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INDUSTRIETECHNIK

SRI LANKA INSTITUTE of ADVANCED TECHNOLOGICAL EDUCATION

Electrical and Electronic


Engineering
Instructor Manual

Training Unit

Respiration Protection
Theory

No: AS 022

Training Unit

Respiration Protection

Theoretical Part

No.: AS 022

Edition:

2008
All Rights Reserved

Editor

MCE Industrietechnik Linz GmbH & Co

Education and Training Systems, DM-1


Lunzerstrasse 64 P.O.Box 36, A 4031 Linz / Austria
Tel. (+ 43 / 732 ) 6987 3475
Fax (+ 43 / 732 ) 6980 4271
Website: www.mcelinz.com
2

RESPIRATION PROTECTION
(Part 2)

CONTENTS

PAGE

Learning objectives.................................................................................................................. 4

SAFETY AT WORK........................................................................................................ 5

WHAT IS BREATHABLE AIR ?...................................................................................... 6

RESPIRATION ............................................................................................................... 7
3.1

The mechanics of respiration ................................................................................ 7

3.2

Air and oxygen requirements ................................................................................ 8

3.2.1

The amount breathed and oxygen consumption .............................................. 8

3.2.2

Harmful substances in the atmosphere ............................................................ 9

THE MAIN CATEGORIES OF POTSON ABSORBED DURING RESPIRATION ........ 10

RESPIRATOR FILTERS .............................................................................................. 15

5.1

Degrees of protection .......................................................................................... 15

5.2

ldentification letters and colours.......................................................................... 16

RESPIRATORS............................................................................................................ 18
6.1

The different types .............................................................................................. 19

6.1.1

Masks and mouthpieces................................................................................. 19

6.1.2

Fullmasks ....................................................................................................... 20

6.1.3

Mouthpieces ................................................................................................... 21

6.2

Fresh-air-tube type .............................................................................................. 22

6.3

Pressurized-air-tube type .................................................................................... 22

6.3.1

Design and operation ..................................................................................... 23

6.4

OXY SR 45 oxygen self-rescue devices ............................................................. 24

6.5

Compressed-air respiratons................................................................................ 25

6.5.1

General........................................................................................................... 25

6.5.2

The PA 54/1 compressed-air respirator.......................................................... 26

6.5.2.1 Operation of the respiration as a whole.......................................................... 26


6.5.2.2 Operating time ................................................................................................ 27
6.5.3

The PA 80 compressed-air respiration ........................................................... 27

6.5.3.1 Operation........................................................................................................ 28
6.5.3.2 Special innovations and advantages with the PA 80 25................................. 29

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
RESPIRATION PROTECTION

The student should ...

...

give the composition of breathable air in percentages.

give the composition of exhaled air in percentages.

state the influence of the oxygen content in air on mans work output.

list 3 types of harmful substance in the atmosphere.

list 3 poisons absorbed during respiration which can lead to damage to or destruction
of the lungs.

name 2 respiration filters and explain under what circumstances they are applied.

...

describe the construction of a pressurized-air-tube type respirator and explain how it


functions.

describe the special features of an OXY SR 45 oxygen self rescue device.

explain on what factors the operating life of a PA 54/1 compressed-air respirator


depends.

describe the operating sphere of a PA 80 compressed-air respirator.

RESPIRATION PROTECTION

SAFETY AT WORK

Enlightened industrial society attaches more and more importance to ensuring the degree
of safety which individuals expect at work. Extensive safety regulations and equipment are
designed to make processes at work involve as little danger as possible.

Means of protecting respiration, such as respirators, make, as they always have, an


important contribution to safety at work. On account of the special conditions under which
they are used, they have always occupied a very special position because the effects of
harmful substances on respiration can endanger life. There can, of course, be no universal
respirator for all eventualities; it is always necessary to have the one which is best suited to
the task from the technical, medical and economic points of view.

PROTECTION OF RESPIRATION IN THE CASE OF

Permanent

presence

of

Planned but unforseen uses

harmful substances

Rescue

Escape from danger areas

operations

and

assistance

WHAT IS BREATHABLE AIR?

