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Exercisephysiology
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Exercisephysiologyisthephysiologyofphysicalexercise.It
isthestudyoftheacuteresponsesandchronicadaptationstoa
widerangeofexerciseconditions.
Exercisephysiologistsstudytheeffectofexerciseon
pathology,andthemechanismsbywhichexercisecanreduce
orreversediseaseprogression.

Contents
1 Energyexpenditure
2 Metabolicchanges
2.1 Rapidenergysources
2.2 Plasmaglucose
2.3 Oxygen
2.4 Dehydration
2.5 Other
3 Brain
3.1 Cerebraloxygen
3.2 Glucose
3.3 Hyperthermia
4 Fatigue
4.1 Intenseactivity
4.2 Endurancefailure
4.3 Centralgovernor
4.4 Otherfactors
5 Cardiacbiomarkers
6 Humanadaptations
7 Selectivebreedingexperimentswithrodents
8 Exerciseinducedmusclepain
9 Educationinexercisephysiology
9.1 Curriculum
10 Seealso
11 References

Cyclistsareknownforusingknowledgeinexercise
physiologyinordertooptimizetrainingtoreach
themaximallevelofperformance.

Energyexpenditure
Humanshaveahighcapacitytoexpendenergyformanyhoursduringsustainedexertion.Forexample,one
individualcyclingataspeedof26.4km/h(16.4mph)through8,204km(5,098mi)over50consecutivedays
expendedatotalof1,145MJ(273,850kcal273,850dietercalories)withanaveragepoweroutputof182.5W.[1]
Skeletalmuscleburns90mg(0.5mmol)ofglucoseeachminuteduringcontinuousactivity(suchaswhen
repetitivelyextendingthehumanknee),[2]generating24Wofmechanicalenergy,andsincemuscleenergy
conversionisonly2226%efficient,[3]76Wofheatenergy.Restingskeletalmusclehasabasalmetabolicrate
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(restingenergyconsumption)of0.63W/kg[4]makinga160folddifferencebetweentheenergyconsumptionof
inactiveandactivemuscles.Forshortdurationmuscularexertion,energyexpenditurecanbefargreater:anadult
humanmalewhenjumpingupfromasquatcanmechanicallygenerate314W/kg.Suchrapidmovementcan
generatetwicethisamountinnonhumananimalssuchasbonobos,[5]andinsomesmalllizards.[6]
Thisenergyexpenditureisverylargecomparedtothebasalrestingmetabolicrateoftheadulthumanbody.This
ratevariessomewhatwithsize,genderandagebutistypicallybetween45Wand85W.[7][8]Totalenergy
expenditure(TEE)duetomuscularexpendedenergyismuchhigheranddependsupontheaveragelevelof
physicalworkandexercisedoneduringaday.[9]Thusexercise,particularlyifsustainedforverylongperiods,
dominatestheenergymetabolismofthebody.Physicalactivityenergyexpenditurecorrelatesstronglywiththe
gender,age,weight,heartrate,andVO2maxofanindividual,duringphysicalactivity.[10]

