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CD/K/458:2010

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ICS 67.060

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EAST AFRICAN STANDARD

EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY


HS 1004.00.00

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Oat grains Specification and grading

EAC 2010

First Edition 2010

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CD/K/458:2010

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Foreword

Development of the East African Standards has been necessitated by the need for harmonizing
requirements governing quality of products and services in East Africa. It is envisaged that through
harmonized standardization, trade barriers which are encountered when goods and services are
exchanged within the Community will be removed.

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In order to meet the above objectives, the EAC Partner States have enacted an East African
Standardization, Quality Assurance, Metrology and Test Act, 2006 (EAC SQMT Act, 2006) to make
provisions for ensuring standardization, quality assurance, metrology and testing of products
produced or originating in a third country and traded in the Community in order to facilitate industrial
development and trade as well as helping to protect the health and safety of society and the
environment in the Community.

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East African Standards are formulated in accordance with the procedures established by the East
African Standards Committee. The East African Standards Committee is established under the
provisions of Article 4 of the EAC SQMT Act, 2006. The Committee is composed of representatives of
the National Standards Bodies in Partner States, together with the representatives from the private
sectors and consumer organizations. Draft East African Standards are circulated to stakeholders
through the National Standards Bodies in the Partner States. The comments received are discussed
and incorporated before finalization of standards, in accordance with the procedures of the
Community.

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Article 15(1) of the EAC SQMT Act, 2006 provides that Within six months of the declaration of an
East African Standard, the Partner States shall adopt, without deviation from the approved text of the
standard, the East African Standard as a national standard and withdraw any existing national
standard with similar scope and purpose.

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East African Standards are subject to review, to keep pace with technological advances. Users of the
East African Standards are therefore expected to ensure that they always have the latest versions of
the standards they are implementing.

East African Community

Arusha
Tanzania

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P O Box 1096

East African Community 2010 All rights reserved*

Tel: 255 27 2504253/8

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Fax: 255-27-2504481/2504255
E-Mail: eac@eachq.org

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Web: www.each.int

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2010 EAC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for EAC Partner States NSBs.

EAC 2010 All rights reserved

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CD/K/458:2010
Introduction

CODEX STAN 201:1995, Standard for Oats


Oats, Official Grain Grading Guide, August 1, 2009, Canadian Grain Commission

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In the preparation of this East African Standard, the following sources were consulted extensively:

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ISO 9648:1988, Sorghum Determination of tannin content published by the International


Organization for Standardization (ISO)
CODEX STAN 193:1995 (Rev.5:2009), General Standard for Contaminants and Toxins in Foods

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CODEX STAN 228:2001 (Rev.1:2004), General methods of analysis for contaminants

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Codex Alimentarius website: http://www.codexalimentarius.net/mrls/pestdes/jsp/pest_q-e.jsp


USDA Foreign Agricultural Service website: http://www.mrldatabase.com

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USDA Agricultural Marketing Service website: http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/Standards

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USDA Plant Inspectorate Service website: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants

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Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration: http://www.gipsa.usda.gov/GIPSA/webapp

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European Union: http://ec.europa.eu/sanco_pesticides/public

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Assistance derived from these sources and others inadvertently not mentioned is hereby
acknowledged.
This standard has been developed to take into account:

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the needs of the market for the product;

the need to facilitate fair domestic, regional and international trade and prevent technical barriers
to trade by establishing a common trading language for buyers and sellers.

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the structure of the CODEX, UNECE, USA, ISO and other internationally significant standards;
the needs of the producers in gaining knowledge of market standards, conformity assessment,
commercial cultivars and crop production process;

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the need to transport the product in a manner that ensures keeping of quality until it reaches the
consumer;
the need for the plant protection authority to certify, through a simplified form, that the product is
fit for crossborder and international trade without carrying plant disease vectors;

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the need to promote good agricultural practices that will enhance wider market access,
involvement of small-scale traders and hence making farming a viable means of wealth creation;
and

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the need to ensure a reliable production base of consistent and safe crops that meet customer
requirements.

EAC 2010 All rights reserved

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Contents

Scope ......................................................................................................................................... 1

Normative references ................................................................................................................. 1

Definitions and grading factors ................................................................................................... 2

Essential composition and quality factors ................................................................................... 5

4.1

General quality requirements ..................................................................................................... 5

4.2

Classification .............................................................................................................................. 6

4.3

Unclassified oats ........................................................................................................................ 6

4.4

Reject grade oats ....................................................................................................................... 6

Contaminants ............................................................................................................................. 8

5.1

Pesticide residues ...................................................................................................................... 8

5.2

Heavy metals ............................................................................................................................. 8

5.3

Mycotoxin and chemical limits .................................................................................................... 8

5.4

Environment ............................................................................................................................... 8

Hygiene ...................................................................................................................................... 9

Packaging .................................................................................................................................. 9

Marking or labelling .................................................................................................................... 9

Sampling .................................................................................................................................. 10

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Annex A (normative) Determination of impurities, size, foreign odours, insects, and species and
variety................................................................................................................................................. 13

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Annex B (normative) Determination of moisture content ................................................................... 14


Annex C (noormative) Oats Determination of tannin content ........................................................ 15
Annex D (normative) Oats Fact sheet ........................................................................................... 18
Annex E (informative) Oat grain Codex, EU and USA pesticide residue limits .............................. 29

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Annex F (informative) Sieves for assessing dockage and grading factors ......................................... 33

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CD/K/458:2010

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EAST AFRICAN STANDARD

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Oat grains Specification and grading


Scope

Normative references

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This East African Standard specifies the quality and grading requirements and methods of test for oat
grains of varieties (cultivars) grown from Avena sativa and Avena byzantina intended for human
consumption, i.e., ready for its intended use as human food, presented in packaged form or sold
loose from the package directly to the consumer. This standard does not apply to Avena nuda
(hulless oats).

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The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated
references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced
document (including any amendments) applies.

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ISO 605, Pulses Determination of impurities, size, foreign odours, insects, and species and variety
Test methods

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ISO 711, Cereals and cereal products Determination of moisture content (Basic reference method)

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ISO 712, Cereals and cereal products Determination of moisture content Routine reference
method

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ISO 5223, Test sieves for cereals

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ISO 6639-1, Cereals and pulses Determination of hidden insect infestation Part 1: General
principles

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ISO 6639-2, Cereals and pulses Determination of hidden insect infestation Part 2: Sampling

ISO 6639-3, Cereals and pulses Determination of hidden insect infestation Part 3: Reference
method

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ISO 6639-4, Cereals and pulses Determination of hidden insect infestation Part 4: Rapid
methods
ISO 13690, Cereals, pulses and milled products Sampling of static batches
ISO 16050, Foodstuffs Determination of aflatoxin B1, and the total content of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1
and G2 in cereals, nuts and derived products High performance liquid chromatographic method

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CAC/RCP 1, Recommended international code of practice General principles of food hygiene


EAS 38, Labelling of prepackaged foods Specification
EAS 79, Cereals and pulses as grain Methods of sampling

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EAS 217, Methods for the microbiological examination of foods

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ISO 22000:2005, Food safety management systems Requirements for any organization in the food
chain

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OIML R87:2004, Quantity of product in prepackages

EAC 2010 All rights reserved

Definitions and grading factors

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For the purpose of this East African Standard, the following definitions shall apply.

3.1
oats
dried grain that consists of 50 percent or more of oats (Avena sativa L. and A. byzantina C. Koch) and
may contain, singly or in combination, not more than 25 percent of wild oats and other grains for
which standards have been established

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3.2
dockage
any material intermixed with a parcel of grain, other than kernels of grain of a standard of quality fixed
for a grade of that grain, that must and can be separated from the parcel of grain before that grade
can be assigned to the grain. Dockage includes:

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all material removed by sieving or handpicking or both

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soft earth pellets, which are pellets that crumble under light pressure, including earth pellets,
fertilizer pellets, or pellets of any non-toxic material of similar consistency

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in unprocessed samples, mudballs handpicked from the cleaned sample

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3.3
commercially clean
primary samples are considered commercially clean when they contain no dockage material

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3.4
contaminated grain
grain containing any substance in sufficient quantity that the grain is unfit for consumption by persons
or animals or is adulterated within the meaning of food safety regulations

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3.5
damaged grain
kernels are damaged if the groats are fireburnt, heated, frost-damaged, insect damaged, sprouted,
mildewed, green, rotted, badly weather stained, affected by fusarium or are otherwise damaged.
Weather stained and/or mildewed groats are considered damaged if there is significant brown or
black discolouration on 50% or more of the groat or the discolouration penetrates into the groat.

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3.6
earth pellets
Hard earth pellets are pellets that do not crumble under light pressure
Soft earth pellets are pellets that crumble under light pressure.

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3.7
ergot
a plant disease producing elongated fungus bodies with a purplish-black exterior, a purplish-white to
off white interior, and a relatively smooth surface texture

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3.8
fertilizer pellets
fertilizer pellets are typically either small, round and white or irregular shaped and pink or red.
Fertilizer pellets are not considered a hazardous substance however there is no visible means of
assuring that material resembling fertilizer pellets is not some other contaminant.

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3.9
fine seeds
all matter that passes through a 2 mm [5/64] triangular-hole sieve after sieving

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3.10
fireburnt
fireburnt kernels have been charrred or scorched by fire. A cross-section of a fireburnt kernel
resembles charcoal with numerous air holes. The air holes result in a low weight kernel that crumbles
easily under pressure.

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3.11
foreign matter
anything other than oats that remains in the sample after the removal of dockage. Some types of
foreign material have separate tolerances.

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3.12
frost damage
frost-damaged kernels of oats have a black or sunken ventral side and grey or black groats. Frostdamaged oat groats show discolouration in the ventral crease as a dark line. The discolouration may
extend throughout the groats depending on the severity of frost damage. There is no limit for frost
damage in Grade 4. When the inclusion of frost damage in Total damage or Total damage and foreign
material would result in either of these totals exceeding 8%, only that percentage of frost that brings
the total up to 8% is considered in grade assessment. That is, the percentage of the frost component
in a sample cannot be used to assign a grade lower than Grade 4.