Composition

The atmosphere which surrounds us, the natural (but dry) air, consists - in round figures
expressed in % volume - of:

ln practice, however, all natural air contains a certain percentage of moisture, which is
equally important to life.

Function
We need oxygen for the metabolic process, CO2 as a drive mechanism for respiration.
Nitrogen can normally be considered a diluent; water vapor should balance out in the air to
what, in terms of our comfort, represents optimum atmospheric humidity (30 70 %).

RESPIRATION

Respiration is a life-supporting physical and chemical process. The respiratory process


consists of inhaling and exhaling (thoracic and abdominal breathing). In this way up to 4%
of the oxygen is taken up by the blood. By combining chemically in cells (combustion
process), carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced, and is discharged during exhalation.
3.1

The mechanism of respiration

Inhalation

Exhalation

Inhaled air consists of:

Exhaled air consist of:

21% Oxygen

17% Oxygen

78% Nitrogen

78% Nitrogen

1% other gases, including

1% other gases

0.03 % Carbon dioxide

4% Carbon dioxide

If one considers the difference between inhaled and exhaled air, one recognizes the nature
and a cause of the percentage change in the composition of air.

3.2

Air and oxygen requirements

The air breathed by man and his oxygen requirement are not constants but depend to a
very great extent on the physical performance he is having to produce at any given time.

To a certain extent, however, a mans breathing air requirements are also determined by
his age and constitution, as well as his psychological state.

3.2.1

The amount breathed and oxygen consumption

Activity

Volume breathed [e/min]

O2 consumption [e/min]

Rest (sitting)

8 10

0.3 0.4

Walking with appliance

15 20

0.6 0.9

20 30

0.9 1.3

30 40

1.3 1.8

40 50

1.8 2.3

60 90

2.7 4.0

Mine rescue practice (fast


walk)
Normal

walk

(without

breaks)
Heavy work (not over a long
period)
Short

period

of

top

performance (fast climbing)

If the oxygen content of the air decreases, mans output is reduced. When oxygen content
of the air inhaled decreases to 15%, the lowest limit at which man can still work is reached.
Life can be maintained with 8 10 % by remaining in a state of total inactivity.

3.2.2

Harmful substances in the atmosphere

Suspended matter
Small and very small solid and liquid particles floating suspended in the air (e.g. dust,
smoke, cloud).

Vapours
A number of liquids produce vapours at normal temperatures (e.g. ether, petrol, benzene).

Gases
Materials that are gaseous at normal temperature because of their low boiling points (e.g.
ammonia, CO, CO2)
Harmful substances can have a damaging effect both on the skin and internally; they can
penetrate our bodies either with the air we inhale or through our skin. The protection to be
provided is determined by many different factors of greater or lesser importance and so a
general statement is not possible.

Any given activity necessitates safety measure which are appropriate to it.

10

THE MAIN CATEGORIES OF POISON ABSORBED DURING RESPIRATION

Their effect on unprotected persons

a)

With irritant effect


Alkali dust, acid clouds, flue gases, ammonia, acid vapours.

b)

With asphyxiating effect but without damaging the tissue cells and vessels
Carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen, methane (natural gas), hydrogen

c)

Causing damage to or destruction of the lung


Bromine, chlorine, nitrous gases, phosgene.

d)

Substances poisoning the blood, nerves and cells and damaging the internal organs
and bloodstream
Prussic acid, petrol, benzene, nitrobenzene, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide.