Metabolicchanges
Rapidenergysources
Energyneededtoperformshortlasting,highintensityburstsofactivityis
derivedfromanaerobicmetabolismwithinthecytosolofmusclecells,as
opposedtoaerobicrespirationwhichutilizesoxygen,issustainable,and
occursinthemitochondria.Thequickenergysourcesconsistofthe
phosphocreatine(PCr)system,fastglycolysis,andadenylatekinase.Allof
thesesystemsresynthesizeadenosinetriphosphate(ATP),whichisthe
universalenergysourceinallcells.Themostrapidsource,butthemost
readilydepletedoftheabovesourcesisthePCrsystemwhichutilizesthe
enzymecreatinekinase.Thisenzymecatalyzesareactionthatcombines
Ergospirometrylaboratoryforthe
phosphocreatineandadenosinediphosphate(ADP)intoATPandcreatine.
measurementofmetabolicchanges
Thisresourceisshortlastingbecauseoxygenisrequiredfortheresynthesis
duringagradedexercisetestona
ofphosphocreatineviamitochondrialcreatinekinase.Therefore,under
treadmill
anaerobicconditions,thissubstrateisfiniteandonlylastsbetween
approximately10to30secondsofhighintensitywork.Fastglycolysis,
however,canfunctionforapproximately2minutespriortofatigue,andpredominatelyusesintracellularglycogen
asasubstrate.Glycogenisbrokendownrapidlyviaglycogenphosphorylaseintoindividualglucoseunitsduring
intenseexercise.Glucoseisthenoxidizedtopyruvateandunderanaerobicconditionisreducedtolacticacid.This
reactionoxidizesNADHtoNAD,therebyreleasingahydrogenion,promotingacidosis.Forthisreason,fast
glycolysiscannotbesustainedforlongperiodsoftime.Lastly,adenylatekinasecatalyzesareactionbywhich2
ADParecombinedtoformATPandadenosinemonophosphate(AMP).Thisreactiontakesplaceduringlow
energysituationssuchasextremeexerciseorconditionsofhypoxia,butisnotasignificantsourceofenergy.The
creationofAMPresultingfromthisreactionstimulatesAMPactivatedproteinkinase(AMPkinase)whichisthe
energysensorofthecell.Aftersensinglowenergyconditions,AMPkinasestimulatesvariousotherintracellular
enzymesgearedtowardsincreasingenergysupplyanddecreasingallanabolic,orenergyrequiring,cellfunctions.

Plasmaglucose
Plasmaglucoseissaidtobemaintainedwhenthereisanequalrateofglucoseappearance(entryintotheblood)
andglucosedisposal(removalfromtheblood).Inthehealthyindividual,theratesofappearanceanddisposalare
essentiallyequalduringexerciseofmoderateintensityanddurationhowever,prolongedexerciseorsufficiently
intenseexercisecanresultinanimbalanceleaningtowardsahigherrateofdisposalthanappearance,atwhich
pointglucoselevelsfallproducingtheonsetoffatigue.Rateofglucoseappearanceisdictatedbytheamountof
glucosebeingabsorbedatthegutaswellasliver(hepatic)glucoseoutput.Althoughglucoseabsorptionfromthe
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gutisnottypicallyasourceofglucoseappearanceduringexercise,theliveriscapableofcatabolizingstored
glycogen(glycogenolysis)aswellassynthesizingnewglucosefromspecificreducedcarbonmolecules(glycerol,
pyruvate,andlactate)inaprocesscalledgluconeogenesis.Theabilityofthelivertoreleaseglucoseintotheblood
fromglycogenolysisisunique,sinceskeletalmuscle,theothermajorglycogenreservoir,isincapableofdoingso.
Unlikeskeletalmuscle,livercellscontaintheenzymeglycogenphosphatase,whichremovesaphosphategroup
fromglucose6Ptoreleasefreeglucose.Inorderforglucosetoexitacellmembrane,theremovalofthis
phosphategroupisessential.Althoughgluconeogenesisisanimportantcomponentofhepaticglucoseoutput,it
alonecannotsustainexercise.Forthisreason,whenglycogenstoresaredepletedduringexercise,glucoselevels
fallandfatiguesetsin.Glucosedisposal,theothersideoftheequation,iscontrolledbyuptakeofglucoseatthe
workingskeletalmuscles.Duringexercise,despitedecreasedinsulinconcentrations,muscleincreasesGLUT4
translocationofandglucoseuptake.ThemechanismforincreasedGLUT4translocationisanareaofongoing
research.
glucosecontrol:Asmentionedabove,insulinsecretionisreducedduringexercise,anddoesnotplayamajorrole
inmaintainingnormalbloodglucoseconcentrationduringexercise,butitscounterregulatoryhormonesappearin
increasingconcentrations.Principleamongtheseareglucagon,epinephrine,andgrowthhormone.Allofthese
hormonesstimulateliver(hepatic)glucoseoutput,amongotherfunctions.Forinstance,bothepinephrineand
growthhormonealsostimulateadipocytelipase,whichincreasesnonesterifiedfattyacid(NEFA)release.By
oxidizingfattyacids,thissparesglucoseutilizationandhelpstomaintainbloodsugarlevelduringexercise.
Exercisefordiabetes:Exerciseisaparticularlypotenttoolforglucosecontrolinthosewhohavediabetes
mellitus.Inasituationofelevatedbloodglucose(hyperglycemia),moderateexercisecaninducegreaterglucose
disposalthanappearance,therebydecreasingtotalplasmaglucoseconcentrations.Asstatedabove,themechanism
forthisglucosedisposalisindependentofinsulin,whichmakesitparticularlywellsuitedforpeoplewithdiabetes.
Inaddition,thereappearstobeanincreaseinsensitivitytoinsulinforapproximately1224hourspostexercise.
ThisisparticularlyusefulforthosewhohavetypeIIdiabetesandareproducingsufficientinsulinbutdemonstrate
peripheralresistancetoinsulinsignaling.However,duringextremehyperglycemicepisodes,peoplewithdiabetes
shouldavoidexerciseduetopotentialcomplicationsassociatedwithketoacidosis.Exercisecouldexacerbate
ketoacidosisbyincreasingketonesynthesisinresponsetoincreasedcirculatingNEFA's.
TypeIIdiabetesisalsointricatelylinkedtoobesity,andtheremaybeaconnectionbetweentypeIIdiabetesand
howfatisstoredwithinpancreatic,muscle,andlivercells.Likelyduetothisconnection,weightlossfromboth
exerciseanddiettendstoincreaseinsulinsensitivityinthemajorityofpeople.Insomepeople,thiseffectcanbe
particularlypotentandcanresultinnormalglucosecontrol.Althoughnobodyistechnicallycuredofdiabetes,
individualscanlivenormalliveswithoutthefearofdiabeticcomplicationshowever,regainofweightwould
assuredlyresultindiabetessignsandsymptoms.

