330 Kg/h of H2

330 - 73.314 = 256.6 Kg/h of H2

181.26 Kg/h of H2S


12

Product Stream Calculation:-For Reaction 1:-34/32 170.598

For Reaction 2:-18/16 483.361

543.781 Kg/h of H2O

34.526 Kg/h of NH3

For Reaction 3:-34/28 28.433

For 95% conversion:H2S = 181.26 0.95 =

172.20 Kg/h

H2O = 543.781 0.95

NH3 = 34.526 0.95 =

32.80 Kg/h

516.6 Kg/h

Unreacted Feed: (5%remains Unconverted)


Nitrogen

1.42 Kg/h

Sulphur

8.53 Kg/h

Oxygen

24.17 Kg/h

Carbon =

23997 Kg/h

Hydrogen

3753 Kg/h

Hydrocarbons

Hydrogen + Carbon

(23997+3753) = 27750 Kg/h

At Inlet:
Feed:

28433 Kg/h

H2:

330 Kg/h

Total Inlet:

28763 Kg/h

13

At Outlet:
H2S:

172.2 Kg/h

H2O:

516.6 Kg/h

NH3:

32.8 Kg/h

Nitrogen:

1.42 Kg/h

Sulphur:

8.53 Kg/h

Oxygen:

24.17 Kg/h

Excess H2:

256.7 Kg/h

Hydrocarbons:

27750 Kg/h

Total Outlet:

28763 Kg/h

Rate of Mass in

Rate of Mass Out

Law of Conservation of Mass is validated.

4.2 MATERIAL BALANCE AROUND HOT SEPARATOR


NH3, H2S, Excess H2, traces of O2 and N2
487.3 Kg/h

Feed from
Reactor

Hydrocarbons

28763 Kg/h

277

Sour Water 525.13 Kg/h


14

50Kg/h

Fig. 4.2: Material balance around hot separator


Basis: 28763 Kg/h of Feed entering the separator
At inlet:
Reactor outlet as feed: 28763 Kg/h
Total Inlet:

28763 Kg/h

Vapour from Hot separator to cold separator:Table 4.2: Flow rates of components of stream from hot separator to cold separator
H2S

172.20 Kg/h

NH3

32.8 Kg/h

Nitrogen

1.42 Kg/h

Oxygen

24.17 Kg/h

Excess Hydrogen

256.70 Kg/h

Total

487.30 Kg/h

At Outlet:
Vapour from hot separator to cold separator: 487.29 Kg/h
Hydrocarbons to Stripper:

27750 Kg/h

H2O as Sour Water


(H2O+Sulphur):

516.6+8.53 =

525.73 Kg/h

Total Outlet:

28763 Kg/h

Thus, input mass flow rate = output mass flow rate.


Hence, the law of conservation of mass is validated.

15

4.3 MATERIAL BALANCE AROUND COLD SEPARATOR


H2S, Excess H2, traces of O2 and N2
454.5 Kg/h
Feed
0.05 m3/h
487.3 Kg/h

Water spray
H2O + NH4OH

82.8 Kg/h

Fig. 4.3: Material balance around cold separator


Basis: 487.3 Kg/h of Feed entering the Separator
0.5 m3/hr of water is sprayed to remove NH3
Chemical Reaction:
NH3

H2O

---

NH4OH

17

18

35

18/17 32.8

34.73 Kg/h of H2O

Water supplied

0.05 m3/hr

Density

1000 Kg/m3

Thus amount of Water supplied

0.05 1000

Excess water supplied

50 - 34.73

Theoretical requirement of water:

16

50 Kg/h

15.27 Kg/h

At Inlet:
Feed:

487.3 Kg/h

Water supplied:

50 Kg/h

Total Inlet:

537.3 Kg/h

Mass out at Product side as NH4OH


NH3

H2O

---

NH4OH

17

18

35

Mass flow rate of NH4OH produces (Theoretically)


35/17 32.80

67.53 Kg/h of NH4OH

Excess water at Product side =

15.27 Kg/h

Total flow rate

15.27 + 67.53 = 82.8 Kg/h

At outlet:
Vapour from cold separator to Scrubber:
H2S:

172.20 Kg/h

Nitrogen:

1.42 Kg/h

Oxygen:

24.17 Kg/h

Excess Hydrogen:

256.70 Kg/h

Stream to NH4OH:

82.8 Kg/h

Total Outlet:

537.3 Kg/h

Thus, input mass flow rate = output mass flow rate.


Hence, the law of conservation of mass is validated.
17

4.4 MATERIAL BALANCE AROUND SCRUBBER


Excess H2, <0.01ppm of O2 and N2 to purge & recycle
256.7 Kg/h

Lean amine ( 48.9% wt.)


1226.4 Kg/h

Vapour

454.5 Kg/h
Rich amine with H2S
1424.19 Kg/h

Amine supplied as Lean amine to Scrubber:-Volumetric flow rate: 1.2 m3/hr


Density of MEA: 1022 Kg/m3
Mass flow rate: 1.2 1022 = 1226.4 Kg/h of Lean amine
At Inlet:
H2S:

172.20 Kg/h

Nitrogen:

1.42 Kg/h

Oxygen:

24.17 Kg/h

Excess Hydrogen:

256.70 Kg/h

Vapour as Feed:

454.50 Kg/h

MEA:

1226.4 Kg/h

Total Inlet:

1681 Kg/h
18

At outlet:
Hydrogen:

256.7 Kg/h

MEA at outlet stream to other plant: 1226.4 Kg/h


H2S in MEA:

172.2 Kg/h

Oxygen:

24.17 Kg/h

Nitrogen:

1.42 Kg/h

Total Outlet:

1681 Kg/h

Thus, Rate of Mass in = Rate of Mass Out


Hence, Law of Conservation of Mass is validated.

4.5 MATERIAL BALANCE AROUND STRIPPER:


Lighter Products
4677.2 Kg/h

Hydrocarbons
27750Kg/h

Stripping steam
3567.2 Kg/h

Product Diesel 26640 Kg/h


Fig. 4.5: Material balance around stripper
19

Basis: 27750 Kg/hr of Hydrocarbons as Feed for Stripper


Specific volume of steam at 1900C

=0.157 (m3/Kg) (from steam table)

Density of steam =1/specific volume =1/0.157 = 6.37 (Kg/m3)


Mass flow rate of steam

=volumetric flow rate Density

Mass flow rate of steam

=560 6.37

=3567.2 (Kg/h)

At Inlet:
Feed (hydrocarbons): 27750 Kg/h
Steam:

3567.2 Kg/h

Total Inlet:

31317.2 Kg/h

Stripper Outlet strips out 4% as Lighter Hydrocarbons:

At outlet:
Diesel Outlet:

27750 0.96

= 26640 Kg/h

Lighter Hydrocarbons: 27750 0.04 = 1110 Kg/h


Steam Outlet:

= 3567.2 Kg/h

Total Outlet:

31317.2 Kg/h

Thus, Rate of Mass in = Rate of Mass Out


Hence, Law of Conservation of Mass is validated.

20

4.6 MATERIAL BALANCE AROUND CONDENSER


Cold water inlet
Off gases
(81.5%)
904.65 + 3567.2
Kg/h
Lighter HC +
Steam
1110 + 3567.2
Kg/h

Hot water outlet

Naphtha ( 18.5%)
205.35 Kg/h

Fig. 4.6: Material Balance around Condenser


Basis: 1110 Kg/hr of Lighter hydrocarbons entering the Condenser:
At inlet:
Lighter hydrocarbons at inlet: 1110 Kg/h
Superheated Steam at inlet:

3567.2 Kg/h

Total inlet:

4677.2 Kg/h

81.5% of lighter hydrocarbons go as off gases.