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3.13
Fusarium damage
Fusarium damage is rare on oats. It resembles fusarium damage in barley. Kernels are discoloured
by pink, orange or black encrustations of fusarium mould. Under magnification, the black
encrustations appear raised above the surface of the kernel and are surrounded by a white mould.
The black encrustations can be scraped off. Some degree of judgment is required when identifying
kernels with the fusarium mould. Only those kernels which meet this description are to be designated
as fusarium damaged.

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3.14
green
green kernels in oats are an indication of immaturity.

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Green hulls are assessed in the general colour of the sample.

Green groats are considered damaged.

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3.15
heated
heated kernels have the colour or odour typical of grain that has deteriorated in storage or has been
damaged by artificial drying. When the hull of a heated oat is removed, the groat appears brown or
orange-red.

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If the discolouration affects . . .


The entire groat
Only the germ

The kernel is considered . . .


Heated
Damaged

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3.16
hulled and hulless
hulled oats have the hulls removed. Hulless oats have loose hulls which are usually removed during
harvesting. Groats are the oat kernels without the hulls.

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3.17
immature and shrivelled grains
grains that are not properly developed

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3.18
large seeds
domestic and wild seeds that remain on top of the 1.79 mm round-hole sieve. Large seeds are
assessed

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CD/K/458:2010
As dockage if they are removed by Cleaning for grade improvement

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As large seeds and included in Total damage and foreign material if they remain in the sample

3.19
mildew
a fungal condition that develops in unthreshed grain usually under conditions of excessive moisture.
The affected kernels are greyish in colour and lower in quality. In the evaluation of mildew, consider
the number of affected kernels and their severity.

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Hull discolouration is assessed in the general colour of the sample.

Discoloured groats are considered as damaged when there is significant brown or black
discolouration on 50% or more of the groat or the discolouration penetrates into the groat.
The sample is considered . . .
Damaged
Superficially mildewed, but sound

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If the discolouration is . . .
On the groats, from mildew
On the hull, but groats are undamaged

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3.20
odour
There is no numeric tolerance for odour. Consider
The type and degree of the odour

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The presence of visible residue causing the odour

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The basic quality of the sample

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3.21
other edible grains
any edible grains including oil seeds, barley, corn, cultivated buckwheat, einkorn, emmer, flaxseed,
guar, hull-less barley, nongrain sorghum, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, rye, safflower,
sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, and wheat

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3.22
poisonous, toxic and/or harmful seeds
any seed which if present in quantities above permissible limit may have damaging or dangerous
effect on health, organoleptic properties or technological performance such as Jimson weed
dhatura (D. fastuosa Linn and D. stramonium Linn.) corn cokle (Agrostemma githago L., Machai
Lallium remulenum Linn.) Akra (Vicia species), Argemone mexicana, Khesari and other seeds that
are commonly recognized as harmful to health

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3.23
rotted
rotted kernels are discoloured, swollen, and soft and spongy as a result of decomposition by fungi or
bacteria. Rotted kernels in oats are considered as damaged.

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3.24
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a fungus producing hard masses of fungal tissue, called sclerotia. The
sclerotia vary in size and shape, have a course surface texture, vary in exterior colour from dark black
to gray to white and have a pure white interior.

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3.25
soft earth pellets
soft earth pellets are

earth pellets that crumble into fine dust under light pressure, using a finger onlyif they do not
crumble, they are considered Stones

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any non-toxic material of similar consistency

EAC 2010 All rights reserved

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3.26
sprouted
kernels that show definite signs of germination. Sprouted oats are assessed as damaged.

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3.27
sound oats
kernels and pieces of oat kernels (except wild oats) that are not badly ground-damaged, badly
weather-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, molddamaged, sprout-damaged, or otherwise materially damaged.

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3.28
stones
Stones are hard shale, coal, hard earth pellets, and any other non toxic materials of similar
consistency. Fertilizer pellets are assessed as stones when constituting 1.0% or less of the net
sample weight. (See Fertilizer pellets for specific procedures to be followed when samples contain
fertilizer pellets.)

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3.29
total damage and foreign material
total damage and foreign material includes all foreign material and all damage. Frost damage is not
included in Grade 4 oats.

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3.30
treated seed and other chemical substances

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Treated seed is grain that has been coated with an agricultural chemical for agronomic purposes.
These seed dressings contain a dye to render the treated seed visually conspicuous. The colour
of the dye varies depending upon the type of treatment and the type of grain. The coatings or
stains may appear greasy or powdery and surface area distribution ranges from tiny flecks to
complete coverage.

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Other chemical substances refers to any chemical residues either adhering to the kernel or
remaining in the sample and to samples having a chemical odour of any kind.

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3.31
weevilled grains
grains that are partially or wholly bored by insects injurious to grains but does not include germ eaten
grains and egg spotted grains
3.32
wild oats
seeds of Avena fatua L. and A. sterilis L.

Essential composition and quality factors

4.1

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General quality requirements

4.1.1 Oats shall meet the following general requirements/limits as determined using the relevant
standards listed in Clause 2:

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shall consist 50 percent or more of oats (Avena sativa L. and A. byzantina C. Koch) and may
contain, singly or in combination, not more than 25 percent of wild oats and other grains for
which standards have been established;

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a)

be hard, clean, wholesome, uniform in size, shape, colour and in sound merchantable
condition;

c)

shall be safe and suitable for human consumption;

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b)

EAC 2010 All rights reserved

CD/K/458:2010
shall be free of pests, live animals, animal carcasses, animal droppings, fungus infestation,
added colouring matter, moulds, weevils, obnoxious substances, discoloration and all other
impurities except to the extent indicated in this standard and must meet any other phytosanitary
requirements specified by the importing country authority;

e)

shall be free from filth (impurities of plant and animal origin including insects, rodent hair and
excreta) in amounts that represent a hazard to human health;

f)

shall be free from toxic or noxious seeds viz. Crotolaria (Crotolaria spp.), Corn cockle
(Agrostemma githago L.), Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), Jimson weed (Dhatura spp.),
Argemone mexicana, Khesari and other seeds that are commonly recognized as harmful to
health;

g)

shall be free from abnormal flavours, obnoxious smell and discolouration.

h)

shall be free from micro-organisms and substances originating from micro-organisms or other
poisonous or deleterious substances in amounts that may constitute a hazard to human health.

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d)

Oats shall be in form of well-filled seeds of uniform colour.

4.1.3

Ergot affected grains shall not exceed 0.05 per cent by weight in damaged grains.

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4.1.2

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4.1.4 If oats are presented in bags, the bags shall also be free of pests and contaminants. In
addition the barley grains shall comply with any conditions set by the importing country authority.

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4.1.5 If oats are rejected because pests or contaminants are found in inspected samples, the oats
are not to be re-presented for inspection unless they have been treated or cleaned.

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4.1.6 Blending of rejected oats is not permitted as a treatment for insect infestation or as a method
of cleaning for contaminants for which there is a nil tolerance
Brushing the outside of bags is not permitted as a remedy to remove pests or contaminants.

4.2

Classification

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4.1.7

Unclassified oats

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4.3

Oats shall be classified into four grades on the basis of the tolerable limits established in Table 1
which shall be additional to the general requirements set out in this standard.

Shall be oats which do not fall within the requirements of Grades 1, 2, 3 and 4 of this standard but are
not rejected oats.

4.4

Reject grade oats

Do not meet the requirements for the grades 1, 2, 3, or 4 as set out in Table 1; or

(b)

Contain 8 or more stones which have an aggregate weight in excess of 0.2 percent of the
sample weight, 2 or more pieces of glass, 3 or more crotalaria seeds (Crotalaria spp.), 2 or
more castor beans (Ricinus communis L.), 4 or more particles of an unknown foreign
substance(s) or a commonly recognized harmful or toxic substance(s), 8 or more cocklebur
(Xanthium spp.) or similar seeds singly or in combination, 10 or more rodent pellets, bird
droppings, or equivalent quantity of other animal filth per 1065 ml to 1183 ml of oats; or

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Have a musty, sour, or commercially objectionable foreign odor (except smut or garlic odor); or

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(c)

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(a)

Are heating or otherwise of distinctly low quality.

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(d)

EAC 2010 All rights reserved

CD/K/458:2010

Wheat

Wild oats

Total

14

0.30

0.50

1.0

0.05

0.10

0.017

0.066

0.15

0.15

Nil

0.05

0.05

0.10

Excreta

1 piece in
1000 g or
less

0.01

0.02

Min. test weight, kg/h (g/0.5 L)

51 (235)

49(225)

46(210)

43(195)

Well
matured,
good natural
colour, 97 %
sound oats

Reasonably
well matured,
reasonably
good natural
colour, 96 %
sound oats

Fairly well
matured,
fair colour,
94 %
sound
groats

86 % sound
groats

20

No limit if
sample
contains 75%
or more of
hulless oats,
hulles becomes
part of grade
name
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0.02

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Degree of soundness

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Hulled and hulless, %

Fireburnt
Fusariam
Heated

Total

No

Insect bored kernels, kernels


which have been visibly bored or
tunnelled by insects
Moisture content, % by mass, max.

Nil

Nil

Nil

0.1

2.0

Nil

0.1

1.0

0.1

0.3

0.5

0.5

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Damage, % by
mass, max.

14

0.05

Ergot

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Total damage and foreign material, % by mass, max.


Minimum test weight:

0.1

2.0

12.0

12.0

13.0

14.0

14

At least 46 kg/hl

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The weight of a hundred litre volume of oats


expressed as kilogrammes per hectolitre.

Oats that are slightly weathered shall be graded not higher than Grade 3.

2)

Oats that are badly stained or materially weathered shall be graded not higher than Grade 4.

