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Total marks and time (no candidate shall be allowed to leave the
exam hall before the complete exam duration of 3 Hours)
Paper Code













3 Hours

XE (Section A +
any two sections)


15 + 2 x 35


3 Hours

XL (Section P +
any two sections)


25 + 2 x 30


3 Hours


Syllabus for General Aptitude (GA)

Verbal Ability: English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups,
instructions, critical reasoning and verbal deduction.
Numerical Ability: Numerical computation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning and data
Sample Questions
Verbal Ability
Q.1. Choose the appropriate answer to complete the following sentence:
To those of us who had always thought him timid, his --------- came as a surprise.

intrepidity (B)

inevitability (C)

inability (D)


Ans. (A)
Q.2. Choose the appropriate answer to complete the following sentence:
Medicine is to illness as law is to _________

discipline (B)

anarchy (C)

treason (D)


Ans. (B)
Q.3. Read the following paragraph :
The ordinary form of mercury thermometer is used for temperature ranging from 40oF to
500oF. For measuring temperature below 40oF, thermometers filled with alcohol are used.
These are, however, not satisfactory for use in high temperatures. When a mercury thermometer
is used for temperature above 500oF, the space above the mercury is filled with some inert gas,
usually nitrogen or carbon dioxide, placed in the thermometer under pressure. As the mercury
rises, the gas pressures is increased, so that it is possible to use these thermometers for
temperatures as high as 1000oF.
With what, besides mercury, would a thermometer be filled if it was designed to be used
for measuring temperature of about 500oF?
(A) Pyrometer

(B) Inert gas

(C) Iron and brass

Ans. (B)

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(D) Gas

Q.4. The cost of manufacturing tractors in Korea is twenty percent less than the cost of
manufacturing tractors in Germany. Even after transportation fees and import taxes are added, it
is still cheaper to import tractors from Korea to Germany than to produce tractors in Germany.
Which of the following assertions is best supported by the above information?
(A) Labour costs in Korea are twenty percent below those in Germany.
(B) Importing tractors into Germany will eliminate twenty percent of the manufacturing jobs in
(C) The costs of transporting a tractor from Korea to Germany is more than twenty percent
ofthe cost of manufacturing the tractor in Korea.
(D) The import taxes on a tractor imported from Korea to Germanyis less than twenty
percentof the cost of manufacturing the tractor in Germany.
Ans. (D)
Numerical Ability
Q.5. In a survey, 3/16 of the people surveyed told that they preferred to use publictransport
while commuting daily to office. 5/8 of the people surveyed told that theypreferred to use their
own vehicles. The remaining 75 respondents said thatthey had no clear preference. How many
people preferred to use publictransport?
(A) 75 (B) 100 (C) 125 (D) 133
Ans. (A)

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Aerospace Engineering

Important Note for Candidates : In each of the following subjects the topics have been
divided into two categories Core Topics and Special Topics. The corresponding sections
of the question paper will contain 90% of their questions on Core Topics and the remaining
10% on Special Topics.

Section1: Engineering Mathematics

Core Topics:
Linear Algebra: Vector algebra, Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, rank of a
matrix, eigenvalues and eigenvectors.
Calculus: Functions of single variable, limits, continuity and differentiability, mean value
theorem, chain rule, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, gradient, divergence
and curl, directional derivatives. Integration, Line, surface and volume integrals.
Theorems of Stokes, Gauss and Green.
Differential Equations: First order linear and nonlinear differential equations, higher order
linear ODEs with constant coefficients. Partial differential equations and separation of
variables methods.
Special Topics:
Fourier Series, Laplace Transforms, Numerical methods for linear and nonlinear algebraic
equations, Numerical integration and differentiation.

Section 2: Flight Mechanics

Core Topics:
Basics: Atmosphere: Properties, standard atmosphere. Classification of aircraft. Airplane
(fixed wing aircraft) configuration and various parts;
Airplane performance: Pressure altitude; equivalent, calibrated, indicated air speeds;
Primary flight instruments: Altimeter, ASI, VSI, Turn-bank indicator. Drag polar; takeoff
and landing; steady climb & descent, absolute and service ceiling; cruise, cruise
climb, endurance or loiter; load factor, turning flight, V-n diagram; Winds: head, tail &
cross winds;
Static stability: Angle of attack, sideslip; roll, pitch & yaw controls; longitudinal stick fixed
& free stability, horizontal tail position and size; directional stability, vertical tail position
and size; dihedral stability. Wing dihedral, sweep & position; hinge moments, stick
Special Topics:
Dynamic stability: Euler angles; Equations of motion; aerodynamic forces and moments,
stability & control derivatives; decoupling of longitudinal and lateral-directional
dynamics; longitudinal modes; lateral-directional modes.
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Section 3: Space Dynamics

Core Topics:
Central force motion, determination of trajectory and orbital period in simple cases.
Special Topics:
Orbit transfer, in-plane and out-of-plane.

Section 4: Aerodynamics
Core Topics:
Basic Fluid Mechanics: Conservation laws: Mass, momentum (Integral and differential
Potential flow theory: sources, sinks, doublets, line vortex and their superposition;
Viscosity, Reynold's number.
Airfoils and wings: Airfoil nomenclature; Aerodynamic coefficients: lift, drag and
moment; Kutta-Joukoswki theorem; Thin airfoil theory, Kutta condition, starting vortex;
Finite wing theory: Induced drag, Prandtl lifting line theory; Critical and drag
divergence Mach number.
Compressible Flows: Basic concepts of compressibility, Conservation equations; One
dimensional compressible flows, Fanno flow, Rayleigh flow; Isentropic flows, normal
and oblique shocks, Prandtl-Meyer flow; Flow through nozzles and diffusers.

Special Topics:
Elementary ideas of viscous flows including boundary layers; Wind Tunnel Testing:
Measurement and visualization techniques.

Section 5: Structures
Core Topics:
Strength of Materials: States of stress and strain. Stress and strain transformation. Mohr's
Circle. Principal stresses. Three-dimensional Hooke's law. Plane stress and strain; Failure
theories: Maximum stress, Tresca and von Mises; Strain energy. Castigliano's principles.
Analysis of statically determinate and indeterminate trusses and beams. Elastic flexural
buckling of columns.
Flight vehicle structures: Characteristics of aircraft structures and materials. Torsion,
bending and flexural shear of thin-walled sections. Loads on aircraft.

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Structural Dynamics:. Free and forced vibrations of undamped and damped SDOF
systems. Free vibrations of undamped 2-DOF systems.
Special Topics:
Vibration of beams.
Theory of elasticity: Equilibrium and compatibility equations, Airys stress function.

Section 6: Propulsion
Core Topics:
Basics: Thermodynamics,








Thermodynamics of aircraft engines: Thrust, efficiency and engine performance of

turbojet, turboprop, turbo shaft, turbofan and ramjet engines, thrust augmentation of
turbojets and turbofan engines. Aerothermodynamics of non-rotating propulsion
components such as intakes, combustor and nozzle.
Axial compressors: Angular momentum, work and compression, characteristic
performance of a single axial compressor stage, efficiency of the compressor and
degree of reaction.
Axial turbines: Axial turbine stage efficiency
Centrifugal compressor: Centrifugal compressor stage dynamics, inducer, impeller and
Rocket propulsion: Thrust equation and specific impulse, vehicle acceleration, drag,
gravity losses, multi-staging of rockets. Classification of chemical rockets, performance
of solid and liquid propellant rockets.

No Special Topics

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Agricultural Engineering

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrices and determinants, systems of linear equations, Eigen
values and eigen vectors.
Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability; partial derivatives; maxima and
minima; sequences and series; tests for convergence; Fourier series, Taylor series.
Vector Calculus: Gradient; divergence and curl; line; surface and volume integrals;
Stokes, Gauss and Greens theorems.
Differential Equations: Linear and non-linear first order Ordinary Differential Equations
(ODE); Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchys and Eulers
equations; Laplace transforms; Partial Differential Equations - Laplace, heat and
wave equations.
Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; random
variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; correlation and regression
analysis; tests of significance, analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Numerical Methods: Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations;
numerical integration - trapezoidal and Simpsons rule; numerical solutions of ODE.

Section 2: Farm Machinery

Machine Design: Design and selection of machine elements gears, pulleys, chains
and sprockets and belts; overload safety devices used in farm machinery;
measurement of force, torque, speed, displacement and acceleration on machine
Farm Machinery: Soil tillage; forces acting on a tillage tool; hitch systems and
hitching of tillage implements; functional requirements, principles of working,
construction and operation of manual, animal and power operated equipment for
tillage, sowing, planting, fertilizer application, inter-cultivation, spraying, mowing,
chaff cutting, harvesting, threshing and transport; testing of agricultural machinery
and equipment; calculation of performance parameters - field capacity,
efficiency, application rate and losses; cost analysis of implements and tractors.

Section 3: Farm Power

Sources of Power: Sources of power on the farm - human, animal, mechanical,
electrical, wind, solar and biomass; bio-fuels.
Farm Power: Thermodynamic principles of I.C. engines; I.C. engine cycles; engine
components; fuels and combustion; lubricants and their properties; I.C. engine
systems fuel, cooling, lubrication, ignition, electrical, intake and exhaust; selection,
operation, maintenance and repair of I.C. engines; power efficiencies and
measurement; calculation of power, torque, fuel consumption, heat load and
power losses.
Tractors and Powertillers: Type, selection, maintenance and repair of tractors and
powertillers; tractor clutches and brakes; power transmission systems gear trains,
differential, final drives and power take-off; mechanics of tractor chassis; traction
theory; three point hitches- free link and restrained link operations; mechanical
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steering and hydraulic control systems used in tractors; tractor tests and
Human engineering and safety in design of tractor and agricultural implements.

Section 4: Soil and Water Conservation Engineering

Fluid Mechanics: Ideal and real fluids, properties of fluids; hydrostatic pressure and
its measurement; hydrostatic forces on plane and curved surface; continuity
equation; Bernoullis theorem; laminar and turbulent flow in pipes, Darcy- Weisbach
and Hazen-Williams equations, Moodys diagram; flow through orifices and
notches; flow in open channels.
Soil Mechanics: Engineering properties of soils; fundamental definitions and
relationships; index properties of soils; permeability and seepage analysis; shear
strength, Mohrs circle of stress, active and passive earth pressures; stability of
Hydrology: Hydrological cycle and components; meteorological parameters, their
measurement and analysis of precipitation data; runoff estimation; hydrograph
analysis, unit hydrograph theory and application; stream flow measurement; flood
routing, hydrological reservoir and channel routing.
Surveying and Leveling: Measurement of distance and area; instruments for
surveying and leveling; chain surveying, methods of traversing; measurement of
angles and bearings, plane table surveying; types of leveling; theodolite traversing;
contouring; computation of areas and volume.
Soil and Water Erosion: Mechanics of soil erosion, soil erosion types, wind and water
erosion, factors affecting erosion; soil loss estimation; biological and engineering
measures to control erosion; terraces and bunds; vegetative waterways; gully
control structures, drop, drop inlet and chute spillways; earthen dams.
Watershed Management: Watershed characterization; land use capability
classification;rainwater harvesting structures,check dams and farm ponds.

Section 5: Irrigation and Drainage Engineering

Soil-Water-Plant Relationship: Water requirement of crops; consumptive use and
evapotranspiration; measurement of infiltration, soil moisture and irrigation water
Irrigation Water Conveyance and Application Methods: Design of irrigation
channels and underground pipelines; irrigation scheduling; surface, sprinkler and
micro irrigation methods, design and evaluation of irrigation methods; irrigation
Agricultural Drainage: Drainage coefficient; planning, design and layout of surface
and sub-surface drainage systems; leaching requirement and salinity control;
irrigation and drainage water quality and reuse.
Groundwater Hydrology: Groundwater occurrence; Darcys Law, steady flow in
confined and unconfined aquifers, evaluation of aquifer properties; groundwater
Wells and Pumps: Types of wells, steady flow through wells; classification of pumps;
pump characteristics; pump selection and installation.
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Section 6: Agricultural Processing Engineering

Drying: Psychrometry properties of air-vapors mixture; concentration and drying of
liquid foods evaporators, tray, drum and spray dryers; hydrothermal treatment;
drying and milling of cereals, pulses and oilseeds.
Size Reduction and Conveying: Mechanics and energy requirement in size
reduction of granular solids; particle size analysis for comminuted solids; size
separation by screening; fluidization of granular solids-pneumatic, bucket, screw
and belt conveying; cleaning and grading; effectiveness of grain cleaners;
centrifugal separation of solids, liquids and gases.
Processing and By-product Utilization: Processing of seeds, spices, fruits and
vegetables; By-product utilization from processing industries.
Storage Systems: Controlled and modified atmosphere storage; perishable food
storage, godowns, bins and grain silos.

Section 7: Dairy and Food Engineering

Heat and Mass Transfer: Steady state heat transfer in conduction, convection and
radiation; transient heat transfer in simple geometry; working principles of heat
exchangers; diffusive and convective mass transfer; simultaneous heat and mass
transfer in agricultural processing operations; material and energy balances in food
processing systems; water activity, sorption and desorption isotherms.
Preservation of Food: Kinetics of microbial death pasteurization and sterilization of
milk and otherliquid foods; preservation of food by cooling and freezing;
refrigeration and cold storage basics and applications.

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Architecture and Planning

Section 1: Architecture and Design

Visual composition in 2D and 3D; Principles of Art and Architecture; Organization of
space; Architectural Graphics; Computer Graphics concepts of CAD, BIM, 3D
modeling and Architectural rendition; Programming languages and automation.
Anthropometrics; Planning and design considerations for different building types;
Site planning; Circulation- horizontal and vertical; Barrier free design; Space
Standards; Building Codes; National Building Code.
Elements, construction, architectural styles and examples of different periods of
Indian and Western History of Architecture; Oriental, Vernacular and Traditional
architecture; Architectural developments since Industrial Revolution; Influence of
modern art on architecture; Art nouveau, Eclecticism, International styles, Post
Modernism, Deconstruction in architecture; Recent trends in Contemporary
Architecture; Works of renowned national and international architects.

Section 2: Building Materials, Construction and Management

Behavioral characteristics and applications of different building materials viz. mud,
timber, bamboo, brick, concrete, steel, glass, FRP, AAC, different polymers,
Building construction techniques, methods and details; Building systems and
prefabrication of building elements; Principles of Modular Coordination; Estimation,
specification, valuation, professional practice; Construction planning and
equipments; Project management techniques e.g. PERT, CPM etc.

Section 3: Building and Structures

Principles of strength of materials; Design of structural elements in wood, steel and
RCC; Elastic and Limit State design; Structural systems in RCC and Steel; Form and
Structure; Principles of Pre-stressing; High Rise and Long Span structures, gravity and
lateral load resisting systems; Principles and design of disaster resistant structures.

Section 4: Environmental Planning and Design

Ecosystem- natural and man-made ecosystem; Ecological principles; Concepts of
Environmental Impact Analysis; Environmental considerations in planning and
design; Thermal comfort, ventilation and air movement; Principles of lighting and
illumination; Climate responsive design; Solar architecture; Principles of architectural
acoustics; Green Building- Concepts and Rating; ECBC; Building Performance
Simulation and Evaluation; Environmental pollution- types, causes, controls and
abatement strategies.

Section 5: Urban Design

Concepts and theories of urban design; Public Perception; Townscape; Public
Realm; Urban design interventions for sustainable development and transportation;
Historical and modern examples of urban design; Public spaces, character, spatial
qualities and Sense of Place; Elements of urban built environment urban form,
spaces, structure, pattern, fabric, texture, grain etc; Principles, tools and techniques
of urban design; Urban renewal and conservation; Site planning; Landscape
design; Development controls FAR, densities and building byelaws.
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Section 6: Urban Planning and Housing

Planning process; Types of plans - Master Plan, City Development Plan, Structure
Plan, Zonal Plan, Action Area Plan, Town Planning Scheme, Regional Plan; Salient
concepts, theories and principles of urban planning; Sustainable urban
development; Emerging concepts of cities - Eco-City, Smart City, Transit Oriented
Development (TOD), SEZ, SRZ etc.
Housing; Concepts, principles and examples of neighbourhood; Housing typologies;
Slums; Affordable Housing; Housing for special areas and needs; Residential
densities; Standards for housing and community facilities; National Housing Policies,
Programs and Schemes.

Section 7: Planning Techniques and Management

Tools and techniques of Surveys Physical, Topographical, Landuse and Socioeconomic Surveys; Methods of non-spatial and spatial data analysis; Graphic
presentation of spatial data; Application of G.I.S and Remote Sensing techniques in
urban and regional planning; Decision support system and Land Information
Urban Economics; Law of demand and supply of land and its use in planning;
Social, Economical and environmental cost benefit analysis; Techniques of financial
appraisal; Management of Infrastructure Projects; Development guidelines such as
URDPFI; Planning Legislation and implementation Land Acquisition Act, PPP etc.;
Local self-governance.