At Outlet:
Off gases at Outlet:

0.815 1110

Naphtha at Outlet:

0.185 1110

904.65 Kg/h
=

Steam:

205.35 Kg/h
=

Total Outlet:

3567.2 Kg/h

4677.2 Kg/h

21

4.7 OVERALL MATERIAL BALANCE

22

5. ENERGY BALANCE
5.1 ENERGY BALANCE AROUND FEED PRE-HEATER
HSD (2800C) + JO (250C) + H2 (400C)
9689910.581 kJ/h
Reactor
Outlet, 3700C

T H.E.-1 (3050C)

11201347.67 kJ/h

90

90948.832 kJ/h

To The reactor, 3530C


7579511.672 kJ/h
Fig 5.1: Energy Balance around Feed Pre-heater
Hot fluid in

product coming out from reactor

Cold fluid in

Diesel feed + Jatropha oil + hydrogen

Heat energy with cold fluid in

Q with Oil and Q with hydrogen

mCpT

So,
Qoil

First let us find out the value of Cp of the mixture of Jatropha and diesel feed
Cp JO

Cp HSD =
So average heat capacity

0.962 kJ/kg K
1.3672 kJ/kg K

Cpi xi

0.962 0.1 + 1.3672 0.9

1.3267 kJ/kg K

23

Hence,
Qoil

QH2

Total heat energy of cold fluid

28433 1.3267 ( 280 - 25 )

9619125.581 kJ/h

mCpT

330 14.3 ( 40 - 25 )

70785 kJ/h

70785 + 9619125.581

9689910.581 kJ/h

Heat energy with hot fluid in =Q associated with products from the reactor
Qh

mCpT

28763 1.1288 ( 370 - 25 )

11201347.67 kJ/h

(Qin-Qout)cold

( 11201347.67 9090948.832 )

( 9689910.581 - Qout )

7579511.672 kJ/h

By heat balance we have,


(Qin-Qout)hot

Qout

5.2 ENERGY BALANCE AROUND HYDROGENATOR REACTOR

Feed, 3530C
7579511.672 kJ/h

Reactor outlet, 3700C


11201347.97 kJ/h
24

Fig. 5.2: Energy Balance around Hydrogenator Reactor


We have following three major reactions proceeding inside the reactor
H2

H2S

(1)

H2

0.5 O2

H2O

(2)

3H2

N2

2NH3

(3)

---

=[ H f o] products [ H f o] reactants

We know that Standard heat of reaction

Table 5.1: Values of Standard Heat of formation


Components

H2S

O2

N2

H2

NH3

H2O

- 20.63

- 46.2

- 285.8

Standard Heat
of formation
(KJ / mol)

Heat of reaction at any temperature T ( HR ) =


H1

Where

-H1 + HRo + H2

heat of formation of reactants

H2

heat of formation of products

HR0

standard heat of reaction at 298K

For reaction 1:
H2

S H2S

To calculate H1:
H1 for H2 : =
Where ni

ni cpi dT

moles of H2

Total H2 available for all reactions

=
25

73.314 kmol/h

Total H2 needed for this reaction

14.663 kmol/h

Here

626 298

328 K

14.663 15.2312 ( 353 - 25 )

73253.90 kJ

ni cpi dT

dT

H1 for S :

Since 1 mol of H2 reacts with 1 mol of sulphur,


so moles of sulphur reacting
H1

Total

H1 for reactants

14.663 kmol/h
=

14.663 1.101 ( 353 - 25)

5295.2198 kJ/h

73253.90 + 5295.2198

78549.1198 kJ/h

a + b T + c T2 + d T3

To calculate H2 for H2S:


Cp

Where a,b,c,d are constants for different components

Table 5.2: Values of a,b,c,d for H2S


A

34.5234

-17.638110-3

67.6664 10-6

-53.245410-9

26

H1 for H2S

ni (a + b T2 + CT3 d T3) dT

[ aT + bT2 / 2 + cT3 / 3 + dT4 / 4]

14.663 [ 34.5234 (626-298) (17.638110-3 / 2)


(6262-2982) + 67.66410-6 / 3
(6263-2983) (53.245210-9 /4)
(6264-2984) ]

14.663 [11427.24 - 2672.8071 +


4936.2816 1939.2061]

172312.3677 KJ/hr

Standard heat of reaction =


HR0

-20.63 34

-701.42 kJ

So, heat of reaction for this reaction =


HR1

-H1 + HR0 + H2

-78549.1198 - 701.42 + 172312.3677

93061.8279 kJ/h

For reaction 2:
H2

+ 0.5 O2

For H1 of H2 =

H1 for

O2

H2O

14.663 1.101 ( 353 - 25)


=

5295.2198 kJ/h

ni (a + b T + c T2 + d T3) dT

ni [aT + bT2 / 2 + cT3 / 3 + dT4 / 4 ]


27

Number of moles of O2 needed

0.5 14.663 = 7.3315

Table 5.3: Values of a,b,c,d for H2


A

27.0257

11.7551 10-3

-2.3426 10-6

-0.5623 10-9

7.3315 [ 27.0257(626-298)+(11.755110-3 /2)


x(6262-2982) ( 2.342610-6 / 3)(6263-2983)
+( 0.562310-9 / 4 ) (6264-2984)

=7.3315(8864.4296 + 1781.3208 - 170.8933 20.4790)


=7.3315 [ 10454.378]

Total H1

H2 for H2O

76646.273 kJ/h

73253.90 + 76646.273

149900.173 kJ/h

ni (a + bT +c T2 +d T3) dT

1 [aT + bT2 / 2 + cT3 / 3 + dT4 / 4]

28

Table 5.4: Values of a,b,c,d for H2O


A

32.4921

.0796 10-3

13.210710-6

-4.54710-9

14.663 [ 32.4921 (626-298)+ 0.079610-3 /2

(6262-2982)+ 13.210710-6 /3
(6263-2983) 4.54710-9 /4
(6264-2984)
=

14.663[10657.4088 + 12.06227 + 963.724 165.6025]

HR0
So, heat of reaction 2 =

168149.3099 kJ/h

-285.8 18 = -5144.4 kJ/h

HR2 =

-H1 + HR0 + H2

-149900.173 - 5144.4 + 168149.3099

148014.7369 kJ/h

For reaction 3:
3H2 +
H1 for H2

H1 for N2

N2

2NH3

---

3 73253.90

219761.7 kJ/h

ni (a + bT +c T2 +d T3) dT

14.663 [aT + bT2 / 2 + cT3 / 3 + dT4 / 4]

29

Table 5.5: Values of a,b,c,d for N2


A

33.1216

10.1923 10-3

-4.262110-6

0.231610-9

14.663 [33.1216 (626-298) (10.192310-3) / 2


(6262-2982) - 4.262110-6/3
(6263-2983) + (0.231610-9 /4)
(6264-2984) ]

Total H1 for reactants

H2 for NH3

14.663[10863.88 - 1544.5003 - 310.9213 + 8.4349]

132214.7065 kJ/h

219761.7 + 132214.7065

351976.4065 kJ/h

Cp =

a + b T + c T2 + d T3

Where a,b,c,d are constants for different components

Table 5.6: Values of a,b,c,d for NH3


A

25.9796

-3.970310-3

24.4989 10-6

24.260410-9

30

H2 for NH3

ni (a + b T + c T2 + d T3 ) dT

14.663[aT + bT2 / 2 + cT3 / 3 + dT4 / 4]

14.633[25.9796(626-298) (3.970310-3) / 2
(6262-2982) + (24.498910-6)/3
(6263-2983) + (24.260410-9 /4)
(6264-2984) ]

14.663[8521.3088 - 601.6434 +
1787.2012+883.5677]

HR0

HR3

14.663 10590.4343

155287.5381 kJ/h

-46.2 34

-1570.8 kJ

-H1 + HR0 + H2

-351976.4065 - 1570.8 + 155287.5381

-198259.6684 kJ

Thus the total heat energy evolved due to endothermicity of the reactions is:
HR1 + HR2

+ HR3

93061.8279+ 148014.7369 -198259.6684

42816.8964 kJ/h

This is the total heat gained by the inlet stream.

31

5.3 ENERGY BALANCES AROUND HEAT EXCHANGER-1


Hot stream from pre-heater,

3050C

9090948.832 kJ/h

Hydrocarbons, 610C

17 00C,

5802649.88kJ/h

1195803 kJ/h

To hot separator, 1930C


4484101.957 kJ/h
Fig. 5.3: Energy Balances around Heat Exchanger-1
We have,

Or,

Qh in

mCpT

Cp

Q/ mT

9090948.832 / ( 28763 ( 305 25 ))

1.1288kJ/kg K

Also,
mCpT

Qc in =
=

27750 1.197 ( 61 25 )

1195803 kJ/h

Qc out =

Difference in heat

mCpT

27750 1.4421 ( 170 25 )

5802649.875 kJ/h

Qc out - Qc in
32

5802649.875 1195803

4606846.875 kJ/h

Heat gained by the diesel product

= Heat lost by the reactor product

Thus,
Heat lost by the reactor product

= 4606846.875kJ/h

So the heat along with the hot fluid out = 9090948.832 4606846.875
= 4484101.957 kJ/h
Now,

the Cp of this fluid,


Cp

Q/ mT

4484101.957/ ( 28763 ( 193 25 ))

0.9280 kJ/kg K

5.4 ENERGY BALANCE AROUND HOT SEPARATOR

From Condenser 1, 640C , 1439757.665 kJ/h

To Cooler, 590C
To H.E. 1

211426.8 kJ/h

1195803 kJ/h
Sour Water, 400C
32527.865 kJ/h
Fig. 5.4: Energy Balance around Hot Separator