ISO 605
ISO 711/712
The test
weight shall
be the weight
per ISO
7971:1986 or
any other
equipment
giving
equivalent
results
expressed as
kilogrammes
per hectolitre
as
determined
on a test
portion of the
original
sample

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1)

EAC 2010 All rights reserved

of

14

Nil

Stones

Method
test

14

0.20

Sclerotinia

of

42)

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Barley
Cereal grains other
than wheat or barley

Large seeds

Standard
quality

31)

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Other
grains
and wild
oats

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Foreign matter,
whole grains, %
by mass, max.

Grade
1

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Characteristic

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Table 1 Specific requirements for oat grains

Contaminants

5.1

Pesticide residues

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CD/K/458:2010

Oat grains shall comply with those maximum pesticide residue limits established by the Codex
Alimentarius Commission for this commodity. The limits listed below were current as of the dates
indicated. Annex E provides current MRLs for the USA, EU and Codex markets.

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0.1
0.1
0.05
0.02
10
2
0.02
0.5
0.002
0.01
0.02
0.5
0.05

Notes

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mg/kg
undef
mg/kg(*)
mg/kg
mg/kg
mg/kg
mg/kg(*)
undef
mg/kg(*)
mg/kg(*)
mg/kg(*)
undef
mg/kg(*)

Method of
test

Heavy metals

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5.2

Limit

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AMINOPYRALID
BENTAZONE
BITERTANOL
CHLORDANE
CHLORMEQUAT
DIQUAT
DISULFOTON
FENPROPIMORPH
FIPRONIL
LINDANE
METHOMYL
PYRACLOSTROBIN
TEBUCONAZOLE

Unit symbol

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Type

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Maximum pesticide residue limits and extraneous maximum residue limits in oats (current as
at 2009-06-09)

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Oat grains shall be free from heavy metals in amounts which may represent a hazard to health. If
present, they shall not exceed the limits established in Table 2.

Parameter

No

Table 2 Heavy metal contaminant limits


Limit

Test method

0.10

EAS 101 or EAS 100

Arsenic (As), ppm max.

ii)

Copper (Cu), ppm max.

2.0

EAS 100

iii)

Lead (Pb), ppm max.

0.10

EAS 100

iv)

Cadmium (Cd), ppm max.

0.02

EAS 100

v)

Mercury (Hg), ppm max.

0.01

EAS 100

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Mycotoxin and chemical limits

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5.3

i)

Oat grains shall comply with those maximum mycotoxin limits established by the Codex Alimentarius
Commission for this commodity.
5.3.1

Uric acid shall not exceed 100 milligrams per kilogram.

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5.3.2 Total aflatoxin levels in oats for human consumption shall not exceed 10 ppb with B1 not
exceeding 5 ppb when tested according to ISO 16050.

Environment

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5.4

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Oats shall be produced, processed and handled under conditions complying with the stipulations of
relevant environmental regulations and therefore conform to cleaner production technological
practices.

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Hygiene

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6.1
It is recommended that the produce covered by the provisions of this Standard be prepared
and handled in accordance with the appropriate sections of CAC/RCP 1, ISO 22000, and other
relevant Codex texts such as Codes of Hygienic Practice and Codes of Practice.

6.2
The produce should comply with any microbiological criteria established in accordance with
CAC/GL 21.

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6.3
To the extent possible in good agricultural practice, the products shall be free from
objectionable mater.
6.4
When tested by appropriate standards of sampling and examination listed in Clause 2, the
products:

Ea

st

shall be free from microorganisms in amounts which may represent a hazard to health and shall
not exceed the limits stipulated in Table 3;
shall be free from parasites which may represent a hazard to health; and

as

shall not contain any substance originating from microorganisms in amounts which may represent
a hazard to health.

S.aureus per 25 g
E. Coli, max. per g
Salmonella, max. per 25 g

Packaging

Test method

Nil
Nil
Nil

EAS 217

cit

ii)
iii)
iv)

Limits
102

be

Type of micro-organism
Yeasts and moulds, max. per g

t to

i)

ed

Table 3 Microbiological limits for barley grains

No

7.1
Oats shall be packed in gunny bags/jute bags, poly woven bags, poly pouches, cloth bags or
other suitable packages which shall be clean, sound, free from insect, fungal infestation and the
packing material shall be of food grade quality.

7.2
Oats shall be packed in containers which will safeguard the hygienic, nutritional, technological
and organoleptic qualities of the products.

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7.3
The containers, including packaging material, shall be made of substances which are safe
and suitable for their intended use. They shall not impart any toxic substance or undesirable odour or
flavour to the product.
The net weight of the oats in a package shall comply with OIML R87.

7.5

Each package shall contain oats of the same type and of the same grade designation.

7.6

mm
en

7.4

Each package shall be securely closed and sealed.

Marking or labelling

ft f
or

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8.1
In addition to the requirements in EAS 38, each package shall be legibly and indelibly marked
with the following:
product name as Oat Grains;

ii)

variety;

iii)

grade;

Dr
a

i)

EAC 2010 All rights reserved

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CD/K/458:2010
name, address and physical location of the manufacturer/ packer/importer;

v)

lot/batch/code number;

vi)

net weight, in g/kg;

vii)

the declaration Food for Human Consumption;

viii)

storage instruction as Store in a cool dry place away from any contaminants;

ix)

crop year;

x)

packing date;

xi)

expiry date or best before ___________month ______ year;

xii)

a declaration of the product lifespan;

xiii)

instructions on disposal of used package;

xiv)

country of origin;

xv)

a declaration on whether the oats were genetically modified or not.

as

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iv)

ed

8.2
A declaration of any inaccurate information in marking/labelling is prohibited and shall be
punishable by law under the statutes of the Partner States.

be

cit

8.3
The authorized packer shall observe all instructions regarding testing, grading, packing,
marking, sealing and maintenance of records applicable to the product.

Sampling

Mature oats in field

Oat grains

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a

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No

t to

Sampling shall be done in accordance with the EAS 79/ISO 13690.

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EAC 2010 All rights reserved

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CD/K/458:2010

Oat plants

No

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ed

as

Oats emerging

Wild oats

Wild oats

Oats and turnips

Dr
a

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mm
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Oat grains

EAC 2010 All rights reserved

11

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as

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CD/K/458:2010

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mm
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No

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Cavena Nuda Oats

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Annex A
(normative)

Determination of impurities, size, foreign odours, insects, and species and


variety

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mm
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No

t to

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ed

as

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These shall be determined in accordance with ISO 605, Pulses Determination of impurities, size,
foreign odours, insects, and species and variety Test methods

EAC 2010 All rights reserved

13

Annex B
(normative)
Determination of moisture content
Moisture content shall be determined in accordance with the following standards:

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CD/K/458:2010

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ISO 711, Cereals and cereal products Determination of moisture content (Basic reference
method)

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mm
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No

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be

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ed

as

Ea

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ISO 712, Cereals and cereal products Determination of moisture content Routine reference
method

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EAC 2010 All rights reserved

Annex C
(noormative)
Oats Determination of tannin content
C.1

Principle

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CD/K/458:2010

Reagents

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C.2

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Extraction of tannins by shaking with dimethylformamide. After centrifuging, addition of ferric


ammonium citrate and ammonia to an aliquot part of the supernatant liquid and spectrometric
determination, at 525 nm, of the absorbance of the solution thus obtained. Determination of the tannin
content using a calibration curve prepared using tannic acid.

Ea

All reagents shall be of analytical grade. Water used shall be of distilled quality according to EAS 123
or water of at least equivalent purity.

as

C.2.1 Tannic acid, 2 g/l solution

Use Merck reference 773 tannic acid product that is commercially available.

cit

C.2.3 Dimethylformamide, 75 % (v/v) solution.

ed

C.2.2 Ammonia solution of 8.0 g/l NH3.

be

Introduce 75 ml of dimethylformamide into a 100 ml volumetric flask. Dilute with water, allow to cool
and make up to the mark.

t to

NOTE
Dimethylformamide may be harmful to health when inhaled or allowed to come into contact with the skin. It is also
irritating to the eyes.

No

C.2.4 Ferric ammonium citrate

Use ferric ammonium citrate having an iron content between 17 % (m/m) and 20 % (m/m), 3.5 g/l
solution prepared 24 h before use.
Since the iron content has an influence on the results, this content shall be respected imperatively.
Apparatus

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C.3

C.3.1 Mechanical crusher, capable of producing particles, which pass completely through the
sieve (C.3.2).

C.3.3

Sieve having aperture of size 0.5 mm.

mm
en

C.3.2

Centrifuge, capable of producing a centrifugal acceleration of 3 000g (3 000 x 9.81 m/s ).

C.3.4 Centrifugal tubes, with a capacity of approximately 50 ml, provided with stoppers ensuring
hermetic sealing.
Mechanical stirrer, with a reciprocating motion, or magnetic stirrer.

co

C.3.5

Mechanical shaker for test tubes.

ft f
or

C.3.6

Spectrometer, with cells 10 mm thick, permitting measurements at 525 nm.

C.3.8

Pipettes of 1 ml, 5 ml and 20 ml capacity.

Dr
a

C.3.7

C.3.9

Graduated pipettes of 5 ml and 10 ml capacity.

EAC 2010 All rights reserved

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CD/K/458:2010
C.3.10 Test tubes 140 mm x 14 mm.

C.4

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an

C.3.11 Volumetric flasks of 20 ml capacity.


Sampling

Sampling shall be carried out in accordance with EAS 79.

C.5

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Oat grains intended for determination of tannin content may be conserved for seven months,
protected from light and should preferably be dried.
Preparation of test sample

Ea

st

Remove any extraneous matter other than oats from the laboratory sample and crush the sample in
the mechanical crusher (C.3.1) so as to reduce it to particles of a size, which will pass completely
through the sieve (C.3.2). Mix thoroughly.

as

The tannins in crushed products oxidize rapidly and therefore it is recommended to proceed
immediately with the analysis after crushing.
The crushed product may be conserved at most for several days, protected from light, and should preferably be

C.6

Procedure

C.6.1

Water content of the sample

cit

ed

NOTE
dried.

