Explains Failure Theories - Basic Level

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Explains Failure Theories - Basic Level

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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- 887_1

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A Pressure Vessel

you to design a large cylindrical pressure

vessel to hold the toxic by-product of their

lens manufacturing process. The site is on a

bluff above the local playground.

A Clever Solution to Contain the Pressure Lots of Weight to Hold Down the Lid

bid the most competitive, you

have devised a way to reduce To insure that the top does

construction costs for the pressure not lift off the vessel when it is

vessel. Your solution is to place a pressurized you have added

metal plate over the top of the large weights on top of the

pressure vessel rather than to metal sheet.

weld on a circular top.

Failure Theories: 2 (3/30/00)

Calculate the Stresses in the Pressure Vessel Make Sure that the Stresses Are Safe!!!

mind and body of knowledge you

have the tools to calculate the

principal stresses acting in the

pressure vessel. You are very

careful to include the contribution

from the cover plate in your

calculation of the longitudinal

You then compare the principal stresses to the yield strength of the material, σys,

to insure that the material does not fail. Every thing is A-OK, so you begin pumping

the toxic goo into the vessel.

.....and the vessel proceeds to promptly

fail, creating an unsightly mess and leaving

you with a Mr. Yuck sticker on your

professional license.

Failure Theories: 3 (3/30/00)

Needless to say.....

Uniaxial Test

a testing machine and load it to the point where the

stress in the specimen equals the yield stress for the

material....

...then the material will yield (i.e. fail). when a material fails for a uniaxial test and

use it to predict when the material will fail

for a more complicated state of stress?

This will be the major focus of our

discussion on failure theories.

Failure Theories: 4 (3/30/00)

Ductile and Brittle

introduce the two general types of failure the

following theories try to predict. They are How does a ductile failure appear

ductile failure and brittle failure. under a microscope? Imagine that the

matrix of circles shown above represent

an isotropic material.

The material continues to stretch linearly

linearly. As we pull the material further

until the yield stress of the material is reached.

apart, its resistance becomes greater.

Failure Theories: 5 (3/30/00)

At this point the material begins to At this point the material begins to

behave differently. Planes of maximum behave differently. Planes of maximum

shear exist in the material at 45°, and the shear exist in the material at 45°, and the

material begins to slide along these planes.... material begins to slide along these planes....

At this point the material begins to The sliding between relative planes of

behave differently. Planes of maximum material allow the specimen to deform

shear exist in the material at 45°, and the noticeably without any increase in stress.

material begins to slide along these planes.... We call this a yield of the material.

Failure Theories: 6 (3/30/00)

Now let's look at how a brittle material The brittle material also behaves in a

behaves at the molecular level. linear fashion as we begin to load it.

The material continues to stretch as the ultimate stress, σult, the material fails suddenly by

more and more load is applied. fracture. This tensile failure occurs without warning,

and is initiated by stress concentrations due to

irregularities in the material at the microscopic level.

Failure Theories: 7 (3/30/00)

Notice that for the ductile material, show on the left, larger strains occur

before ultimate failure. In reality this means that (a) the material has a chance

Recall the failure of our mild steel specimen in a simple

to change its shape in order to redistribute loads, and ( b) if redistributing the

tension test. Let's take a closer look at the surface of the

loads does not prevent failure, there is often adequate visual warning (sagging

specimen where the failure occurred.

beams, etc.) before failure occurs. For these reasons, ductile failure is

preferable to brittle failure.

the figure at the right.

Failure Theories: 8 (3/30/00)

ductile failure region near the outside of

If we took a cross-sectional view of the the specimen, and a brittle failure region

failure surface it would appear as above. at the interior.

Maximum Shear Stress Tri-axial Tension (Confinement)

failure, we begin by considering the

material on the outer surface. We know

that one of the principal stress must be At the interior of the specimen, the

zero at the free surface, so Mohr's circle picture of stress becomes more complicated.

for the stress at this point will always Large deformations of the material in the

pass through the origin. necking region result in tensile stresses in

As we increase the axial stress in the the radial directions of the specimen. If we

specimen, Mohr's circle grows in size plot Mohr's circle for this stress state it

until some limiting value of shear stress is becomes apparent that as the axial stress

reached and the material yields. The increases, the maximum shear stress does

yielding occurs on planes oriented at 45° not necessarily increase (i.e. the radius does

to the axis of the specimen, resulting in not necessarily get bigger). In this case the

the smooth, 45° failure surface at the material reaches ultimate normal stress

outer portion of the specimen. before reaching the shear stress required

for yielding, and the material fractures.