Section 8: Services, Infrastructure and Transportation

Building Services: Water supply; Sewerage and drainage systems; Sanitary fittings
and fixtures; Plumbing systems; Principles of internal and external drainage system;
Principles of electrification of buildings; Intelligent Buildings; Elevators and Escalators
- standards and uses; Air-Conditioning systems; Firefighting Systems; Building Safety
and Security systems.
Urban Infrastructure Transportation, Water Supply, Sewerage, Drainage, Solid
Waste Management, Electricity and Communications.
Process and Principles of Transportation Planning and Traffic Engineering; Road
capacity; Traffic survey methods; Traffic flow characteristics; Traffic analyses and
design considerations; Travel demand forecasting; Land-use transportation urban form inter-relationships; Design of roads, intersections, grade separators and
parking areas; Hierarchy of roads and level of service; Traffic and transport
management and control in urban areas,; Mass transportation planning; Paratransits and other modes of transportation, Pedestrian and slow moving traffic
planning; Intelligent Transportation Systems.
Principles of water supply and sanitation systems; water treatment; Water supply
and distribution system; Water harvesting systems; Principles, Planning and Design of
storm water drainage system; Sewage disposal methods; Methods of solid waste
management - collection, transportation and disposal; Recycling and Reuse of
solid waste; Power Supply and Communication Systems, network, design and

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Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrices and determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and
Eigen vectors. Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability, Partial derivatives, Maxima
and minima, Sequences and series, Test for convergence, Fourier Series. Differential
Equations: Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs, higher order ODEs with constant
coefficients, Cauchys and Eulers equations, Laplace transforms, PDE-Laplace, heat and
wave equations. Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation,
Random variables, Poisson, normal and binomial distributions, Correlation and regression
analysis. Numerical Methods: Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations,
Integration of trapezoidal and Simpsons rule, Single and multistep methods for differential

Section 2: General Biotechnology

Biochemistry: Biomolecules-structure and functions; Biological membranes, structure,
action potential and transport processes; Enzymes- classification, kinetics and mechanism
of action; Basic concepts and designs of metabolism (carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids
and nucleic acids) photosynthesis, respiration and electron transport chain; Bioenergetics
Microbiology: Viruses- structure and classification; Microbial classification and
diversity(bacterial, algal and fungal); Methods in microbiology; Microbial growth and
nutrition; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration; Nitrogen fixation; Microbial diseases and
host-pathogen interaction
Cell Biology: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; Cell cycle and cell growth control;
Cell-Cell communication, Cell signaling and signal transduction
Molecular Biology and Genetics: Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes;
Mutations and mutagenesis; Nucleic acid replication, transcription, translation and their
regulatory mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mendelian inheritance; Gene
interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extra
chromosomal inheritance; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction,
conjugation); Horizontal gene transfer and Transposable elements; RNA interference; DNA
damage and repair; Chromosomal variation; Molecular basis of genetic diseases
Analytical Techniques: Principles of microscopy-light, electron, fluorescent and confocal;
Centrifugation- high speed and ultra; Principles of spectroscopy-UV, visible, CD, IR, FTIR,
Raman, MS,NMR; Principles of chromatography- ion exchange, gel filtration, hydrophobic
interaction, affinity, GC,HPLC, FPLC; Electrophoresis; Microarray
Immunology: History of Immunology; Innate, humoral and cell mediated immunity;
Antigen; Antibody structure and function; Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Synthesis
of antibody and secretion; Antigen-antibody reaction; Complement; Primary and
secondary lymphoid organ; B and T cells and macrophages; Major histocompatibility
complex (MHC); Antigen processing and presentation; Polyclonal and monoclonal
antibody; Regulation of immune response; Immune tolerance; Hypersensitivity;
Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction.
Bioinformatics: Major bioinformatic resources and search tools; Sequence and structure
databases; Sequence analysis (biomolecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices,
sequence alignment, phylogeny);Data mining and analytical tools for genomic and
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proteomic studies; Molecular dynamics and simulations (basic concepts including force
fields, protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid, protein-ligand interaction)

Section 3: Recombinant DNA Technology

Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors; plasmid, bacteriophage and other viral
vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial chromosome; mammalian and plant
expression vectors; cDNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation, cloning and
expression ; Transposons and gene targeting; DNA labeling; DNA sequencing; Polymerase
chain reactions; DNA fingerprinting; Southern and northern blotting; In-situ hybridization;
RAPD, RFLP; Site-directed mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; Gene therapy

Section 4: Plant and Animal Biotechnology

Totipotency; Regeneration of plants; Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Tissue culture
and Cell suspension culture system: methodology, kinetics of growth and, nutrient
optimization; Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures; Hairy root
culture; transgenic plants; Plant products of industrial importance
Animal cell culture; media composition and growth conditions; Animal cell and tissue
preservation; Anchorage and non-anchorage dependent cell culture; Kinetics of cell
growth; Micro & macro-carrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Stem cell technology;
Animal cloning; Transgenic animals

Section 5: Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology

Chemical engineering principles applied to biological system, Principle of reactor design,
ideal and non-ideal multiphase bioreactors, mass and heat transfer; Rheology of
fermentation fluids, Aeration and agitation; Media formulation and optimization; Kinetics
of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Sterilization of air and
media; Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes; Various types of microbial and
enzyme reactors; Instrumentation control and optimization; Unit operations in solid-liquid
separation and liquid-liquid extraction; Process scale-up, economics and feasibility
Engineering principle of bioprocessing- Upstream production and downstream;
Bioprocess design and development from lab to industrial scale; Microbial, animal and
plant cell culture platforms; Production of biomass and primary/secondary metabolites;
Biofuels, Bioplastics, industrial enzymes, antibiotics; Large scale production and
purification of recombinant proteins; Industrial application of chromatographic and
membrane based bioseparation methods; Immobilization of biocatalysts (enzymes and
cells) for bioconversion processes; Bioremediation-Aerobic and anaerobic processes for
stabilization of solid / liquid wastes

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Chemical Engineering

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and
Calculus: Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Taylor
series, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial
derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl,
Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes,
Gauss and Greens theorems.
Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear
differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchys and Eulers equations,
Initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one
dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation.
Complex variables: Complex number, polar form of complex number, triangle
Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems,
Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random
variables, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distributions, Linear regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic
equations. Integration by trapezoidal and Simpsons rule. Single and multi-step
methods for numerical solution of differential equations.

Section 2: Process Calculations and Thermodynamics

Steady and unsteady state mass and energy balances including multiphase, multicomponent, reacting and non-reacting systems. Use of tie components; recycle,
bypass and purge calculations; Gibbs phase rule and degree of freedom analysis.
First and Second laws of thermodynamics. Applications of first law to close and
open systems. Second law and Entropy. Thermodynamic properties of pure
substances: Equation of State and residual properties, properties of mixtures: partial
molar properties, fugacity, excess properties and activity coefficients; phase
equilibria: predicting VLE of systems; chemical reaction equilibrium.

Section 3: Fluid Mechanics and Mechanical Operations

Fluid statics, Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, shell-balances including
differential form of Bernoulli equation and energy balance, Macroscopic friction
factors, dimensional analysis and similitude, flow through pipeline systems, flow
meters, pumps and compressors, elementary boundary layer theory, flow past
immersed bodies including packed and fluidized beds, Turbulent flow: fluctuating
velocity, universal velocity profile and pressure drop.
Particle size and shape, particle size distribution, size reduction and classification of
solid particles; free and hindered settling; centrifuge and cyclones; thickening and
classification, filtration, agitation and mixing; conveying of solids.

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Section 4: Heat Transfer

Steady and unsteady heat conduction, convection and radiation, thermal
boundary layer and heat transfer coefficients, boiling, condensation and
evaporation; types of heat exchangers and evaporators and their process
calculations. Design of double pipe, shell and tube heat exchangers, and single
and multiple effect evaporators.

Section 5: Mass Transfer

Ficks laws, molecular diffusion in fluids, mass transfer coefficients, film, penetration
and surface renewal theories; momentum, heat and mass transfer analogies;
stage-wise and continuous contacting and stage efficiencies; HTU & NTU concepts;
design and operation of equipment for distillation, absorption, leaching, liquid-liquid
extraction, drying, humidification, dehumidification and adsorption.

Section 6: Chemical Reaction Engineering

Theories of reaction rates; kinetics of homogeneous reactions, interpretation of
kinetic data, single and multiple reactions in ideal reactors, non-ideal reactors;
residence time distribution, single parameter model; non-isothermal reactors;
kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions; diffusion effects in catalysis.

Section 7: Instrumentation and Process Control

Measurement of process variables; sensors, transducers and their dynamics, process
modeling and linearization, transfer functions and dynamic responses of various
systems, systems with inverse response, process reaction curve, controller modes (P,
PI, and PID); control valves; analysis of closed loop systems including stability,
frequency response, controller tuning, cascade and feed forward control.

Section 8: Plant Design and Economics

Principles of process economics and cost estimation including depreciation and
total annualized cost, cost indices, rate of return, payback period, discounted cash
flow, optimization in process design and sizing of chemical engineering equipments
such as compressors, heat exchangers, multistage contactors.

Section 9: Chemical Technology

Inorganic chemical industries (sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, chlor-alkali industry),
fertilizers (Ammonia, Urea, SSP and TSP); natural products industries (Pulp and Paper,
Sugar, Oil, and Fats); petroleum refining and petrochemicals; polymerization
industries (polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC and polyester synthetic fibers).

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Section 1: Physical Chemistry

Structure: Postulates of quantum mechanics. Time dependent and time independent
Schrdinger equations. Born interpretation. Particle in a box. Harmonic oscillator. Rigid
rotor. Hydrogen atom: atomic orbitals. Multi-electron atoms: orbital approximation.
Variation and first order perturbation techniques. Chemical bonding: Valence bond
theory and LCAO-MO theory. Hybrid orbitals. Applications of LCAO-MOT to H2+, H2 and
other homonuclear diatomic molecules, heteronuclear diatomic molecules like HF, CO,
NO, and to simple delocalized electron systems. Hckel approximation and its
application to annular electron systems. Symmetry elements and operations. Point
groups and character tables. Origin of selection rules for rotational, vibrational, electronic
and Raman spectroscopy of diatomic and polyatomic molecules. Einstein coefficients.
Relationship of transition moment integral with molar extinction coefficient and oscillator
strength. Basic principles of nuclear magnetic resonance: nuclear g factor, chemical shift,
nuclear coupling.
Equilibrium: Laws of thermodynamics. Standard states. Thermochemistry. Thermodynamic
functions and their relationships: Gibbs-Helmholtz and Maxwell relations, vant Hoff
equation. Criteria of spontaneity and equilibrium. Absolute entropy. Partial molar
quantities. Thermodynamics of mixing. Chemical potential. Fugacity, activity and activity
coefficients. Chemical equilibria. Dependence of equilibrium constant on temperature
and pressure. Non-ideal solutions. Ionic mobility and conductivity. Debye-Hckel limiting
electrochemical cells. Potentiometric and conductometric titrations. Phase rule. ClausiusClapeyron equation. Phase diagram of one component systems: CO2, H2O, S; two
component systems: liquid-vapour, liquid-liquid and solid-liquid systems. Fractional
distillation. Azeotropes and eutectics. Statistical thermodynamics: microcanonical and
canonical ensembles, Boltzmann distribution, partition functions and thermodynamic
Kinetics: Transition state theory: Eyring equation, thermodynamic aspects. Potential
energy surfaces and classical trajectories. Elementary, parallel, opposing and consecutive
reactions. Steady state approximation. Mechanisms of complex reactions. Unimolecular
reactions. Kinetics of polymerization and enzyme catalysis. Fast reaction kinetics:
relaxation and flow methods. Kinetics of photochemical and photophysical processes.
Surfaces and Interfaces: Physisorption and chemisorption. Langmuir, Freundlich and BET
isotherms. Surface catalysis: Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. Surface tension, viscosity.
Self-assembly. Physical chemistry of colloids, micelles and macromolecules.

Section 2: Inorganic Chemistry

Main Group Elements: Hydrides, halides, oxides, oxoacids, nitrides, sulfides shapes and
reactivity. Structure and bonding of boranes, carboranes, silicones, silicates, boron nitride,
borazines and phosphazenes. Allotropes of carbon. Chemistry of noble gases,
pseudohalogens, and interhalogen compounds. Acid-base concepts.
Transition Elements: Coordination chemistry structure and isomerism, theories of bonding
(VBT, CFT, and MOT). Energy level diagrams in various crystal fields, CFSE, applications of
CFT, Jahn-Teller distortion. Electronic spectra of transition metal complexes: spectroscopic
term symbols, selection rules, Orgel diagrams, charge-transfer spectra. Magnetic
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properties of transition metal complexes. Reaction

thermodynamic stability, substitution and redox reactions.




Lanthanides and Actinides: Recovery. Periodic properties, spectra and magnetic

Organometallics: 18-Electron rule; metal-alkyl, metal-carbonyl, metal-olefin and metalcarbene complexes and metallocenes. Fluxionality in organometallic complexes. Types of
organometallic reactions. Homogeneous catalysis - Hydrogenation, hydroformylation,
acetic acid synthesis, metathesis and olefin oxidation. Heterogeneous catalysis - FischerTropsch reaction, Ziegler-Natta polymerization.
Radioactivity: Decay processes, half-life of radioactive elements, fission and fusion
Bioinorganic Chemistry: Ion (Na+ and K+) transport, oxygen binding, transport and
utilization, electron transfer reactions, nitrogen fixation, metalloenzymes containing
magnesium, molybdenum, iron, cobalt, copper and zinc.
Solids: Crystal systems and lattices, Miller planes, crystal packing, crystal defects, Braggs
law, ionic crystals, structures of AX, AX2, ABX3 type compounds, spinels, band theory,
metals and semiconductors.
Instrumental Methods of Analysis: UV-visible spectrophotometry, NMR and ESR
spectroscopy, mass spectrometry. Chromatography including GC and HPLC.
Electroanalytical methods- polarography, cyclic voltammetry, ion-selective electrodes.
Thermoanalytical methods.

Section 3: Organic Chemistry

Stereochemistry: Chirality of organic molecules with or without chiral centres and
determination of their absolute configurations. Relative stereochemistry in compounds
having more than one stereogenic centre. Homotopic, enantiotopic and diastereotopic
atoms, groups and faces. Stereoselective and stereospecific synthesis. Conformational
analysis of acyclic and cyclic compounds. Geometrical isomerism. Configurational and
conformational effects, and neighbouring group participation on reactivity and
Reaction Mechanisms: Basic mechanistic concepts kinetic versus thermodynamic
control, Hammonds postulate and Curtin-Hammett principle. Methods of determining
reaction mechanisms through identification of products, intermediates and isotopic
labeling. Nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution reactions (both aromatic and
aliphatic). Addition reactions to carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom (N,O) multiple
bonds. Elimination reactions. Reactive intermediates carbocations, carbanions,
carbenes, nitrenes, arynes and free radicals. Molecular rearrangements involving electron
deficient atoms.
Organic Synthesis: Synthesis, reactions, mechanisms and selectivity involving the following
classes of compounds alkenes, alkynes, arenes, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones,
carboxylic acids, esters, nitriles, halides, nitro compounds, amines and amides. Uses of Mg,
Li, Cu, B, Zn and Si based reagents in organic synthesis. Carbon-carbon bond formation
through coupling reactions - Heck, Suzuki, Stille and Sonogoshira. Concepts of multistep
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synthesis - retrosynthetic analysis, strategic disconnections, synthons and synthetic

equivalents. Umpolung reactivity formyl and acyl anion equivalents. Selectivity in
organic synthesis chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivity. Protection and deprotection of
functional groups. Concepts of asymmetric synthesis resolution (including enzymatic),
desymmetrization and use of chiral auxilliaries. Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions
through enolates (including boron enolates), enamines and silyl enol ethers. Michael
addition reaction. Stereoselective addition to C=O groups (Cram and Felkin-Anh models).
Pericyclic Reactions and Photochemistry: Electrocyclic, cycloaddition and sigmatropic
reactions. Orbital correlations - FMO and PMO treatments. Photochemistry of alkenes,
arenes and carbonyl compounds. Photooxidation and photoreduction. Di--methane
rearrangement, Barton reaction.
Heterocyclic Compounds: Structure, preparation, properties and reactions of furan,
pyrrole, thiophene, pyridine, indole, quinoline and isoquinoline.
Biomolecules: Structure, properties and reactions of mono- and di-saccharides,
physicochemical properties of amino acids, chemical synthesis of peptides, structural
features of proteins, nucleic acids, steroids, terpenoids, carotenoids, and alkaloids.
Spectroscopy: Applications of UV-visible, IR, NMR and Mass spectrometry in the structural
determination of organic molecules.