33

Outlet 1:
Amount of sulphur

8.53 kg/h

Amount of water

516.6 kg/h

1.62 % of sulphur + 98.38% of water


Cp of sulphur at 400 C= 0.705 kJ/kg K
Cp of water at 400 C

= 4.186 kJ/kg K

Cp avg = xiCpi

So,

= 0.01624 0.705 + 4.186 0.9838


= 4.1295 kJ/kg K
Heat out

= mCpT
= 525.13 4.1295 ( 40 25 )
= 32527.865 kJ/h

Outlet 2:
Heat out

= mCpT
= 487.3 12.761 ( 59 25 )
= 211426.8 kJ/h

Outlet 3:

So,

Amount of C5H12

= 904.65

mass fraction

= 904.65 / 27750
= 0.0326

Cp of C5H12 at 610C

= 1.214 kJ/kg K

Amount of Naphtha

= 205.35

So, mass fraction

= 205.35 / 27750
34

= 7.4 10-3
Cp of Naphtha at 610C
Amount of Diesel
So, mass fraction

= 1.983 kJ/kg K
= 904.65
= 26640 / 27750
= 0.96

Cp of Diesel at 610C

Cp avg

= 1.19 kJ/kg K

= xiCpi
= 1.214 0.0326 + 1.983 7.4 10-3 + 1.19 0.96
= 1.1967 kJ/kg K

Heat out

= mCpT
= 27750 1.197 ( 61 25 )
= 1195803 kJ/h

Total heat out = Qoutlet 1 + Qoutlet 2 + Qoutlet 3


= 211426.8 + 32527.865 + 1195803
= 1439757.665 kJ/h
Since,

Heat in =

Heat out

Heat in = 1439757.665 kJ/h

Thus Cp of stream coming out from reactor at 640C = Q / mT


= 1439757.665 / 28763 ( 64 25 )
= 1.2835 kJ/kg K

35

5.5 ENERGY BALANCE AROUND CONDENSER-1


From H.E. 1 , 1930C, 4484101.957 kJ/h

Cooling Water, 250C

Boiler Feed Water, 860C


3044344.292 kJ/h

To hot Separator, 640C, 1439757.665 kJ/h


Fig. 5.5: Energy Balance around Condenser-1
Qh in

= 4484101.957 kJ/h

Qh out

= 1439757.665 kJ/h

Difference in Heat energy = Qh in - Qh out


= 4484101.957 1439757.665
= 3044344.292 kJ/h
This amount of heat must be carried away by boilr feed water as,
Heat lost by reactor product stream =

Heat gained by boiler feed water

Heat gained by boiler feed water

= 3044344.292 kJ/h

So, the amount of water needed

= Q /CpT
= 3044344.292 / 4.186 ( 86 25 )
= 11922.428 kg/h

36

5.6 ENERGY BALANCE AROUND CONDENSER-2

LH, 1800C, 2819164.18 kJ/h

OffGases,1310C
Water, 250C

1774439.52
kJ/h

Hot Water, 480C

Naphtha, 420C

10767.8 kJ/h

8022.203 kJ/h
Fig. 5.6: Energy Balance around Condenser-2

Outlet 1: Lighter hydrocarbons ( C5H12) + Water vapour


QLighter hydrocarbons

mCpT

= 904.65 1.667 ( 131 25 )


= 159853.46 kJ/h
Qwater

mCpT

= 3567.2 4.27 ( 131 - 25 )


= 1614586.06 kJ/h
Outlet 2: Naphtha
Qnaphtha

mCpT
= 205.35 2.298 ( 42 25 )
= 8022.203 kJ/h

37

Total

Qout

= 159853.46 + 1614586.06 + 8022.203


= 1782461.7 kJ/h

Inlet : Superheated Steam + Lighter Hydrocarbons ( C5H12 + Naphtha)

Qsteam

mCpT

= 3567.2 4.42 ( 180 25 )


= 2443888.72 kJ/h

QLC

mCpT

= 1110 2.1812 ( 180 25 )


= 375275.46 kJ/h
Difference in heat

Qin - Qout

= ( 2443888.72 + 375275.46 )
( 159853.46 + 1614586.06 + 8022.203)
= 2819164.18 1782461.72
= 1036702.46 kJ/h

This amount of heat must be carried away by cooling water as,


Heat lost by reactor product stream = Heat gained by cooling water

Heat gained by cooling water


So, the amount of water needed

= 1036702.46 kJ/h
m=

Q /CpT

= 1036702.46 / 4.186 ( 48 25 )
= 10767.8kg/h
38

5.7 ENERGY BALANCE AROUND STRIPPER

LH, 1800C,
Hydrocarbons, 1700C

2819164.18KJ/hr

6487761.7 kJ/h

Steam, 1900C

Product Diesel, 1600C

2625102.48 kJ/h

6293700.00 kJ/h

Fig. 5.7: Energy Balance around Stripper


Heat outlet:
Outlet 1: Diesel product
Q

mCpT

26640 1.75 ( 160 - 25 )

6293700.00 kJ/h

Outlet 2: Water vapour + Naphtha + C5H12 = Inlet for condenser 2


So,

2819164.18 kJ/h

Total

Qout

6293700.00 + 2819164.18

9112864.18 kJ/h

Inlet 1: Superheated steam 1900C


Qsteam =
=

mCpT
3567.2 4.46 ( 190 25 )
39

2625102.48 kJ/h

Qout

Qin

9112864.18

QHC + 2625102.48

QHC

9112864.18 2625102.48

6487761.7 kJ/h

Inlet 2: Hydrocarbons
We have,
So,
Thus,

The heat energy associated with this stream is same as that coming out from heat
exchanger 1.

5.8 ENERGY BALANCE AROUND SCRUBBER

Hydrogen, 400C

55062.15 kJ/h

Lean amine, 380C


From cold separator, 390C

44306.1528 kJ/h

68632.7972 kJ/h

Sour amine, 410C


57876.8 kJ/h
Fig. 5.8: Energy Balance around Scrubber

Inlet 1: 48.9% Monoethanolamine


Q

mCpT

1226.4 2.779 ( 38 25 )
40

44306.1528 kJ/h

mCpT

256.7 14.3 ( 40 25 )

55062.15 kJ/h

Outlet 1: Hydrogen
Q

Outlet 2: MEA + H2S + O2 + N2


Amount of Monoethanolamine

= 1226.4 kg/h

Mass fraction of MEA

= 1226.4 / 1424.19
= 0.861

Cp of MEA at 410C

= 2.779 kJ/ kg K

Amount of H2S

= 172.2 kg/h

Mass fraction of H2S

= 172.2 / 1424.19
= 0.1209

Cp of H2S at 410C

= 1.003 kJ/ kg K

Amount of O2

= 24.17 kg/h

Mass fraction of O2

= 24.17/ 1424.19
= 0.01697

Cp of O2 at 410C

Amount of N2
Mass fraction of N2

= 0.920 kJ/ kg K

= 1.42kg/h
= 1.42/ 1424.19
41

= 9.9705 10-4
Cp of N2 at 410C

= 10.4 kJ/ kg K
Cp avg

xi Cpi

= 0.861 2.779 + 0.1209 1.003 + 0.01697 0.920


+ 9.9705 10-4 10.4
= 2.5399 kJ/kg K
So,

= mCpT
= 1424.19 2.5399 ( 41 25 )
= 57876.8 kJ/h

We have,

Qout

Qin

57876.8 + 55062.15= Qcold sep + 44306.1528


Qcold sep =

112938.95 44306.1528
=

68632.7972 kJ/h

Cp of stream coming out from cold separator = Qcold sep / mT


= 68632.7972 / (454.5 ( 39 25 ))
= 10.786 kJ/kg K

42

5.9 ENERGY BALANCE AROUND COLD SEPARATOR


To scrubber, 390C , 68632.7972 kJ/h

From cooler, 380C

Spray water, 280C

71809.337 kJ/h

627.9 kJ/h

Water + NH4OH , 360C , 3804.44 kJ/h


Fig. 5.9: Energy Balance around Cold Separator
Outlet 1: Stream to scrubber
Q

68632.7972 kJ/h

Outlet 2: Water + Ammonium hydroxide


QH2O =
=

15.27 4.186 ( 36 25 )

703.12 kJ/hr

QNH4OH =

Total

mCpT

mCpT

67.53 4.175 ( 36 25 )

3101.32 kJ/hr

703.12 + 3101.32

3804.44 kJ/hr

43

Inlet 1: Spray water


=

mCpT

50 4.186 ( 28 25 )