Failure Theories: 9 (3/30/00)

A final note on brittle versus

ductile materials. We often think

Maximum Distortional Energy

of steel as a ductile material,

however this is not always the

case. At low temperatures (on the

order of 20°- 40° F) many steels

begin to lose their ductile

properties. The plot of stress at

failure vs. temperature for a

typical steel is shown above. Here

we see that below some transition

temperature we can no longer

treat steel like a ductile material.

W. Rankine ~1850 W. Rankine ~1850

Failure will occur when the Failure will occur when the

magnitude of the major principal magnitude of the major principal

stress reaches that which caused stress reaches that which caused

fracture in a simple tension test. fracture in a simple tension test.

tests are performed to

The theory of failure due to the maximum normal stress is generally determine the ultimate stress

attributed to W. J. M. Rankine. of the brittle material.

The theory states that a brittle material will fail when the maximum

principal stress exceeds some value, independent of whether other

components of the stress tensor are present. Experiments in uniaxial

tension and torsion have corroborated this assumption.

Failure Theories: 10 (3/30/00)

W. Rankine ~1850 W. Rankine ~1850

Failure will occur when the Failure will occur when the

magnitude of the major principal magnitude of the major principal

stress reaches that which caused stress reaches that which caused

fracture in a simple tension test. fracture in a simple tension test.

made of a brittle material fail

Here we plot Mohr's according to the maximum

circle for this stress state. normal stress theory?

W. Rankine ~1850 W. Rankine ~1850

Failure will occur when the Failure will occur when the

magnitude of the major principal magnitude of the major principal

stress reaches that which caused stress reaches that which caused

fracture in a simple tension test. fracture in a simple tension test.

...we see that the vessel fails when the hoop

stress (= 2x longitudinal stress for a

If we plot Mohr's circle for the pressurized cylinder) reaches the ultimate

stress state in the pressure vessel.... stress for the material. The presence of the

longitudinal stress did not come into play.

Failure Theories: 11 (3/30/00)

W. Rankine ~1850 W. Rankine ~1850

Failure will occur when the Failure will occur when the

magnitude of the major principal magnitude of the major principal

stress reaches that which caused stress reaches that which caused

fracture in a simple tension test. fracture in a simple tension test.

bar fail according to the

maximum normal stress

theory? Torsion loading

in a bar with circular

cross-section induces

pure shear in the bar.

If we plot Mohr's

circle for pure shear....

41 Hide Text 42 Hide Text

W. Rankine ~1850 W. Rankine ~1850

...we see will

that the torsion bar will To help us visualize the maximum normal stress failure

Failure occur when thefail when Failure will occur when the

criterion, we plot a figure known as the fracture

the maximum shear stress equals the ultimate

magnitude of the major principal envelope. Themagnitude

edges of the ofenvelope

the major principal

reflects the points

normal stress.

stress reaches that which caused

This is the type of failure we observe at which thestress

materialreaches σ1 =which

fails, i.e. that ± σult,caused

σ2 = ±

fracture

when we twist in aasimple tension test.

piece of chalk. σ ult. fracture in a simple tension test.

some material, and it

lies on or outside of

the envelope, we say

that the material fails.

Failure Theories: 12 (3/30/00)

W. Rankine ~1850 H. Tresca 1868

Failure will occur when the Yielding will occur when the

magnitude of the major principal maximum shear stress reaches that

stress reaches that which caused which caused yielding in a simple

fracture in a simple tension test. tension test.

between planes oriented at 45° to principal stresses. This

should indicate to you that yielding of a material depends

on the maximum shear stress in the material rather than

the maximum normal stress.

