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SRI LANKA INSTITUTE of ADVANCED TECHNOLOGICAL EDUCATION

ELECTRICAL and ELECTRONIC


ENGINEERING
Instructor Manual

Training Unit

Basic Mechanics for NonMechanical Trades


Practice

No: ME 002

Training Unit
Basic Mechanics for Non-Mechanical Trades
Practical Part
No.: ME 002

Edition:

2008
All Rights Reserved

Editor:

MCE Industrietechnik Linz GmbH & Co


Education and Training Systems, DM-1
Lunzerstrasse 64 P.O.Box 36, A 4031 Linz / Austria
Tel. (+ 43 / 732) 6987 3475
Fax (+ 43 / 732) 6980 4271
Website: www.mcelinz.com
1

BASIC MECHANIC FOR NON-MECHANICAL TRADES

CONTENTS

Page

Exercise 1 Filing ........................................................................................................3

Exercise 2 Marking Out and Center Punching ..........................................................4

Exercise 3 Drilling......................................................................................................5

Exercise 4 Marking ....................................................................................................6

Exercise 5 Sawing .....................................................................................................7

Exercise 6 - Identification Marking................................................................................8

Exercise 7 - Countersinking and counter boring...........................................................9

Exercise 8 - Cutting threads .......................................................................................10

8.1

Exercise 8 A.......................................................................................................10

8.2

Exercise 8 B.......................................................................................................11

Exercise 9 - Resharpening tools.................................................................................12

Exercise 1 Filing

Exercise 2 Marking Out and Center Punching

Exercise 3 Drilling

Exercise 4 Marking

62

93

Exercise 5 Sawing

93

62

Exercise 6 - Identification Marking

Exercise 7 - Countersinking and counter boring

8.1

Exercise 8 - Cutting threads

Exercise 8 A

10

8.2

Exercise 8 B

11

Exercise 9 - Resharpening tools

Skills to be acquired

Regrinding of scriber and centre punch points at the pedestal grinder.

Correct way of holding tools


for regrinding tips

12

Skills to be acquired

Regrinding of cutting edges of flat and cape chisels at the pedestal grinder.

Correct way of holding chisels when


grinding cutting edge

13

Skills to be acquired

Regrinding twist drills offhand at the pedestal grinder

The flank of the drill must be reground until the wear of the major cutting edge, chisel
edge and margin is completely eliminated. Grinding errors affect the accuracy of the bore
and the drill life.

The drill point angle must be checked against a grinding gauge.

14

Skills to be acquired

Regrinding of a twist drill to obtain a 90 countersink

The countersink angle is to be checked against a grinding gauge.

15

Skills to be acquired

Regrinding of a twist drill for steel to obtain a twist drill for brass with a rake angle of 0.

The drill-point angle is to be checked against a grinding gauge.

The rake angle of 0 is achieved by grinding a bevel at both major cutting edges parallel to
the drill center-line.
The bevel (a) is ground at the side face of the grinding wheel. The breadth of the bevel is
dependent on the twist drill diameter and amounts to a = 0.1 to 0.5 mm.

Method of holding the twist drill when grinding the bevel for drilling in brass

16

Basic Mechanics for Non-Mechanical Trades

Instructions for Practical Exercises

17

INSTRUCTION FOR EXERCISE 1


Skills to be acquired
-

Coarse filing and smoothing of flat external surfaces

Filing flat external surfaces square

Checking with try square

Measuring with steel rule

Procedure
1. Coarse file Surface flat 1 flat down to the 36 mm scribed line and square to Surface 2
and 3
2. Coarse file Surface 3 flat, square to Surface 1 and 2
3. Coarse file Surface 4 flat, square to Surface 1 and 2
4. Coarse file Surface 6 flat, square to Surface 2 and 3
5. Coarse file Surface 6 flat, square to Surface 2 and 3
6. Coarse file Surface 4 flat, square to Surface 2 and 6
7. Coarse file Surface 3 flat, square to Surface 2 and 6
8. Coarse file Surface 1 flat, square to Surface 2 and 3

Pay particular attention to the following


-

Clamp workpiece 5 to 8 mm above and parallel to the vice jaws and in the middle of
the vice when clamping, use vice-jaws caps.

When clamping, use vice-jaws caps.

Do not apply excessive clamping pressure to workpiece.

When smoothing, apply chalk to file to prevent the formation of tool marks.

Always deburr edges before measuring and checking.

Surfaces 2 and 5 and internal surfaces are not filled.