627.9 kJ/hr

Qout

Qin

Qcooler + 627.9

QH2O

We have,

3804.44 + 68632.7972

Qcooler =

71809.337 kJ/hr

Cp of Stream coming out after cooler = Qcooler / mT


= 71809.337 / ( 487.30 ( 38 25 )
= 11.336 kJ/kg K

5.10 ENERGY BALANCE AROUND COOLER


To cold separator , 380C, 71809.337 kJ/h

Water , 250C

Hot water, 490C ,


139617.46KJ/hr

From hot separator , 590C, 211426.8 kJ/hr

44

Fig. 5.10: Energy Balance around Cooler


Qout

= 71809.337 kJ/hr

Qin

mCpT

= 487.3 12.761 ( 59 25 )
= 211426.8 kJ/hr
Difference in heat

= 211426.8 71809.337
= 139617.463 kJ/hr

This heat must be carried away by the cooling water used for cooling
Amount of water required m =

Qdiff / CpT
= 139617.463 / 4.186 ( 49 25 )
= 1389.72 kg/hr

45

46

6. PROCESS EQUIPMENT DESIGN


DESIGN OF HYDROGENATOR REACTOR:

Collect the availability data

Write the general reaction and find no of moles at t=0 t=t

Find Cso and Fso , Fso =sulphur inlet flow rate/mol.wt

Find out the conversion factor X= Fso - Fsf/ Fso

Design the equation for the plug flow reactor

Derive the relationship for volume of the reactor and space time

Calculate the diameter and height of the reactor using thumb rule

Available data:
1.feed (diesel+oil) flow rate rate:33 m3/hr
2.mafke up H2 floiw rate : 330 kg/hr
3.Initial sulfur content present in diesel: 33000ppm(3.3%)
4. final sulfur content present in diesel: 12500ppm(1.25%)

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF DIESEL AND HYDROGEN


Inlet temperature : 353
Inlet pressure: 69.4kg/gcm2
Space time : 0.9127hr
Catalyst used is Ni-MO
REACTION:
S.N0

HC-S+H2 H2S+HC
Components

No of moles at t=0

No of moles at t=t

1.

HC-S

a(1-x)

2.

H2

b(1-x)

3.

H2S

Ax

4.

HC

Bx

47

-rs =K (HC-S)n
-rs =K (a(1-x))n
= K (an(1-x))n
Cso = 0.033 kg of sulfur/kg of diesel

= 0.033/32 kg of sulfur/ kg of diesel

=10.312510^-4 kmol of sulfur/ kg of diesel

= 0.888525 kmol of sulfur/ m3 of diesel

sub the value of Cso in equation in (1)

-rs= k (0.888525)^ 0.5 (1-x)^ 0.5

-rs= k*0.943*(1-x)^0.5

Diesel flow rate = 33* 861.6

= 28432.8 kg/hr

Sulfur inlet flow rate = 28432.8* 3.3/100

= 938.28 kg/hr

Fso= 938.28/32
= 29.321 kmol/ hr
6
10 kg

of diesel contain 300 kg of sulphur

28432.8 kg/hr diesel contain y kg of sulfur


Y=300 28432.8/10^6
= 8.5298 kg/hr
48

Fsf = 92.598/ 32 = 0.2666 kmol/hr


Conversion X = Fso- Fsf/ Fsf
= Fso-Fsf/ Fso
= 29.321- 0.2666/ 29.321
= 0.99(99%)

We know that for the plug flow reactor the design equation = = 0

V=Fso0

Sub value of in equation

V=0.943 0

(1)1/2

For finding the value of 0

(1)1/2

Take X=cos

=-sin

sin d
(1)1/2

1-cos =sin22 +cos22 -[cos22 sin22]

=2sin22

Sin=2sin2 cos2

sin d
2sin2 cos2
0 (1)1/2=0
1

2 sin2
2

=-21/20 cos 2
= -2^1/2 *2(sin 8.1096

90

= -2* 2^ ( 0.071-0.707)

49

= 1.799

(1)1/2

Sub equation (4) in equation (3)

V=0.943 1.799
V= 29.321* 1.799/ k* 0.943
= 55.937/ k
We know that

= Cso 0

= 0.9127 hr ^-1

0.9127 = 0.888525/ k* 0.943 0

(1)1/2

* 1.799

K = 1.8572
Substitute k value in equation (5)
V = 55.937/ 1.8572
= 30.119 m3
* d2h/4 = 30.119 m3
According to Thumb rule
h/ d =4
so, h=4d
substitute in equation (6)
* d2 (4d) /4 = 30.119
d3 = 9.5872
d = 2.1244 m
h = 4d
= 4 * 2.1244
50

= 8.497
H = 8.50 m

Volume of bed = 0.8 ( volume of the reactor)


= 0.8 ( 30.119)
= 24.0952 m3
* d2 * H/

= 24.0952

* (2.124)^2* H/4 = 24.0952


H = 6.8 m
Height of the regenerator reactor = 6.8 m

DESIGN SUMMARY:
1. Volume of the plug flow reactor = 30.119m3
2.

Volume of the packed bed

= 24.0952m3

3.

Height of the reactor (h)

= 8.5 m

4.

Diameter of the reactor (d)

= 2.1244m

5.

Height of the packed bed (H)

= 6.8m

6.

Catlyst used

7.

Operating temperature

8.

Operating pressure

= Ni-Mo
= 353
= 69.4 kg/ cm2

51

DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGER


ITEM DESCRIPTION

UNIT

SHELL SIDE

TUBE SIDE

Fluid circulated

Hydrocarbon

Reactor effluent

Fluid flow rate

kg/s

7.74

7.799

Fluid temperature

Inlet/outlet C

61/170

305/193

Specific heat

kJ/kg C

1.197

1.1288

Viscosity

Cp

0.451

0.39

Density

kg/m3

959

861

Pressure drop allowable

kPa

70

70

Thermal conductivity

W/m C

0.66

0.081

Combined dirt factor

m2 C/W

Tube dimensions = 20mm OD 15.8mm ID 4880 mm long


Tube pitch = 25 mm triangular pitch

Heat Duty
Heat load on shell side fluid, Q = mh * Cph * Th
where,
Q

= Heat transferred, kW

mh = Mass flow rate of hot fluid, kg/s


Cph = Specific heat capacity of hot fluid, kJ/kg C
Th = Temperature difference, C
Q

= 7.799 * 1.1288* (305-193) =1010.1 kW

= 1010.1 kW

Flow rate of cold fluid


Heat load on tube side fluid, Q = mc * Cpc * Tc
Q

= mc * Cpc * Tc = mh * Cph * Th

1010.1 = mc (1.197)(170-61)
mc

= 7.74kg/s

52

7.9 * 10-4

Driving force for heat transfer


305

hot fluid- reactor effluent

170

cold fluid hydrocarbon 61

LMTD =

1 2
1

135 132
135

132

= 0.0225 = 133

LMTD Correction factor

Temperature Efficiency, P =
Heat capacity rate ratio , R =

(17061)

= (30561) = 0.447

(305193)

(17061)

= 1.03

From correction factor chart FT is found to be 0.95


Corrected mean temperature difference Tm = FT LMTD
= 0.95 133= 126.4C

Area Required for Heat Transfer


Assuming the heat transfer coefficient value as Uo = 500 W/ m2 C
We have
Q

= Uo Ao Tm

Where,
Q

= Total heat to be transferred per unit time, kW

Uo

= The overall heat transfer coefficient, W/m2 C

Ao

= Heat transfer area required, m2

Tm = Corrected mean temperature difference, C

Heat transfer area required Ar = =

1010.1 10^3
500126.4

= 15.98 m2

To find number of tubes


Tube dimensions
Tube pitch

= 20mm OD 15.8mm ID 4880 mm long


=

Surface area per tube

25 mm triangular pitch
=

DoLe

2010-3(4880-225) 10-3
53

193

0.303m2

=
No of tubes NT

Total heat transfer area reqd

=
=

Surface area per tube


15.98
0.303

= 52.7 53 tubes

From the tube count table the heat exchanger unit selected will have 254 mm (10) shell
ID with 53 tubes, 1 shell & 4 tube passes.