In the case of 3-D stress, the fracture Exactly such a theory was forwarded by H. Tresca to

envelope becomes a cube. Again, any stress the French Academy, and therefore bears his name.

state which plots outside of the fracture

envelope represents a point where the material

H. Tresca 1868 H. Tresca 1868

Yielding will occur when the Yielding will occur when the

maximum shear stress reaches that maximum shear stress reaches that

which caused yielding in a simple which caused yielding in a simple

tension test. tension test.

performed on the ductile specimen,

and the yield stress is noted.

Plotting Mohr's circle at yield.....

Failure Theories: 13 (3/30/00)

H. Tresca 1868 H. Tresca 1868

Yielding will occur when the Yielding will occur when the

maximum shear stress reaches that maximum shear stress reaches that

which caused yielding in a simple which caused yielding in a simple

tension test. tension test.

the maximum shear stress is one half of

the yield stress.

maximum shear stress depends

on both σ 1 and σ 2.

H. Tresca 1868 H. Tresca 1868

Yielding will occur when the Yielding will occur when the

maximum shear stress reaches that maximum shear stress reaches that

which caused yielding in a simple which caused yielding in a simple

tension test. tension test.

The maximum shear stress is calculated as the The condition for yield is that the difference

diameter of the circle divided by two (Ah ha! the between the smallest and largest principal stresses

radius of the circle). equals or exceeds the yield stress.

Failure Theories: 14 (3/30/00)

H. Tresca 1868 H. Tresca 1868

Yielding

Given will

this case occurstrain,

of plane when willthe

the But we aren't that

Yielding simple

will occur!!! We know

when that the

the

material yield according

maximum sheartostress

the Tresca theory?

reaches that maximum shear stressshear

maximum will occur out of

stress plane if that

reaches the

If we simply

which plug inyielding

caused foraσsimple

the values in 1 and σ2 sign of the two principal stresses is the same. In this

which caused yielding in a simple

it would appeartest.

that the material is safe. case the maximum shear stress is actually about

tension tension test.

three times as great as we originally estimated.

Maximum Shear Stress Maximum Shear

hexagon projected Stress

down the hydrostatic axis, σ1 = σ2 =

H. Tresca 1868 σ3. This

H. Tresca

means that1868

the theory predicts no change in

material response with the addition of hydrostatic stresses.

Yielding will occur when the Yielding will occur when the

maximum shear stress reaches that maximum

You can confirm shear stress

this by plotting reaches

3-D Mohr's circle that

and

which caused yielding in a simple then increasingwhich causedstress

each principal yielding in a simple

by a constant value.

tension test. tension

You should observe thattest.

the maximum shear stress does

normal stress theory, we can plot a yield

envelope representing the maximum shear

stress failure criterion. Note how this

envelope deviates from the previous one in

the second and fourth quadrants.

Failure Theories: 15 (3/30/00)

(R. von Mises, 1913) (R. von Mises, 1913)

Yielding will occur when the Yielding will occur when the

distortional strain energy reaches distortional strain energy reaches

that value which causes yielding in that value which causes yielding in

a simple tension test. a simple tension test.

Like the maximum shear stress or Tresca

strain energy concepts. The theory was proposed by M. T. Huber of

failure theory, the maximum distortional

Poland in 1904, and was furthered by R. von Mises (1913) and H.

energy failure theory addresses ductile,

Hencky (1925). The yield condition for combined stress is established

isotropic materials.

by equating the distortional strain energy for yield in a simple tension

test to the distortional strain energy under combined stress.

(R. von Mises, 1913) (R. von Mises, 1913)

Yielding will occur when the

distortional strain energy reaches

that value which causes yielding in

a simple tension test.

The value of the distortional strain energy is independent of the

coordinate system. Therefore, we may assume that we are working

with principal stresses without any loss of generality. Do you

remember the value of the shear stresses in the principal directions?

Recall the expression for the distortional strain energy. Note that

it is a function of the deviatoric portion of the normal stresses, s, and

the shear stresses, τ.

We need to express the distortional strain energy in terms of

principal stresses, so lets give ourselves some space...