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Civil Engineering

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra; Systems of linear equations; Eigen values and Eigen
Calculus: Functions of single variable; Limit, continuity and differentiability; Mean value
theorems, local maxima and minima, Taylor and Maclaurin series; Evaluation of definite
and indefinite integrals, application of definite integral to obtain area and volume; Partial
derivatives; Total derivative; Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional
derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Greens theorems.
Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE): First order (linear and non-linear) equations; higher
order linear equations with constant coefficients; Euler-Cauchy equations; Laplace
transform and its application in solving linear ODEs; initial and boundary value problems.
Partial Differential Equation (PDE): Fourier series; separation of variables; solutions of onedimensional diffusion equation; first and second order one-dimensional wave equation
and two-dimensional Laplace equation.
Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems; Conditional
probability; Discrete Random variables: Poisson and Binomial distributions; Continuous
random variables: normal and exponential distributions; Descriptive statistics - Mean,
median, mode and standard deviation; Hypothesis testing.
Numerical Methods: Accuracy and precision; error analysis. Numerical solutions of linear
and non-linear algebraic equations; Least square approximation, Newtons and
Lagrange polynomials, numerical differentiation, Integration by trapezoidal and Simpsons
rule, single and multi-step methods for first order differential equations.

Section 2: Structural Engineering

Engineering Mechanics: System of forces, free-body diagrams, equilibrium equations;
Internal forces in structures; Friction and its applications; Kinematics of point mass and rigid
body; Centre of mass; Eulers equations of motion; Impulse-momentum; Energy methods;
Principles of virtual work.
Solid Mechanics: Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams;
Simple stress and strain relationships; Theories of failures; Simple bending theory, flexural
and shear stresses, shear centre; Uniform torsion, buckling of column, combined and
direct bending stresses.
Structural Analysis: Statically determinate and indeterminate structures by force/ energy
methods; Method of superposition; Analysis of trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames;
Displacement methods: Slope deflection and moment distribution methods; Influence
lines; Stiffness and flexibility methods of structural analysis.
Construction Materials and Management: Construction Materials: Structural steel composition, material properties and behaviour; Concrete - constituents, mix design,
short-term and long-term properties; Bricks and mortar; Timber; Bitumen. Construction
Management: Types of construction projects; Tendering and construction contracts; Rate
analysis and standard specifications; Cost estimation; Project planning and network
analysis - PERT and CPM.
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Concrete Structures: Working stress, Limit state and Ultimate load design concepts; Design
of beams, slabs, columns; Bond and development length; Prestressed concrete; Analysis
of beam sections at transfer and service loads.
Steel Structures: Working stress and Limit state design concepts; Design of tension and
compression members, beams and beam- columns, column bases; Connections - simple
and eccentric, beam-column connections, plate girders and trusses; Plastic analysis of
beams and frames.

Section 3: Geotechnical Engineering

Soil Mechanics: Origin of soils, soil structure and fabric; Three-phase system and phase
relationships, index properties; Unified and Indian standard soil classification system;
Permeability - one dimensional flow, Darcys law; Seepage through soils - two-dimensional
flow, flow nets, uplift pressure, piping; Principle of effective stress, capillarity, seepage
force and quicksand condition; Compaction in laboratory and field conditions; Onedimensional consolidation, time rate of consolidation; Mohrs circle, stress paths, effective
and total shear strength parameters, characteristics of clays and sand.
Foundation Engineering: Sub-surface investigations - scope, drilling bore holes, sampling,
plate load test, standard penetration and cone penetration tests; Earth pressure theories Rankine and Coulomb; Stability of slopes - finite and infinite slopes, method of slices and
Bishops method; Stress distribution in soils - Boussinesqs and Westergaards theories,
pressure bulbs; Shallow foundations - Terzaghis and Meyerhoffs bearing capacity
theories, effect of water table; Combined footing and raft foundation; Contact pressure;
Settlement analysis in sands and clays; Deep foundations - types of piles, dynamic and
static formulae, load capacity of piles in sands and clays, pile load test, negative skin

Section 4: Water Resources Engineering

Fluid Mechanics: Properties of fluids, fluid statics; Continuity, momentum, energy and
corresponding equations; Potential flow, applications of momentum and energy
equations; Laminar and turbulent flow; Flow in pipes, pipe networks; Concept of
boundary layer and its growth.
Hydraulics: Forces on immersed bodies; Flow measurement in channels and pipes;
Dimensional analysis and hydraulic similitude; Kinematics of flow, velocity triangles; Basics
of hydraulic machines, specific speed of pumps and turbines; Channel Hydraulics Energy-depth relationships, specific energy, critical flow, slope profile, hydraulic jump,
uniform flow and gradually varied flow
Hydrology: Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, evaporation, evapo-transpiration, watershed,
infiltration, unit hydrographs, hydrograph analysis, flood estimation and routing, reservoir
capacity, reservoir and channel routing, surface run-off models, ground water hydrology steady state well hydraulics and aquifers; Application of Darcys law.
Irrigation: Duty, delta, estimation of evapo-transpiration; Crop water requirements; Design
of lined and unlined canals, head works, gravity dams and spillways; Design of weirs on
permeable foundation; Types of irrigation systems, irrigation methods; Water logging and
drainage; Canal regulatory works, cross-drainage structures, outlets and escapes.

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Section 5: Environmental Engineering

Water and Waste Water: Quality standards, basic unit processes and operations for water
treatment. Drinking water standards, water requirements, basic unit operations and unit
processes for surface water treatment, distribution of water. Sewage and sewerage
treatment, quantity and characteristics of wastewater. Primary, secondary and tertiary
treatment of wastewater, effluent discharge standards. Domestic wastewater treatment,
quantity of characteristics of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment.
Unit operations and unit processes of domestic wastewater, sludge disposal.
Air Pollution: Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution meteorology, air
pollution control, air quality standards and limits.
Municipal Solid Wastes: Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid
wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy
recovery, treatment and disposal).
Noise Pollution: Impacts of noise, permissible limits of noise pollution, measurement of
noise and control of noise pollution.

Section 6: Transportation Engineering

Transportation Infrastructure: Highway alignment and engineering surveys; Geometric
design of highways - cross-sectional elements, sight distances, horizontal and vertical
alignments; Geometric design of railway track; Airport runway length, taxiway and exit
taxiway design.
Highway Pavements: Highway materials - desirable properties and quality control tests;
Design of bituminous paving mixes; Design factors for flexible and rigid pavements; Design
of flexible pavement using IRC: 37-2012; Design of rigid pavements using IRC: 58-2011;
Distresses in concrete pavements.
Traffic Engineering: Traffic studies on flow, speed, travel time - delay and O-D study, PCU,
peak hour factor, parking study, accident study and analysis, statistical analysis of traffic
data; Microscopic and macroscopic parameters of traffic flow, fundamental
relationships; Control devices, signal design by Websters method; Types of intersections
and channelization; Highway capacity and level of service of rural highways and urban

Section 7: Geomatics Engineering

Principles of surveying; Errors and their adjustment; Maps - scale, coordinate system;
Distance and angle measurement - Levelling and trigonometric levelling; Traversing and
triangulation survey; Total station; Horizontal and vertical curves.
Photogrammetry - scale, flying height; Remote sensing - basics, platform and sensors,
visual image interpretation; Basics of Geographical information system (GIS) and
Geographical Positioning system (GPS).

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Computer Science and Information Technology

Section1: Engineering Mathematics

Discrete Mathematics: Propositional and first order logic. Sets, relations, functions, partial
orders and lattices. Groups. Graphs: connectivity, matching, coloring. Combinatorics:
counting, recurrence relations, generating functions.
Linear Algebra: Matrices, determinants, system of linear equations, eigenvalues and
eigenvectors, LU decomposition.
Calculus: Limits, continuity and differentiability. Maxima and minima. Mean value
theorem. Integration.
Probability: Random variables. Uniform, normal, exponential, poisson and binomial
distributions. Mean, median, mode and standard deviation. Conditional probability and
Bayes theorem.
Computer Science and Information Technology

Section 2: Digital Logic

Boolean algebra. Combinational and sequential circuits. Minimization. Number
representations and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point).

Section 3: Computer Organization and Architecture

Machine instructions and addressing modes. ALU, datapath and control unit. Instruction
pipelining. Memory hierarchy: cache, main memory and secondary storage; I/O
interface (interrupt and DMA mode).

Section 4: Programming and Data Structures

Programming in C. Recursion. Arrays, stacks, queues, linked lists, trees, binary search
trees, binary heaps, graphs.

Section 5: Algorithms
Searching, sorting, hashing. Asymptotic worst case time and space complexity.
Algorithm design techniques: greedy, dynamic programming and divideandconquer.
Graph search, minimum spanning trees, shortest paths.

Section 6: Theory of Computation

Regular expressions and finite automata. Context-free grammars and push-down
automata. Regular and contex-free languages, pumping lemma. Turing machines and

Section 7: Compiler Design

Lexical analysis, parsing, syntax-directed translation. Runtime environments. Intermediate
code generation.

Section 8: Operating System

Processes, threads, interprocess communication, concurrency and synchronization.
Deadlock. CPU scheduling. Memory management and virtual memory. File systems.

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Section 9: Databases
ERmodel. Relational model: relational algebra, tuple calculus, SQL. Integrity constraints,
normal forms. File organization, indexing (e.g., B and B+ trees). Transactions and
concurrency control.

Section 10: Computer Networks

Concept of layering. LAN technologies (Ethernet). Flow and error control techniques,
switching. IPv4/IPv6, routers and routing algorithms (distance vector, link state). TCP/UDP
and sockets, congestion control. Application layer protocols (DNS, SMTP, POP, FTP, HTTP).
Basics of Wi-Fi. Network security: authentication, basics of public key and private key
cryptography, digital signatures and certificates, firewalls.

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Ecology and Evolution

Section 1: Ecology
Population ecology; metapopulation dynamics; growth rates; density independent
growth; density dependent growth; niche concept;
Species interactions: Plant-animal interactions; mutualism, commensalism, competition
and predation; trophic interactions; functional ecology; ecophysiology; behavioural
Community ecology: Community assembly, organization and evolution; biodiversity:
species richness, evenness and diversity indices; endemism; species-area relationships;
Ecosystem structure, function and services; nutrient cycles; biomes; habitat ecology;
primary and secondary productivity; invasive species; global and climate change;
applied ecology.

Section 2: Evolution
Origin, evolution and diversification of life; natural selection; levels of selection.
Types of selection (stabilizing, directional etc.); sexual selection; genetic drift; gene flow;
adaptation; convergence; species concepts;
Life history strategies; adaptive radiation; biogeography and evolutionary ecology;
Origin of genetic variation; Mendelian genetics; polygenic traits, linkage and
recombination; epistasis, gene-environment interaction; heritability; population genetics;
Molecular evolution; molecular clocks; systems of classification: cladistics and phenetics;
molecular systematics; gene expression and evolution.

Section 3: Mathematics and Quantitative Ecology

Mathematics and statistics in ecology; Simple functions (linear, quadratic, exponential,
logarithmic, etc); concept of derivatives and slope of a function; permutations and
combinations; basic probability (probability of random events; sequences of events, etc);
frequency distributions and their descriptive statistics (mean, variance, coefficient of
variation, correlation, etc).
Statistical hypothesis testing: Concept of p-value; Type I and Type II error, test statistics like
t-test and Chi-square test; basics of linear regression and ANOVA.

Section 4: Behavioural Ecology

Classical ethology; neuroethology; evolutionary ethology; chemical, acoustic and visual
Mating systems; sexual dimorphism; mate choice; parenting behaviour Competition;
aggression; foraging behaviour; predatorprey interactions; Sociobiology: kin selection,
altruism, costs and benefits of group-living.
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Electrical Engineering

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and
improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier
series, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line integral, Surface integral, Volume
integral, Stokess theorem, Gausss theorem, Greens theorem.
Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear
differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters,
Cauchys equation, Eulers equation, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial
Differential Equations, Method of separation of variables.
Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchys integral theorem, Cauchys integral
formula, Taylor series, Laurent series, Residue theorem, Solution integrals.
Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, Median,
Mode, Standard Deviation, Random variables, Discrete and Continuous distributions,
Poisson distribution, Normal distribution, Binomial distribution, Correlation analysis,
Regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations, Single and Multistep
methods for differential equations.
Transform Theory: Fourier Transform, Laplace Transform, zTransform.
Electrical Engineering

Section 2: Electric Circuits

Network graph, KCL, KVL, Node and Mesh analysis, Transient response of dc and ac
networks, Sinusoidal steadystate analysis, Resonance, Passive filters, Ideal current and
voltage sources, Thevenins theorem, Nortons theorem, Superposition theorem, Maximum
power transfer theorem, Twoport networks, Three phase circuits, Power and power factor
in ac circuits.

Section 3: Electromagnetic Fields

Coulomb's Law, Electric Field Intensity, Electric Flux Density, Gauss's Law, Divergence,
Electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions,
Effect of dielectric medium, Capacitance of simple configurations, BiotSavarts law,
Amperes law, Curl, Faradays law, Lorentz force, Inductance, Magnetomotive force,
Reluctance, Magnetic circuits,Self and Mutual inductance of simple configurations.

Section 4: Signals and Systems

Representation of continuous and discretetime signals, Shifting and scaling operations,
Linear Time Invariant and Causal systems, Fourier series representation of continuous
periodic signals, Sampling theorem, Applications of Fourier Transform, Laplace Transform
and z-Transform.

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Section 5: Electrical Machines

Single phase transformer: equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, open circuit and short circuit
tests, regulation and efficiency; Three phase transformers: connections, parallel operation;
Autotransformer, Electromechanical energy conversion principles, DC machines:
separately excited, series and shunt, motoring and generating mode of operation and
their characteristics, starting and speed control of dc motors; Three phase induction
motors: principle of operation, types, performance, torque-speed characteristics, no-load
and blocked rotor tests, equivalent circuit, starting and speed control; Operating principle
of single phase induction motors; Synchronous machines: cylindrical and salient pole
machines, performance, regulation and parallel operation of generators, starting of
synchronous motor, characteristics; Types of losses and efficiency calculations of electric

Section 6: Power Systems

Power generation concepts, ac and dc transmission concepts, Models and performance
of transmission lines and cables, Series and shunt compensation, Electric field distribution
and insulators, Distribution systems, Perunit quantities, Bus admittance matrix, GaussSeidel and Newton-Raphson load flow methods, Voltage and Frequency control, Power
factor correction, Symmetrical components, Symmetrical and unsymmetrical fault
analysis, Principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection; Circuit breakers,
System stability concepts, Equal area criterion.

Section 7: Control Systems

Mathematical modeling and representation of systems, Feedback principle, transfer
function, Block diagrams and Signal flow graphs, Transient and Steadystate analysis of
linear time invariant systems, Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist criteria, Bode plots, Root loci,
Stability analysis, Lag, Lead and LeadLag compensators; P, PI and PID controllers; State
space model, State transition matrix.

Section 8: Electrical and Electronic Measurements

Bridges and Potentiometers, Measurement of voltage, current, power, energy and power
factor; Instrument transformers, Digital voltmeters and multimeters, Phase, Time and
Frequency measurement; Oscilloscopes, Error analysis.

Section 9: Analog and Digital Electronics

Characteristics of diodes, BJT, MOSFET; Simple diode circuits: clipping, clamping, rectifiers;
Amplifiers: Biasing, Equivalent circuit and Frequency response; Oscillators and Feedback
amplifiers; Operational amplifiers: Characteristics and applications; Simple active filters,
VCOs and Timers, Combinational and Sequential logic circuits, Multiplexer, Demultiplexer,
Schmitt trigger, Sample and hold circuits, A/D and D/A converters, 8085Microprocessor:
Architecture, Programming and Interfacing.

Section 10: Power Electronics

Characteristics of semiconductor power devices: Diode, Thyristor, Triac, GTO, MOSFET,
IGBT; DC to DC conversion: Buck, Boost and Buck-Boost converters; Single and three
phase configuration of uncontrolled rectifiers, Line commutated thyristor based
converters, Bidirectional ac to dc voltage source converters, Issues of line current
harmonics, Power factor, Distortion factor of ac to dc converters, Single phase and three
phase inverters, Sinusoidal pulse width modulation.
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Electronics and Communications

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Vector space, basis, linear dependence and independence, matrix
algebra, eigen values and eigen vectors, rank, solution of linear equations existence
and uniqueness.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, evaluation of definite and
improper integrals, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, line, surface
and volume integrals, Taylor series.
Differential Equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear
differential equations, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, methods of solution using variation
of parameters, complementary function and particular integral, partial differential
equations, variable separable method, initial and boundary value problems.
Vector Analysis: Vectors in plane and space, vector operations, gradient, divergence and
curl, Gauss's, Green's and Stoke's theorems.
Complex Analysis: Analytic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem, Cauchy's integral
formula; Taylor's and Laurent's series, residue theorem.
Numerical Methods: Solution of nonlinear equations, single and multi-step methods for
differential equations, convergence criteria.
Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; combinatorial
probability, probability distribution functions - binomial, Poisson, exponential and normal;
Joint and conditional probability; Correlation and regression analysis.