Determination of Film Heat Transfer Coefficient


Film Heat Transfer Coefficient Tube Side Fluid (hio)

hiDi

0.023 (Re)0.8(Pr)0.33()0.14

where
hi

= Film heat transfer coefficient inside the tubes, W/m2 C

Di

= Thermal conductivity, W/m C

Inside diameter of the tubes, m

Re = Reynoldss number = GtDi /


Pr

Cp =

Prandtl number = Cp / k
Specific heat capacity, kJ/kg C

Gt

= Mass velocity kg/s. m2 = mc/ At

mc

= Mass flow rate of cold fluid, kg /s

At

= Tube side flow area per pass, m2

= Viscosity of cold fluid, kg/m.s

= Viscosity with respect to tube wall temperature, kg/ms

At

Gt

= ( /4) Di2 (NT/NP)


53

( /4) (15.810-3)2(

( mc / At) = 0.0030 = 2580 kg/m2s

) = 0.0030 m2

7.74

Tube side Re = GtDi / =

25800.0158
0.390.001

= 104523
54

1.128810000.390.001

Pr = (Cp / k) =

0.081

= 5.435

hiDi = 0.023 (104523)0.8(5.435)0.33(1)0.14


k
hi

= (416.590.081) / (0.0158)

hi

= 2135.68 W/m2 C

hio =

hi *() = 2135.68 * (0.0158/0.02) = 1687.19 W/m2 C

hio =

1687.19 W/m2 C

Film Heat Transfer Coefficient Shell Side (ho)

hoDe

0.36 (Re)0.55(Pr)0.33()0.14

k
where
ho

= Film heat transfer coefficient inside the tubes, W/m2 C

De

= Effective diameter, m

= Thermal conductivity, W/m C

Re = Reynoldss number = GsDe /


Gs = Mass velocity kg/s. m2 = ( ms / As)
ms

= Mass flow rate of hot fluid, kg /s

As

= Shell side cross flow area, m2 = ( DsCB) / PT

= Viscosity of hot fluid, kg/m s

Pr

Prandtl number = (Cp / k)

Cp = specific heat capacity, kJ/kg C


w

= viscosity with respect to tube wall temperature, kg/m s

For triangular pitch


De = {4 ( 0.86PT2
De =

DO 2) } / DO

4{(0.860.0250.025) ( )0.020.02}
0.02

= 0.0142 m

Mass velocity GS = (mS / AS)


Shell side Cross Flow Area , AS = ( DSCB) / PT
55

where
Ds = shell ID
C

= clearance = PT OD

= baffle spacing = (1/5) DS to DS

= 0.5 Ds , Ds = 0.254m

As = ( DsCB) / PT = ( 0.2540.005(0.50.254)) / 0.025 = 0.00645 m2


Gs = (ms / As) = (7.74/ 0.00645) = 1200 kg/m2s
Shell side Re
Pr

= GsDe / =

= (Cp / k)

12000.0142
0.4510.001

1.19710000.4510.001
0.66

= 37782.71
= 0.818

ho(0.0142) = 0.36 (37782.71)0.55(0.818)0.33(1)0.14


0.66
ho

5155.6W/m2 C

Determination of Wall Resistance


Wall Resistance , RW

DO ln (DO/Di)
2KW

= 0.02 ln (0.02/0.0158)

( KW = 50 W/m2 C)

250
=

4.7110-5 m2 C/ W

Combined dirt factor


Rdo + Rdio = 5.9 10-4 m2 C/ W

Overall heat transfer Coefficient, UO


UO = [ (1/ ho) + Rdo + Rdio + RW + (1/ hio) ] -1
=

[ (1/ 1687.19) +7 .910-4 + 4.7110-5 + (1/ 5155.6) ] -1

UO = 515.85W/m2 C

56

Heat transfer area Required , Ar


Ar =

1010.1 10^3
515.85126.4

= 15.5 m2

Heat transfer area available in the assumed Unit, Aa


Aa = DoLeNT
= 2010-3(4880-225) 10-3 53
= 16.08m2
= { (Aa Ar )*100}/ Ar

% EXCESS AREA

= {(16.08 15.5)*100}/15.5 = 3.74%

PRESSURE DROP CALCULATIONS


Pressure Drop Tube Side (PT)
2

PT = 2106

+ (2.5NPV 2S), kPa

where,
f

= Friction factor = 0.72 (Re)-0.33

Gt

= Mass velocity, kg/s.m2

Length of the tubes

NP = Number of tube passes


Di

Inside diameter of tubes

()0.14

specific gravity

0.72 * (104523)-0.33

Gt / = (258/861) = 0.30m/s

= 1
= 0.861
= 0.016

0.0162582 4.84

PT = 2106 0.01580.8611 + (2.54 0.3 20.861), kPa


= 7.5+0.77 = 8.27 kPa
Tube Side Pressure Drop = 8.27 kPa

57

Pressure Drop Shell Side (PS)


2 ( +1)

PS = 210 6

, kPa

where,
f

= Friction factor = 1.87 * (Re)-0.2 = 1.87*(37782.7) -0.2 = 0.227

GS = Mass velocity, kg/s.m2 = 1200 kg/m2s


S

= Specific gravity = 0.957

DS = Shell ID = 0.254m

Nb = No. of baffles

4.83

= 0.50.254 = 38 baffles

De = Equivalent diameter, m = 0.0142m


PS =

0.22712002 0.254(38+1)
2106 0.014210.957

, kPa

19.62 kPa

DESIGN SUMMARY
Heat duty of the heat exchanger = 1010.1 kW
Area required for heat transfer = 15.5 m2
Area available for heat transfer = 16.08 m2
% Excess area =3.74 %
Number of tubes = 53
Number of passes on tube side = 4
Number of passes on shell side = 1
Shell ID = 254mm
Film heat transfer coefficient tube side , hio = 1687.19 W/m2 C
Film heat transfer coefficient shell side , ho = 5155.6 W/m2 C
Pressure drop tube side PT = 8.27 kPa
Pressure drop tube side PS =19.62 kPa

58

7. INSTRUMENTATION AND PROCESS CONTROL

Instrumentation and process control engineering plays vital role in controlling the
process for desired output from the plant. All instruments should be installed from standard
manufacturers by selecting based on the previous process experience.
Instrumentation is provided to monitor the vital process parameters during plant
operations. They may be incorporated in automatic control loops or used for the manual
monitoring of process parameters. They may also be a part of automatic computer data
acquisition. Instruments monitoring critical process parameters will be fitted with
automatic pop-ups and enunciations to alert the operator at critical and hazardous situations
in prior. The main objective of the designer when specifying instrumentation and control
schemes are, to keep process parameters within the operating limit, so as to detect
dangerous situations that may develop due to process deviations and to provide
alarms/buzzer and automatic fail safe systems. And also to maintain the product
composition within the specified quality standards and to operate the plant at the lowest
production cost. Variables in a process must be measured and then controlled and
integrated for optimum processing conditions. Mechanical and electrical components and
systems have been designed by instrumentation and process control engineers to reduce
labor and improve feasibility of plant operation, and to allow extensive outdoor plant
construction.
The economic advantage of automatic process control has been well established
throughout the industry, thus accounting for the rapid growth in this area of the chemical
process industry.
The main objectives of designer when specifying instrumentation and process
control are:
Monitor and control the process parameters within the operable range on real time
basis.
Maintaining the product quality within the specifications.
Ensure optimum production cost with integrated fail safe mechanisms.

59

Eliminating all the pit-falls that may rise due to manual intervention and properly
taken care of such situations and alert by prior signaling and controlling
catastrophic failures automatically before-hand.

7.1

INSTRUMENTATION IN WHOLE PROCESS

7.1.1 Flow measuring Instruments


For measuring the flow of diesel feed from the distillation column Mass flow meter
will be used, it is precious and sensitive measuring instrument it will give accurate and fast
feed back to the control system. Mass flow meters are available in various ranges; in this
process stainless casing is suitable to get good results. After heating the Tetrahydrofuran to
vapor form the mass flow meter is not suitable as it has a very high thermal expansion coefficient, at the measurement of vapor flow of THF differential pressure orifice meters are
suitable for flow measurement.
For measuring the flow of Jatropha oil feed to the reactor the same mass flow
meters can be used as the co-processing percentage is must to be kept specific.
For measuring the flow of H2 feed to the reactor differential pressure orifice meters
are generally using. In this instrument concentric orifice plate is installed in the pipeline to
drop the pressure of the feed, this pressure drop is directly proportional to the square of the
velocity. Flow rate can be obtained manipulating the velocity with the area of the orifice,
sometimes the vapor pressure taping lines of the orifice meter requires flushing to avoid
the formation any condensate in the line.

7.1.2 Temperature measurement


For measuring the temperature of reactants, resistance thermometers or
Thermocouples are used. Platinum- platinum rhodium thermocouples are used in most
industries, since thermocouples are gives excellent transmission accuracies than other
temperature measuring instruments. THF temperature is measured by thermocouples
mentioned.
For measuring the temperature of Reactor the same thermocouples are used.

60

7.1.3 Pressure Measurement


The bourdon tube measuring elements are used in combination with the differential
pressure transmitters with stainless steel internal components are used for the measuring
the reactor pressure drops in mm water column.

7.2 CONTROL SYSTEM FOR HYDROGENATOR REACTOR


For the reactor the following controls are required for safe and efficient operation
of the reactor.

Raw materials flow controlling as per the specified molar ratio.

Reactor inside pressure controlling by varying the outlet gas flow.

In the hydrogenator, raw materials react to produce the diesel associated with water.
The conversion in the reactor is very much dependent on the molar proportion of
the reactants. The online molar feeds are measured and the controlled for the
specified mole ratio of diesel feed : Jatropha oil feed to get the desired output from
the reactor. The required pressure drop through the reactor for consistent plug
conditions is supplied by the compressor discharge pressure and is maintained by
the reactor outlet damper.