Test portion

t to

C.6.2

be

Determine the water content of the sample according to ISO 9648 (see clause 2).

C.6.3

Determination

No

Introduce about 1 g of the test sample (Clause C.5) weighed to the nearest 1 mg into a centrifuge
tube (C.3.4).

ts
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ly

C.6.3.1 using pipette (C.3.8) introduce 20 ml of the dimethylformamide solution (C.2.3) into the
centrifuge tube. Stopper the tube hermatically and stir it for 60 min 1 min using the stirrer (C.3.5).
Then centrifuge for 10 min using an acceleration of 3 000 g.
C.6.3.2 Remove 1 ml of the supernatant liquid (C.6.3.1) using a pipette (C.3.8) and introduce it into a
test tube (C.3.10). Successively add 6 ml of water and 1 ml of the ammonia solution (C.2.2) using a
pipette, and then shake for a few seconds using the shaker (C.3.6).

mm
en

C.6.3.3 Remove 1 ml of the supernatant liquid (C.6.3.1) with a pipette (C.3.8) and introduce it into a
test tube (C.3.10). Successively add 5 ml of water and 1 ml of the ferric ammonium citrate solution
(C.2.4) using a pipette, shake for a few seconds using the shaker (C.3.6), then add 1 ml of the
ammonia solution (C.2.2) using a pipette and shake again for a few seconds using the shaker (C.3.6).

co

C.6.3.4 Transfer the solutions obtained in C.6.3.2 and C.6.3.3 into measuring cells and, 10 min 1
min after the end of the operations carried out in C.6.3.2 and C.6.3.3 measure the absorbance, at 525
nm, using the spectrometer (C.3.7) against a water blank. The result is the difference between the two
absorbances.
Number of determinations

ft f
or

C.6.4

Dr
a

Carry out two determinations on test portions taken from the same test sample.

16

EAC 2010 All rights reserved

Establishment of the calibration curve

an
St
an

Determine the calibration curve on the day of the determination as indicated in a) to c).

da
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C.6.5

CD/K/458:2010

Prepare six 20 ml volumetric flasks (C.3.11) and using a graduated pipette (C.3.9), add to them
respectively 0 ml, 1 ml, 2ml, 3ml, 4ml, and 5 ml of the tannic acid solution (C.2.1) make up to the
mark with the dimethylformamide solution (C.2.3). The calibration scale thus obtained
corresponds to tannic acid contents of 0 mg/ml, 0.1mg/ml, 0.2 mg/ml, 0.3 mg/ml, 0.4 mg/ml and
0.5 mg/ml respectively.

b)

Pipette into test tubes (C.3.10) 1 ml of each of these solutions and add successively using a
pipette (C.3.8), 5ml of water and 1 ml of the ferric ammonium citrate solution (C.2.4) and shake
for a few seconds using the shaker (C.3.6). Then add 1 ml of ammonia solution (C.2.2) and
shake again for a few seconds using the shaker (C.3.6).

Af
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a)

Ea

st

Transfer the solutions thus obtained into measuring cells and after 10 min 1 min measure the
absorbances at 525 nm, using the spectrometer against water blank.
Plot the calibration curve, using the absorbance values as the ordinate and the corresponding
concentrations of tannic acid on the calibration scale (a) as the abscissa, in milligrams per
millilitre.

as

c)

Expression of results

cit

C.7

ed

The curve should not pass through the origin and shall not be corrected for the zero of the scale.

be

The tannin content, expressed as a percentage by mass of tannic acid in relation to the dry matter, is
given as

t to

2C
100

m 100 H

No

where

is the tannic acid concentration, in milligrams per millilitre, of the test solution, read from the
calibration curve (C.6.5.c).

is the mass in grams, of the test portion (C.6.2).

is the water content of the sample, as a percentage by mass C.6.1).

ts
on
ly

Dr
a

ft f
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co

mm
en

Take as the result, the arithmetic mean of the two determinations provided that the requirements for
repeatability, using linear interpolation are satisfied.

EAC 2010 All rights reserved

17

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CD/K/458:2010

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Annex D
(normative)
Oats Fact sheet
Avena byzantina

Af
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C. Koch
Liliopsida:Commelinidae:Cyperales:Gramineae
Avena algeriensis
Algerian oat, Red oat, Mediterranean oat, avena amarilla

st

Authority
Family
Synonyms
Common
names
Editor
Ecocrop
code

3568

Ea

D.1

as

Description

ed

A grass.

cit

USES Cereals are fed to livestock or eaten in porridge and oatcakes.


Growing period

be

Annual grass, for cereals growing 110-270 days. Varieties divided into spring and winter types.

t to

Further information

Avena sativa

D.2

No

Red oat is native to Asia. It is more heath tolerant than Avena sativa. Hot, humid weather during
ripening favors development of diseases. Heavy, poorly drained soils and soils with high nitrogen
levels are likely to cause lodging. Average seed yield is about 1.8-2 tha, while good yields can reach 3
t/ha.

L
Magnoliophyta: Liliopsida: Cyperales: Poaceae
Avena algeriensis
akurhafrar, almindelig havre, avena, avena, avoine, avoine
farine, hafer, havre, hawer, kaura
3568

co

mm
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Authority
Family
Synonyms
Common
names
Editor
Ecocrop code

Dr
a

ft f
or

Description
It is a tall, erect annual cereal grass up to 1.5 m. It is widely grown as a fodder in temperate and subtropical regions. It also does well in the high-altitude tropics. Oat grain is used widely for human
consumption. The green plant is good for forage and makes good hay and silage. The straw is a
useful roughage. The grain is an important livestock feed and the unhulled, crushed fruit is the usual
form in which it is fed to ruminants and horses.

18

EAC 2010 All rights reserved

CD/K/458:2010

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r

The mature seed of the plant is used as a cereal grain (food, feed and medicinal), but the whole plant,
with the exception of the roots, has an important place in herbal medicine.

an
St
an

Morphology
Roots: It has a fibrous root.
Stems: Culm hollow, smooth (or scabrous beneath the panicle), nodose.

Af
ri c

Leaves: The linear, lanceolate leaves are alternate, rough, veined and acuminate with an amplexicaul
sheath. stipules lacerate. 15-30 cm long, 0.61.2 cm wide, sheaths long and loose.

st

Flowers: The inflorescence is a loose, curved, branched panicle at the extremity with 2-3 florets.
Panicle terminal, 15-30 cm long; pedunculate spikelets usually 2-flowered, up to 2.5 cm long, slenderpedicelled. Glumes, several-nerved; lemma glabrous, dorsal awn absent or 1 to a floret, short.

Ea

Fruits: The caryopsis is cylindrical and slightly ridged. The glumellae are aristate.

as

Seeds: Kernel 0.6-0.8 cm long, narrow, with nearly parallel sides, hairy, grooved lengthwise on the
face, tightly enclosed. Seed size varies with cultivar, there are usually about 30 000 seeds per kg.
Physiology

t to

be

cit

ed

It is a C3 plant. Peltonen-Sainio et al., 2003 evaluated plant growth regulators (PGR) effects on the
growth of the main shoot and tillers on standard height (HE) and dwarf oat cultivars by growing plants
at 14 and 18 h day-lengths (DL) and spraying them with chlormequat chloride (CCC) and ethephon at
early growth stages. The authors showed that plant growth regulators retarded growth of the main
shoot in conventional oat cultivars without stimulating growth of T1 and T2 tillers and that response of
the dwarf cultivar to PGRs was modest. Only ethephon enhanced T1 tiller growth at the 18 h DL.
However, PGR-treated plants had up to 5 more green leaves per plant at pre-anthesis due to
stimulated leaf emergence on T3 and T4 tillers especially at the 18 h DL.

Environment

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on
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No

Exposing two cultivars of oat ('Pendek' and 'Stormogul II') to short periods of water-deficient stress on
5 consecutive days, Svenningsson et al., 1986 showed that the plants responded to the stress by
decreasing their cuticular transpiration rate. After two stress periods the cuticular transpiration rate
was reduced by 30% for Pendek and by 47% for Stormogul II, and after another three stress periods
by 30% and 20%, respectively. The authors reported that these reductions were correlated neither to
changes in the total amount of what is generally called epicuticular lipids, nor to changes in any of the
major individual constituents of the epicuticular lipids (alkanes, free and esterified fatty acids or free
primary alcohols). After removal of the epicuticular lipids and after extraction and determination of the
long chain free primary alcohols of the leaves, the authors concluded that the amount of these
presumably intracuticular alcohols increased after stress and changed to shorter chain length.

mm
en

In temperate climates it is usually a spring-sown crop; in sub-tropical and Mediterranean conditions it


is grown in the cool season; in the tropics it is grown at altitude.
Latitude: Altitude: In Kenya for example, on the Equator, it can be grown from 1600 metres upwards
but is best above 2000 metres and excellent at 2800 (Suttie, 2000).

ft f
or

co

Temperature: It can grow at temperatures ranging from 5 to 26C. It is considered a cold-tolerant


species during germination because its minimal germination temperature is between 3 and 5C. Hot
dry weather just before heading causes heads to blast and yields of seed to decrease. Oats usually
are not very winter hardy, although winter hardy cultivars have been developed.

Dr
a

Water: Common oat is reported to tolerate annual precipitations of 200-1800 mm. The amount of rain
normally required for oats is moderate, 300-400 mm/cycle. However, better yields are obtained with
500 mm.

EAC 2010 All rights reserved

19

CD/K/458:2010

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St
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Radiation: Range & intensity: Oestuerk et al.,1984 showed that Avena sativa showed much less
differences between full-light grown and shadow plants, when compared to other C3 and C4 carbon
pathways species.
Photoperiodism: It behaves as a long day plant (Dennis, 1984).
Soil: It thrives on a wide range of soils of ample but not excessive fertility.

Af
ri c

Physical: Well-drained neutral soils in regions where annual rainfall is 770 mm or more are best.
Loam soils are best, especially silt and clay loams.