Section 2: Networks, Signals and Systems

Network solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis; Network theorems: superposition,
Thevenin and Nortons, maximum power transfer; WyeDelta transformation; Steady state
sinusoidal analysis using phasors; Time domain analysis of simple linear circuits; Solution of
network equations using Laplace transform; Frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits;
Linear 2port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions; State equations for
Continuous-time signals: Fourier series and Fourier transform representations, sampling
theorem and applications; Discrete-time signals: discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT),
DFT, FFT, Z-transform, interpolation of discrete-time signals; LTI systems: definition and
properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and
cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay, digital filter design

Section 3: Electronic Devices

Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic silicon; Carrier transport: diffusion current, drift
current, mobility and resistivity; Generation and recombination of carriers; Poisson and
continuity equations; P-N junction, Zener diode, BJT, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, photo
diode and solar cell; Integrated circuit fabrication process: oxidation, diffusion, ion
implantation, photolithography and twin-tub CMOS process.

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Section 4: Analog Circuits

Small signal equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs and MOSFETs; Simple diode circuits:
clipping, clamping and rectifiers; Single-stage BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: biasing, bias
stability, mid-frequency small signal analysis and frequency response; BJT and MOSFET
amplifiers: multi-stage, differential, feedback, power and operational; Simple op-amp
circuits; Active filters; Sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation, single-transistor and opamp configurations; Function generators, wave-shaping circuits and 555 timers; Voltage
reference circuits; Power supplies: ripple removal and regulation.

Section 5: Digital Circuits

Number systems; Combinatorial circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of functions using
Boolean identities and Karnaugh map, logic gates and their static CMOS
implementations, arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders and PLAs;
Sequential circuits: latches and flipflops, counters, shiftregisters and finite state machines;
Data converters: sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs; Semiconductor memories:
ROM, SRAM, DRAM; 8-bit microprocessor (8085): architecture, programming, memory and
I/O interfacing.

Section 6: Control Systems

Basic control system components; Feedback principle; Transfer function; Block diagram
representation; Signal flow graph; Transient and steady-state analysis of LTI systems;
Frequency response; Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria; Bode and root-locus plots;
Lag, lead and lag-lead compensation; State variable model and solution of state
equation of LTI systems.

Section 7: Communications
Random processes: autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise,
filtering of random signals through LTI systems; Analog communications: amplitude
modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and
FM, superheterodyne receivers, circuits for analog communications; Information theory:
entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem; Digital communications:
PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes, amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying
(ASK, PSK, FSK), QAM, MAP and ML decoding, matched filter receiver, calculation of
bandwidth, SNR and BER for digital modulation; Fundamentals of error correction,
Hamming codes; Timing and frequency synchronization, inter-symbol interference and its
mitigation; Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA.

Section 8: Electromagnetics
Electrostatics; Maxwells equations: differential and integral forms and their interpretation,
boundary conditions, wave equation, Poynting vector; Plane waves and properties:
reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through
various media, skin depth; Transmission lines: equations, characteristic impedance,
impedance matching, impedance transformation, S-parameters, Smith chart;
Waveguides: modes, boundary conditions, cut-off frequencies, dispersion relations;
Antennas: antenna types, radiation pattern, gain and directivity, return loss, antenna
arrays; Basics of radar; Light propagation in optical fibers.

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Geology and Geophysics

Common Section
Earth and Planetary system - size, shape, internal structure and composition of the
earth; concept of isostasy; elements of seismology body and surface waves,
propagation of body waves in the earths interior; Gravitational field of the Earth;
geomagnetism and paleomagnetism; continental drift; plate tectonics
relationship with earthquakes, volcanism and mountain building; continental and
oceanic crust composition, structure and thickness.
Weathering and soil formation; landforms created by river, wind, glacier, ocean
and volcanoes. Basic structural geology - stress, strain and material response; brittle
and ductile deformation; nomenclature and classification of folds and faults.
Crystallography basic crystal symmetry and concept of point groups. Mineralogy
silicate crystal structure and determinative mineralogy of common rock forming
minerals. Petrology mineralogy and classification of common igneous,
sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Geological time scale - geochronology and
absolute time. Stratigraphic principles; major stratigraphic divisions of India.
Geological and geographical distribution of mineral, coal and petroleum resources
of India.
Introduction to remote sensing. Engineering properties of rocks and soils. Ground
water geology.
Principles and applications of gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic,
seismic and radiometric methods of prospecting for oil, mineral and ground water;
introductory well logging.

Part A: Geology
Geomorphic processes and agents; development and evolution of landforms;
slope and drainage; processes in deep oceanic and near-shore regions;
quantitative and applied geomorphology.
Mechanism of rock deformation; primary and secondary structures; geometry and
genesis of folds, faults, joints and unconformities; cleavage, schistosity and lineation;
methods of projection; tectonites and their significance; shear zones; superposed
folding; basement-cover relationship.
Crystallography symmetry, forms and twinning; crystal chemistry; optical
mineralogy, classification of minerals, diagnostic physical and optical properties of
rock - forming minerals.
Cosmic abundance of elements; meteorites; geochemical evolution of the earth;
geochemical cycles; distribution of major, minor and trace elements in crust and
mantle; elements of geochemical thermodynamics;
isotope geochemistry;
geochemistry of waters including solution equilibria and water-rock interaction.
Igneous rocks classification, forms and textures; magmatic differentiation; binary
and ternary phase diagrams; major and trace elements as monitors of partial
melting and magma evolutionary processes. Sedimentary rocks texture and
structure; sedimentary processes and environments, sedimentary facies,
provencance and basin analysis. Metamorphic rocks structures and textures.
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Physico-chemical conditions of metamorphism and concept of metamorphic

facies, grade and baric types; metamorphism of pelitic, mafic and impure
carbonate rocks; role of fluids in metamorphism; metamorphic P-T-t paths and their
tectonic significance. Association of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks
with tectonic setting. Igneous and metamorphic provinces
and important
sedimentary basins of India.
Morphology, classification and geological significance of important invertebrates,
vertebrates, plant fossils and microfossils.
Principles of Stratigraphy and concepts of correlation lithostratigraphy,
biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy. Indian stratigraphy Precambrian and
Phanerozoic. Overview of Himalayan Geology.
Ore-mineralogy and optical properties of ore minerals; ore forming processes vis-vis ore-rock association (magmatic, hydrothermal, sedimentary, supergene and
metamorphogenic ores); fluid inclusions as an ore genetic tool. Coal and
petroleum geology; marine mineral resources. Prospecting and exploration of
economic mineral deposits - sampling, ore reserve estimation, geostatistics, mining
methods. Ore dressing and mineral economics. Origin and distribution of mineral,
fossil and nuclear fuel deposits in India.
Engineering properties of rocks and soils; rocks as construction materials; role of
geology in the construction of engineering structures including dams, tunnels and
excavation sites; natural hazards. Ground water geology exploration, well
hydraulics and water quality. Basic principles of remote sensing energy sources
and radiation principles, atmospheric absorption, interaction of energy with earths
surface, aerial-photo interpretation, multispectral remote sensing in visible, infrared,
thermal IR and microwave regions, digital processing of satellite images. GIS basic
concepts, raster and vector mode operations.

Part - B: Geophysics
The earth as a planet; different motions of the earth; gravity field of the earth,
Clairauts theorem, size and shape of earth; geomagnetic field, paleomagnetism;
Geothermics and heat flow; seismology and interior of the earth; variation of
density, velocity, pressure, temperature, electrical and magnetic properties of the
earth; earthquakes-causes and measurements, magnitude and intensity, focal
mechanisms, earthquake quantification, source characteristics, seismotectonics
and seismic hazards; digital seismographs,
Scalar and vector potential fields; Laplace, Maxwell and Helmholtz equations for
solution of different types of boundary value problems in Cartesian, cylindrical and
spherical polar coordinates; Greens theorem; Image theory; integral equations in
potential theory; Eikonal equation and Ray theory.
Absolute and relative gravity measurements; Gravimeters, Land, airborne,
shipborne and bore-hole gravity surveys; various corrections for gravity data
reduction free air, Bouguer and isostatic anomalies; density estimates of rocks;
regional and residual gravity separation; principle of equivalent stratum; data
enhancement techniques, upward and downward continuation; derivative maps,
wavelength filtering; preparation and analysis of gravity maps; gravity anomalies
and their interpretation anomalies due to geometrical and irregular shaped
bodies, depth rules, calculation of mass.
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Elements of Earths magnetic field, units of measurement, magnetic susceptibility

of rocks and measurements, magnetometers, Land, airborne and marine magnetic
surveys, Various corrections applied to magnetic data, IGRF, Reduction to Pole
transformation, Poissons relation of gravity and magnetic potential field,
preparation of magnetic maps, upward and downward continuation, magnetic
anomalies-geometrical shaped bodies, depth estimates, Image processing
concepts in processing of magnetic anomaly maps; Interpretation of processed
magnetic anomaly data. Applications of gravity and magnetic methods for mineral
and oil exploration.
Conduction of electricity through rocks, electrical conductivities of metals, nonmetals, rock forming minerals and different rocks, concepts of D.C. resistivity
measurement, various electrode configurations for resistivity sounding and profiling,
application of filter theory, Type-curves over multi-layered structures, Dar-Zarrouck
parameters, reduction of layers, coefficient of anisotropy, interpretation of resistivity
field data, equivalence and suppression, self-potential and its origin, field
Induced polarization, time and frequency domain IP
measurements; interpretation and applications of IP, ground-water exploration,
mineral exploration, environmental and engineering applications.
Basic concept of EM induction in the earth, Skin-depth, elliptic polarization, inphase
and quadrature components, Various EM methods, measurements in different
source-receiver configurations,. Earths natural electromagnetic field, tellurics,
magneto-tellurics; geomagnetic depth sounding principles, electromagnetic
profiling, Time domain EM method, EM scale modeling, processing of EM data and
interpretation. Geological applications including groundwater, mineral and
hydrocarbon exploration.
Seismic methods of prospecting; Elastic properties of earth materials; Reflection,
refraction and CDP surveys; land and marine seismic sources, generation and
propagation of elastic waves, velocity depth models, geophones, hydrophones,
recording instruments (DFS), digital formats, field layouts, seismic noises and noise
profile analysis, optimum geophone grouping, noise cancellation by shot and
geophone arrays, 2D and 3D seismic data acquisition, processing and
interpretation; CDP stacking charts, binning, filtering, dip-moveout, static and
dynamic corrections, Digital seismic data processing, seismic deconvolution and
migration methods, attribute analysis, bright and dim spots, seismic stratigraphy,
high resolution seismics, VSP, AVO. Reservoir geophysics.
Geophysical signal processing, sampling theorem, aliasing, Nyquist frequency,
Fourier series, periodic waveform, Fourier and Hilbert transform, Z-transform and
wavelet transform; power spectrum, delta function, auto correlation, cross
correlation, convolution, deconvolution, principles of digital filters, windows, poles
and zeros.
Principles and techniques of geophysical well-logging, SP, resistivity, induction,
gamma ray, neutron, density, sonic, temperature, dip meter, caliper, nuclear
magnetic, cement bond logging, micro-logs. Quantitative evaluation of formations
from well logs; well hydraulics and application of geophysical methods for
groundwater study; application of bore hole geophysics in ground water, mineral
and oil exploration.
Radioactive methods of prospecting and assaying of mineral (radioactive and non
radioactive) deposits, half-life, decay constant, radioactive equilibrium, G M
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counter, scintillation detector, semiconductor devices, application of radiometric

for exploration, assaying and radioactive waste disposal.
Basic concepts of forward and inverse problems, Ill-posedness of inverse problems,
condition number, non-uniqueness and stability of solutions; L1, L2 and Lp norms,
overdetermined, underdetermined and mixed determined inverse problems, quasilinear and non-linear methods including Tikhonovs regularization method, Singular
Value Decomposion, Backus-Gilbert method, simulated annealing, genetic
algorithms and artificial neural network.

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Instrumentation Engineering

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen
Calculus: Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, partial derivatives, maxima
and minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series, vector identities, line, surface and volume
integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Greens theorems.
Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear
differential equations with constant coefficients, method of variation of parameters,
Cauchys and Eulers equations, initial and boundary value problems, solution of partial
differential equations: variable separable method.
Analysis of complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchys integral theorem and integral
formula, Taylors and Laurents series, residue theorem, solution of integrals.
Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median,
mode and standard deviation, random variables, discrete and continuous distributions:
normal, Poisson and binomial distributions.
Numerical Methods: Matrix inversion, solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, iterative
methods for solving differential equations, numerical integration, regression and
correlation analysis.

Instrumentation Engineering

Section 2: Electrical Circuits:

Voltage and current sources: independent, dependent, ideal and practical; v-i
relationships of resistor, inductor, mutual inductor and capacitor; transient analysis of RLC
circuits with dc excitation.
Kirchoffs laws, mesh and nodal analysis, superposition, Thevenin, Norton, maximum power
transfer and reciprocity theorems.
Peak-, average- and rms values of ac quantities; apparent-, active- and reactive powers;
phasor analysis, impedance and admittance; series and parallel resonance, locus
diagrams, realization of basic filters with R, L and C elements.
One-port and two-port networks, driving point impedance and admittance, open-, and
short circuit parameters.

Section 3: Signals and Systems

Periodic, aperiodic and impulse signals; Laplace, Fourier and z-transforms; transfer
function, frequency response of first and second order linear time invariant systems,
impulse response of systems; convolution, correlation. Discrete time system: impulse
response, frequency response, pulse transfer function; DFT and FFT; basics of IIR and FIR

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Section 4: Control Systems

Feedback principles, signal flow graphs, transient response, steady-state-errors, Bode
plot, phase and gain margins, Routh and Nyquist criteria, root loci, design of lead, lag and
lead-lag compensators, state-space representation of systems; time-delay systems;
mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system components, synchro pair, servo and
stepper motors, servo valves; on-off, P, P-I, P-I-D, cascade, feedforward, and ratio

Section 5: Analog Electronics

Characteristics and applications of diode, Zener diode, BJT and MOSFET; small signal
analysis of transistor circuits, feedback amplifiers. Characteristics of operational amplifiers;
applications of opamps: difference amplifier, adder, subtractor, integrator, differentiator,
instrumentation amplifier, precision rectifier, active filters and other circuits. Oscillators,
signal generators, voltage controlled oscillators and phase locked loop.

Section 6: Digital Electronics

Combinational logic circuits, minimization of Boolean functions. IC families: TTL and CMOS.
Arithmetic circuits, comparators, Schmitt trigger, multi-vibrators, sequential circuits, flipflops, shift registers, timers and counters; sample-and-hold circuit, multiplexer, analog-todigital (successive approximation, integrating, flash and sigma-delta) and digital-toanalog converters (weighted R, R-2R ladder and current steering logic). Characteristics of
ADC and DAC (resolution, quantization, significant bits, conversion/settling time); basics of
number systems, 8-bit microprocessor and microcontroller: applications, memory and
input-output interfacing; basics of data acquisition systems.

Section 7: Measurements
SI units, systematic and random errors in measurement, expression of uncertainty accuracy and precision index, propagation of errors. PMMC, MI and dynamometer type
instruments; dc potentiometer; bridges for measurement of R, L and C, Q-meter.
Measurement of voltage, current and power in single and three phase circuits; ac and dc
current probes; true rms meters, voltage and current scaling, instrument transformers,
timer/counter, time, phase and frequency measurements, digital voltmeter, digital
multimeter; oscilloscope, shielding and grounding.

Section 8: Sensors and Industrial Instrumentation

Resistive-, capacitive-, inductive-, piezoelectric-, Hall effect sensors and associated signal
conditioning circuits; transducers for industrial instrumentation: displacement (linear and
angular), velocity, acceleration, force, torque, vibration, shock, pressure (including low
pressure), flow (differential pressure, variable area, electromagnetic, ultrasonic, turbine
and open channel flow meters) temperature (thermocouple, bolometer, RTD (3/4 wire),
thermistor, pyrometer and semiconductor); liquid level, pH, conductivity and viscosity

Section 9: Communication and Optical Instrumentation

Amplitude- and frequency modulation and demodulation; Shannon's sampling theorem,
pulse code modulation; frequency and time division multiplexing, amplitude-, phase-,
frequency-, pulse shift keying for digital modulation; optical sources and detectors: LED,
laser, photo-diode, light dependent resistor and their characteristics; interferometer:
applications in metrology; basics of fiber optic sensing.

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Section 1: Linear Algebra

Finite dimensional vector spaces; Linear transformations and their matrix representations,
rank; systems of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, minimal polynomial,
Cayley-Hamilton Theorem, diagonalization, Jordan-canonical form, Hermitian, SkewHermitian and unitary matrices; Finite dimensional inner product spaces, Gram-Schmidt
orthonormalization process, self-adjoint operators, definite forms.

Section 2: Complex Analysis

Analytic functions, conformal mappings, bilinear transformations; complex integration:
Cauchys integral theorem and formula; Liouvilles theorem, maximum modulus principle;
Zeros and singularities; Taylor and Laurents series; residue theorem and applications for
evaluating real integrals.