7.2.1 Reactor feed control


The feed rates of the reactants to the reactor are usually controlled to maintain the
proper throughput of the reactor. If there is only one feed flow, it may be controlled with
simple flow control. A special type of flow control, Ratio Controller, will be used. The
molar ratios of Diesel feed and Jatropha oil will be controlled by Ratio Controller, with this
controller the ratio of the individual feeds must often be maintained in order to control the
amount of excess reactants left in the out let stream of the reactor, to control the
temperature, or to favor the production of Diesel. Ratio Controller can be used to maintain
the proper feed ratio. The ratio may be set by the operator, either as a fixed value or as a
value modified by off line analysis of the reactor product stream. It may also be modified
online by a temperature controller or composition controller.

61

In the flow control loop the dynamic elements consist of the controller, the flow
measuring element and the control valve. The control action for a flow control system is
generally PI. The integral control is needed to eliminate offset and thereby establish a
precise ratio of the mixed streams. Derivative action is usually avoided in flow control
because the signal from a flow measuring element is inherently noisy. The presence of
derivative action would amplify the noise and give poor control.

7.2.2 Reactor Pressure control


Pressure is another key process variable because pressure provides a critical
condition for the reactor. Poor pressure control can lead to major safety, quality and
productivity problems. High pressure inside the reactor can cause explosion. Therefore it is
highly desired to keep pressure inside the reactor in good control. The pressure in the
reactor is controlled by PIC controller which includes a low and high alarm. Addition to
this a high pressure switch is provided with bypass key for the safety of the reactor. Bypass
key are useful to carry out any maintenance jobs on the switches. Field mounted pressure
gauge is provided on top of the reactor.
Interlocks are control functions that prevent the normal operation of other control
or operating functions. They are used to ensure personnel or equipment safety or to protect
the operability of the process. For example, in order to protect the pumps, interlocks will
often be used to prevent the pump from operating if a valve is closed on either suction or
the discharge side of the pump or if the level of the tank feeding the pump is low.
Interlocks that do not take intermediate action, but prevent either the operator or a control
function from operating, are often referred to as permissive. If interlocks are required for
personnel safety, they should normally be separate from the regulatory control system in
order to protect against control system failure.
The reactor interlock functions are cut off feed by closing valves and stopping the
H2, if the reactor temperature or pressure is high. Enforce startup sequences by preventing
the introduction of feeds until proper conditions are met.
Because of the instability of the exothermic reactions and the possibility of a
runaway reaction, the reactor is often equipped with an emergency shutdown system, as
well as other safety equipment, such as burst diaphragms and release containment systems.
The purpose of the emergency shutdown system is to stop the reaction in the event of a
runaway. The system may accomplish this by quickly reducing the temperature, injecting
62

some material into the reactor, which will reduce the rate of the reaction; or venting the
reactor to reduce the pressure. The emergency shutdown system must be highly reliable.
In almost all industries Computer based Distribution control systems and
Programmable logic controllers with human interface systems are installed for easy control
through computers, in this system the hardware requirements for pneumatic, electronic,
and microprocessor-based controllers are working, all pneumatic signals in the range of 3
to 15 psig , the energy needed to operate these pneumatic components is a source of clean,
dry air at a pressure of about 20 psig. The pressure can vary from 20 psig by about +-10 %
without adversely affecting the operation of the instruments.
The electronic system required both electrical and pneumatic power to operate the
components. A transducer or converter is needed between the controller and the valve to
convert current (4-20 mA) to pressure (3- 15 psig)
The components for a microprocessor based system contains the control algorithm
reside as a computer program in the memory of the computer. The operator communicates
with the control system with a keyboard, a monitor, and a printer. The computer can
perform many more functions than implementation of the control algorithm; the recorder
of the pneumatic or electronic system is replaced by a monitor screen on which transients
are shown.
In a modern controller both analog and digital signals are processed. The analog
signal is the type that represents a continuous variable with varies over a range of values.
The digital signal is a binary signal that can be represented by two states.

7.3 DISPLAY
The software in a modern controller has made the strip chart recorder almost
unnecessary. Through the use of skilled programming, the transients produced in a control
system can be displayed on a monitor screen dynamically. As time progresses, the values
of selected variables are displayed as a function of time. The segment time shown on the
screen can be selected to be a few minutes to a few hours to show dynamic detail or long
term trends. Transients that occurred in the past can be stored and displayed again.

63

7.4 ALARM
An extensive amount of the software in modern controllers is devoted to detecting
and reporting a problem in the form of an alarm. The alarm takes the form of a visual
signal, an audible signal (beeping horn), or the auction of a switch.

7.5 DATA ACQUISITION AND STORAGE


Long term storage of the transients can be obtained easily with a digital computer;
this task is referred to as archiving. The automatic storage of critical process control
variables on disk or tape can be retrieved later to explain process operating difficulties. The
computer can also be used to automatically record or log the type and location of an alarm,
the time of a process alarm, the time of acknowledgement of an alarm, and the time it was
cleared by operator intervention.

64

8. COST ESTIMATION
8.1

ESTIMATION OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT COST (PEC)


Table 8.1: Equipment Cost
S. No

Equipment

Quantity

Cost( Rs in Lakh)

Jatropha oil tank

3.4

Diesel feed tank

Hydrogenator

112.5

Separators

42

Stripper

34

Scrubber

43.6

Condenser

37.4

Total estimated cost of Equipment= Rs 278.9 Lakhs

65

8.2 PROJECT COST ESTIMATION:


Table 8.2 Fixed Cost
S. No

Descriptions

Cost (Rs in Lakhs)

Plant and Machinery cost

278.9

Installation cost (35% PEC)

97.62

Instrumentation cost (35% PEC)

97.62

Piping and pumping cost (60% PEC)

167.34

Electrical cost (45% PEC)

125.51

6.

Land cost (Total Area 8 acres @ Rs 200

1600.00

Lakhs / acre)
7.

Service facilities (50% PEC)

139.45

Total Fixed Cost = Rs 2506.44 Lakhs


Indirect Cost
Construction expenditure (50% of purchase cost)

139.45 Lakhs

Engineering & Supervision (30% of purchase cost) =

83.69 Lakhs

Total Indirect Cost

Total Direct and Indirect Cost

Contingency (10% of Direct and Indirect Cost)


Contractors fees (10% of Direct & Indirect cost)

2729.61 Lakhs
=

223.17 Lakhs

272.96 Lakhs

272.96 Lakhs

Total Fixed Capital Investment

Working Capital (25% of Fixed Capital Investment) =

818.88 Lakhs

66

3275.53 Lakhs

Total Capital Investment

= Fixed Capital Investment


+ Working Capital

8.3

3275.53 + 818.88

4094.41 Lakhs

RAW MATERIAL COST

Basis: On stream Days 330 Considered


Table 8.3 Raw Material Cost
Quantity m3
S.No

Raw Material

Cost ( Rs)

Cost (Rs in Lakhs)


(Per year)

Boiler feed water

136 per m3

28648.224

38.96

Jatropha oil

80 per kg

22518936 Kg

18015.15

Diesel feed

47 per kg

202670424 Kg

95255.10

Raw Material Cost = Rs 113309.21 Lakhs

67

8.4 COST OF UTILITIES:


Table 8.4: Utility Cost Estimation
S. No
1

Utility

Cost ( Rs)

Quantity (Per year)

Electricity

Rs 10 /KWh

555.55KWh24hr

(555.55KWh)

(Power taken

330days

from Refinery)

=4399956KWh

Cost (Rs in Lakhs)


439.98

L.P Steam

1867 per Ton

35640 Ton

(-) 655.40

M.P Steam

1926 per Ton

43560 Ton

(-) 838.96

Water

65 per m3

565488

367.56

Total = Rs (-) 686.82 Lakhs


Cost Of Utility = Rs (-) 686.82 Lakhs
(-) Indicates NET EXPORT to Other Unit

68

8.5

OPERATING COST
Table 8.5: Employees Salary

S. No

Designation

Nos

Annual salary and wages


(Rs in Lakhs)

Executive Director

15.00

General Manager

12.00

Deputy General Manager

9.00

Production Manager

6.00

Engineer

19.20

Production Operator

12

36.00

Chemist

36.00

Clerical Staff

3.60

Medical Staff

18.00

10

Worker

20

14.40

11

Accounting Staff

7.20

12

Sales officer

4.00

13

Security

4.80

Total = Rs 185.20 Lakhs


Total Salary and Wages

= Rs 185.20 Lakhs

69

8.6

TOTAL PRODUCTION COST

Basis: On-stream Days 330 Considered


Raw Material Cost

Rs 113309.21 Lakhs

Utilities Cost

Rs (-) 686.82 Lakhs

Maintenance Cost

Rs 100 Lakhs

Salary and Wages

Rs 185.20 Lakhs

Catalyst and Chemicals

Rs 55.00 Lakhs

Total Production Cost

Rs 112962.59 Lakhs

5.25% per annum

8.7

DEPRECIATION
Depreciation Rate

Table 8.6: Plant and Machinery


S. No.

Equipment

Cost (Rs in Lakhs)

Plant and Machinery cost

278.9

Installation cost (20% PEC)

55.78

Instrumentation cost (15% PEC)

41.84

Piping and pumping cost (20% PEC)

55.78

Electrical cost (20% PEC)

55.78
Total = Rs 488.08 Lakhs

Depreciation for Plant and Machinery

70

0.0525 488.08

Rs 25.62 Lakhs

8.7.1 Civil Works


Depreciation Rate

Depreciation Amount

Total Depreciation

2.50% per annum

0.025 227.9
=

Rs 5.69 Lakhs

Rs 31.31 Lakhs

8.8. SALES
Diesel production in One day

639.36 MT

Onstream Days Considered

330 Days

Production in One year

Selling Price
Sales Revenue in One year

639.36 330

210988.8 MT

Rs 55000 per MT.