Oxygen
Vigorousphysicalactivity(suchasexerciseorhardlabor)increasesthebody'sdemandforoxygen.Thefirstline
physiologicresponsetothisdemandisanincreaseinheartrate,breathingrate,anddepthofbreathing.
Oxygenconsumption(VO2)duringexerciseisbestdescribedbytheFickEquation:VO2=Qx(avO2diff),which
statesthattheamountofoxygenconsumedisequaltocardiacoutput(Q)multipliedbythedifferencebetween
arterialandvenousoxygenconcentrations.Moresimplyput,oxygenconsumptionisdictatedbythequantityof
blooddistributedbytheheartaswellastheworkingmuscle'sabilitytotakeuptheoxygenwithinthatblood
however,thisisabitofanoversimplification.Althoughcardiacoutputisthoughttobethelimitingfactorofthis
relationshipinhealthyindividuals,itisnottheonlydeterminantofVO2max.Thatis,factorssuchastheabilityof
thelungtooxygenatethebloodmustalsobeconsidered.Variouspathologiesandanomaliescauseconditionssuch
asdiffusionlimitation,ventilation/perfusionmismatch,andpulmonaryshuntsthatcanlimitoxygenationofthe
bloodandthereforeoxygendistribution.Inaddition,theoxygencarryingcapacityofthebloodisalsoanimportant
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determinantoftheequation.Oxygencarryingcapacityisoftenthetargetofexercise(ergogenicaids)aidsusedin
endurancesportstoincreasethevolumepercentageofredbloodcells(hematocrit),suchasthroughblooddoping
ortheuseoferythropoietin(EPO).Furthermore,peripheraloxygenuptakeisreliantonareroutingofbloodflow
fromrelativelyinactivevisceratotheworkingskeletalmuscles,andwithintheskeletalmuscle,capillarytomuscle
fiberratioinfluencesoxygenextraction.