Failure Theories: 16 (3/30/00)

(R. von Mises, 1913) (R. von Mises, 1913)

that the shear stresses are zero.

components of the deviatoric

stress tensor are calculated as

each normal stress minus the

average value of all three

normal stresses.

(R. von Mises, 1913) (R. von Mises, 1913)

scope of our theory to the case of plane stress.

because plane stress problems, such as Now that we have the

pressure vessels, beams, shafts, plates, etc. deviatoric normal stresses we

can substitute them into the

expression for distortional

strain energy.

Failure Theories: 17 (3/30/00)

(R. von Mises, 1913) (R. von Mises, 1913)

After making this substitution we need to reduce the

expression. Luck is with us for we have a handy-dandy

algebraic inspector-detector reduction device.

(R. von Mises, 1913) (R. von Mises, 1913)

Yielding will occur when the Yielding will occur when the

distortional strain energy reaches distortional strain energy reaches

that value which causes yielding in that value which causes yielding in

a simple tension test. a simple tension test.

Now that we have expressed the distortional strain For a simple tension test the distortional strain

energy in terms of principal stresses (for 2-D stress) we are energy at yield is σys^2/6G.

ready to develop the maximum distortional energy failure

Failure Theories: 18 (3/30/00)

(R. von Mises, 1913) (R. von Mises, 1913)

Yielding will occur when the Yielding will occur when the

distortional strain energy reaches distortional strain energy reaches

that value which causes yielding in that value which causes yielding in

a simple tension test. a simple tension test.

envelope" in the σ1, σ2 space. Assuming that σys is constant, do

you recognize how the equation above will plot?

the condition for yield under combined stress.

Let's save this result, and then interpret what it means.

(R. von Mises, 1913) (R. von Mises, 1913)

Yielding will occur when the Lookingwill

Yielding at theoccur

3-D case of stress,

when the we see

distortional strain energy reaches that the addition

distortional of a hydrostatic

strain stress (σ1 =

energy reaches

that value which causes yielding in σ 2 = σ 3) does not contribute to the yield of a

that value which causes yielding in

material. The 3-D yield envelope plots as a

a simple tension test. a simple tension test.

cylinder centered along the "hydrostatic axis"

(σ 1 = σ 2 = σ 3). Note that where the

cylinder intersects the σ1, σ2 plane, the failure

surface becomes an ellipse as previously shown.

The yield envelope for the maximum

distortional energy plots as an ellipse for

plane stress.

How does this compare to the yield

envelope for the maximum shear stress

theory?

Failure Theories: 19 (3/30/00)

for Plane Stress for Plane Stress

stress yield theory compare to the In general, the maximum shear

maximum distortional energy yield stress theory is more conservative

theory? than the distortion energy theory.

The first relies strictly on the

maximum shear stress in an At the point where two of the

element. The distortional energy principal stresses are equal but of

criterion is more comprehensive, opposite sign (pure shear) the

by considering the energy caused maximum shear stress theory

by shear deformations in three predicts yield when the principal

dimensions. Since shear stresses stresses equal σys/2. The

are the major parameters in both maximum distortion energy

approaches, the differences are not increases the limit to ~0.557σys.

great. Experiments with many ductile

materials tend to plot closer to the

steps used in designing the

Now that we have our failure pressure vessel. In order to hold

theories, let's see if we can explain the volume of toxic crud

why the pressure vessel full of pressurized to 60 psi, we

toxic guck failed. determined that we need a vessel

with a radius of 20 feet. The wall

thickness was determined to be

Failure Theories: 20 (3/30/00)

calculated as the pressure in the The total uplifting force on the

vessel times the area over which it cover is calculated to be 10,857

acts. The area is calculated to be kips. Quite a large force.

180,956 sq inches.

lifts off in a high wind storm or principal stresses acting in the

earthquake, we place a load of vessel. Note that the longitudinal

20,000 kips on the lid. stress is reduced by the weight

Is this a safe design or what? placed on the lid.

Failure Theories: 21 (3/30/00)

envelopes, we see that according to

either the maximum shear stress or the

maximum distortional energy criteria,

the material will have yielded.

by the yield stress for steel (= 36

ksi), we see that alone each principal

stress is safe.

83 Hide Text

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