Ea

st

Chemical: It can tolerate a pH range of between 4.5-8.6 and is known for its tolerance to salt.
Studying the growth, development and yield of a high yielding variety (cv. Kent) of oat under different
concentrations of NaCl and Na2SO4 salt dominated soil, Mishra and Shitole, 1987, showed that the
differential adaptable nature of the plant. Even the progressive height and total leaf area were
affected; there was increase in productivity (in terms of dry matter and grain weight up to certain
levels of both salinities.
Distribution

ed

as

It is an ancient grass, indigenous to northern Europe and now widely grown as a food crop.
Distribution is global. The origin of oats is uncertain, but some authors reported that it evolved from
Avena fatua. Others say that it originated in southern North America where it had been found growing
wild.

cit

Status

be

It is a major crop cultivated extensively in Europe and elsewhere.


Ethnobotany

t to

Etymology: From the Latin avena (nourishment) and avidus (sought after).

No

Uses: The modern oat draws its ancestry from the wild red oat, a plant originating in Asia. Oats have
been cultivated for 2000 years throughout the world. Before being consumed as a food, oats were
used for medicinal purposes; a use for which they are still honoured (GMF, 2003).

ts
on
ly

It is widely grown as a fodder in temperate and sub-tropical regions. It also does well in the highaltitude tropics. Oat grain is used widely for human consumption. The green plant is good for forage
and makes good hay and silage. The straw is a useful roughage. The grain is an important livestock
feed and the unhulled, crushed fruit is the usual form in which it is fed to ruminants and horses.
(Suttie, 2000).
The mature seed of the plant is used as a cereal grain (food, feed and medicinal), but the whole plant,
with the exception of the roots, has an important place in herbal medicine.

co

mm
en

In folk medicine (Weiss, 1988 and Wichtl, 1994), as well as among current herbalists, report that oats
are used to treat nervous exhaustion, insomnia, and weakness of the nerves. A tea made from oats
was thought to be useful in rheumatic conditions and to treat water retention. A tincture of the green
tops of oats was also used to help with withdrawal from tobacco addiction. Oats were often used in
baths to treat insomnia and anxiety as well as a variety of skin conditions, including burns and
eczema. An alcoholic extraction has been reported to be a deterrent for smoking. The seeds are folk
remedies for tumours.

Dr
a

ft f
or

As a tincture, oats are often taken at 3-5 ml three times per day. Capsules or tablets can be used in
the amount of 1-4 grams per day. Rolled oats or oatmeal may be used as skin softener and to reduce
redness, itching or irritation. Put one cup of oatmeal or 2 cups of oat flakes into a muslin bag or old
cotton sock. Tie securely and drop into a warm bath. Swirl around till the water is milky then
submerge the body or the affected part. Oats have a very low level of gluten and oat flour can be
substituted for wheat flour in many recipes.

20

EAC 2010 All rights reserved

Avena nuda
L
Liliopsida:Commelinidae:Cyperales:Gramineae

an
St
an

Authority
Family
Synonyms
Common
names
Editor
Ecocrop code

Naked oat

3571

Af
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D.3

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CD/K/458:2010

Description

st

It is a grass reaching up to 90 cm in height. It is in flower from June to July, and the seeds ripen from
August to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by the wind.

Ea

Uses

be

cit

ed

as

The seed is edible cooked. The seed ripens in the latter half of summer and, when harvested and
dried, can store for several years. It has a floury texture and a mild, somewhat creamy flavour. It can
be used as a staple food crop in either savoury or sweet dishes. The seed can be cooked whole,
though it is more commonly ground into flour and used as a cereal in all the ways that oats are used,
especially as porridge but also to make biscuits, sourdough bread etc. The seed can also be sprouted
and eaten raw or cooked in salads, stews etc. The hull is incompletely attached to the grain, yielding a
naked seed easily upon threshing. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute. The straw has a wide
range of uses such as for bio-mass, fibre, mulch, paper-making and thatching. Some caution is
advised in its use as a mulch since oat straw can infest strawberries with stem and bulb eelworm.
Growing period

t to

Annual.

No

Further information

Avena sterilis

Authority
Family
Synonyms
Common
names
Editor
Ecocrop
code

L
Liliopsida:Commelinidae:Cyperales:Gramineae

3572

co

mm
en

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on
ly

D.4

Found in southern Europe and Central and East Asia in dry wasteland, cultivated ground and
meadows, especially on heavier soils.

ft f
or

Description
An erect grass and grain crop, 50-120 cm tall.
Uses

Dr
a

The grain is made into porridge and oatmeal or fed to livestock.

EAC 2010 All rights reserved

21

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CD/K/458:2010
Growing period

an
St
an

Annual.
Common names
Sterile oat, Animated oat.

Af
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Further information

Sterile oat is primarily a weedy species. It's latitudinal range is between 55N-34S, and it can be
found at elevations up to 2000 m.
History and Origin of Oat

st

D.5

as

Ea

Little history of oat is known prior to the time of Christ. Oats did not become important to man as early
as wheat or barley. Oats probably persisted as a weed-like plant in other cereals for centuries prior to
being cultivated by itself. Some authorities believe that our present cultivated oats developed as a
mutation from wild oats. They think this may have taken place in Asia Minor or south-eastern Europe
not long before the birth of Christ.

cit

ed

Probably the oldest known oat grains were found in Egypt among remains of the 12th Dynasty, which
was about 2 000 B.C. These probably were weeds and not actually cultivated by the Egyptians. The
oldest known cultivated oats were found in caves in Switzerland that are believed to belong to the
Bronze Age.

t to

be

The history of oats is somewhat clouded because there are so many different species and
subspecies, which makes identification of old remains very difficult. The chief modern center of
greatest variety of forms is in Asia Minor where most all subspecies are in contact with each other.
Many feel that the area with the greatest diversity of types is most likely where a particular plant
originated.

No

Oats were first brought to North America with other grains in 1602 and planted on the Elizabeth
Islands off the coast of Massachusetts. As early as 1786, George Washington sowed 580 acres to
oats. By the 1860s and 1870s, the westward shift of oat acreage in the United States had moved into
the middle and upper Mississippi Valley, which is its major area of production today.
Predominant Areas of Oat Production

mm
en

ts
on
ly

Oats are chiefly a European and North American crop. These areas have the cool, moist climate to
which oats are best adapted. Russia, Canada, the United States, Finland, and Poland are the leading
oat producing countries. Oats are adapted to a wide range of soil types, thus temperature and
moisture conditions are the usual limiting factors as to where oats are grown. Perhaps no other
country uses oats as much in their cropping system as does Scotland. Some winter oats are
produced in the United States, but most are spring oats produced mainly in the north central states.

co

During the 1940s and 1950s, the five leading states in production usually were Iowa, Minnesota,
Illinois, Wisconsin, and South Dakota. By the 1960's, the main oat producing area began moving
somewhat north and westward. In 2000, the rank of states in order of production was Minnesota,
North Dakota, Wisconsin, South Dakota, and Iowa. Iowa acreage peaked at about 6.4 million acres in
1950 and slumped to 270,000 acres, of which only 180,000 acres were harvested, by 2000. The more
profitable crop, soybean, has replaced the oat acreage.

Dr
a

ft f
or

The common oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the
same name (usually in the plural, unlike other grains). While oats are suitable for human consumption
as oatmeal and rolled oats, one of the most common uses is as livestock feed. Oats make up a large
part of the diet of horses and are regularly fed to cattle as well. Oats are also used in some brands of
dog and chicken feed.

22

EAC 2010 All rights reserved

as

Ea

st

Af
ri c

an
St
an

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CD/K/458:2010

ed

Oat plants with inflorescences

cit

Origin

t to

be

The wild ancestor of Avena sativa and the closely-related minor crop, A. byzantina, is the hexaploid
wild oat A. sterilis. Genetic evidence shows that the ancestral forms of A. sterilis grow in the Fertile
Crescent of the Near East. Domesticated oats appear relatively late, and far from the Near East, in
Bronze Age Europe. Oats, like rye, are usually considered a secondary crop, i.e. derived from a weed
of the primary cereal domesticates wheat and barley. As these cereals spread westwards into cooler,
wetter areas, this may have favoured the oat weed component, leading to its eventual domestication.

No

Cultivation

Oats are grown throughout the temperate zones. They have a lower summer heat requirement and
greater tolerance of rain than other cereals like wheat, rye or barley, so are particularly important in
areas with cool, wet summers such as Northwest Europe, even being grown successfully in Iceland.
Oats are an annual plant, and can be planted either in autumn (for late summer harvest) or in the
spring (for early autumn harvest).

ts
on
ly

Historical attitudes towards oats vary. Oat bread was first manufactured in England, where the first
oat bread factory was established in 1899. In Scotland they were, and still are, held in high esteem,
as a mainstay of the national diet.

ft f
or

co

mm
en

Uses

Closeup of oat flowers

Dr
a

Oats have numerous uses in food; most commonly, they are rolled or crushed into oatmeal, or ground
into fine oat flour. Oatmeal is chiefly eaten as porridge, but may also be used in a variety of baked
goods, such as oatcakes, oatmeal cookies, and oat bread. Oats are also an ingredient in many cold

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cereals, in particular muesli and granola. Oats may also be consumed raw, and cookies with raw oats
are becoming popular.

an
St
an

Oats are also occasionally used in several different drinks. In Britain, it is used for brewing beer.
Oatmeal stout is one variety brewed using a percentage of oats for the wort. The more rarely used
Oat Malt is produced by the Thomas Fawcett & Sons Maltings and was used in the Maclay Oat Malt
Stout before Maclay ceased independent brewing operations. A cold, sweet drink made of ground
oats and milk is a popular refreshment throughout Latin America. Oatmeal caudle, made of ale and
oatmeal with spices was a traditional British drink and a favorite of Oliver Cromwell.

Af
ri c

In Scotland a dish called Sowans was made by soaking the husks from oats for a week so that the
fine, floury part of the meal remained as sediment to be strained off, boiled and eaten. Oats are also
widely used there as a thickener in soups, as barley or rice might be used in other countries.