Rs 116043.84 Lakhs

Less Depreciation

Rs 116012.53 Lakhs

Profit before Tax (PBT)

Sales Revenue
Total Production Cost

Rs 116012.53 Lakhs
Rs 112962.59 Lakhs

Tax (33% Profit)


Profit after Tax (PAT)

Rs 3049.94 Lakhs

Rs 1006.48 Lakhs

Rs 2043.46Lakhs

71

Cash accruals

Rs 2043.46 Lakhs
+ Rs 31.31 Lakhs
=

8.9

Rs 2074.77 Lakhs

PAY BACK PERIOD

Pay Back Period (PBP)

Pay Back Period (PBP)

Total Investment / Cash accurals

4094.41 Lakhs / Rs 2074.77 Lakhs

1.97 Years

(Net Profit/total capital Investment)100

(2043.46/4094.41) 100

49.9 %

8.10 RATE OF RETURN


Rate of Return

72

9. PLANT LOCATION AND LAYOUT


Plant layout can be defined as the physical location or configuration of departments,
workstations and equipment in the production process. It is well defined arrangements of
physical resources which are used to produce the product. Plant layout is placing the right
equipment, coupled with the right method, in the right place to permit the processing of
product in the most effective manner through the shortest possible distance and in the shortest
possible time.

9.1

FACTORS AFFECTING THE LAYOUT

The following factors are to be considered.


Organization
Location of departments.
Type of product, method of production, production process, capacity.
Grouping of machines, material flow pattern.
Space requirement for the machines, work area, material handling, storage and other
facilities.
Safety factors, Health and other factors like ventilation, natural light removal of smoke,
and fumes etc.,
Provision for future expansion.

9.2

OBJECTIVE OF THE PLANT LAYOUT


Minimum material handling.
73

Facilitate manufacturing process.


Flexibility of arrangement.
Maximum utilization of equipment and floor area.
Care for employ safety and conveyance.
Easy supervision, minimum production delays, better working conditions.

9.3

ADVANTAGES OF SCIENTIFIC LAYOUT


It reduces internal transport to minimum.
It minimizes accidents and makes supervision easy and quick.
It makes repair and maintenance easy, reduces labour turnover and also reduces
production delays to a large extent.
It helps in production control and eliminates waste effort and thus
Increases the speed of production.
Possible to improve the production methods.

9.4

MAJOR CONSIDERATION FOR LAYOUT


Following are the major considerations which should be followed.
Various production departments such as Machine shop, welding shop and assembly

shop etc., should be located in the building. For this purpose product analysis should be made
which contains what is to be produced, how much is to be produced, what will be the sequence
of operations and how the machines can be best grouped.
The various production departments should be located in such a way that the traffic or
movement of workers should be easy. Flow of materials with in the department and also
between one department and another department should be economically and neatly managed.
74

Service department means canteen, stores, water etc., should be properly positioned
and should be suitably allotted. These should be located from factory as well as workers point
of view.
The various sections of departments of the factory can be arranged in to three main
groups, viz. Administrative, Services and Production departments. As far as possible,
administrative departments should be located in a separate wing, where there should be no
noise and disturbances due to movement and vibrations of machines. General Service
departments such as finished part store, tool rooms should be located as central as possible.
Storage facilities for raw materials and intermediate and finished products may be
located in isolated areas or in adjoining areas. Hazardous material becomes a decided menace
to life and property when stored in large quantities and should consequently be isolated.
Storage in adjoining areas to reduce materials handling may introduce an obstacle toward
future expansion of the plant. Arranging storage of materials so as to facilitate or simplify
handling is also a point to be considered in design. Where it is possible to pump a single
material to an elevation so that subsequent handling can be accomplished by gravity into
intermediate reaction and storage units, costs may be reduced. Liquids can be stored in small
containers, barrels, horizontal or vertical tanks and vats, either indoors or out of doors.
A great deal of planning is governed by local and national safety and fire code
requirements. Fire protection consisting of reservoirs, mains, hydrants, hoe houses, fire pumps,
reservoirs, sprinklers in buildings, explosion barriers and directional routing of explosion
forces to clear areas, and dikes for combustible-product storage tanks must be incorporated to
protect costly plant investment and reduce insurance rates.
Expansion must always be kept in mind. The question of multiplying the number of
units or increasing the size of the prevailing unit or units merits more study than it can be
given here. Suffice it to say that one must exercise engineering judgment; that has a penalty
for bad judgment, scrapping of present serviceable equipment constitutes but one phase, for
shutdown due to remodeling may involve a greater loss of money than that due to rejected
equipment. Nevertheless, the cost of change must sometimes be borne, for the economies of
larger units may, in the end, make replacement imperative.

75

This word Utilities is now generally used for the ancillary services needed in the
operation of any production process. These services will normally be supplied from a central
site facility; and will include Electricity, Steam for process heating, Cooling water for general
use etc
The power required for electrochemical processes; motor drives, lighting, and general
uses, may be generated on site, but will more usually be purchased from the local supply
company. The voltage at which the supply is taken or generated will depend on demand. For a
large site the supply will be taken at a very high voltage, typically 11,000 or 33,000 V.
Transformers will be used to step down the supply voltage to the voltages used on the site. In
the United Kingdom a three-phase 415-V system is used for general industrial purposes, and
240-V single-phase for lighting and other low-power requirements. If a number of large
motors is used, a supply at an intermediate high voltage will also be provided, typically 6,000
or 11,000 V.
The steam for process heating is usually generated in water tube boilers; using the most
economical fuel available. The process temperatures required can usually be obtained with
low-pressure steam, typically 2.5 bar, and steam is distributed at a relatively low mains
pressure, typically around 8 bar. Higher steam pressures, or proprietary heat-transfer fluids,
such Dowtherm needed for high process temperatures. The generation, distribution and
utilization of steam for process heating in the manufacturing industries is properly planned.
The energy costs on a large site can be reduced if the electrical power required is
generated on site and the exhaust steam from the turbines used for process heating. The overall
thermal efficiency of such systems can be in the range of 70 to 80 % ; compared with the 30 to
40 % obtained from a conventional power station, where the heat in the exhaust steam is
wasted in the condenser. Whether a combined heat and power system scheme is worth
considering for a particular site will depend on the size of the site, the cost of fuel, the balance
between the power and heating demands; and particularly on the availability of, and cost of,
standby supplies and the price paid for any surplus power electricity generated.
Natural and forced-draft cooling towers are generally used to provide the cooling water
required on a site; unless water can be drawn from a convenient river or lake in sufficient

76

quantity. Sea water, or brackish water, can be used at coastal sites, but if used directly will
necessitate the use of more expensive materials of construction for heat exchangers.
The water required for general purposes on a site will usually be taken from the local
mains supply, unless a cheaper source of suitable quality water is available from a river, lake
or well.
Demineralised water, from which all the minerals have been removed by ion exchange,
is used where pure water is needed for process use, and a boiler feed water. Mixed and
multiple bed ion-exchange units are used; one resin converting the cations to hydrogen and the
other removing the acid radicals.
The distribution of gas, air, water, steam, power, and electricity is not always a major
item, inasmuch as the flexibility of distribution of these services permits designing to meet
almost any condition. But a little regard for the proper placement of each of these services,
practicing good design, aids in ease of operation, orderliness, and reduction in costs of
maintenance. No pipes should be laid on the floor or between the floor and the 7 feet level,
where the operator must pass or work. Chaotic arrangement of piping invites chaotic operation
of the plant. The flexibility of standard pipe fittings and power-transmission mechanisms
renders this problem one of minor difficult.
Existing or possible future railroads and highways adjacent to the plant must be known
in order to plan rail sidings and access roads within the plant. Railroad spurs and roadways of
the correct capacity and at the right location should be provided for in a traffic study and
overall master track and road plan of the plant area.