Tools
Flat files 300 x 1, 200 x 3
Measuring and checking instruments
Steel rule, try square
Accident and damage prevention measures
-

Clamp workpiece securely

Ensure that the file hands is securely seated

Deburr carefully, sharp edges can cause cuts

Keep measuring and checking instruments separately from tools

Do not run file over the hardened vice jaws

18

INSTRUCTION FOR EXERCISE 2

Skills to be acquired
Marking out with scriber, centre punching of center points

Procedure
1. Check that part provided has sufficient dimensional allowance
2. File one end flat and square to the scribed longitudinal sides, filing along the length
3. File part to length
4. Mark out centre points of holes using steel rule, scriber and try square
5. Centre punch the points of the holes

Pay particular attention to the following


-

Whenever measurements and checks are made, always carefully deburr workpiece,
otherwise there is a danger of false measurements.

The correct position of the hole depends on precise and correct marking out and
centre punching.

Scriber and centre punch must be sharp.

Tools
-

Flat files 200 x 1, 200 x 3

Scriber

Centre punch, hammer 200 g

Measuring and checking instruments


-

Steel rule, try square

19

INSTRUCTIONS FOR EXERCISE 3

Skills to be acquired
Drilling through holes on the drill press
Deburring holes

Procedure
Note: The drilled plate is marked out and centre punched. It is taken over from Exercise 2
Marking out and centre punching.

1. Check that scribed lines and centre punch marks are exactly located.
2. If necessary, centre-punch once more to ensure that drill starts correctly
3. Set up drill press
4. Clamp workpiece in machine vice
5. Drill holes
6. Deburr using the rose bit
7. Check that holes are correctly positioned with the vernier calliper gauge

Pay particular attention to the following


-

Ensure that the drill starts correctly, centre punch once more if necessary.

Measure the diameter of the twist drill.

When starting drilling, the centre-punch mark must be under the tip of the drill.

When drilling, use cooling fluid to improve chip removal and for cooling the drill and
workpiece.

Just before breaking through, ease pressure on the drill.

Take into account that spindle speeds when drilling and when deburring are different.

Tools
-

Flat file 200 x 1, 200 x 3.

Centre punch, 200 g hammer, machine vise,

Twist drill 3 dia., 90 countersink

Measuring and checking measurements


-

Vernier caliper gauge

20

Accident and damage prevention measures


-

Hold machine vise securely and prevent it from rotating.

Never remove drill chips with the hand, but use a brush.

Do not allow your hair to come too near to the rotating drill spindle; protect long hair by
a head covering.

Wear protective glasses.

It is easy for rings, bracelets, wrist watches or necklaces to foul rotating machine parts
and thus cause serve injuries; before commencing work remove all such objects.

Clamp and remove twist drills only if the machine is not running.

Never remove guards.

Excessive pressure on the drill causes it to break.

Wear close fitting clothing.

21

INSTRUCTIONS FOR EXERCISE 4

Skills to be acquired
Marking out the height gauge and dividers

Procedure
1. Check prepared part for sufficient working allowance and squareness
2. Cross-file one edge level and square to the marked-out longitudinal sides
3. File part to length
4. Apply a uniform layer of chalk or marking-out lacquer to the face to be marked out
5. Using the height gauge, mark out all corner points, centre lines and centre points of
radii and scribe those lines parallel to the edges
6. Centre-punch centre points of radii and important points of intersection
7. Scribe the radii using the dividers
8. Using the scriber, mark out those lines which are not parallel

Pay particular attention to the following


-

Scribed lines must remain visible for subsequent sawing exercise, fine-working and
visual checking

Tools
-

Flat files 200 x 1, 200 x 3,

Scriber,

Vernier height gauge,

Steel rule,

Dividers centre punch

200 g hammer

Measuring and checking instruments


-

Vernier caliper gauge,

90 try square

22

INSTRUCTIONS FOR EXERCISE 5

Skills to be acquired
Sawing using the hacksaw

Procedure
Part supplied is ready marked out (from Exercise 4)
1. If necessary, re-punch hole centers
2. Clamp part in bench vice and drill
3. Deburr drilled holes
4. Saw out corner, 31.5 x 31.5
5. Saw out corner, 15 x 15
6. Saw out square cut-out, 15 x 15
7. Saw out triangle, 21.5 21.5
8. Saw out triangle with base 40
9. Saw out cut-out, 15 x 15 to R5, blending into hole of 10 diameter
10. Saw out slow with breadth 8
11. Saw out slot with depth of 15
12. Cut-out mark out inside edge for drilling
13. Drill cut-out
14. Saw cut-out, 10 x 20, at sides
15. Deburr sawn edges

Pay particular attention to the following


-

Carefully deburr prior to each measuring and checking operation.

For easy starting of the saw blade, use the triangular file to make a small notch.

Make starting cuts at reduced pressure, so that the saw blade does not slide away.

For starting cuts, incline the saw slightly downwards, with the handle raised a little.

Scribed lines must remain visible, in order to allow any subsequent fine-working to be
performed up to the scribed line.

Guide the saw in a straight line; do not tilt, otherwise the saw cut will not be straight.

Apply pressure only on forward stroke.

Use the full length of the saw blade.