Ea

st

Oats are also commonly used as feed for horses as plain whole or rolled oats or as part of a
blended food pellet. Cattle are also fed oats, either whole, or ground into a coarse flour using a roller
mill, burr mill, or hammer mill.

ed

as

Oat straw is prized by cattle and horse producers as bedding, due to its soft, relatively dust-free, and
absorbent nature. The straw can also be used for making corn dollies. Tied in a muslin bag, oat straw
was used to soften bath-water.
Oat extract can also be used to soothe skin conditions, e.g. skin lotions. It is the principal ingredient
for the Aveeno line of products.

cit

Uses of oat

t to

be

In the United States, oats were formerly grown mainly for horse feed; but with the coming of the
motorized age, oats became a feed chiefly for young stock and poultry. There has been an increase
in oats used for human food in recent years. Oat Bran has received considerable attention from the
medical community for its role in reducing blood cholesterol. Nutrition experts believe that Beta
glucans, the water-soluble fibers present in oat bran inhibit cholestrol, which helps prevent heart
disease. Nutritionists recommend increased daily intake of fiber, such as that in oat bran, because it
assists in regulating gastro-intestinal function.

ts
on
ly

No

Several breakfast cereals and bread products are made from oat flour and rolled oat products. Oat
hulls have also been used as a raw material for fermentation to furfural, a chemical solvent used in
refining minerals and for making resin. Another oat product has been used as an antioxidant and
stabilizer in ice cream and other dairy products. Iowa continues as a center of oat processing in North
America, although the newer processing facilities, built over the last several decades, are more
northward in Minnesota and Canada. A bushel of oats weighs 14.5 kg.
Health

Dr
a

ft f
or

co

mm
en

Oats are generally considered "healthy", or a health food, being touted commercially as nutritious.
The discovery of the healthy cholesterol-lowering properties has led to wider appreciation of oats as
human food.

24

Oat grains in their husks

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CD/K/458:2010
Soluble fibre

an
St
an

Oat bran is the outer casing of the oat. Its consumption is believed to lower LDL ("bad") cholesterol,
and possibly to reduce the risk of heart disease.

Oats contain more soluble fiber than any other grain, resulting in slower digestion and an extended
sensation of fullness. One type of soluble fibre, beta-glucans, has proven to help lower cholesterol.

Ea

st

Af
ri c

After reports of research finding that dietary oats can help lower cholesterol, an "oat bran craze"
swept the U.S. in the late 1980s, peaking in 1989, when potato chips with added oat bran were
marketed. The food fad was short-lived and faded by the early 1990s. The popularity of oatmeal and
other oat products again increased after the January 1998 decision by the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) when it issued its final rule allowing a health claim to be made on the labels of
foods containing soluble fiber from whole oats (oat bran, oat flour and rolled oats), noting that 3.00
grams of soluble fiber daily from these foods, in conjunction with a diet low in saturated fat,
cholesterol, and fat may reduce the risk of heart disease. In order to qualify for the health claim, the
whole oat-containing food must provide at least 0.75 grams of soluble fiber per serving. The soluble
fiber in whole oats comprises a class of polysaccharides known as Beta-D-glucan.

ed

as

Beta-D-glucans, usually referred to as beta-glucans, comprise a class of non-digestible


polysaccharides widely found in nature in sources such as grains, barley, yeast, bacteria, algae and
mushrooms. In oats, barley and other cereal grains, they are located primarily in the endosperm cell
wall.

No

t to

be

cit

Oat beta-glucan is a soluble fiber. It is a viscous polysaccharide made up of units of the


monosaccharide D-glucose. Oat beta-glucan is comprised of mixed-linkage polysaccharides. This
means that the bonds between the D-glucose or D-glucopyranosyl units are either beta-1, 3 linkages
or beta-1, 4 linkages. This type of beta-glucan is also referred to as a mixed-linkage (13), (14)beta-D-glucan. The (13)-linkages break up the uniform structure of the beta-D-glucan molecule and
make it soluble and flexible. In comparison, the non-digestible polysaccharide cellulose is also a betaglucan but is non-soluble. The reason that it is non-soluble is that cellulose consists only of (14)beta-D-linkages. The percentages of beta-glucan in the various whole oat products are: oat bran,
greater than 5.5% and up to 23.0%; rolled oats, about 4%; whole oat flour about 4%.

ts
on
ly

Oats after corn (maize) have the highest lipid content of any cereal, e.g., greater than 10 percent for
oats and as high as 17 percent for some maize cultivars compared to about 23 percent for wheat
and most other cereals. The polar lipid content of oats (about 817% glycolipid and 1020%
phospholipid or a total of about 33%) is greater than that of other cereals since much of the lipid
fraction is contained within the endosperm.

co

mm
en

Energy
Carbohydrates
Dietary fibre
Fat
Protein
Pantothenic acid (B5)
Folate (Vit B9)
Iron
Magnesium
-glucan (soluble fibre)

Nutritional value per 100 g

390 kcal (1630 kJ)


66 g
11 g
7g
17 g
1.3 g
56 g
5 mg
177 mg
4g

26 %
14%
40 %

ft f
or

Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.


Source: USDA Nutrient database

Protein

Dr
a

Oat is the only cereal containing a globulin or legume-like protein, avenalin, as the major (80%)
storage protein. Globulins are characterized by water solubility; because of this property, oats may be

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turned into milk but not into bread. The more typical cereal proteins such as gluten and zein are
prolamines (prolamins). The minor protein of oat is a prolamine; avenin.

an
St
an

Oat protein is nearly equivalent in quality to soy protein, which has been shown by the World Health
Organization to be equal to meat, milk, and egg protein. The protein content of the hull-less oat kernel
(groat) ranges from 1224%, the highest among cereals.
Celiac Disease

st

Af
ri c

Coeliac disease, or celiac disease, from Greek "koiliakos", meaning "bowel-related", is a disease
often associated with ingestion of wheat, or more specifically a group of proteins labelled prolamines,
or more commonly, gluten. Oats lack many of the prolamines found in wheat; however, oats do
contain avenin. Avenin is a prolamine that is toxic to the intestinal submucosa and can trigger a
reaction in some celiacs.

Ea

Although oats do contain avenin, there are several studies suggesting that oats can be a part of a
gluten free diet if it is pure. The first such study was published in 1995. A follow-up study indicated
that it is safe to use oats even in a longer period.

ed

as

Additionally, oats are frequently processed near wheat, barley and other grains such that they
become contaminated with other glutens. Because of this, the FAO's Codex Alimentarius Commission
officially lists them as a crop containing gluten. Oats from Ireland and Scotland, where less wheat is
grown, are less likely to be contaminated in this way.

cit

Oats are part of a gluten free diet in, for example, Finland and Sweden. In both of these countries
there are "pure oat" products on the market.

be

Agronomy

No

t to

Oats are sown in the spring or early summer, as soon as the soil can be worked. An early start is
crucial to good yields as oats will go dormant during the summer heat. Oats are cold-tolerant and will
be unaffected by late frosts or snow.
Seeding rates

ts
on
ly

Typically about 125 to 175 kg/hectare (between 2.75 and 3.25 bushels per acre) are sown, either
broadcast, drilled, or planted using an airseeder. Lower rates are used when underseeding with a
legume. Somewhat higher rates can be used on the best soils, or where there are problems with
weeds. Excessive sowing rates will lead to problems with lodging and may reduce yields.
Winter oats may be grown as an off-season groundcover and plowed under in the spring as a green
fertilizer.
Fertilizer requirements

ft f
or

co

mm
en

Oats remove substantial amounts of nitrogen from the soil. They also remove phosphorus in the form
of P2O5 at the rate of 0.25 pound per bushel per acre (1 bushel = 38 pounds at 12% moisture);
Phosphate is thus applied at a rate of 30 to 40 kg/ha, or 30 to 40 lb/ac. Oats remove potash (K2O) at
a rate of 0.19 pound per bushel per acre, which causes it to use 1530 kg/ha, or 1327 lb/ac. Usually
50100 kg/ha (4590 pounds per acre) of nitrogen in the form of urea or anhydrous ammonia is
sufficient, as oats uses about 1 pound per bushel per acre. A sufficient amount of nitrogen is
particularly important for plant height and hence straw quality and yield. When the prior-year crop was
a legume, or where ample manure is applied, nitrogen rates can be reduced somewhat.
Weed control

Dr
a

The vigorous growth habit of oats will tend to choke out most weeds. A few tall broadleaf weeds, such
as ragweed, goosegrass, wild mustard and buttonweed (velvetleaf), can occasionally be a problem as

26

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they complicate harvest and reduce yields. These can be controlled with a modest application of a
broadleaf herbicide such as 2,4-D while the weeds are still small.

an
St
an

Pests and diseases

Oats are relatively free from diseases and pests, with the exception being leaf diseases, such as leaf
rust and stem rust. A few Lepidoptera caterpillars feed on the plantse.g. Rustic Shoulder-knot and
Setaceous Hebrew Characterbut these rarely become a major pest. See also List of oats diseases.