Some of the factors in rail-track planning are:


Existing and future off-site main rail facilities
Permissible radius of curvature for spurs- consult local rail authorities
Provision for traffic handling- arrangement of spurs and ladder track and switching

77

Adequate spur facilities


Loading and unloading facilities for initial plant construction and subsequent
operations.
Rack stations for liquid handling.
Storage space for full and empty cars.
Space for cleaning and car repairs.

9.5

PLANT LAYOUT PROCEDURE


A number of procedures have been developed to facilitate the planning (Design) of

plant layouts. Following steps are generally considered in designing a plant layout.

The

type of data and information required depends upon the nature of the layout problems. In case
planning a new plant layout, the data required will be very elaborate and will cover the
manufacturing particulars along with growth rate required. If the layout problem is for making
minor alterations in the layout, the data required will be limited to manufacturing methods,
sequence of operations, equipment involved etc. Product analysis consists of breaking down
the product into sub assemblies and the sub-assemblies into their individual parts. Product
analysis determines the operations necessary for the production of each part. Production
process is then analyzed.
Inter relationship between the work areas is also planned while designing the
individual operations or work areas. Similarly, the inter relationship between related groups of
operations should be worked out. At this stage, flow diagram also should be co coordinated
with the material flow pattern.
After installing the layout there may be possibility that it may not work as planned,
people may not follow the method they are supposed to, material does not arrive as planned. It
may result in delays. In such circumstances management should try to find out the reasons for
such delays, the activities which have to be taken care off and evaluate the consequences.
Action should be taken to rectify the mistakes, to minimize their effect on the execution of the
plan.
78

9.6

PLANT LAYOUT

Fig. 9.1: Plant Layout

79

10. MATERIAL HANDLING AND SAFETY


10.1 FACTS ABOUT H2S
It is highly toxic, colorless gas with rotten eggs smell.
It forms explosive mixture with air.
Prolonged exposure of low concentration H2S affects the organs responsible to
identified smell.
It dissolves in water and is very corrosive on carbon steel.
It severely attacks carbon steel above 3500C.
H2S detectors and alarms should be located at critical points.
Detectors should be capable of functioning during electrical power failure.
Personnel should wear breathing air masks whenever doing potentially hazardous
work. (e.g. Installing blind flanges, replacing orifice plates, opening sample or purge
connections, opening vessels for inspection or repair etc..)
During start-up and shut down, precautions must be taken against occurrence of
sulphur fires and explosions. Care must be taken to ensure that excess air is not
introduced during fuel gas firing mode (after first startup) as sulphur fires could result
when the temperature reaches 205oC.
H2S may be present anywhere in the plant, particularly in process areas. The most
common areas where H2S leaks may occur are

Pump seals

Fittings

Flanges

Drains
80

Sample valves

Sulphur Rundown lines

10.2 HAZARD
H2S is generally recognized by a characteristic foul odor. Prolonged exposure to low
concentrations will dull the sense of smell. This can be fatal to those who think they can detect
a dangerous concentration by its offensive odor.
In low concentrations, H2S irritates the eyes, throat and respiratory system. When high
concentrations are present, death due to lung paralysis may occur before odor is detected.
Toxicity of H2S
1ppm can smell
10 ppm allowable for 8 hour exposure
100 ppm kills smell in 3-5 min. May burn eyes and throat.
200 ppm kills smell rapidly, burn eyes and throat. Will cause headache and nausea
300 ppm Respiratory disturbances in 2-15 min. Artificial resuscitation needed.
Immediately dangerous to life and health.
500 ppm to 700 ppm quick unconsciousness, breathing stops, immediate artificial
resuscitation needed.
1000 ppm Unconsciousness at once, permanent brain damage unless rescued
promptly.

81

10.3 FACTS ABOUT SULPHUR DIOXIDE (SO2)


It is produced when H2S burns
It is a very toxic gas and irritating gas
1 to 10 ppm respiratory and pulse rate increases
20 ppm It is highly irritating to eyes, nose, throat and lungs
It is equally toxic as compared to H2S and should be treated accordingly.

10.4

HAZARDS OF DIESEL

It is inflammable in nature; therefore it should not be subjected to very high


temperature.
Storage must be done in the vessels to withstand the increasing pressure because of its
volatility.

10.5 BASIC RESCUE PROCEDURE


Take the Victim to fresh air and apply artificial resuscitation.
Keep the Victim warm.
Do not give an unconscious person anything by mouth.
Do not leave the victim unattended even after he regains consciousness.
Take the victim to Doctor or call the doctor.
The most effective safety measure is the common sense approach.
Being aware of the hazard and act according

82

10.6 ENVIRONMENT CONSIDERATIONS


Oil refineries are creating a major public health crisis because of the huge amounts of
toxic pollution they release on a daily basis. They release massive amount of Sulphur dioxide,
volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide, these
pollutants form ground level ozone and hazards. Thus, refineries also contribute to failure of
many areas to meet Environment Pollutants Assessment ambient air quality standards.
Refineries are the Nations major source of tons of toxic volatile organic compounds, like
cancer causing benzene, naphtha, ketones and chemical that cause asthma and childhood
development problems .Refineries are also a source of large chemical releases during fires
explosions, upsets and spills during the accidents. These spills often dump chemicals into
communities around refineries causing health problems. Most of toxic air pollution is formed
by product leaks in equipment, technology to prevent these leaks has been widely available.
Government regulations/norms are being adopted by Refineries to reduce pollution problems
so that better environment conditions are maintained.

83

11. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Hydroprocessing of renewable oil feed stocks creates a unique opportunity to produce


sustainable diesel fuel, completely compatible with existing fuel infrastructure, refinery
configuration and engine technology. The process has bright advantages in terms of energy
savings and cost, environmental friendliness, product quality and quantity and process
advantages; which are listed in this section.

11.1 ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS


The main advantage of the process is that it reduces the dependency on fossil fuel and
it is a clean fuel.
As the vegetable oils dont have harmful emission precursors like N and S, it
contributes to the environment by reducing sulfur load in the atmosphere. It is found in
our studies that 5-8% sulfur is reduced in the product by co processing 10% Jatropha
oil along with diesel [sulfur content 2.3%] and it is consistent for at least 2 years of
operation.
The process doesnt create the food chain implications as the oils are non edible. The
slight increase in CO2 release [approximately 0.1 -0.15 %] in the process will be well
compensated by the carbon consumption by the corresponding source plants/trees.
The energy savings and GHG (Green House Gases) saving in CO2 equivalents are
studied by CONCAWE (Conservation Of Clean Air And Water In Western Europe),
DOE [Department of Energy] and PNAS [Proceedings of National Academy of
Sciences, United States of America]. From this, it is understood that co-processing of
10% vegetable oil will save 4-4.3 GJ/ ton in comparison with that of blending 10%
Biodiesel [2.63 3.55 GJ/ ton] in the diesel.

84

REFERENCES
1. Bhatt. B.I and Vora S.M., Stoichiometry, 4th Edition, Tata McGraw Hill
Publication, New Delhi, 2011.
2.

Coulson and Richardsons, Chemical Engineering Design, 4th Edition, ButterworthHeinemann Publication, Singapore, 2005.

3.

Donald QKern, Process Heat Transfer, 10th Reprint, McGraw Hill Publication, New
York, 1997.

4.

McCabe

L.Warren, Julian

C.Smith, and Harriot

Peter,Unit

Operation in

Chemical Engineering, 6th edition, McGraw Hill Publication, New York, 2007.
5.

Octave Levenspiel, Chemical Reaction Engineering, 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons
Publication, New York, 1999.

6.

Robert H.Perry and

Don W.Green, Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook, 6th

Edition, McGraw Hill Publication, New York, 1978.


7.

SpecificHeatofJatropha

Oil,www.endmemo.com/physics/specificheat.php,

last

accessed on 2nd February, 2014.


8.

Specific Heat, www.wikipedia.com, last accessed on 2nd February, 2014.

9.

Design of separator,www.webqc.org/chemicaltools.php, last accessed on 13th


February, 2014.

10.

Design

of

oil-water

separator,www.engineeringtools.com/separatordesign,

last

accessed on 13th February, 2014.


11.

Design of Stripper and Scrubber,www.engineerscircle.wordpress.com, last accessed on


14th February, 2014.

12.

Heat

of

Formation

of

Ammonia,

Hydrogen

sulfide,

www.chemistry.about.com/od/thermodynamics/a/Heat-Of-Formation.html,
accessed on 14th February, 2014.
85

water,
last