11

12

Prussic acid

and petrol vapours

lighter

acrid
tract,

coughing,

Condition resembling itoxication,

dizziness, vomiting

respiratory

Irritation of the eyes and upper

Effect on unprotected persons

almonds

of

colourless

smelling

insoluble in water

the

throat.

mucous
of

chemical

breath;

brain damage can occur later

the poison does not cause death

paralysis a few minutes later. If

bitter and death due to respiratory

plants,

when

and

oil

gases

combustion

of

the

celluloid, pest control.

in

galvanising
workshops,

In

in
laundries.

tankers,

Grease-dissolving

chemical

on

cleaning out fuel tanks,

machinery,

vehicles

cleaning materials.

refrigerating equipment,

laboratories,

In

Incidence

membranes, substances

gas, unconsciousness occurs quickly

shortness

the

high

twitching,

In

trembling, respiratory arrest.

concentration:

a characteristic smell, of

Colourless vapours with headaches, palpitations, irritation

in water

than air, easily soluble

gas,

Colourless,

Characteristics

hydroxide smelling

Benzene, toluol, xylol

(NH3)

Ammonium

Respiratory poisons

SUMMARY OF THE MOST FREQUENTLY OCCURING RESPIRATORY POISONS

respiratory,

or

oxygen

respiratory,

or

oxygen

respiratory,

or
respirators

air

oxygen

otherwise compressed

filter

In small concentrations

respirators

air

otherwise compressed

filter

In small concentrations

respirators

air

otherwise compressed

filter

In small concentrations

used

Type of respirator to be

13

Ligthing gas

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Carbon monoxide (CO)

Chlorine Cl2

Respiratory poisons

gas, Irritation

of

the

eyes

ans

Effect on unprotected persons

the lungs
of

oxygen

cy de s

chemical

plants, Compressed-air

has

explosive

characteristic

water,
odour,

than air, insoluble in

works,

cotton

and

vol.

CO-Filter,

air
oxygen respirator

Compressed

or

air or oxygen respirator

otherwise compressed-

1%

In low concentrations

or

poisoning effects

appliances

air or oxygen respirator

Contains CO, therefore similar In heating and lighting CO-Filter, compressed-

Transport

used

Type of respirator to be

laboratories, bleaching oxygen respirator.

in

tanks for transportation,

gas

Incidence

is paper industries
gas
(carburated
Colourless
odourless prevented.
Severe
blood
hydrogen),
producer
gas,
non-irritating, poisoning, produces headaches,
gas,
water
gas,
approx. as heavy as air, feeling
of
dizziness,
exhausted gas from
explosive
unconsciousness,
paralyses,
engines,
explosion
respiratory
deep
fas arrest
breathing, dizziness, form
industry,
non-inflamable, heavier
headaches, state of agitation.
infermenting
cellars,
than air, soluble in
Very
high
concentrations: mines, water wells,
water,
extinguish
immediate
poisoning
with drainage systems, grain
candles if present in a
sudden
collapse, silos, in normal air
concentration of 10% of
unconsciousness, death 5-10 0.35%, in exhailed air
Inflamable gas, lighter

in water

heavier than air, soluble respiratory organs, damage to

Acrid-smelling

Characteristics

SUMMARY OF THE MOST FREQUENTLY OCCURING RESPIRATORY POISONS

14

mixture

gas,

in
causes

higher

cauterization

of oxygen
of

the

lighting

gas,

blastfurnace gases

and

in

As marsh, in mine gas

Incidence

upper In chemical, cellulose

respiratory arrest due to cut-off

concentrations

Suffocating

Effect on unprotected persons

acrid throat
(causing

coughing), with the effect of nitrous Compressed-air oxygen

respirator

Compressed-air oxygen

heavier than air

gas) Colourless acrid gas,

and

of the endogenous fluids into the be contained in fire-

of the lungs develop (exudation tetracarbons (used to

after some hours does oedema chloroform

lungs). Death by suffocation


extinguishing
Irritation of the upper respiratory
In
chemical
and
Hydrochloric acid (HC1) Colourless
vapours,
tract and eyes. Stabbing pains in
vapours available on forming a cloud in the
cellulose
factories,
the chest. Feeling of suffocation
the market in 20 or 33 air, soluble in water,
bleaching
works,
in the throat. Cauterization of the
% solutions
pickling workds
acrid odour
upper respiratory tract.