Af
ri c

Harvesting

st

Modern harvest technique is a matter of available equipment, local tradition, and priorities. Best yields
are attained by swathing, cutting the plants at about 10 cm (4 inches) above ground and putting them
into windrows with the grain all oriented the same way, when the kernels have reached 35% moisture,
or when the greenest kernels are just turning cream-color. The windrows are left to dry in the sun for
several days before being combined using a pickup header. Then the straw is baled.

as

Ea

Oats can also be left standing until completely ripe and then combined with a grain head. This will
lead to greater field losses as the grain falls from the heads and to harvesting losses as the grain is
threshed out by the reel. Without a draper head, there will also be somewhat more age to the straw
since it will not be properly oriented as it enters the throat of the combine. Overall yield loss is 10
15% compared to proper swathing.

cit

ed

Historical harvest methods involved cutting with a scythe or sickle, and threshing under the feet of
cattle. Late 19th and early 20th century harvesting was performed using a binder. Oats were gathered
into shocks and then collected and run through a stationary threshing machine.

be

Storage

No

t to

After it is combined, the oats are transported to the farm-yard using a grain truck, semi, or road train,
where it is augered or conveyed into a bin for storage. Sometimes, when there is not enough binspace, it is augered into portable grain rings, or piled on the ground. Oats can be safely stored at 12%
moisture; at higher moisture levels, it must be aereated, or dried.
Yield and quality

In the United States, No.1 oats weighs 42 lb per bushel; No.3 oats must weigh at least 38 lb/bu. If it
weighs over 36 lb/bu, it is a No.4, and anything under 36 lb/bu is graded as "light weight". A Canadian
bushel of oats, however, is 34 lb.

ts
on
ly

Note, however, that oats are bought and sold, and yields are figured, on the basis of a bushel equal to
32 lb in the United States. Yields range from 60 to 80 bushels on marginal land, to 100 to 150 bushels
per acre on high-producing land. The average production is 100 bushels per acre, or 3 tonnes per
hectare.

mm
en

Straw yields are variable, ranging from one to three tonnes per hectare, mainly due to available
nutrients, and the variety used (some are short-strawed, meant specifically for straight-combining).
Processing

Cleaning & sizing

ft f
or

co

Upon delivery to the milling plant, chaff, rocks, other grains, and other foreign material are removed
from the oats.
Dehulling

Dr
a

Separation of the outer hull from the inner oat groat is effected by means of centrifugal acceleration.
Oats are fed by gravity onto the center of a horizontally spinning stone which accelerates them
towards the outer ring. Groat and hull are separated on impact with this ring. The lighter oat hulls are

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then aspirated away while the denser oat groats are taken to the next step of processing. Oat hulls
can be used as feed, processed further into insoluble oat fiber, or used as a biomass fuel.

an
St
an

Kilning

Af
ri c

The unsized oat groats will then pass through a heat and moisture treatment to balance moisture, but
mainly to stabilize the groat. Oat groats are high in fat (lipids) and once exposed from their protective
hull, enzymatic (lipase) activity begins to break down the fat into free fatty acids, ultimately causing an
off flavor or rancidity. Oats will begin to show signs of enzymatic rancidity within 4 days of being
dehulled and not stabilized. This process is primarily done in food grade plants, not in feed grade
plants. An oat groat is not considered a raw oat groat if it has gone through this process: the heat has
disrupted the germ, and the oat groat will not sprout.
Sizing of groats

ed

as

Ea

st

Many whole oat groats are broken during the dehulling process, leaving the following types of groats
to be sized and separated for further processing: Whole Oat Groats, Coarse Steel Cut Groats, Steel
Cut Groats and Fine Steel Cut Groats. Groats are sized and separated using screens, shakers and
indent screens. After the whole oat groats are separated, the remaining broken groats get sized again
into the 3 groups (Coarse, Regular, Fine) and then stored. The term steel cut is referred to all sized or
cut groats. When there are not enough broken to size for further processing, then whole oat groats
get sent to a cutting unit with steel blades that will evenly cut the groats into the three sizes as
discussed earlier.

cit

Final processing
Three methods are used to make the finished product:

be

Flaking

No

t to

This process uses two large smooth or corrugated rolls spinning at the same speed in opposite
directions at a controlled distance. Oat flakes, also known as rolled oats, have many different sizes,
thicknesses and other characteristics depending on the size of oat groat passed between the rolls.
Typically the three sizes of steel cut oats are used to make Instant, Baby and Quick rolled oats,
whereas whole oat groats are used to make Regular, Medium and Thick Rolled Oats. Oat flakes
range from a thickness of 0.36 mm to 1.00 mm.

Oat bran milling

ts
on
ly

This process takes the oat groats through several roll stands that flatten and separate the bran from
the flour (endosperm). The two separate products (flour and bran) get sifted through a gyrating sifter
screen to further separate them. The final products are oat bran and debranned oat flour.
Whole flour milling

Dr
a

ft f
or

co

mm
en

This process takes oat groats straight to a grinding unit (stone or hammer mill) and then over sifter
screens to separate the coarse flour and final whole oat flour. The coarser flour gets sent back to the
grinding unit until it's ground fine enough to be whole oat flour. This method is used very much in
India.

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CD/K/458:2010

an
St
an

Annex E
(informative)

Oat grain Codex, EU and USA pesticide residue limits

Af
ri c

Users are advised that international regulations and permissible Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) frequently change. Although
this International MRL Database is updated frequently, the information in it may not be completely up-to-date or error free.
Additionally, commodity nomenclature and residue definitions vary between countries, and country policies regarding deferral to
international standards are not always transparent. This database is intended to be an initial reference source only, and users
must verify any information obtained from it with knowledgeable parties in the market of interest prior to the sale or shipment of
any products. The developers of this database are not liable for any damages, in whole or in part, caused by or arising in any
way from user's use of the database.
Results Key

Cod
---

as

US
2

2,4-D

Ea

st

MRL values in {Italics} are more restrictive than US


--- indicates no MRL value is established.
Cod, EU, etc. indicates the source of the MRL and EXP means the market defers to the exporting market.
All numeric values listed are in parts per million (ppm), unless otherwise noted

EU 1
{0.05}

ed

1. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the 2,4-D/Oat, grain combination, but
does maintain an MRL of 0.05 PPM for its "Cereals" group.
US 2
---

Acetochlor

Cod
---

EU
0.01

Beta-cyfluthrin

US
0.15

Bromoxynil

US
0.05

t to

US
0.01

No

Benoxacor

be

cit

2. MRL applies to indirect or inadvertent residues only. Does not apply to corn, sorghum, rice, or
wheat, grain.
Cod
---

EU
---

Cod
---

EU
---

Cod
---

EU
0.05

US 3
Cod
EU 4
0.05
--{0.02}
3. United States does not maintain a specific MRL for the Captan/Oat, grain combination, but does
maintain an MRL of 0.05 PPM for its "Grain, cereal, group 15" group.

Captan

ts
on
ly

Carboxin

4. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Captan/Oat, grain combination, but
does maintain an MRL of 0.02 PPM for its "Cereals" group.
US
Cod
EU 5
0.2
--{0.01}
5. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Carboxin/Oat, grain combination, but
does maintain an MRL of 0.01 PPM for its "Cereals" group.
US 6
Cod
EU 7
0.1
--{0.05}
6. United States does not maintain a specific MRL for the Carfentrazone-ethyl/Oat, grain
combination, but does maintain an MRL of 0.1 PPM for its "Grain, cereal, group 15" group.

mm
en

co

Carfentrazone-ethyl

ft f
or

Chlorpyrifos-methyl

Dr
a

Chlorsulfuron

7. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Carfentrazone-ethyl/Oat, grain
combination, but does maintain an MRL of 0.05 PPM for its "Cereals" group.
US
Cod
EU 8
6
--{3}
8. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Chlorpyrifos-methyl/Oat, grain
combination, but does maintain an MRL of 3 PPM for its "Cereals" group.
US
0.1

Cod
---

EU 9
0.1

9. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Chlorsulfuron/Oat, grain combination,
but does maintain an MRL of 0.1 PPM for its "Cereals" group.

EAC 2010 All rights reserved

29

Cod
---

EU
{2}

Cyfluthrin

US
0.15

Cod
---

EU
{0.02}

Deltamethrin

da
r

US
3

an
St
an

Clopyralid

CD/K/458:2010

US
Cod 10
EU 11
1
2
2
10. Codex does not maintain a specific MRL for the Deltamethrin/Oat, grain combination, but does
maintain an MRL of 2 PPM for its "Cereal Grains" group.

Cod
---

Diflubenzuron

US
0.06

Cod
---

Endosulfan

US
0.3

Cod
---

EU
{0.5}

st

US
2

Ea

Dicamba

Af
ri c

11. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Deltamethrin/Oat, grain combination,
but does maintain an MRL of 2 PPM for its "Cereals" group.

EU
0.1

EU 12
{0.05}

as

12. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Endosulfan/Oat, grain combination,
but does maintain an MRL of 0.05 PPM for its "Cereals" group.
US 13
0.1

Cod
---

EU
{0.05}

ed

EPTC

cit

13. United States does not maintain a specific MRL for the EPTC/Oat, grain combination, but does
maintain an MRL of 0.1 PPM for its "Grain Crops" group.
US
0.01

Florasulam

Cod
---

EU 14
0.01

be

14. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Florasulam/Oat, grain combination,
but does maintain an MRL of 0.01 PPM for its "Cereals" group.

t to

US 15
Cod 16
EU
0.02
0.05
0.05
15. United States does not maintain a specific MRL for the Fludioxonil/Oat, grain combination, but
does maintain an MRL of 0.02 PPM for its "Grain, cereal, group 15" group.

No

Fludioxonil

16. Codex does not maintain a specific MRL for the Fludioxonil/Oat, grain combination, but does
maintain an MRL of 0.05 PPM for its "Cereal Grains" group.
US
Cod
EU 17
25
--{2}

Fluoride

Fluroxypyr

US
0.5

Cod
---

EU
{0.1}

US 18
Cod 19
EU
30
30
{20}
18. United States does not maintain a specific MRL for the Glyphosate/Oat, grain combination, but
does maintain an MRL of 30 PPM for its "Grain, cereal, group 15" group.

mm
en

Glyphosate

ts
on
ly

17. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Fluoride/Oat, grain combination, but
does maintain an MRL of 2 PPM for its "Cereals" group.

ft f
or

co

Imidacloprid

Dr
a

Inorganic bromide
resulting from
fumigation

30

19. Codex does not maintain a specific MRL for the Glyphosate/Oat, grain combination, but does
maintain an MRL of 30 PPM for its "Cereal Grains" group.
US
Cod 20
EU
0.05
0.05
0.1
20. Codex does not maintain a specific MRL for the Imidacloprid/Oat, grain combination, but does
maintain an MRL of 0.05 PPM for its "Cereal Grains" group.
US
Cod 21
EU 22
50
50
50
21. Codex does not maintain a specific MRL for the Inorganic bromide resulting from
fumigation/Oat, grain combination, but does maintain an MRL of 50 PPM for its "Cereal Grains"
group.
22. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Inorganic bromide resulting from
fumigation/Oat, grain combination, but does maintain an MRL of 50 PPM for its "Cereals" group.