Dehydration
Dehydrationrefersbothtohypohydration(dehydrationinducedpriortoexercise)andtoexerciseinduced
dehydration(dehydrationthatdevelopsduringexercise).Thelatterreducesaerobicenduranceperformanceand
resultsinincreasedbodytemperature,heartrate,perceivedexertion,andpossiblyincreasedrelianceon
carbohydrateasafuelsource.Althoughthenegativeeffectsofexerciseinduceddehydrationonexercise
performancewereclearlydemonstratedinthe1940s,athletescontinuedtobelieveforyearsthereafterthatfluid
intakewasnotbeneficial.Morerecently,negativeeffectsonperformancehavebeendemonstratedwithmodest
(<2%)dehydration,andtheseeffectsareexacerbatedwhentheexerciseisperformedinahotenvironment.The
effectsofhypohydrationmayvary,dependingonwhetheritisinducedthroughdiureticsorsaunaexposure,which
substantiallyreduceplasmavolume,orpriorexercise,whichhasmuchlessimpactonplasmavolume.
Hypohydrationreducesaerobicendurance,butitseffectsonmusclestrengthandendurancearenotconsistentand
requirefurtherstudy.[11]Intenseprolongedexerciseproducesmetabolicwasteheat,andthisisremovedbysweat
basedthermoregulation.Amalemarathonrunnerloseseachhouraround0.83Lincoolweatherand1.2Linwarm
(lossesinfemalesareabout68to73%lower).[12]Peopledoingheavyexercisemaylosetwoandhalftimesas
muchfluidinsweatasurine.[13]Thiscanhaveprofoundphysiologicaleffects.Cyclingfor2hoursintheheat
(35C)withminimalfluidintakecausesbodymassdeclineby3to5%,bloodvolumelikewiseby3to6%,body
temperaturetoriseconstantly,andincomparisonwithproperfluidintake,higherheartrates,lowerstrokevolumes
andcardiacoutputs,reducedskinbloodflow,andhighersystemicvascularresistance.Theseeffectsarelargely
eliminatedbyreplacing50to80%ofthefluidlostinsweat.[12][14]

Other
Plasmacatecholamineconcentrationsincrease10foldinwholebodyexercise.[15]
AmmoniaisproducedbyexercisedskeletalmusclesfromADP(theprecursorofATP)bypurinenucleotide
deaminationandaminoacidcatabolismofmyofibrils.[16]
interleukin6(IL6)increasesinbloodcirculationduetoitsreleasefromworkingskeletalmuscles.[17]This
releaseisreducedifglucoseistaken,suggestingitisrelatedtoenergydepletionstresses.[18]
Sodiumabsorptionisaffectedbythereleaseofinterleukin6asthiscancausethesecretionofarginine
vasopressinwhich,inturn,canleadtoexerciseassociateddangerouslylowsodiumlevels(hyponatremia).
Thislossofsodiuminbloodplasmacanresultinswellingofthebrain.Thiscanbepreventedbyawareness
oftheriskofdrinkingexcessiveamountsoffluidsduringprolongedexercise.[19][20]

Brain
Atrest,thehumanbrainreceives15%oftotalcardiacoutput,anduses20%ofthebody'senergyconsumption.[21]
Thebrainisnormallydependentforitshighenergyexpenditureuponaerobicmetabolism.Thebrainasaresultis
highlysensitivetofailureofitsoxygensupplywithlossofconsciousnessoccurringwithinsixtoseven
seconds,[22]withitsEEGgoingflatin23seconds.[23]Ifitaffectedtheoxygenandglucosesupplytothebrain,the
metabolicdemandsofexercisecouldthereforequicklydisruptitsfunctioning.