COCl2

(war

Initially no irritant effect, only of open flames from

and

expectoration, cramps, oedema oxyacetylene welding

paper

(HNO3)

reddish-brown and

faintness,

gas (N2O4) nitrous acid, (irritant gas)

Phosgene

used

Type of respirator to be

respirator,

air oxygen

otherwise Compressed-

filter

In low concentrations

respirator

Compressed-air oxygen

dioxide (NO2), irritant odour, soluble in water apparent recovery (latent period) acid on metal, wood respirator

with

reddish-brown respiratory tract, irritation of the and explosive factories,

(firedamp)

explosive

than air, to form an

of: Heavy

and

almost

odourless gas, lighter

Colourless,

Characteristics

nitrogen vapours,

mixture

vapours

nitrogen,

gases

Nitrous

CH4

Methane (natural gas)

Respiratory poisons

SUMMARY OF THE MOST FREQUENTLY OCCURING RESPIRATORY POISONS

15

(H2S)

Hydrogen

sulphide

Carbon sulphide (CS2)

Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

Respiratory poisons

Incidence

Irritation of the upper respiratory A combustion producer

Effect on unprotected persons

liquid

with

and

inflammable

air,

easily

of

olfactory

concentrations

organs occurs quickly

paralysis

larger

dissolved in water. In

than

of bad eggs, heavier

Inflamable gas, smells

of explosions)

heavier than air (danger

are

vapours

unpleasent odour. The

Yellowish

soluble in water

hoarseness, ores

in

paint

and

followed

by

cyanosis,

unconsciousness,

headaches,
respiratory

dizziness,
unconciousness,

irritation of mucous membranes,

(cesspools). In small quantities:

death from respiratory arrest

sudden

present,

are

causes severe damage to the


prussic acid). If large quantities

quantities over a long peroid it

arrest. When inhaled in small

unconsciousness and respiratory

quickly

state of excitement, which is

disturbances in consciousness

control

laboratories,

silk

respirator,

oxygen respirator

Compressed-air

pest oxygen respirator

or

or

air or oxygen respirator

otherwise compressed-

filter

In low concentrations

used

Type of respirator to be

factories, Compressed-air

In rubber and artificial

pest control

bronchitis, difficulty in breathing, cellulose factories, in

odour, heavier than air, inhaled deeply,

Colourless gas, acrid tract and of the lower tract if of sulphur and sulphur

Characteristics

SUMMARY OF THE MOST FREQUENTLY OCCURING RESPIRATORY POISONS

RESPIRATOR FILTERS

Respirator filters are chosen in accordance with the system of degrees of protection and
identification letters and colours.

5.1

Degree of protection

Degree of

Protection against

protection
1

Gases

Matter in suspension

2a

Inert matter in suspension

2b

Matter in suspension harmful to health (category 2b includes 2a)

2c

Poisonous matter in suspension (category 2c includes 2a and 2b)

Gas-suspended-matter mixtures (combination filter)

3a

Combination filters are classified

3b

into categories 3a 3c depending

3c

on the suspended-matter filter in them.

16

5.2

Identification letters and colours

Letter

Colour

Protection against

Brown

Organic vapours, solvents (petrol)


Acid gases (e.g. halogens, nitrous gases), prussic acid,

Grey

prussic acid with irritant for pest control, hydrogen sulphide,


arsenic hydride, hydrogen phosphide, harmful matter in
combustion gases (apart from carbon monoxide)

Yellow

Sulphur dioxide

Green

Ammonia

CO
Hg

Carbon monoxide
Brown / red

Mercury (also chlorine and hydrogen sulphide)

Respiration filters

Their purpose is to clean the air inhaled and to retain the poisons in it. They do not
themselves provide air or oxygen.

In principle, respirator filters may therefore only be used when the ambient atmosphere
contains at least 17% vol. oxygen. As filters or escape filters they can only be used with
masks or mouthpieces.

Design and limitations on use

Respirator filters can be of very different designs.

17

The following designs are made

Insertion filters:
are inserted into the filter case of halfmasks. Because of their low filter mass,
Insertion gas filters are used only with low
gas concentrations (0.1% vol.)