EAC 2010 All rights reserved

Lambda Cyhalothrin

da
r

US 23
Cod
EU 24
0.01
--0.01
23. United States does not maintain a specific MRL for the Ipconazole/Oat, grain combination, but
does maintain an MRL of 0.01 PPM for its "Grain, cereal, group 15" group.

an
St
an

Ipconazole

24. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Ipconazole/Oat, grain combination,
but does maintain an MRL of 0.01 PPM for its "Cereals" group.
US
Cod
EU
0.05
--{0.02}
US
8

Malathion

Cod
---

EU 25
8

Cod
---

MCPA

US
1

Cod
---

EU
{2}

st

US
5

EU 26
{0.05}

Ea

Mancozeb

Af
ri c

25. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Malathion/Oat, grain combination,
but does maintain an MRL of 8 PPM for its "Cereals" group.

26. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the MCPA/Oat, grain combination, but
does maintain an MRL of 0.05 PPM for its "Cereals" group.
Cod
---

as

US
0.01

Mesotrione

EU 27
0.05

ed

27. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Mesotrione/Oat, grain combination,
but does maintain an MRL of 0.05 PPM for its "Cereals" group.

cit

US
Cod 28
EU 29
0.2
{0.05}
{0.05}
28. Codex does not maintain a specific MRL for the Metalaxyl/Oat, grain combination, but does
maintain an MRL of 0.05 PPM for its "Cereal Grains" group.

be

Metalaxyl

29. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Metalaxyl/Oat, grain combination, but
does maintain an MRL of 0.05 PPM for its "Cereals" group.
US
Cod
EU 30
1
--{0.1}

t to

Metconazole

30. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Metconazole/Oat, grain combination,
but does maintain an MRL of 0.1 PPM for its "Cereals" group.

No

US
Cod 31
1
{0.02}
31. The MRL is established for the sum of methomyl and thiodicarb.

EU 32
{0.05}

32. Methomyl and Thiodicarb (sum of methomyl and thiodicarb expressed as methomyl) European
Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Methomyl/Oat, grain combination, but does
maintain an MRL of 0.05 PPM for its "Cereals" group.
US
Cod
EU 33
1
--{0.02}

Methyl Parathion

ts
on
ly

Methomyl

33. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Methyl Parathion/Oat, grain
combination, but does maintain an MRL of 0.02 PPM for its "Cereals" group.
US
Cod 34
EU 35
0.1
0.1
0.1
34. Codex does not maintain a specific MRL for the Phosphine/Oat, grain combination, but does
maintain an MRL of 0.1 PPM for its "Cereal Grains" group.

mm
en

Phosphine

co

Picloram

ft f
or

Piperonyl Butoxide

35. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Phosphine/Oat, grain combination,
but does maintain an MRL of 0.1 PPM for its "Cereals" group.
US
Cod
EU
0.5
--{0.2}
US
8

Cod 36
30

EU
---

36. Codex does not maintain a specific MRL for the Piperonyl Butoxide/Oat, grain combination, but
does maintain an MRL of 30 PPM for its "Cereal Grains" group.

Propiconazole

US
0.3

Cod
---

EU
{0.2}

Pyraclostrobin

US
1.2

Cod
{0.5}

EU
{0.3}

Dr
a

CD/K/458:2010

EAC 2010 All rights reserved

31

da
r

US
Cod 37
EU 38
1
{0.3}
3
37. Codex does not maintain a specific MRL for the Pyrethrins/Oat, grain combination, but does
maintain an MRL of 0.3 PPM for its "Cereal Grains" group.

an
St
an

Pyrethrins

38. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Pyrethrins/Oat, grain combination,
but does maintain an MRL of 3 PPM for its "Cereals" group.
US 39
Cod
EU 40
1.1
--{0.05}
39. United States does not maintain a specific MRL for the Pyriproxyfen/Oat, grain combination,
but does maintain an MRL of 1.1 PPM for its "Grain, cereal, group 15" group.

Pyriproxyfen

Af
ri c

40. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Pyriproxyfen/Oat, grain combination,
but does maintain an MRL of 0.05 PPM for its "Cereals" group.
US 41
Cod
EU 42
0.04
--0.05
41. This group MRL does not apply to rice and sorghum. United States does not maintain a
specific MRL for the Spinetoram/Oat, grain combination, but does maintain an MRL of 0.04 PPM
for its "Grain, cereal, group 15" group.

st

Spinetoram

Ea

42. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Spinetoram/Oat, grain combination,
but does maintain an MRL of 0.05 PPM for its "Cereals" group.
US 43
Cod 44
EU 45
1.5
{1}
{1}
43. United States does not maintain a specific MRL for the Spinosad/Oat, grain combination, but
does maintain an MRL of 1.5 PPM for its "Grain, cereal, group 15" group.

as

Spinosad

ed

44. Codex does not maintain a specific MRL for the Spinosad/Oat, grain combination, but does
maintain an MRL of 1 PPM for its "Cereal Grains" group.

cit

45. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Spinosad/Oat, grain combination, but
does maintain an MRL of 1 PPM for its "Cereals" group.
US
Cod
EU
0.1
-----

be

Sulfentrazone

US 46
Cod 47
EU 48
0.1
{0.05}
{0.05}
46. MRL applies to postharvest use only.
47. Codex does not maintain a specific MRL for the Sulfuryl fluoride/Oat, grain combination, but
does maintain an MRL of 0.05 PPM for its "Cereal Grains" group.

t to

Sulfuryl fluoride

No

48. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Sulfuryl fluoride/Oat, grain
combination, but does maintain an MRL of 0.05 PPM for its "Cereals" group.
US
Cod
EU
0.1
----US
0.05

Cod
0.05

EU
2

ts
on
ly

TCMTB

Cod
---

EU 49
0.05

US
0.05

Cod
---

Tebuconazole

US
0.05

Thifensulfuron-methyl

49. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Thifensulfuron-methyl/Oat, grain
combination, but does maintain an MRL of 0.05 PPM for its "Cereals" group.
US
Cod 50
0.05
0.2
50. This MRL is established for the sum of triadimenol and triadimefon.

mm
en

Triadimenol

Tribenuron Methyl

EU
0.2

EU 51
{0.01}

co

51. European Union does not maintain a specific MRL for the Tribenuron Methyl/Oat, grain
combination, but does maintain an MRL of 0.01 PPM for its "Cereals" group.
US
0.05

Cod
---

EU
{0.02}

Dr
a

ft f
or

Trifloxystrobin

32

CD/K/458:2010

EAC 2010 All rights reserved

da
r

CD/K/458:2010

an
St
an

Annex F
(informative)

Sieves for assessing dockage and grading factors

No. 3 x 16
No. 4 x 14
No. 10 x 10
No. 9 x 9

3 x 16 mesh per 25.4 mm


4 x 14 mesh per 25.4 mm
10 x 10 mesh per 25.4 mm
9 x 9 mesh per 25.4 mm

No. 3
No. 4.5
No. 5
No. 6
No. 8
No. 9
No. 11
No. 12
No. .064
No. .028
No. .032
No. .035
No. .038
No. .040
No. 5

ts
on
ly
mm
en

co

Buckwheat

Manufacturers designation
(inches)
3/64 x 5/16
4/64 x 1/2
5/64 x 3/4
6/64 x 3/4
8/64 x 3/4
9/64 x 3/4
11/64 x 3/4
3/16 x 3/4
0.064 x 3/8
0.028 x 15/32
0.032 x 15/32
0.035 x 15/32
0.038 x 15/32
0.040 x 15/32
triangle with 0.078
inscribed circle
triangle with 0.089-inch
inscribed circle
3 x 16 wire mesh per inch
4 x 14 wire mesh per inch
10 x 10 wire mesh per inch
9 x 9 wire mesh per inch

Dr
a

ft f
or

Wire

Af
ri c

No. 6

Hole size
(millimetres)
1.19 x 7.94
1.79 x 12.70
1.98 x 19.05
2.38 x 19.05
3.18 x 19.05
3.57 x 19.05
4.37 x 19.05
4.76 x 19.05
1.60 x 9.53
0.71 x 11.90
0.81 x 11.90
0.89 x 11.90
0.96 x 11.90
1.02 x 11.90
triangle with 1.98 mm
inscribed circle
triangle with 2.26-mm inscribed circle

Slotted

Manufacturers designation
(inches)
4/64
5/64
5/64
6/64
6/64
7/64
7/64
8/64
8/64
9/64
10/64
11/64
12/64
14/64
15/64
16/64
17/64
18/64
20/64
21/64
22/64
24/64

st

ed

cit

Sieve name

No

Type

as

No. 4.5
No. 5
No. 5.5
No. 6
No. 6.5
No. 7
No. 7.5
No. 8
No. 8.5
No. 9
No. 10
No. 11
No. 12
No. 14
No. 15
No. 16
No. 17
No. 18
No. 20
No. 21
No. 22
No. 24

be

Round-hole

Hole size
(millimetres)
1.79
1.98
2.18
2.38
2.58
2.78
2.98
3.18
3.37
3.57
3.97
4.37
4.76
5.56
5.95
6.35
6.75
7.14
7.94
8.33
8.73
9.52

Ea

Sieve name

t to

Type

EAC 2010 All rights reserved

33

ft f
or

Dr
a
ts
on
ly

mm
en

co

t to

No
be
ed

cit

as

st

Ea

da
r

an
St
an

Af
ri c

ft f
or

Dr
a
ts
on
ly

mm
en

co

t to

No
be
ed

cit

as

st

Ea

da
r

an
St
an

Af
ri c

CD/K/458:2010

EAC 2010 All rights reserved