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Protectingthebrainfromevenminordisruptionisimportantsinceexercisedependsuponmotorcontrol,and
particularly,becausehumansarebipeds,themotorcontrolneededforkeepingbalance.Indeed,forthisreason,
brainenergyconsumptionisincreasedduringintensephysicalexerciseduetothedemandsinthemotorcognition
neededtocontrolthebody.[24]

Cerebraloxygen
Cerebralautoregulationusuallyensuresthebrainhasprioritytocardiacoutput,thoughthisisimpairedslightlyby
exhaustiveexercise.[25]Duringsubmaximalexercise,cardiacoutputincreasesandcerebralbloodflowincreases
beyondthebrainsoxygenneeds.[26]However,thisisnotthecaseforcontinuousmaximalexertion:"Maximal
exerciseis,despitetheincreaseincapillaryoxygenation[inthebrain],associatedwithareducedmitochondrialO2
contentduringwholebodyexercise"[27]Theautoregulationofthebrainsbloodsupplyisimpairedparticularlyin
warmenvironments[28]

Glucose
Inadults,exercisedepletestheplasmaglucoseavailabletothebrain:shortintenseexercise(35minergometer
cycling)canreducebrainglucoseuptakeby32%.[29]
Atrest,energyfortheadultbrainisnormallyprovidedbyglucosebutthebrainhasacompensatorycapacityto
replacesomeofthiswithlactate.Researchsuggeststhatthiscanberaised,whenapersonrestsinabrainscanner,
toabout17%,[30]withahigherpercentageof25%occurringduringhypoglycemia.[31]Duringintenseexercise,
lactatehasbeenestimatedtoprovideathirdofthebrainsenergyneeds.[29][32]Thereisevidencethatthebrain
might,however,inspiteofthesealternativesourcesofenergy,stillsufferanenergycrisissinceIL6(asignof
metabolicstress)isreleasedduringexercisefromthebrain.[16][24]

Hyperthermia
Humansusesweatthermoregulationforbodyheatremoval,particularlytoremovetheheatproducedduring
exercise.Moderatedehydrationasaconsequenceofexerciseandheatisreportedtoimpaircognition.[33][34]These
impairmentscanstartafterbodymasslostthatisgreaterthan1%.[35]Cognitiveimpairment,particularlydueto
heatandexerciseislikelytobeduetolossofintegritytothebloodbrainbarrier.[36]Hyperthermiaalsocanlower
cerebralbloodflow,[37][38]andraisebraintemperature.[24]

Fatigue
Intenseactivity
Researchersonceattributedfatiguetoabuildupoflacticacidinmuscles.[39]However,thisisnolonger
believed.[40][41]Rather,lactatemaystopmusclefatiguebykeepingmusclesfullyrespondingtonervesignals.[42]
Theavailableoxygenandenergysupply,anddisturbancesofmuscleionhomeostasisarethemainfactor
determiningexerciseperformance,atleastduringbriefveryintenseexercise.
Eachmusclecontractioninvolvesanactionpotentialthatactivatesvoltagesensors,andsoreleasesCa2+ionsfrom
themusclefibressarcoplasmicreticulum.Theactionpotentialsthatcausethisrequirealsoionchanges:Na
influxesduringthedepolarizationphaseandKeffluxesfortherepolarizationphase.Clionsalsodiffuseintothe
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sarcoplasmtoaidtherepolarizationphase.Duringintensemusclecontraction,theionpumpsthatmaintain
homeostasisoftheseionsareinactivatedandthis(withotherionrelateddisruption)causesionicdisturbances.This
causescellularmembranedepolarization,inexcitability,andsomuscleweakness.[43]Ca2+leakagefromtype1
ryanodinereceptor)channelshasalsobeenidentifiedwithfatigue.[44]