Section 3: Real Analysis

Sequences and series of functions, uniform convergence, power series, Fourier series,
functions of several variables, maxima, minima; Riemann integration, multiple integrals,
line, surface and volume integrals, theorems of Green, Stokes and Gauss; metric spaces,
compactness, completeness, Weierstrass approximation theorem; Lebesgue measure,
measurable functions; Lebesgue integral, Fatous lemma, dominated convergence

Section 4: Ordinary Differential Equations

First order ordinary differential equations, existence and uniqueness theorems for initial
value problems, systems of linear first order ordinary differential equations, linear ordinary
differential equations of higher order with constant coefficients; linear second order
ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients; method of Laplace transforms for
solving ordinary differential equations, series solutions (power series, Frobenius method);
Legendre and Bessel functions and their orthogonal properties.

Section 5: Algebra
Groups, subgroups, normal subgroups, quotient groups and homomorphism theorems,
automorphisms; cyclic groups and permutation groups, Sylows theorems and their
applications; Rings, ideals, prime and maximal ideals, quotient rings, unique factorization
domains, Principle ideal domains, Euclidean domains, polynomial rings and irreducibility
criteria; Fields, finite fields, field extensions.

Section 6: Functional Analysis

Normed linear spaces, Banach spaces, Hahn-Banach extension theorem, open mapping
and closed graph theorems, principle of uniform boundedness; Inner-product spaces,
Hilbert spaces, orthonormal bases, Riesz representation theorem, bounded linear

Section 7: Numerical Analysis

Numerical solution of algebraic and transcendental equations: bisection, secant method,
Newton-Raphson method, fixed point iteration; interpolation: error of polynomial
interpolation, Lagrange, Newton interpolations; numerical differentiation; numerical
integration: Trapezoidal and Simpson rules; numerical solution of systems of linear
equations: direct methods (Gauss elimination, LU decomposition); iterative methods
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(Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel); numerical solution of ordinary differential equations: initial

value problems: Eulers method, Runge-Kutta methods of order 2.

Section 8: Partial Differential Equations

Linear and quasilinear first order partial differential equations, method of characteristics;
second order linear equations in two variables and their classification; Cauchy, Dirichlet
and Neumann problems; solutions of Laplace, wave in two dimensional Cartesian
coordinates, Interior and exterior Dirichlet problems in polar coordinates; Separation of
variables method for solving wave and diffusion equations in one space variable; Fourier
series and Fourier transform and Laplace transform methods of solutions for the above

Section 9: Topology
Basic concepts of topology, bases, subbases, subspace topology, order topology,
product topology, connectedness, compactness, countability and separation axioms,
Urysohns Lemma.

Section 10: Probability and Statistics

Probability space, conditional probability, Bayes theorem, independence, Random
variables, joint and conditional distributions, standard probability distributions and their
properties (Discrete uniform, Binomial, Poisson, Geometric, Negative binomial, Normal,
Exponential, Gamma, Continuous uniform, Bivariate normal, Multinomial), expectation,
conditional expectation, moments; Weak and strong law of large numbers, central limit
theorem; Sampling distributions, UMVU estimators, maximum likelihood estimators; Interval
, ,
estimation; Testing of hypotheses, standard parametric tests based on normal,
distributions; Simple linear regression.

Section 11: Linear programming

Linear programming problem and its formulation, convex sets and their properties,
graphical method, basic feasible solution, simplex method, big-M and two phase
methods; infeasible and unbounded LPPs, alternate optima; Dual problem and duality
theorems, dual simplex method and its application in post optimality analysis; Balanced
and unbalanced transportation problems, Vogels approximation method for solving
transportation problems; Hungarian method for solving assignment problems.

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Mechanical Engineering

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, eigenvalues and
Calculus: Functions of single variable, limit, continuity and differentiability, mean
value theorems, indeterminate forms; evaluation of definite and improper integrals;
double and triple integrals; partial derivatives, total derivative, Taylor series (in one
and two variables), maxima and minima, Fourier series; gradient, divergence and
curl, vector identities, directional derivatives, line, surface and volume integrals,
applications of Gauss, Stokes and Greens theorems.
Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear); higher order linear
differential equations with constant coefficients; Euler-Cauchy equation; initial and
boundary value problems; Laplace transforms; solutions of heat, wave and
Laplace's equations.
Complex variables: Analytic functions; Cauchy-Riemann equations; Cauchys
integral theorem and integral formula; Taylor and Laurent series.
Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability, sampling theorems, conditional
probability; mean, median, mode and standard deviation; random variables,
binomial, Poisson and normal distributions.
Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic
equations; integration by trapezoidal and Simpsons rules; single and multi-step
methods for differential equations.

Section 2: Applied Mechanics and Design

Engineering Mechanics: Free-body diagrams and equilibrium; trusses and frames;
virtual work; kinematics and dynamics of particles and of rigid bodies in plane
motion; impulse and momentum (linear and angular) and energy formulations,
Mechanics of Materials: Stress and strain, elastic constants, Poisson's ratio; Mohrs
circle for plane stress and plane strain; thin cylinders; shear force and bending
moment diagrams; bending and shear stresses; deflection of beams; torsion of
circular shafts; Eulers theory of columns; energy methods; thermal stresses; strain
gauges and rosettes; testing of materials with universal testing machine; testing of
hardness and impact strength.
Theory of Machines: Displacement, velocity and acceleration analysis of plane
mechanisms; dynamic analysis of linkages; cams; gears and gear trains; flywheels
and governors; balancing of reciprocating and rotating masses; gyroscope.
Vibrations: Free and forced vibration of single degree of freedom systems, effect of
damping; vibration isolation; resonance; critical speeds of shafts.

Machine Design: Design for static and dynamic loading; failure theories; fatigue
strength and the S-N diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such as
bolted, riveted and welded joints; shafts, gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings,
brakes and clutches, springs.
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Section 3: Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences

Fluid Mechanics: Fluid properties; fluid statics, manometry, buoyancy, forces on
submerged bodies, stability of floating bodies; control-volume analysis of mass,
momentum and energy; fluid acceleration; differential equations of continuity and
momentum; Bernoullis equation; dimensional analysis; viscous flow of
incompressible fluids, boundary layer, elementary turbulent flow, flow through pipes,
head losses in pipes, bends and fittings.
Heat-Transfer: Modes of heat transfer; one dimensional heat conduction, resistance
concept and electrical analogy, heat transfer through fins; unsteady heat
conduction, lumped parameter system, Heisler's charts; thermal boundary layer,
dimensionless parameters in free and forced convective heat transfer, heat transfer
correlations for flow over flat plates and through pipes, effect of turbulence; heat
exchanger performance, LMTD and NTU methods; radiative heat transfer, StefanBoltzmann law, Wien's displacement law, black and grey surfaces, view factors,
radiation network analysis.
Thermodynamics: Thermodynamic systems and processes; properties of pure
substances, behaviour of ideal and real gases; zeroth and first laws of
thermodynamics, calculation of work and heat in various processes; second law of
thermodynamics; thermodynamic property charts and tables, availability and
irreversibility; thermodynamic relations.
Applications: Power Engineering: Air and gas compressors; vapour and gas power
cycles, concepts of regeneration and reheat. I.C. Engines: Air-standard Otto, Diesel
and dual cycles. Refrigeration and air-conditioning: Vapour and gas refrigeration
and heat pump cycles; properties of moist air, psychrometric chart, basic
psychrometric processes. Turbomachinery: Impulse and reaction principles, velocity
diagrams, Pelton-wheel, Francis and Kaplan turbines.

Section 4: Materials, Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering

Engineering Materials: Structure and properties of engineering materials, phase
diagrams, heat treatment, stress-strain diagrams for engineering materials.
Casting, Forming and Joining Processes: Different types of castings, design of
patterns, moulds and cores; solidification and cooling; riser and gating design.
Plastic deformation and yield criteria; fundamentals of hot and cold working
processes; load estimation for bulk (forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing) and sheet
(shearing, deep drawing, bending) metal forming processes; principles of powder
metallurgy. Principles of welding, brazing, soldering and adhesive bonding.
Machining and Machine Tool Operations: Mechanics of machining; basic machine
tools; single and multi-point cutting tools, tool geometry and materials, tool life and
wear; economics of machining; principles of non-traditional machining processes;
principles of work holding, design of jigs and fixtures.
Metrology and Inspection: Limits, fits and tolerances; linear and angular
measurements; comparators; gauge design; interferometry; form and finish
measurement; alignment and testing methods; tolerance analysis in manufacturing
and assembly.
Computer Integrated Manufacturing: Basic concepts of CAD/CAM and their
integration tools.
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Production Planning and Control: Forecasting models, aggregate production

planning, scheduling, materials requirement planning.
Inventory Control: Deterministic models; safety stock inventory control systems.
Operations Research: Linear programming, simplex method, transportation,
assignment, network flow models, simple queuing models, PERT and CPM.

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Metallurgical Engineering

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrices and Determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen
values and Eigen vectors.
Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability; Partial derivatives; Maxima and
minima; Sequences and series; Test for convergence; Fourier series.
Vector Calculus: Gradient; Divergence and Curl; Line, Surface and volume
integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Greens theorems.
Differential Equations: Linear and non-linear first order ODEs; Higher order linear
ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchys and Eulers equations; Laplace
transforms; PDEs Laplace, one dimensional heat and wave equations.
Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems,
conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random
variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and regression
Numerical Methods: Solutions of linear and non-linear (Bisection, Secant, NewtonRaphson methods) algebraic equations; integration by trapezoidal and Simpsons
rule; single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

Section 2: Thermodynamics and Rate Processes

Laws of thermodynamics, activity, equilibrium constant, applications to
metallurgical systems, solutions, phase equilibria, Ellingham and phase stability
diagrams, thermodynamics of surfaces, interfaces and defects, adsorption and
segregation; basic kinetic laws, order of reactions, rate constants and rate limiting
steps; principles of electro chemistry- single electrode potential, electrochemical
cells and polarizations, aqueous corrosion and protection of metals, galvanic
corrosion, crevice corrosion, pitting corrosion, intergranular corrosion, selective
leaching, oxidation and high temperature corrosion characterization and control;
heat transfer conduction, convection and heat transfer coefficient relations,
radiation, mass transfer diffusion and Ficks laws, mass transfer coefficients;
momentum transfer concepts of viscosity, shell balances, Bernoullis equation,
friction factors.

Section 3: Extractive Metallurgy

Minerals of economic importance, comminution techniques, size classification,
flotation, gravity and other methods of mineral processing; agglomeration, pyro-,
hydro-, and electro-metallurgical processes; material and energy balances;
principles and processes for the extraction of non-ferrous metals aluminium,
copper, zinc, lead, magnesium, nickel, titanium and other rare metals; iron and
steel making principles, role structure and properties of slags, metallurgical coke,
blast furnace, direct reduction processes, primary and secondary steel making,
ladle metallurgy operations including deoxidation, desulphurization, sulphide shape
control, inert gas rinsing and vacuum reactors; secondary refining processes
including AOD, VAD, VOD, VAR and ESR; ingot and continuous casting; stainless
steel making, furnaces and refractories.

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Section 4: Physical Metallurgy

Crystal structure and bonding characteristics of metals, alloys, ceramics and
polymers, structure of surfaces and interfaces, nano-crystalline and amorphous
structures; solid solutions; solidification; phase transformation and binary phase
diagrams; principles of heat treatment of steels, cast iron and aluminium alloys;
surface treatments; recovery, recrystallization and grain growth; structure and
properties of industrially important ferrous and non-ferrous alloys; elements of X-ray
and electron diffraction; principles of optical, scanning and transmission electron
microscopy; industrial ceramics, polymers and composites; introduction to
electronic basis of thermal, optical, electrical and magnetic properties of materials;
introduction to electronic and opto-electronic materials.

Section 5: Mechanical Metallurgy

Elasticity, yield criteria and plasticity; defects in crystals; elements of dislocation
theory types of dislocations, slip and twinning, source and multiplication of
dislocations, stress fields around dislocations, partial dislocations, dislocation
interactions and reactions; strengthening mechanisms; tensile, fatigue and creep
behaviour; superplasticity; fracture Griffith theory, basic concepts of linear elastic
and elastoplastic fracture mechanics, ductile to brittle transition, fracture
toughness; failure analysis; mechanical testing tension, compression, torsion,
hardness, impact, creep, fatigue, fracture toughness and formability.

Section 6: Manufacturing Processes

Metal casting patterns and moulds including mould design involving feeding,
gating and risering, melting, casting practices in sand casting, permanent mould
casting, investment casting and shell moulding, casting defects and repair; Hot,
warm and cold working of metals; Metal forming fundamentals of metal forming
processes of rolling, forging, extrusion, wire drawing and sheet metal forming,
defects in forming; Metal joining soldering, brazing and welding, common welding
processes of shielded metal arc welding, gas metal arc welding, gas tungsten arc
welding and submerged arc welding; Welding metallurgy, problems associated
with welding of steels and aluminium alloys, defects in welded joints; Powder
metallurgy production of powders, compaction and sintering; NDT using dyepenetrant, ultrasonic, radiography, eddy current, acoustic emission and magnetic
particle methods.

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Mining Engineering

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrices and Determinants;
values and Eigen vectors.

Systems of linear equations;


Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability; Partial Derivatives; Maxima and

minima; Sequences and series; Test for convergence; Fourier series.
Vector Calculus: Gradient; Divergence and Curl; Line; surface and volume
integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Greens theorems.
Diferential Equations: Linear and non-linear first order ODEs; Higher order linear ODEs
with constant coefficients; Cauchys and Eulers equations.
Probability and Statistics: Measures of central tendency; Random variables; Poisson,
normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Solutions of linear algebraic equations; Integration of
trapezoidal and Simpsons rule; Single and multi-step methods for differential

Section 2: Mine Development and Surveying

Mine Development: Methods of access to deposits; Underground drivages; Drilling
methods and machines; Explosives, blasting devices and practices.
Mine Surveying: Levels and leveling, theodolite, tacheometry, triangulation;
Contouring; Errors and adjustments; Correlation; Underground surveying; Curves;
Photogrammetry; Field astronomy; EDM and Total Station; Introductory GPS .

Section 3: Geomechanics and Ground Control

Engineering Mechanics: Equivalent force systems; Equations of equilibrium; Two
dimensional frames and trusses; Free body diagrams; Friction forces; Particle
kinematics and dynamics; Beam analysis.
Geomechanics: Geo-technical properties of rocks; Rock mass classification;
Instrumentation and stress measurement techniques; Theories of rock failure;
Ground vibrations; Stress distribution around mine openings; Subsidence; Rock bursts
and coal bumps; Slope stability.
Ground Control: Design of pillars; Roof supporting systems; Mine filling.

Section 4: Mining Methods and Machinery

Mining Methods: Surface mining: layout, development, loading, transportation and
mechanization, continuous surface mining systems; Underground coal mining: bord
and pillar systems, room and pillar mining, longwall mining, thick seam mining
methods; highwall mining; Underground metal mining: open, supported and caved
stoping methods, stope mechanization, ore handling systems.
Mining Machinery: Generation and transmission of mechanical, hydraulic and
pneumatic power; Materials handling: haulages, conveyors, face and
development machinery, hoisting systems, pumps, crushers.

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Section 5: Surface Environment, Mine Ventilation, and Underground Hazards

Surface Environment: Air, water and soil pollution : Standards of quality, causes and
dispersion of contamination, and control; Noise; Land reclamation.
Mine Ventilation: Underground atmosphere; Heat load sources and thermal
environment, air cooling; Mechanics of air flow, distribution, natural and
mechanical ventilation; Mine fans and their usage; Auxiliary ventilation; Ventilation
planning; Ventilation networks.
Subsurface Hazards: Mine Gases. Underground hazards from fires, explosions, dust
and inundation; Rescue apparatus and practices; Safety in mines; Accident data
analysis; Mine lighting; Mine legislation; Occupational safety.

Section 6: Mine Economics, Mine Planning, Systems Engineering

Mine Economics: Mineral resource classification; Discounted cash flow analysis;
Mine valuation; Mine investment analysis; Mineral taxation.
Mine Planning: Sampling methods, practices and interpretation; Reserve estimation
techniques: Basics of geostatistics and quality control; Optimization of facility
location; Work-study.
Systems Engineering: Concepts of reliability; Reliability of simple systems;
Maintainability and availability; Linear programming,
transportation and
assignment problems; Network analysis; Inventory models; Queueing theory; Basics
of simulation.

