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Keywords: School Dropout, pupils, policy, Dumarao Central School

Education is a fundamental human right and essential for the exercise of all
other human rights. It promotes individual freedom and empowerment and yields
important development benefits. Yet millions of children and adults remain deprived
of educational opportunities, many as a result of poverty. The right to education also
includes a responsibility to provide basic education for individuals who have not
completed primary education. In addition to these access to education provisions, the
right to education encompasses the obligation to rule out discrimination at all levels
of the educational system, to set minimum standards and to improve the quality of
education. Dumarao Central School, before the DepEd released the zero dropout
policy, had big problems on their dropout rates. In this paper, I have undertaken a
field base study on the past dropout rates of Grade VI pupils at Dumarao Central
School. The findings of this study will mainly reveal the causes of school dropouts.

1. Introduction
Policies to improve school progression and reduce the numbers of children
dropping out of school are critical zero dropout rate is to be achieved. Children are
starting primary school in greater numbers than ever before but dropout rates are
significant and lead to low levels of primary school completion in the Philippines.
Failure to complete a basic cycle of primary school not only limits future
opportunities for children but also represents a significant drain on the limited
resources that countries have for the provision of primary education. According to
the World Bank, the Government of Malawi for example allocated 4.2 percent of
Gross Domestic Product towards public educational expenditure in 2007, which
represented around 195 million dollars. Of this, 55 percent was allocated towards
primary school. With a primary school drop out rate of 65 percent in 2007, it is
estimated that nearly half a million school places were taken up by children who fail
to complete elementary school. In monetary terms, this broadly represented an
annual expenditure of 60 million dollars, 1.3 percent of GDP in 2007, on the

education of children who probably left schooling without any basic skills. Despite
its importance, strategies designed to improve primary school retention and
progression have received relatively little attention. Typically, national education
plans assume that primary school progression will improve automatically as a result
of interventions designed to improve initial access and educational quality.
Nevertheless, improving progression in primary school may not necessarily be about
improving the quality of education alone.
As a result of substantial rates of drop out and non-completion of primary
school many children are leaving schooling without acquiring the most basic skills.
Their brief schooling experience consists frequently of limited learning opportunities
in overcrowded classrooms with insufficient learning materials and under-qualified
teachers (Alexander, 2008). Children of different ages and abilities are mixed
together in single classrooms without proper adaptation of teaching methods to
improve learning and to induce school engagement (Little, 2008). Such schooling
circumstances, together with personal and family level factors such as ill-health,
malnutrition and poverty, jeopardise meaningful access to education for many
children. As a result, many children are registered in schools but fail to attend,
participate but fail to learn, are enrolled for several years but fail to progress and drop
out from school.

2. Materials and Methods

The methodology of this case study basically followed Educational Approach.

3. Sampling Frame and Sample Size

I have only taken one Grade level for this study, Grade VI most specifically. There
are three sections in Grade VI. I have taken all Grade VI pupils that have been
enrolled this school year and also have a history of dropping out from this school
from the last five years. I did not use any sampling technique for this study.

3.1 Sample Size. Mainly data was taken from the Grade VI advisers of the said
school. The number of school dropouts collected from the advisers supported by
their written reports on school dropouts for the last five years. Causes of school
dropouts was also taken from the advisers. The total number of dropouts in the
study area is 14 in to which 12 or 86% were male and 2 or 14% were female.

4. Findings and Results

The chart below shows the dropout rates for the last five years in the said
Grade level in the said school. The number of dropout rates were distributed on
different sections for the last five years.

Dropout Rates


Section C
Section B
Section A

Section A

Section B

Section C

Figure 1. A Chart showing the distribution of dropout rates on different school year and sections.

The table below shows causes of dropout rates on the said school and grade level as
given by their advisers as taken from their written reports for the last five years. The highest
(71%) number of school dropouts occurred for the causes of reluctance of parents while the
lowest (7%) number of school dropout occurred for the causes of illness of parents and death in
the family.
Reluctance of Parents
Not Interested in Studies
Illness of Parents
Death in the Family
5. Conclusion



The main causes of dropout of both male and female pupils of Grade VI from
Dumarao Central School for the last five years was reluctance of parents. Another cause is
financial constraints due to illness of parents and death in the family. The parents educational
was poor and they do not give much importance to education.

6. Acknowledgments
I would like to give my heartfelt gratitude to the teachers and advisers of Grade VI
from Dumarao Central School for sharing their time, patience and valuable information that had
helped mainly in the success of this case study. I would also like to express my gratitude to all
those names that are not mentioned but had helped in this study.


Educational Attainment

The Condition of Education 2006 In Brief. 2006, June 1. National Center for Educational
Statistics. http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2006/2006072.pdf (accessed January 5, 2007).
http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/index.asp (accessed January 5, 2007).

Connected by 25: Improving Options and Outcomes for Underserved and Out-of-School Youth.
Jobs for the Future. http://www.jff.org/JFF_Pages.php?
WhichLevel=3&lv1_id=3&lv2_id=32&lv3_id=27&ShowProject=2 (accessed April 7, 2006).

National At-Risk Education Network (NAREN).


National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES).


National Dropout Prevention Center/Network (NDPC/N).