Endurancefailure
Afterintenseprolongedexercise,therecanbeacollapsein
bodyhomeostasis.Somefamousexamplesinclude:
DorandoPietriinthe1908SummerOlympicmens
marathonranthewrongwayandcollapsedseveral
times.
JimPetersinthemarathonofthe1954Commonwealth
Gamesstaggeredandcollapsedseveraltimes,and
thoughhehadafivekilometre(threemile)lead,failed
tofinish.Thoughitwasformerlybelievedthatthiswas
duetoseveredehydration,morerecentresearchsuggests
itwasthecombinedeffectsuponthebrainof
hyperthermia,hypertonichypernatraemiaassociated
DorandoPietriabouttocollapseattheMarathon
withdehydration,andpossiblyhypoglycaemia.[45]
finishatthe1908LondonOlympicGames
GabrielaAndersenSchiessinthewomansmarathonat
theLosAngeles1984SummerOlympicsintheraces
final400meters,stoppingoccasionallyandshownsignsofheatexhaustion.Thoughshefellacrossthefinish
line,shewasreleasedfrommedicalcareonlytwohourslater.

Centralgovernor
TimNoakes,basedonanearlierideabythe1922NobelPrizeinPhysiologyorMedicinewinnerArchibaldHill[46]
hasproposedtheexistenceofacentralgovernor.Inthis,thebraincontinuouslyadjuststhepoweroutputby
musclesduringexerciseinregardtoasafelevelofexertion.Theseneuralcalculationsfactorinpriorlengthof
strenuousexercise,theplanneddurationoffurtherexertion,andthepresentmetabolicstateofthebody.This
adjuststhenumberofactivatedskeletalmusclemotorunits,andissubjectivelyexperiencedasfatigueand
exhaustion.Theideaofacentralgovernorrejectstheearlierideathatfatigueisonlycausedbymechanicalfailure
oftheexercisingmuscles("peripheralfatigue").Instead,thebrainmodels[47]themetaboliclimitsofthebodyto
ensurethatwholebodyhomeostasisisprotected,inparticularthattheheartisguardedfromhypoxia,andan
emergencyreserveisalwaysmaintained.[48][49][50][51]Theideaofthecentralgovernorhasbeenquestionedsince
physiologicalcatastrophescananddooccursuggestingathletes(suchasDorandoPietri,JimPetersandGabriela
AndersenSchiess)canoverridethecentralgovernor.[52]

Otherfactors
Theexercisefatiguehasalsobeensuggestedtobeeffectedby:
brainhyperthermia[53]
glycogendepletioninbraincells[32][54]
reactiveoxygenspeciesimpairingskeletalmusclefunction[55]
reducedlevelofglutamatesecondarytouptakeofammoniainthebrain[16]
Fatigueindiaphragmandabdominalrespiratorymuscleslimitingbreathing[56]
Impairedoxygensupplytomuscles[57]
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Ammoniaeffectsuponthebrain[16]
Serotoninpathwaysinthebrain[58]

Cardiacbiomarkers
Prolongedexercisesuchasmarathonscanincreasecardiacbiomarkerssuchastroponin,Btypenatriureticpeptide
(BNP),andischemiamodified(akaMI)albumin.Thiscanbemisinterpretedbymedicalpersonnelassignsof
myocardialinfarction,orcardiacdysfunction.Intheseclinicalconditions,suchcardiacbiomarkersareproduced
byirreversibleinjuryofmuscles.Incontrast,theprocessesthatcreatethemafterstrenuousexertioninendurance
sportsarereversible,withtheirlevelsreturningtonormalwithin24hours(furtherresearch,however,isstill
needed).[59][60][61]