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Petroleum Engineering

1. Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigenvectors.
2. Calculus: Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Taylor series,
Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total
derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional
derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Greens theorems.
3. Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear
differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchys and Eulers equations, Initial and
boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave
equations and Laplace equation.
4. Complex variables: Complex number, polar form of complex number, triangle inequality.
5. Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional
probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, Normal
and Binomial distributions, Linear regression analysis.
6. Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations.
Integration by trapezoidal and Simpsons rule. Single and multi-step methods for numerical
solution of differential equations.
7. Petroleum Exploration: Classification and description of some common rocks with special
reference to clastic and nonclastic reservoir rocks. Origin, migration and accumulation of
Petroleum. Petroleum exploration methods.
8. Oil and Gas Well Drilling Technology: Well planning. Drilling method. Drilling rigs Rig
operating systems. Drilling fluids function and properties. Drilling fluid maintenance
equipment. Oil & gas well cementing operations. Drill bit types and their applications. Drill
string & Casing string function, operations, selection & design. Drilling problems, their control
& remedies. Directional drilling tools. Directional survey. Application of horizontal, multilateral,
extended reach, slim wells.
9. Reservoir Engineering: Petrophysical properties of reservoir rocks. Coring and core
analysis. Reservoir fluid properties. Phase behavior of hydrocarbon system. Flow of fluids
through porous media. Water and gas coning. Reservoir pressure measurements. Reservoir
drives, drive mechanics and recovery factors. Reserve estimation & techniques.
10. Petroleum Production Operations: Well equipments. Well completion techniques. Well
production problems and mitigation. Well servicing & Workover operations. Workover &
completion fluids. Formation damage. Well stimulation techniques. Artificial lift techniques.
Field processing of oil & gas. Storage and transportation of petroleum and petroleum
products. Metering and measurements oil & gas. Production system analysis & optimization.
Production testing. Multiphase flow in tubing and flow-lines. Nodal system analysis. Pressure
vessels, storage tanks, shell and tube heat exchangers, pumps and compressors, LNG value
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11. Offshore Drilling and Production Practices: Offshore oil and gas operations & ocean
environment. Offshore fixed platforms, Offshore mobile units, Station keeping methods like
mooring & dynamic positioning system. Offshore drilling from fixed platform, jack-up, ships
and semi submersibles. Use of conductors and risers. Offshore well completion. Deep water
applications of subsea technology. Offshore production: Oil processing platforms, water
injection platforms, storage, SPM and SBM transportation and utilities. Deep water drilling rig.
Deep water production system. Emerging deep water technologies.
12. Petroleum Formation Evaluation: Evaluation of petrophysical of sub-surface formations:
Principles applications, advantages and disadvantages of SP, resistivity, radioactive, acoustic
logs and types of tools used. Evaluation of CBL/VDL, USIT, SFT, RFT. Production logging
tools, principles, limitations and applications. Special type of logging tools. Casing inspection
tools (principles, applications and limitations), Formations micro scanner (FMS), NMR logging
principles. Standard log interpretation methods. Cross-plotting methods.
13. Oil and Gas Well Testing: Diffusivity equation, derivation & solutions. Radius of
investigation. Principle of superposition. Horners approximation. Drill Stem Testing. Pressure
Transient Tests: Drawdown and build up-test analysis. Wellbore effects. Multilayer reservoirs.
Injection well testing. Multiple well testing. Interference testing, Pulse testing, well-test
analysis by use of type curves. Gas well testing.
14. Health Safety and Environment in Petroleum Industry: Health hazards in Petroleum
Industry: Toxicity, Physiological, Asphyxiation, respiratory and skin effect of petroleum
hydrocarbons, sour gases. Safety System: Manual & automatic shutdown system, blow down
systems. Gas detection system. Fire detection and suppression systems. Personal protection
system & measures. HSE Policies. Disaster & crisis management in Petroleum Industry.
Environment: Environment concepts, impact on eco-system, air, water and soil. The impact of
drilling & production operations on environment, Environmental transport of petroleum wastes.
Offshore environmental studies. Offshore oil spill and oil spill control. Waste treatment
15. Enhanced Oil Recovery Techniques: Basic principles and mechanism of EOR, Screening
of EOR process. Concept of pattern flooding, recovery efficiency, permeability heterogeneity.
Macroscopic and microscopic displacement efficiency. EOR methods: Chemical flooding,
Miscible flooding, Thermal recoveries (steam stimulation, hot water & steam flooding, in-situ
combustion), Microbial EOR.
16. Latest trends in Petroleum Engineering: Coal bed methane, shale gas, oil shale, gas
hydrate, and heavy oil.

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Section 1: Mathematical Physics

Linear vector space: basis, orthogonality and completeness; matrices; vector
calculus; linear differential equations; elements of complex analysis: CauchyRiemann conditions, Cauchys theorems, singularities, residue theorem and
applications; Laplace transforms, Fourier analysis; elementary ideas about tensors:
covariant and contravariant tensor, Levi-Civita and Christoffel symbols.

Section 2: Classical Mechanics

DAlemberts principle, cyclic coordinates, variational principle, Lagranges
equation of motion, central force and scattering problems, rigid body motion;
small oscillations, Hamiltons formalisms;
Poisson bracket; special theory of
relativity: Lorentz transformations, relativistic kinematics, massenergy equivalence.

Section 3: Electromagnetic Theory

Solutions of electrostatic and magnetostatic problems including boundary value
problems; dielectrics and conductors; Maxwells equations; scalar and vector
potentials; Coulomb and Lorentz gauges; Electromagnetic waves and their
reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction and polarization; Poynting vector,
Poynting theorem, energy and momentum of electromagnetic waves; radiation
from a moving charge.

Section 4: Quantum Mechanics

Postulates of quantum mechanics; uncertainty principle; Schrodinger equation;
one-, two- and three-dimensional potential problems; particle in a box, transmission
through one dimensional potential barriers, harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom;
linear vectors and operators in Hilbert space; angular momentum and spin;
addition of angular momenta; time independent perturbation theory; elementary
scattering theory.

Section 5: Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics

Laws of thermodynamics; macrostates and microstates; phase space; ensembles;
partition function, free energy, calculation of thermodynamic quantities; classical
and quantum statistics; degenerate Fermi gas; black body radiation and Plancks
distribution law; BoseEinstein condensation; first and second order phase
transitions, phase equilibria, critical point.

Section 6: Atomic and Molecular Physics

Spectra of one and manyelectron atoms; LS and jj coupling; hyperfine structure;
Zeeman and Stark effects; electric dipole transitions and selection rules; rotational
and vibrational spectra of diatomic molecules; electronic transition in diatomic
molecules, FranckCondon principle; Raman effect; NMR, ESR, X-ray spectra;
lasers: Einstein coefficients, population inversion, two and three level systems.

Section 7: Solid State Physics & Electronics

Elements of crystallography; diffraction methods for structure determination;
bonding in solids; lattice vibrations and thermal properties of solids; free electron
theory; band theory of solids: nearly free electron and tight binding models; metals,
semiconductors and insulators; conductivity, mobility and effective mass; optical,
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dielectric and magnetic properties of solids; elements of superconductivity: Type-I

and Type II superconductors, Meissner effect, London equation.
Semiconductor devices: diodes, Bipolar Junction Transistors, Field Effect Transistors;
operational amplifiers: negative feedback circuits, active filters and oscillators;
regulated power supplies; basic digital logic circuits, sequential circuits, flipflops,
counters, registers, A/D and D/A conversion.

Section 8: Nuclear and Particle Physics

Nuclear radii and charge distributions, nuclear binding energy, Electric and
magnetic moments; nuclear models, liquid drop model: semiempirical mass
formula, Fermi gas model of nucleus, nuclear shell model; nuclear force and two
nucleon problem; alpha decay, betadecay, electromagnetic transitions in nuclei;
Rutherford scattering, nuclear reactions, conservation laws; fission and fusion;
particle accelerators and detectors; elementary particles, photons, baryons,
mesons and leptons; quark model.

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Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen
Calculus: Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean
value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives,
Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector
identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss
and Greens theorems.
Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear
differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchys and Eulers equations,
Initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one
dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation.
Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchys integral theorem, Taylor series.
Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems,
Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random
variables, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distributions.
Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic
equations Integration by trapezoidal and Simpsons rule, single and multi-step
methods for differential equations.

Section 2: General Engineering

Engineering Materials: Structure and properties correlation;engineering materials
(metals, ceramics, polymers and composites) properties and applications; stressstrain behavior of metals and alloys;iron-carbon phase diagram, heat treatment of
metals and alloys, its influence on mechanical properties.
Applied Mechanics: Engineering mechanics equivalent force systems, free body
concepts, equations of equilibrium; trusses; strength of materials stress, strain and
their relationship; failure theories, Mohrs circle(stress), deflection of beams, bending
and shear stress, Eulers theory of columns.
Theory of Machines and Design: Analysis of planar mechanisms, cams and
followers; governors and fly wheels; design of bolted, riveted and welded joints;
interference/shrink fit joints; design of shafts, keys, spur gears, belt drives, brakes and
clutches; pressure vessels.
Thermal and FluidsEngineering: Fluid mechanics fluid statics, Bernoullis equation,
flow through pipes, equations of continuity and momentum, capillary action,
contact angle and wetting; thermodynamics zeroth, first and second law of
thermodynamics, thermodynamic system and processes, calculation of work and
heat for systems and control volumes; air standard cycles; heat transfer
basicapplicationsof conduction, convection and radiation.

Section 3: Manufacturing Processes I

Casting: types of casting processes and applications; patterns types and
materials; allowances; moulds and cores materials, making, and testing; casting
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techniques of cast iron, steels and nonferrous metals and alloys; analysis
ofsolidification andmicrostructure development; design of gating and riser; origin of
Metal Forming: Stress-strain relations in elastic and plastic deformation; concept of
flow stress; hot and cold working forging, rolling, extrusion and wire drawing; sheet
metal working processes blanking, bending and deep drawing; ideal work and
slab analysis;origin of metal workingdefects.
Joining of materials: Principles of fusion welding processes(manual metal arc, MIG,
TIG, plasma arc, submerged arc welding processes)different heat sources (flame,
arc, resistive, laser, electron beam), and heat transfer and associated losses, flux
application, feeding of filler rod; Principles of solid state welding processes (friction,
explosive welding, ultrasonic welding processes); Principles of adhesive, brazing and
soldering processes; Origins of welding defects.
Powder processing: Production of metal/ceramic powders, compaction and
sintering of metals and ceramic powders.
Polymers and Composites: Plastic processing injection, compression and blow
molding, extrusion, calendaring and thermoforming; molding of composites.

Section 4: Manufacturing Processes II

Machine Tools and Machining: Basic machine tools like centre lathe, milling
machine, and drilling machine construction and kinematics; machining processes
- turning, taper turning, thread cutting, drilling, boring, milling, gear cutting, thread
production, grinding; geometry of single point cutting tools, chip formation, cutting
forces, specific cutting energy and power requirements, Merchants analysis; basis
ofselection of machining parameters; tool materials, tool wear and tool life,
economics of machining, thermal aspects of machining, cutting fluids,
machinability; Jigs and fixtures principles, applications, and design
Non-traditional Manufacturing: Principles, applications, effect of process
parameters on MRR and product quality of non-traditional machining processes
Computer Integrated Manufacturing: Basic concepts of CAD geometric modeling,
CAM CNC and robotics configurations, drives and controls, Group Technology
and its applications CAPP, cellular manufacturing and FMS.

Section 5: Qualityand Reliability

Metrology and Inspection: Limits, fits, and tolerances, gauge design,
measurements(straightness, squareness, flatness, roundness, and cylindricity) by
mechanical and optical methods; inspection of screw threads and gears; surface
finish measurement by contact and non-contact methods;tolerance analysis in
manufacturing and assembly.
Quality management: Quality concept and costs; quality assurance; statistical
quality control, acceptance sampling, zero defects, six sigma; total quality
management; ISO 9000.

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Reliability and Maintenance: Reliability, availability and maintainability; distribution

of failure and repair times; determination of MTBF and MTTR, reliability models;
determination of system reliability; preventive maintenance and replacement.

Section 6: Industrial Engineering

Product Design and Development: Principles of good product design, tolerance
design; quality and cost considerations; product life cycle; standardization,
simplification, diversification, value engineering and analysis, concurrent
engineering;comparison of production alternatives.
Work System Design: Taylors scientific management, Gilbrethss contributions;
productivity concepts and measurements; methodstudy, micro-motion study,
principles of motion economy; work measurement time study, work sampling,
standard data, PMTS; ergonomics; job evaluation, merit rating, incentive schemes,
and wage administration.
Facility Design: Facility location factors and evaluation of alternate locations; types
of plant layout and their evaluation; computer aided layout design techniques;
assembly line balancing; materials handling systems.

Section 7: Operations research and Operations management

Operation Research: Linear programming problem formulation, simplex method,
duality and sensitivity analysis; transportation and assignment models; network flow
models, constrained optimization and Lagrange multipliers; Markovian queuing
models; dynamic programming; simulation manufacturing applications.
Engineering Economy and Costing: Elementary cost accounting and methods of
depreciation; break-even analysis, techniques for evaluation of capital investments,
financial statements, time-cost trade-off, resource leveling.
Production control: Forecasting techniques causal and time series models, moving
average, exponential smoothing, trend and seasonality; aggregate production
planning; master production scheduling; MRP and MRP-II; routing, scheduling and
priority dispatching; Push and pull production systems, concept of JIT
manufacturing system; Logistics, distribution, and supply chain management;
Inventory functions, costs, classifications, deterministicinventory models, quantity
discount; perpetual and periodic inventory control systems.
Project management PERT and CPM.

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Textile Engineering and Fibre Science

Linear Algebra: Matrices and Determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen
values and eigen vectors.
Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability; Partial Derivatives; Maxima and
minima; Sequences and series; Test for convergence; Fourier series.
Vector Calculus: Gradient; Divergence and Curl; Line; surface and volume
integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Greens theorems.
Differential Equations: Linear and non-linear first order ODEs; Higher order linear
ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchys and Eulers equations; Laplace
transforms; PDEs Laplace, heat and wave equations.
Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random
variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and regression
Numerical Methods: Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations;
integration of trapezoidal and Simpsons rule; single and multi-step methods for
differential equations.
Section 1: Textile Fibers
Classification of textile fibers; Essential requirements of fiber forming polymers;
Gross and fine structure of natural fibers like cotton, wool, silk, Introduction to
important bast fibres; properties and uses of natural and man- made fibres including
carbon, aramid and ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers;
physical and chemical methods of fiber and blend identification and blend analysis.
Molecular architecture, amorphous and crystalline phases, glass transition,
plasticization, crystallization, melting, factors affecting Tg and Tm; Production process
of viscose and other regenerated cellulosic fibres such as polynosic, lyocell.
Polymerization of nylon-6, nylon-66, poly (ethylene terephthalate), polyacrylonitrile and
polypropylene; Melt Spinning processes for PET, polyamide and polypropylene; Wet
and dry spinning processes for viscose and acrylic fibres; post spinning operations
such as drawing, heat setting, tow- to-top conversion and different texturing methods.

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Methods of investigating fibre structure e.g., Density, X-ray diffraction,

birefringence, optical and electron microscopy, I.R. spectroscopy, thermal methods
(DSC, DMA/TMA, TGA); structure and morphology of man-made fibres,
mechanical properties of fibres, moisture sorption in fibres; fibre structure and
property correlation.
Section 2: Yarn manufacture, Yarn structure and Properties
Principles of opening, cleaning and mixing/blending of fibrous materials, working
principle of modern opening and cleaning equipment; the technology of carding,
carding of cotton and synthetic fibres; Drafting operation, roller and apron drafting
principle, causes of mass irregularity introduced by drafting; roller arrangements in
drafting systems; principles of cotton combing, combing cycle, mechanism and
function, combing efficiency, lap preparation; recent developments in comber;
Roving production, mechanism of bobbin building, roving twist; Principle of ring
spinning, forces acting on yarn and traveler, ring
& traveler designs, mechanism of cop formation, causes of end breakages;
Working principle of ring doubler and two for one twister, single and folded yarn
twist, properties of double yarns, production of core spun yarn; Principles of
compact, rotor, air jet, air vortex, core, wrap, twist less and friction spinning.
Yarn contraction, yarn diameter, specific volume & packing coefficient; Twist
factor, twist strength relationship in spun yarns; Fibre configuration and orientation
in yarn; Cause of fibre migration and its estimation; Irregularity index; Structure
property relationship of compact ring, rotor, air-jet and friction spun yarns.
Section 3: Fabric manufacture, Structure and Properties
Principles of winding processes and machines, random, precision and step
precision winding, package faults and their remedies; Yarn clearers and
tensioners; Different systems of yarn splicing; Features of modern cone winding
machines; Different types of warping creels; features of modern beam and
sectional warping machines; Different sizing systems, sizing of spun and filament
yarns, sizing machines; Principles of pirn winding processes and machines.
Primary and secondary motions of loom, cam design & kinematics of sley, effect of
their settings and timings on fabric formation, fabric appearance and weaving
performance; Dobby and jacquard shedding; Mechanics of weft insertion with
shuttle, warp and weft stop motions, warp protection, weft replenishment;
Principles of weft insertion systems of shuttle-less weaving machines; Principles of
multiphase and circular looms.
Principles of weft and warp knitting, basic weft and warp knitted structures;
Classification, production, properties and application of nonwoven fabrics, principle
of web formation & bonding.