When clamping the saw blade, the teeth must point in the direction of the forward
stroke.

23

Tools
-

Flat files 200 x 1, 200 x 3,

Triangular file 150 x 3,

Centre punch, 200 g hammer,

Twist drills 3, 8, 10 diameters,

90 countersink,

Bench vice,

Hand hacksaw

Measuring and checking instruments


-

Vernier calliper gauge, steel rule, try square

Accident and damage prevention measures


-

Do not employ finger as a guide for the saw blade.

Towards the completion of the saw cut, reduce cutting pressure so that hand and
finger will not be damaged by rebound.

Ensure blade contacts properly and make steady strokes.

Should the saw blade slide off, teeth can be stripped.

The surface of the material suffers damage.

24

INSTRUCTIONS EXERCISE 6

Skills to be acquired
Identification marking using letter and number punches.
Use workpiece from Exercise 1

Procedure
1. Mark out base lines for lettering
2. Punch letters and numbers
3. File punched surfaces

Pay particular attention to the following


-

Ensure that letters and numbers are at a uniform pitch.

Determine pitches by eye, starting from the middle.

When punching, employ surface plate as a support.

Tools
-

Try square

Steel rule

Scriber

Marking-out lacquer

Letter and number punches 6 mm

200 g hammer

Flat files 200 x 3, 150 x 3

Centre punch

Measuring and checking instruments


-

Vernier calliper gauge

Try square

Steel rule

Accident and damage prevention measures


-

Head of marking punch must be free of burrs.

In order to avoid damage to letter and number stamps.

Do not use these on hardened parts.

25

INSTRUCTIONS EXERCISE 7

Skills to be acquired
Contersinking, counterboring
Use workpiece from Exercise 3

Procedure
1. Bore out through-holes in stages
2. Deburr through-holes on each side
3. Produce 90 countersunk recesses
4. Counterbore using the piloted counterboring tool
5. Deburr outside diameters of the counterbores and through-holes

Pay particular attention to the following


-

During countersinking or counterboring, chatter marks can appear if the incorrect


speed is selected or the tool is wrongly ground. Reduce speed!

Check that the diameter of the guide pin for the piloted counterbore is as given in the
standard. Make use of coolant.

Tools
-

Twist drills for through-holes for piloted counterbores, of diameters 6.6

Twist drills for through-holes for countersinking, of diameters 4.3, 6.4, 8.4

Countersinks for countersunk holes Af 4, Af 6, Af 8, DIN 74 of diameters 8, 11.5, 15

Piloted counterbores for counterboring Hm 4, Hm 6, Hm 8, DIN 74

Measuring and checking instruments


Vernier caliper gauge, vernier depth gauge
Accident and damage prevention measures
-

Twist drills, counterbores and countersinks can foul in the work.

Therefore hold machine vise securely to prevent it swinging round with the tool.

Use only a hand brush for removing drill chips.

Protect hair by a head covering.

Remove rings, bracelets, wrist watches and necklaces before commencing work.

Clamp and remove twist drill, countersinks and counterbores only when the machine is
not running.

Wear tight fitting clothing.

26

INSTRUCTIONS FOR EXERCISE 8A

Skills to be acquired
Tapping a female thread
Use workpiece from Exercise 7

Procedure
-

Drill put holes to minor diameter of thread

Countersink both ends of drilled-out holes to 10 % greater than the major diameter of
the thread, using a 90 countersink

Tap threads. Start with M 8 thread.

Pay particular attention to the following


1. Use a tap wrench appropriate to the size of the tap.
2. Start off tap square to the surface of the workpiece.
3. If the resistance of the tap increases during cutting, reverse it to clear.
4. Use cutting lubricant.

Working materials
Twist drills for minor diameters of 3,5; 5; 6,5
Machine vise, tap wrench, set of taps for M4, M6, M8, 90 countersink

Measuring tools
Vernier caliper gauge, try square

Accident and damage prevention measures


-

Handle the taps with care- when using small-diameter taps, there is a danger of tap
breakage.

Align the tap only during the cutting process

27

INSTRUCTIONS FOR EXERCISE 8B

Skills to be acquired
Cutting a male thread

Procedure
1. Mark out flats and length of the thread
2. File flats for clamping the bolt
3. File chamfers at both ends
4. Cut M10 thread

Pay particular attention to the following


-

Start die square to the bolt centerline

Use cutting lubricant

Cut slowly, reverse die a short distance, in order to break chips

Working materials
Flat file 200 x 3, scriber, marking-out lacquer, M10 die with stocj

Measuring tools
Steel rule, vernier caliper gauge, try square or thin steel square

Accident and damage prevention damage


Clamp bolt securely in a vertical position; when filling chamfers, clamp so that it projects
only a little

28

KEY TO EVALUATION

PER CENT

MARK

88 100

75 87

62 74

50 61

0 49

29