Humanadaptations
Humansarespecificallyadaptedtoengageinprolongedstrenuousmuscularactivity(suchasefficientlong
distancebipedalrunning).[62]Thiscapacityforendurancerunningevolvedtoallowtherunningdownofgame
animalsbypersistentslowbutconstantchaseovermanyhours.[63]
Centraltothesuccessofthisistheabilityofthehumanbody,unlikethatoftheanimalstheyhunt,toeffectively
removemuscleheatwaste.Inmostanimals,thisisstoredbyallowingatemporaryincreaseinbodytemperature.
Thisallowsthemtoescapefromanimalsthatquicklyspeedafterthemforashortduration(thewaynearlyall
predatorscatchtheirprey).Humans,unlikeotheranimalsthatcatchprey,removeheatwithaspecialized
thermoregulationbasedonsweatevaporation.Onegramofsweatcanremove2,598Jofheatenergy.[64]Another
mechanismisincreasedskinbloodflowduringexercisethatallowsforgreaterconvectiveheatlossthatisaidedby
ouruprightposture.Thisskinbasedcoolinghasresultedinhumansacquiringanincreasednumberofsweat
glands,combinedwithalackofbodyfurthatwouldotherwisestopaircirculationandefficientevaporation.[65]
Becausehumanscanremoveexerciseheat,theycanavoidthefatiguefromheatexhaustionthataffectsanimals
chasedinapersistentmanner,andsoeventuallycatchthem.[66]

Selectivebreedingexperimentswithrodents
Rodentshavebeenspecificallybredforexercisebehaviororperformanceinseveraldifferentstudies.[67]For
example,laboratoryratshavebeenbredforhighorlowperformanceonamotorizedtreadmillwithelectrical
stimulationasmotivation.[68]Thehighperformancelineofratsalsoexhibitsincreasedvoluntarywheelrunning
behaviorascomparedwiththelowcapacityline.[69]Inanexperimentalevolutionapproach,fourreplicatelinesof
laboratorymicehavebeenbredforhighlevelsofvoluntaryexerciseonwheels,whilefouradditionalcontrollines
aremaintainedbybreedingwithoutregardtotheamountofwheelrunning.[70]Theseselectedlinesofmicealso
showincreasedendurancecapacityintestsofforcedendurancecapacityonamotorizedtreadmill.[71]However,in
neitherselectionexperimenthavetheprecisecausesoffatigueduringeitherforcedorvoluntaryexercisebeen
determined.

Exerciseinducedmusclepain
Physicalexercisemaycausepainbothasanimmediateeffectthatmayresultfromstimulationoffreenerve
endingsbylowpH,aswellasadelayedonsetmusclesoreness.Thedelayedsorenessisfundamentallytheresultof
ruptureswithinthemuscle,althoughapparentlynotinvolvingtheruptureofwholemusclefibers.[72]
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Musclepaincanrangefromamildsorenesstoadebilitatinginjurydependingonintensityofexercise,levelof
training,andotherfactors.[73]