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Basic woven fabric constructions and their derivatives; crepe, cord, terry, gauze,
leno and double cloth constructions. Peirces equations for fabric geometry;
elastica model of plain woven fabrics; thickness, cover and maximum set of woven
Section 4: Textile Testing
Sampling techniques, sample size and sampling errors; Measurement of fibre
length, fineness, crimp; measurement of cotton fiber maturity and trash content;
High volume fibre testing; Measurement of yarn count, twist and hairiness; Tensile
testing of fibers, yarns and fabrics; Evenness testing of slivers, rovings and yarns;
Classimat fault analysis; Testing equipment for measurement of fabric properties
like thickness, compressibility, air permeability, wetting & wicking, drape, crease
recovery, tear strength, bursting strength and abrasion resistance; Instruments
and systems for objective evaluation of fabric hand. Statistical analysis of
experimental results, frequency distributions, correlation, significance tests,
analysis of variance and control charts.
Section 5: Chemical processing
Impurities in natural fibre; Chemistry and practice of preparatory processes for
cotton, wool and silk; Mercerization of cotton; Preparatory processes for manmade
fibres and their blends.
Classification of dyes; Dyeing of cotton, wool, silk, polyester, nylon and acrylic with
appropriate dye classes; Dyeing of polyester/cotton and polyester/wool blends;
Dyeing machines; Dyeing of cotton knitted fabrics and machines used; Dye
fibre interaction; Introduction to thermodynamics and kinetics of dyeing; Methods
for determination of wash, light and rubbing fastness.
Styles of printing; Printing thickeners including synthetic thickeners; Printing
auxiliaries; Printing of cotton with reactive dyes, wool, silk, nylon with acid and
metal complex dyes, Printing of polyester with disperse dyes; Pigment
printing; Resist and discharge printing of cotton, silk and polyester; Transfer
printing of polyester; Inkjet printing.
Mechanical finishing of cotton. Stiff, soft, wrinkle resistant, water repellent, flame
retardant and enzyme (bio-polishing) finishing of cotton; Milling, decatizing and
shrink resistant finishing of wool; Antistatic and soil release finishing; Heat setting
of synthetic fabrics; Minimum application techniques; Pollution control and
treatment of effluents.

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XE-A (Compulsory for all XE candidates)

Engineering Mathematics

Section 1: Linear Algebra

Algebra of matrices; Inverse and rank of a matrix; System of linear equations; Symmetric,
skew-symmetric and orthogonal matrices; Determinants; Eigenvalues and eigenvectors;
Diagonalisation of matrices; Cayley-Hamilton Theorem.

Section 2: Calculus
Functions of single variable: Limit, continuity and differentiability; Mean value theorems;
Indeterminate forms and L'Hospital's rule; Maxima and minima; Taylor's theorem;
Fundamental theorem and mean value-theorems of integral calculus; Evaluation of
definite and improper integrals; Applications of definite integrals to evaluate areas and
Functions of two variables: Limit, continuity and partial derivatives; Directional derivative;
Total derivative; Tangent plane and normal line; Maxima, minima and saddle points;
Method of Lagrange multipliers; Double and triple integrals, and their applications.
Sequence and series: Convergence of sequence and series; Tests for convergence;
Power series; Taylor's series; Fourier Series; Half range sine and cosine series.

Section 3: Vector Calculus

Gradient, divergence and curl; Line and surface integrals; Green's theorem, Stokes
theorem and Gauss divergence theorem (without proofs).

Section 3: Complex variables

Analytic functions; Cauchy-Riemann equations; Line integral, Cauchy's integral theorem
and integral formula (without proof); Taylor's series and Laurent series; Residue theorem
(without proof) and its applications.

Section 4: Ordinary Differential Equations

First order equations (linear and nonlinear); Higher order linear differential equations with
constant coefficients; Second order linear differential equations with variable
coefficients; Method of variation of parameters; Cauchy-Euler equation; Power series
solutions; Legendre polynomials, Bessel functions of the first kind and their properties.

Section 5: Partial Differential Equations

Classification of second order linear partial differential equations; Method of separation
of variables; Laplace equation; Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations.

Section 6: Probability and Statistics

Axioms of probability; Conditional probability; Bayes' Theorem; Discrete and continuous
random variables: Binomial, Poisson and normal distributions; Correlation and linear

Section 7: Numerical Methods

Solution of systems of linear equations using LU decomposition, Gauss elimination and
Gauss-Seidel methods; Lagrange and Newton's interpolations, Solution of polynomial and
transcendental equations by Newton-Raphson method; Numerical integration by
trapezoidal rule, Simpson's rule and Gaussian quadrature rule; Numerical solutions of first
order differential equations by Euler's method and 4th order Runge-Kutta method.
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Fluid Mechanics

Section 1: Flow and Fluid Properties

viscosity, relationship between stress and strain-rate for Newtonian fluids, incompressible
and compressible flows, differences between laminar and turbulent flows. Hydrostatics:
Buoyancy, manometry, forces on submerged bodies.

Section 2: Kinematics
Eulerian and Lagrangian description of fluids motion, concept of local and convective
accelerations, steady and unsteady flows.

Section 3: Integral analysis

Control volume analysis for mass, momentum and energy.

Section 4: Differential Analysis

Differential equations of mass and momentum for incompressible flows: inviscid - Euler
equation and viscous flows - Navier-Stokes equations, concept of fluid rotation, vorticity,
stream function, Exact solutions of Navier-Stokes equation for Couette Flow and Poiseuille

Section 5: Inviscid flows

Bernoullis equation - assumptions and applications, potential function, Elementary plane
flows - uniform flow, source, sink and doublet and their superposition for potential flow
past simple geometries.

Section 6: Dimensional analysis

Concept of geometric, kinematic and dynamic similarity, some common non-dimensional
parameters and their physical significance: Reynolds number, Froude number and Mach

Section 7: Internal flows

Fully developed pipe flow, empirical relations for laminar and turbulent flows: friction
factor and Darcy-Weisbach relation.

Section 8: Prandtl boundary layer equations

Concept and assumptions, qualitative idea of boundary layer and separation,
streamlined and bluff bodies, drag and lift forces. Flow measurements: Basic ideas of flow
measurement using venturimeter, pitot-static tube and orifice plate.

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Materials Science

Section 1: Processing of Materials:

Powder synthesis, sintering, chemical methods, crystal growth techniques, zone
refining, preparation of nanoparticles and thin films

Section 2: Characterisation Techniques:

X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic techniques like UV-vis, IR, Raman. Optical and
Electron microscopy

Section 3: Structure and Imperfections:

Crystal symmetry, point groups, space groups, indices of planes, close packing in
solids, bonding in materials, coordination and radius ratio concepts, point defects,
dislocations, grain boundaries, surface energy and equilibrium shapes of crystals

Section 4: Thermodynamics and Kinetics:

Phase rule, phase diagrams, solid solutions, invariant reactions, lever rule, basic
heat treatment of metals, solidification and phase transformations, Ficks laws of
diffusion, mechanisms of diffusion, temperature dependence of diffusivity

Section 5: Properties of Materials:

Mechanical Properties: Stress-strain response of metallic, ceramic and polymer
materials, yield strength, tensile strength and modulus of elasticity, toughness,
plastic deformation, fatigue, creep and fracture
Electronic Properties:Free electron theory, Fermi energy, density of states, elements
of band theory, semiconductors, Hall effect, dielectric behaviour, piezo, ferro,
Magnetic Properties: Origin of magnetism in metallic and ceramic materials,
paramagnetism, diamagnetism, ferro and ferrimagnetism
Thermal Properties: Specific heat, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion,
Optical Properties: Refractive index, absorption and transmission of
electromagnetic radiation in solids, electrooptic and magnetoopticmaterials,
spontaneous and stimulated emission, gas and solid state lasers

Section 6: Material types

Concept of amorphous, single crystals and polycrystalline materials, crystallinity
and its effect on physical properties, metal, ceramic, polymers, classification of
polymers, polymerization, structure and properties, additives for polymer products,
processing and applications, effect of environment on materials, composites

Section 7: Environmental Degradation

Corrosion, oxidation and prevention

Section 8: Elements of Quantum Mechanics and Mathematics

Basics of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical treatment of electrical,
optical and thermal properties of materials, analytical solid geometry,
differentiation and integration, differential equations, vectors and tensors, matrices,
Fourier series, complex analysis, probability and statistics
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Solid Mechanics
Equivalent force systems; free-body diagrams; equilibrium equations; analysis of
determinate trusses and frames; friction; particle kinematics and dynamics;
dynamics of rigid bodies under planar motion; law of conservation of energy; law of
conservation of momentum.
Stresses and strains; principal stresses and strains; Mohrs circle for plane stress and
plane strain; generalized Hookes Law; elastic constants; thermal stresses; theories of
Axial, shear and bending moment diagrams; axial, shear and bending stresses;
combined stresses; deflection (for symmetric bending); torsion in circular shafts; thin
walled pressure vessels; energy methods (Castiglianos Theorems); Euler buckling.
Free vibration of single degree of freedom systems.

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Section 1: Basic Concepts

Continuum and macroscopic approach; thermodynamic systems (closed and
open); thermodynamic properties and equilibrium; state of a system, state
postulate for simple compressible substances, state diagrams, paths and processes
on state diagrams; concepts of heat and work, different modes of work; zeroth law
of thermodynamics; concept of temperature.

Section 2: First Law of Thermodynamics

Concept of energy and various forms of energy; internal energy, enthalpy; specific
heats; first law applied to elementary processes, closed systems and control
volumes, steady and unsteady flow analysis.

Section 3: Second Law of Thermodynamics

Limitations of the first law of thermodynamics, concepts of heat engines and heat
pumps/refrigerators, Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements and their equivalence;
reversible and irreversible processes; Carnot cycle and Carnot principles/theorems;
thermodynamic temperature scale; Clausius inequality and concept of entropy;
microscopic interpretation of entropy, the principle of increase of entropy, T-s
diagrams; second law analysis of control volume; availability and irreversibility; third
law of thermodynamics.

Section 4: Properties of Pure Substances

Thermodynamic properties of pure substances in solid, liquid and vapor phases; P-vT behaviour of simple compressible substances, phase rule, thermodynamic
property tables and charts, ideal and real gases, ideal gas equation of state and
van der Waals equation of state; law of corresponding states, compressibility factor
and generalized compressibility chart.

Section 5: Thermodynamic Relations

T-ds relations, Helmholtz and Gibbs functions, Gibbs relations, Maxwell relations,
Joule-Thomson coefficient, coefficient of volume expansion, adiabatic and
isothermal compressibilities, Clapeyron and Clapeyron-Clausius equations.

Section 6: Thermodynamic Cycles

Carnot vapor cycle, ideal Rankine cycle, Rankine reheat cycle, air-standard Otto
cycle, air-standard Diesel cycle, air-standard Brayton cycle, vapor-compression
refrigeration cycle.

Section 7: Ideal Gas Mixtures

Daltons and Amagats laws, properties of ideal gas mixtures, air-water vapor
mixtures and simple thermodynamic processes involving them; specific and relative
humidities, dew point and wet bulb temperature, adiabatic saturation temperature,
psychrometric chart.

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Polymer Science and Engineering

Section 1: Chemistry of high polymers

Monomers, functionality, degree of polymerizations, classification of polymers, glass
transition, melting transition, criteria for rubberiness, polymerization methods:
addition and condensation; their kinetics, metallocene polymers and other newer
techniques of polymerization, copolymerization, monomer reactivity ratios and its
significance, kinetics, different copolymers, random, alternating, azeotropic
copolymerization, block and graft copolymers, techniques for copolymerizationbulk, solution, suspension, emulsion.

Section 2: Polymer Characterization

Solubility and swelling, concept of average molecular weight, determination of
number average, weight average, viscosity average and Z-average molecular
weights, polymer crystallinity, analysis of polymers using IR, XRD, thermal (DSC,
DMTA, TGA), microscopic (optical and electronic) techniques.

Section 3: Synthesis and properties

Commodity and general purpose thermoplastics: PE, PP, PS, PVC, Polyesters,
Acrylic, PU polymers. Engineering Plastics: Nylon, PC, PBT, PSU, PPO, ABS,
Fluoropolymers Thermosetting polymers: PF, MF, UF, Epoxy, Unsaturated polyester,
Alkyds. Natural and synthetic rubbers: Recovery of NR hydrocarbon from latex, SBR,
Nitrile, CR, CSM, EPDM, IIR, BR, Silicone, TPE.

Section 4: Polymer blends and composites

Difference between blends and composites, their significance, choice of polymers
for blending, blend miscibility-miscible and immiscible blends, thermodynamics,
phase morphology, polymer alloys, polymer eutectics, plastic-plastic, rubber-plastic
and rubber-rubber blends, FRP, particulate, long and short fibre reinforced

Section 5: Polymer Technology

Polymer compounding-need and significance, different compounding ingredients
for rubber and plastics, cross-linking and vulcanization, vulcanization kinetics.

Section 6: Polymer rheology

Flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, different flow equations,
dependence of shear modulus on temperature, molecular/segmental
deformations at different zones and transitions. Measurements of rheological
parameters by capillary rotating, parallel plate, cone-plate rheometer. Viscoelasticity-creep and stress relaxations, mechanical models, control of rheological
characteristics through compounding, rubber curing in parallel plate viscometer,
ODR and MDR.

Section 7: Polymer processing

Compression molding, transfer molding, injection molding, blow molding, reaction
injection molding, extrusion, pultrusion, calendaring, rotational molding,
thermoforming, rubber processing in two-roll mill, internal mixer.

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Section 8: Polymer testing

Mechanical-static and dynamic tensile, flexural, compressive, abrasion, endurance,
fatigue, hardness, tear, resilience, impact, toughness. Conductivity-thermal and
electrical, dielectric constant, dissipation factor, power factor, electric resistance,
surface resistivity, volume resistivity, swelling, ageing resistance, environmental stress
cracking resistance.

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XE - G

Food Technology

Section 1: Food Chemistry and Nutrition

Carbohydrates: structure and functional properties of mono-, oligo-, & polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre,
gelatinization and retrogradation of starch. Proteins: classification and structure of
proteins in food, biochemical changes in post mortem and tenderization of
muscles. Lipids: classification and structure of lipids, rancidity, polymerization and
polymorphism. Pigments: carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, tannins
and myoglobin. Food flavours: terpenes, esters, aldehydes, ketones and quinines.
Enzymes: specificity, simple and inhibition kinetics, coenzymes, enzymatic and nonenzymatic browning. Nutrition: balanced diet, essential amino acids and essential
fatty acids, protein efficiency ratio, water soluble and fat soluble vitamins, role of
minerals in nutrition, co-factors, anti-nutrients, nutraceuticals, nutrient deficiency
diseases. Chemical and biochemical c hanges: changes occur in foods during
different processing.

Section 2: Food Microbiology

Characteristics of microorganisms: morphology of bacteria, yeast, mold and
actinomycetes, spores and vegetative cells, gram-staining. Microbial growt h:
growth and death kinetics, serial dilution technique. Food spoilage: spoilage
microorganisms in different food products including milk, fish, meat, egg, cereals
and their products. Toxins from microbes: pathogens and non-pathogens including
Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia, Bacillus, Clostridium, and
Aspergillus genera. Fermented foods and beverages: curd, yoghurt, cheese, pickles,
soya-sauce, sauerkraut, idli, dosa, vinegar, alcoholic beverages and sausage.

Section 3: Food Products Technology

Processing principles: thermal processing, chilling, freezing, dehydration, addition of
preservatives and food additives, irradiation, fermentation, hurdle technology,
intermediate moisture foods. Food pack aging and storage: packaging materials,
aseptic packaging, controlled and modified atmosphere storage. Cereal
processing and products: milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling of paddy,
bread, biscuits, extruded products and ready to eat breakfast cereals. Oil
processing: expelling, solvent extraction, refining and hydrogenation. Fruits a nd
vegetables p rocessing: extraction, clarification, concentration and packaging of
fruit juice, jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, tomato sauce, ketchup, and
puree, potato chips, pickles. Plantation crops processing and products: tea, coffee,
cocoa, spice, extraction of essential oils and oleoresins from spices. Milk and milk
products processing: pasteurization and sterilization, cream, butter, ghee, icecream, cheese and milk powder. Processing of animal products: drying, canning,
and freezing of fish and meat; production of egg powder. Waste utilization: pectin
from fruit wastes, uses of by-products from rice milling. Food standards and qu ality
maintenance: FPO, PFA, Agmark, ISI, HACCP, food plant sanitation and cleaning in
place (CIP).

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Section 4: Food Engineering

Mass and energy balance; Momentum transfer:
Flow rate and pressure drop
relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe, Reynolds number. Heat
transfer: heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, heat exchangers. Mass
transfer: molecular diffusion and Ficks law, conduction and convective mass
transfer, permeability through single and multilayer films. Mechanical operations:
size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration, centrifugation,
settling, sieving, mixing & agitation of liquid. Thermal operations: thermal sterilization,
evaporation of liquid foods, hot air drying of solids, spray and freeze-drying, freezing
and crystallization. Mass transfer oper ations: psychrometry, humidification and
dehumidification operations.