Screwed-on filters:
are

fitted

threaded

with

connector

standardized
and

are

roundscrewed

directly onto full masks and mouthpieces.


For screw-on gas and vapour filters the
concentration of harmfuI substances is 1%
vol.

CO canister filters:
Filtens

for

protection

against

carbon

monoxide occupy a special position, since


normal filters provide no protection against
carbon monoxide. The poisonous CO is not
separated by the filter but transformed into
the harmless CO, on a catalyst by means of
the oxygen in the air. The concentration of
harmful substances may not exceed 1% vol.
1. Dry material
2. Catalyst
3. Resistance warning device
4. Carbon dioxide
5. Carbon monoxide
6. Water vapour

18

CO self-rescue filters
These afford reliable protection against CO and all other combustion gases. As with all CO
filters, in the CO self rescue filter air is transformed into -CO2 in a CO catalyst by means of
the oxygen in the air. The concentration of harmful substances may not exceed 1% vol.

RESPIRATORS

We differentiate between respirators which leave the wearer dependent on the ambient
atmosphere (air) and those which leave him independent.

19

6.1

6.1.1

The different types

Masks and mouthpieces

Every respirator requires a reliable gas-tight attachment which connects the respiratory
tract of the wearer with the part of the respirator providing the air.

20

6.1.2

Full masks

Full masks cover the whole face, thereby protecting the eyes also. The wearer of a full
masks cannot be affected by harmful substances which cauterize or which iritate the eyes.

The most important parts of the mask are:

the mask body with inner mask, the gas-tight frames, the window, the connecting pieces,
the banding, the valves and the speaking membrane.

21

6.1.3

Mouthpieces

These are the simplest connections to the


respirator. They consist basically of a
mouthpiece part and a nose clip. The
mouthpiece part is entirely surrounded by
the lips and provides a very reliable seal.
The

nose

clip

prevents

harmful

substances from penetrating the nose and


throat. Mouthpieces make speaking and
olfaction impossible, but because of their
ready availability they can be used most
satisfactorily with filter respirators.

22

6.2

Fresh-air-tube type

This is the simplest of all respirators that are independent of the ambient air. The wearer
takes in air from a container or a compressed air pipe; alternatively, air can be sucked in
from an area where the air is uncontaminated.

1)

With a sucking-tube respirator the wearer must suck the air required for breathing
through the air tube with his lungs. The tube may therefore not be longer than 20 m.
Care must be taken to ensure that only perfectly clean air is sucked in.

a) They are suitable for entering and working in confined spaces, containers, tanks,
shafts, silos and pipeline trenches in all branches of industry.

b) They consist of
respiratory protection mask with exhalation valve, breathing tube with inhalation
valve, connection pipe with hip-strap, air feed tube resistant to crushing and
bending, protective filter with holding-peg.

6.3

Pressurized-air-tube type

The pressurized-air-tube type respirator provides the user with breathable air independently
of the ambient atmosphere. The air breathed is taken from the pressurized-air pipe or from
gas bottles. An automatic lung regulates the air intake in accordance with requirements.

23

6.3.1

Design and operation

The basic respirator consists of a waistband with a buckle onto which the connection piece
is fastened. The automatic lung and the compressed-air feed tube (approx. 9mm inside
diameter, length up to 200 m) are attached to the connection piece. Breathing takes place
through a respiration protection mask with an exhalation valve.

a)

For operation on the compressed-air network a compressed-air fine-mesh filter (oil


filter) is inserted, the purpose of which is to clean the air from the network of the oil
contained in it.

b)

Bottles can also be used for the air supply whereby the bottle pressure is reduced to
approx. 5 bar by a special pressure reducer.

24

6.4

OXY SR 45 oxygen self-rescue device

The OXY SR 45 oxygen self-rescue device is a small respirator which is easy and fast to
operate and renders the wearer completely independent of the ambient air for
approximately 45 minutes. It has a supply of compressed oxygen and regenerates exhaled
air. It is designed mainly for escape and self-rescue from areas with an unbreathable
atmosphere where there is a high concentration of harmful substances and/or a lack of
oxygen.