Educationinexercisephysiology
Accreditationprogramsexistwithprofessionalbodiesinmostdevelopedcountries,ensuringthequalityand
consistencyofeducation.InCanada,onemayobtaintheprofessionalcertificationtitleCertifiedExercise
Physiologistforthoseworkingwithclients(bothclinicalandnonclinical)inthehealthandfitnessindustry.An
exercisephysiologist'sareaofstudymayincludebutisnotlimitedtobiochemistry,bioenergetics,
cardiopulmonaryfunction,hematology,biomechanics,skeletalmusclephysiology,neuroendocrinefunction,and
centralandperipheralnervoussystemfunction.Furthermore,exercisephysiologistsrangefrombasicscientists,to
clinicalresearchers,toclinicians,tosportstrainers.
Collegesanduniversitiesofferexercisephysiologyasaprogramofstudyonvariousdifferentlevels,including
undergraduate,graduate,anddoctoralprograms.ThebasisofExercisePhysiologyasamajoristopreparestudents
foracareerinfieldofhealthsciences.Aprogramthatfocusesonthescientificstudyofthephysiological
processesinvolvedinphysicalormotoractivity,includingsensorimotorinteractions,responsemechanisms,and
theeffectsofinjury,disease,anddisability.Includesinstructioninmuscularandskeletalanatomymolecularand
cellularbasisofmusclecontractionfuelutilizationneurophysiologyofmotormechanicssystemicphysiological
responses(respiration,bloodflow,endocrinesecretions,andothers)fatigueandexhaustionmuscleandbody
trainingphysiologyofspecificexercisesandactivitiesphysiologyofinjuryandtheeffectsofdisabilitiesand
disease.CareersavailablewithadegreeinExercisePhysiologycaninclude:nonclinical,clientbasedwork
strengthandconditioningspecialistscardiopulmonarytreatmentandclinicalbasedresearch.[74]
Inordertogaugethemultipleareasofstudy,studentsaretaughtprocessesinwhichtofollowonaclientbased
level.Practicalandlectureteachingsareinstructedintheclassroomandinalaboratorysetting.Theseinclude:
Healthandriskassessment:Inordertosafelyworkwithaclientonthejob,youmustfirstbeabletoknow
thebenefitsandrisksassociatedwithphysicalactivity.Examplesofthisincludeknowingspecificinjuries
thebodycanexperienceduringexercise,howtoproperlyscreenaclientbeforetheirtrainingbegins,and
whatfactorstolookforthatmayinhibittheirperformance.
Exercisetesting:Coordinatingexercisetestsinordertomeasurebodycompositions,cardiorespiratory
fitness,muscularstrength/endurance,andflexibility.Functionaltestsarealsousedinordertogain
understandingonamorespecificpartofthebody.Oncetheinformationisgatheredaboutaclient,exercise
physiologistsmustalsobeabletointerpretthetestdataanddecidewhathealthrelatedoutcomeshavebeen
discovered.
Exerciseprescription:Formingtrainingprogramsthatbestmeetanindividualshealthandfitnessgoals.
Mustbeabletotakeintoaccountdifferenttypesofexercises,thereasons/goalforaclientsworkout,andpre
screenedassessments.Knowinghowtoprescribeexercisesforspecialconsiderationsandpopulationsisalso
required.Thesemayincludeagedifferences,pregnancy,jointdiseases,obesity,pulmonarydisease,etc.[75]

Curriculum
Thecurriculumforexercisephysiologyincludesbiology,chemistry,andappliedsciences.Thepurposeofthe
classesselectedforthismajoristohaveaproficientunderstandingofhumananatomy,humanphysiology,and
exercisephysiology.Includesinstructioninmuscularandskeletalanatomymolecularandcellularbasisofmuscle
contractionfuelutilizationneurophysiologyofmotormechanicssystemicphysiologicalresponses(respiration,
bloodflow,endocrinesecretions,andothers)fatigueandexhaustionmuscleandbodytrainingphysiologyof
specificexercisesandactivitiesphysiologyofinjuryandtheeffectsofdisabilitiesanddisease.Notonlyisafull
classscheduleneededtocompleteadegreeinExercisePhysiology,butaminimumamountofpracticum
experienceisrequiredandinternshipsarerecommended.[76]
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Seealso
Bioenergetics
Excesspost
exerciseoxygen
consumption
(EPOC)
Exercise

Exercise
Fitnessprofessional
Hill'smodel
Metabolism
Musclecontraction
Musclesexercised

Musclesexercised
Physicaltherapy
Skeletalmuscle
Sportsscience
Sportsmedicine
TheMechanicsof

TheMechanicsof
RunningBlades

References
1.Gianetti,GBurton,LDonovan,RAllen,GPescatello,LS(2008)."Physiologicandpsychologicalresponsesofan
athletecycling100+milesdailyfor50consecutivedays".Currentsportsmedicinereports7(6):3437.
doi:10.1249/JSR.0b013e31818f0670.PMID19005357..Thisindividualwhileexceptionalwasnotphysiologically
extraordinarysincehewasdescribedas"subelite"duetohisnotbeing"abletoadjustpoweroutputtoregulateenergy
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