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XE-H: Atmospheric & Ocean Science

Section A: Atmospheric Science
Fundamental of Meteorology, Thermal structure of the atmosphere and its
composition, Radiation Balance and Laws, Wind Belts, Monsoon, Climate.
Atmospheric Thermodynamics. Hydrostatic equilibrium and: Hydrostatic
equation, variation of pressure with height, geopotential, Tropical convection.
Atmospheric Electricity. Cloud Physics. Observation Techniques of the
Atmosepheric Properties.
Fundamental equations. Pressure, gravity, centripetal and Corolis forces,
continuity equation in Cartesian and isobaric coordinates, Scale analysis,
inertial flow, geostrophic and gradient winds, thermal wind, vorticity.
Atmospheric turbulence, baroclinic instabiltiy. Atmosphreric Waves.
Tropical meteorology: Trade wind inversion, ITCZ; monsoon trough tropical
cyclones, their structure and development theory; monsoon depressions;
Climate variability and forcings; Madden-Julian oscillation(MJO), ENSO, QBO
(quasi-biennial oscillation) and sunspot cycles. Primitive equations of
Numerical Weather Prediction. General Circulation and Climate Modelling.
Synoptic weather forecasting, prediction of weather elements such as rain,
maximum and minimum temperature and fog. Data Assimilation.
Section B: Ocean Sciences
Seawater Properties, T-S diagrams, Ocean Observations, Ocean Tide and
Waves and their properties. Coastal processes and Estuary Dynamics. coastal
zone management. Wind Driven Circulation: Ekman, Sverdrup, Stommel and
Munk theories, Inertial currents; geostrophic motion; barotropic and baroclinic
conditions; Oceanic eddies. Global conveyor belt circulation. Subtropical gyres;
Western boundary currents; equatorial current systems; Current System in the
Indian Ocean.
Momentum equation, mass conservation, vorticity. Ocean and Wave Modeling,
Ocean State Forecasting. Data Assimilation. Ocean Turbulence.
Chemical Property of seawater, major and minor elements, their behavior and
chemical exchanges across interfaces and residence times in seawater, Element
chemistry in atypical conditions-estuaries, Biochemical cycling of nutrients,
trace metals and organic matter. Air-sea exchange of important biogenic
dissolved gases; carbon dioxide-carbonate system; alkalinity and control of pH;
biological pump. Marine Pollution. Primary and secondary production; factors
controlling phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance and diversity; nekton and
fisheries oceanography.

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Chemistry (Compulsory for all XL candidates)

Section 1: Atomic Structure and Periodicity

Plancks quantum theory, wave particle duality, uncertainty principle, quantum
mechanical model of hydrogen atom, electronic configuration of atoms and ions.
Periodic table and periodic properties: ionization energy, electron affinity,
electronegativity and atomic size.

Section 2: Structure and Bonding

Ionic and covalent bonding, MO and VB approaches for diatomic molecules,
VSEPR theory and shape of molecules, hybridization, resonance, dipole moment,
structure parameters such as bond length, bond angle and bond energy,
hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. Ionic solids, ionic radii and
lattice energy (BornHaber cycle). HSAB principle.

Section 3: s, p and d Block Elements

Oxides, halides and hydrides of alkali, alkaline earth metals, B, Al, Si, N, P, and S.
General characteristics of 3d elements. Coordination complexes: valence bond
and crystal field theory, color, geometry, magnetic properties and isomerism.

Section 4: Chemical Equilibria

Colligative properties of solutions, ionic equilibria in solution, solubility product,
common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts, pH, buffer and their applications.
Equilibrium constants (Kc, Kp and Kx) for homogeneous reactions.

Section 5: Electrochemistry
Conductance, Kohlrausch law, cell potentials, emf, Nernst equation, Galvanic cells,
thermodynamic aspects and their applications.

Section 6: Reaction Kinetics

Rate constant, order of reaction, molecularity, activation energy, zero, first and
second order kinetics, catalysis and elementary enzyme reactions.

Section 7: Thermodynamics
First law, reversible and irreversible processes, internal energy, enthalpy, Kirchoff
equation, heat of reaction, Hesss law, heat of formation. Second law, entropy,
free energy and work function. GibbsHelmholtz equation, ClausiusClapeyron
equation, free energy change, equilibrium constant and Troutons rule. Third law of

Section 8: StructureReactivity Correlations and Organic Reaction Mechanisms

Acids and bases, electronic and steric effects, optical and geometrical isomerism,
tautomerism, conformers and concept of aromaticity. Elementary treatment of
SN1, SN2, E1 and E2 reactions, Hoffmann and Saytzeff rules, addition reactions,
Markownikoff rule and Kharash effect. Aromatic electrophilic substitutions,
orientation effect as exemplified by various functional groups. DielsAlder, Wittig
and hydroboration reactions. Identification of functional groups by chemical

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Section 1:
Organization of life; Importance of water; Structure and function of biomolecules:
Amino acids, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic acids; Protein structure,
folding and function: Myoglobin, Hemoglobin, Lysozyme, Ribonuclease A,
Carboxypeptidase and Chymotrypsin.

Section 2:
Enzyme kinetics including its regulation and inhibition, Vitamins and Coenzymes ;
Metabolism and bioenergetics; Generation and utilization of ATP; Metabolic
pathways and their regulation: glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway,
oxidative phosphorylation,gluconeogenesis, glycogen and fatty acid metabolism;
Metabolism of Nitrogen containing compounds: nitrogen fixation, amino acids and
nucleotides. Photosynthesis: Calvin cycle.

Section 3:
Biochemical separation techniques: ion exchange, size exclusion and affinity
chromatography, Characterization of biomolecules by electrophoresis, UV-visible
and fluorescence spectroscopy and Mass spectrometry.

Section 4:
Cell structure and organelles; Biological membranes; Transport across membranes;
Signal transduction; Hormones and neurotransmitters.

Section 5:
DNA replication, transcription and translation; Biochemical regulation of gene
expression; Recombinant DNA technology and applications: PCR, site directed
mutagenesis and DNA-microarray.

Section 6:
Immune system: Active and passive immunity; Complement system; Antibody
structure, function and diversity; Cells of the immune system: T, B and macrophages;
T and B cell activation; Major histocompatibilty complex; T cell receptor;
Immunological techniques: Immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, RIA and ELISA.

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Section 1: Plant Systematics

Major systems of classification, plant groups, phylogenetic relationships and
molecular systematics.

Section 2: Plant Anatomy:

Plant cell structure and its components; cell wall and membranes; organization,
organelles, cytoskeleton, anatomy of root, stem and leaves, floral parts, embryo
and young seedlings, meristems, vascular system, their ontogeny, structure and
functions, secondary growth in plants and stellar organization.

Section 3: Morphogenesis & Development

Cell cycle, cell division, life cycle of an angiosperm, pollination, fertilization,
embryogenesis, seed formation, seed storage proteins, seed dormancy and
Concept of cellular totipotency, clonal propagation; organogenesis and somatic
embryogenesis, artificial seed, somaclonal variation, secondary metabolism in plant
cell culture, embryo culture, in vitro fertilization.

Section 4: Physiology and Biochemistry

Plant water relations, transport of minerals and solutes, stress physiology, stomatal
physiology, signal transduction, N2 metabolism, photosynthesis, photorespiration;
respiration, Flowering: photoperiodism and vernalization, biochemical mechanisms
involved in flowering; molecular mechanism of senencensce and aging,
biosynthesis, mechanism of action and physiological effects of plant growth
regulators, structure and function of biomolecules, (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids,
nucleic acid), enzyme kinetics.

Section 5: Genetics
Principles of Mendelian inheritance, linkage, recombination, genetic mapping;
extrachromosomal inheritance; prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome organization,
regulation of gene expression, gene mutation and repair, chromosomal aberrations
(numerical and structural), transposons.

Section 6: Plant Breeding and Genetic Modification

Principles, methods selection, hybridization, heterosis; male sterility, genetic maps
and molecular markers, sporophytic and gametophytic self incompability,
haploidy, triploidy, somatic cell hybridization, marker-assisted selection, gene
transfer methods viz. direct and vector-mediated, plastid transformation, transgenic
plants and their application in agriculture, molecular pharming, plantibodies.

Section 7: Economic Botany

A general account of economically and medicinally important plants- cereals,
pulses, plants yielding fibers, timber, sugar, beverages, oils, rubber, pigments, dyes,
gums, drugs and narcotics. Economic importance of algae, fungi, lichen and

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Section 8: Plant Pathology

Nature and classification of plant diseases, diseases of important crops caused by
fungi, bacteria,nematodes and viruses, and their control measures, mechanism(s)
of pathogenesis and resistance, molecular detection of pathogens; plant-microbe
beneficial interactions.

Section 9: Ecology and Environment

Ecosystems types, dynamics, degradation, ecological succession; food chains
and energy flow; vegetation types of the world, pollution and global warming,

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XL - S


Section 1: Historical Perspective

Discovery of microbial world; Landmark discoveries relevant to the field of
microbiology; Controversy over spontaneous generation; Role of microorganisms in
transformation of organic matter and in the causation of diseases.

Section 2: Methods in Microbiology

Pure culture techniques; Theory and practice of sterilization; Principles of microbial
nutrition; Enrichment culture techniques for isolation of microorganisms; Light-,
phase contrast- and electron-microscopy.

Section 3: Microbial Taxonomy and Diversity

Bacteria, Archea and their broad classification; Eukaryotic microbes: Yeasts, molds
and protozoa; Viruses and their classification; Molecular approaches to microbial

Section 4: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells: Structure and Function

Prokaryotic Cells: cell walls, cell membranes, mechanisms of solute transport across
membranes, Flagella and Pili, Capsules, Cell inclusions like endospores and gas
vesicles; Eukaryotic cell organelles: Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus,
mitochondria and chloroplasts.

Section 5: Microbial Growth

Definition of growth; Growth curve; Mathematical expression of exponential growth
phase; Measurement of growth and growth yields; Synchronous growth; Continuous
culture; Effect of environmental factors on growth.

Section 6: Control of Micro-organisms

Effect of physical and chemical agents; Evaluation of effectiveness of antimicrobial

Section 7: Microbial Metabolism

Energetics: redox reactions and electron carriers; An overview of metabolism;
Glycolysis; Pentose-phosphate pathway; Entner-Doudoroff pathway; Glyoxalate
pathway; The citric acid cycle; Fermentation; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration;
Chemolithotrophy; Photosynthesis; Calvin cycle; Biosynthetic pathway for fatty
acids synthesis; Common regulatory mechanisms in synthesis of amino acids;
Regulation of major metabolic pathways.

Section 8: Microbial Diseases and Host Pathogen Interaction

Normal microbiota; Classification of infectious diseases; Reservoirs of infection;
Nosocomial infection; Emerging infectious diseases; Mechanism of microbial
pathogenicity; Nonspecific defense of host; Antigens and antibodies; Humoral and
cell mediated immunity; Vaccines; Immune deficiency; Human diseases caused by
viruses, bacteria, and pathogenic fungi.

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Section 8: Chemotherapy/Antibiotics
General characteristics of antimicrobial drugs; Antibiotics: Classification, mode of
action and resistance; Antifungal and antiviral drugs.

Section 9: Microbial Genetics

Types of mutation; UV and chemical mutagens; Selection of mutants; Ames test for
mutagenesis; Bacterial genetic system: transformation, conjugation, transduction,
recombination, plasmids, transposons; DNA repair; Regulation of gene expression:
repression and induction; Operon model; Bacterial genome with special reference
to E.coli; Phage and its life cycle; RNA phages; RNA viruses; Retroviruses; Basic
concept of microbial genomics.

Section 10: Microbial Ecology

Microbial interactions; Carbon, sulphur and nitrogen cycles; Soil microorganisms
associated with vascular plants.

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XL - T


Section 1: Animal world

Animal diversity, distribution, systematics and classification of animals, phylogenetic

Section 2: Evolution
Origin and history of life on earth, theories of evolution, natural selection,
adaptation, speciation.

Section 3: Genetics
Basic Principles of inheritance, molecular basis of heredity, sex determination and
sex-linked characteristics, cytoplasmic inheritance, linkage, recombination and
mapping of genes in eukaryotes, population genetics.

Section 4: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates; replication, transcription and
translation; regulation of gene expression, organization of genome, Krebs cycle,
glycolysis, enzyme catalysis, hormones and their actions, vitamins.

Section 5: Cell Biology

Structure of cell, cellular organelles and their structure and function, cell cycle, cell
division, chromosomes and chromatin structure.

Section 6: Gene expression in Eukaryotes

Eukaryotic gene








Section 7: Animal Anatomy and Physiology

Comparative physiology, the respiratory system, circulatory system, digestive
system, the nervous system, the excretory system, the endocrine system, the
reproductive system, the skeletal system, osmoregulation.

Section 8: Parasitology and Immunology

Nature of parasite, host-parasite relation, protozoan and helminthic parasites, the
immune response, cellular and humoral immune response, evolution of the immune

Section 9: Development Biology

Embryonic development, cellular differentiation, organogenesis, metamorphosis,
genetic basis of development, stem cells.

Section 10: Ecology

The ecosystem, habitats, the food chain, population dynamics, species diversity,
zoogerography, biogeochemical cycles, conservation biology.

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Section 11: Animal Behaviour

Types of behaviours, courtship, mating and territoriality, instinct, learning and
memory, social behaviour across the animal taxa, communication, pheromones,
evolution of animal behaviour.

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XL - U

Food Technology

Section 1: Food Chemistry and Nutrition

Carbohydrates: structure and functional properties of mono-, oligo-, & polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre,
gelatinization and retrogradation of starch. Proteins: classification and structure of
proteins in food, biochemical changes in post mortem and tenderization of
muscles. Lipids: classification and structure of lipids, rancidity, polymerization and
polymorphism. Pigments: carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, tannins
and myoglobin. Food flavours: terpenes, esters, aldehydes, ketones and quinines.
Enzymes: specificity, simple and inhibition kinetics, coenzymes, enzymatic and nonenzymatic browning. Nutrition: balanced diet, essential amino acids and essential
fatty acids, protein efficiency ratio, water soluble and fat soluble vitamins, role of
minerals in nutrition, co-factors, anti-nutrients, nutraceuticals, nutrient deficiency
diseases. Chemical and biochemical c hanges: changes occur in foods during
different processing.

Section 2: Food Microbiology

Characteristics of microorganisms: morphology of bacteria, yeast, mold and
actinomycetes, spores and vegetative cells, gram-staining. Microbial growt h:
growth and death kinetics, serial dilution technique. Food spoilage: spoilage
microorganisms in different food products including milk, fish, meat, egg, cereals
and their products. Toxins from microbes: pathogens and non-pathogens including
Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia, Bacillus, Clostridium, and
Aspergillus genera. Fermented foods and beverages: curd, yoghurt, cheese, pickles,
soya-sauce, sauerkraut, idli, dosa, vinegar, alcoholic beverages and sausage.

Section 3: Food Products Technology

Processing principles: thermal processing, chilling, freezing, dehydration, addition of
preservatives and food additives, irradiation, fermentation, hurdle technology,
intermediate moisture foods. Food pack aging and storage: packaging materials,
aseptic packaging, controlled and modified atmosphere storage. Cereal
processing and products: milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling of paddy,
bread, biscuits, extruded products and ready to eat breakfast cereals. Oil
processing: expelling, solvent extraction, refining and hydrogenation. Fruits a nd
vegetables p rocessing: extraction, clarification, concentration and packaging of
fruit juice, jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, tomato sauce, ketchup, and
puree, potato chips, pickles. Plantation crops processing and products: tea, coffee,
cocoa, spice, extraction of essential oils and oleoresins from spices. Milk and milk
products processing: pasteurization and sterilization, cream, butter, ghee, icecream, cheese and milk powder. Processing of animal products: drying, canning,
and freezing of fish and meat; production of egg powder. Waste utilization: pectin
from fruit wastes, uses of by-products from rice milling. Food standards and qu ality
maintenance: FPO, PFA, Agmark, ISI, HACCP, food plant sanitation and cleaning in
place (CIP).

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Section 4: Food Engineering

Mass and energy balance; Momentum transfer:
Flow rate and pressure drop
relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe, Reynolds number. Heat
transfer: heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, heat exchangers. Mass
transfer: molecular diffusion and Ficks law, conduction and convective mass
transfer, permeability through single and multilayer films. Mechanical operations:
size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration, centrifugation,
settling, sieving, mixing & agitation of liquid. Thermal operations: thermal sterilization,
evaporation of liquid foods, hot air drying of solids, spray and freeze-drying, freezing
and crystallization. Mass transfer oper ations: psychrometry, humidification and
dehumidification operations.

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