1.

Its main features are:

1. Ready for use in seconds.


2. Adapts itself to all breathing requirements by means of an automatic lung.
3. Small and light (approx. 2.3 kg).
4. Low respiration air temperature.
5. Low respirator resistance.
6. Amount left is shown by a pressure gauge.
7. Low operating costs.

25

2.

What must the user do when in danger?

1. Open respirator lid and put respirator on.


2. Place mouthpiece in mouth and clip on nose.
3. Press in pressure button on oxygen bottle.
4. Put on gas protection goggles.

6.5

6.5.1

Compressed-air respirators

General

Compressed-air respirators belong to the group of isolating respirators which render the
user completely independent of the ambient air, irrespective of whether it has a high on a
low concentration of harmful substances.

26

6.5.2

The PA 54/1 compressed-air respirator

This is an independent respirator with an automatic-lung air supply for:

Fire-fighting
Emergency assistance
Rescue operations and other work
carried out in unbreathable air.

6.5.2.1 Operation of the respirator as a whole

The storage bottle (1), which is held onto the carrier plate (6) by a strap (7), contains the air
to be breathed, which is highly compressed. When the bottle valve (2) is open, compressed
air flows into the pressure-reducer (3), where its pressure is reduced to approximately 5
bar.

27

It passes through the mean-pressure pipe (4) to the automatic lung valve, which
automatically supplies the amount of air needed to fill the lung.
Exhaled air is ejected into the environment through an exhaled-air valve. The manometer
(5) enables a check to be carried out on the amount of compressed air left throughout
operation.

The pressure reducer is fitted with an acoustic warning signal device which sounds when
the pressure of the air remaining has reached 60 - 70 bar.

6.5.2.2 Operating time

The operating time of the PA 54 depends on the amount left in the compressed-air bottle
and on the hardness of the work, which influences air consumption considerably. When a 6
lt bottle is used with a full pressure of 300 bar (containing approx. lEOO lt of air), for
average, hand work the operating time is approx. 45 minutes.

6.5.3

The PA 80 compressed-air respirator

This is an independent respirator with automatic-lung air supply for:

Fire-fighting
Emergency assistance
Rescue operations and other
work carried out in unbreathable
air.

28

6.5.3.1 Operation

The store of breathing air is carried in the pressurized-gas container (6) in the form of highly
compressed air. The compressed-air bottle is fastened to the carrier frame (t) UV a strap
and by the hand-operated connection on the pressure reducer.

When the bottle valve (5) is open, compressed air passes to the pressure-reducer (2),
where it is reduced to a constant working pressure (mean pressure) of 5 bar.

lt flows through the mean-pressure pipe (3) to the rocker valve of the automatic lung (7),
which automatically supplies the amount of air needed to fill the lung.

29

Exhaled air is ejected into the environment through the exhaled-air valve of the mask.
The manometer (4) enables a check to be carried out on the amount of compressed air left
throughout operation.

The pressure-reducer is fitted with an acoustic air-reserve system which sounds when the
pressure of the air remaining has reached 60 - 70 bar.

6.5.3.2 Special innovations and advantages with the PA 80

a) The high grade steel carrier frame of the PA is made to fit the body and is rounded
on all sides. The round contours increase rigidity, protect the body against damage
and hold a rubber cushion covering the whole surface.

b) The new pressure-regulated piston pressure-reducer is an important component of


the PA 80 system.

c) The new automatic lung made of strong plastic is lighter and flatter than
conventional automatic lungs; in practice this means less strain on the mask than
before. A new flexible membrane and a new air-guiding system render respiration
resistance perceptibly lower, especially when air consumption is high.

d) All conventional PA bottle types (200 or 300 bar) can be used on the PA 80 carrier
frame.
Air stored:
6l 300 bar single bottle

1800 lt

3l 300 bar bottle set

1800 lt

4 200 bar bottle cluster

1600 lt

The operating time of the PA depends on the amount of air in the compressed-air
bottle, set or cluster.

30

PA 80-SYSTEM

31