Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

SUGGESTIONS

WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING (CE702)


(Multiple Choice Type Questions)
1. Choose the correct alternatives for the following:
i.

The instrument used for measuring transpiration is called:


(a) Evaporimeter (b) Raingauge (c) Phytometer (d) Lysimeter

ii.

A storm of exceedence probability of 0.01 has a recurrence interval of :


(a) 1year (b) 10 years (c) 100 years (d) 1000 years

iii.

The plot of rainfall intensity against time interval is called


(a) Hyetograph (b) Rainfall mass curve (c) Hydrograph (d) None of these

iv.

Evapotranspiration is confined to :
(a) Night-time only (b) Daylight hours (c) Land surfaces only (d) None of these.

v.

If there is a storm of intensity i over a catchment area having infiltration capacity f c, such that i< fc,
then for the infiltration rate f which of the following is true:
(a) f = i
(b) f = fc i
(c) f = fc
(d) None of these.

vi.

If d is the depth of flow in a stream, the average flow velocity of the stream is considered to be the
velocity at a depth of _____ from the top of the water surface.
(a) 0.2d (b) 0.4d (c) 0.6d (d) 0.8d.

vii.

The following is not a direct stream flow measurement technique:


(a) Dilution method
(b) Ultrasonic method
(c) Area-velocity method
(d) Slope-area method

viii.

A unit hydrograph has one unit of


(a) Peak discharge
(b) Rainfall duration
(c) Direct runoff
(d) The time base of direct runoff.

ix.

Solid granite is an
(a) Aquitard (b) Aquifuge (c) Aquiclude (d) None of these.

x.

An unconfined is one in which:


(a) Water surface under the ground is at atmospheric pressure.
(b) Water is confined under pressure less than atmospheric pressure between impermeable strata.
(c) Water is confined under atmospheric pressure between impermeable strata.
(d) Water is confined under pressure greater than atmospheric pressure between impermeable strata.

xi.

Shrouding is essentially provided in:


(a) Slotted type of tubewell
(b) Strainer type of tubewell
(c) Cavity type of tubewell
(d) All the three types of tubewell

xii.

Irrigation may not be needed in:


(a) England (b) Israel (c) India (d) None of these.

xiii.

In a field under furrow irrigation, furrows are referred to represent:

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Ridges on which crops are grown.


Narrow ditches which carry irrigation water.
Both (a) and (b).
Neither (a) nor (b).

xiv.

The time required to irrigate a strip of area 0.203 hectare by a stream discharge of 0.043 cumecs, to
provide an average depth of 6.35 cm to the field is: (Assume f = 5 cm/hr)
(a) 2.75 hrs (b) 1.35 hrs (c) 1.5 hrs (d) 1.9 hrs.

xv.

The relationship between the duty D in ha/cumecs, the water depth in cm and base period B in days, is
given by:
(a) D = 864B/
(b) D = 8.64B/
(c) D = 864 /B
(d) D = 8.64 /B

xvi.

Water logging of cropped land leads to reduced crop yields, due to:
(a) Ill-aeration of root zone causing lack of oxygen.
(b) Growth of water-loving plants interfering with the sown crop.
(c) Surrounding of the root zone by resulting saline water which extracts the good water from plant
roots by osmosis.
(d) All of the above.

xvii.

A lined canal is best designed on the basis of:


(a) Laceys theory (b) Kennedys theory (c) Mannings formula (d) Continuity equation.

xviii.

A triangular lined canal section with corners rounded by a radius equal to full supply depth 4 m, is
likely to have its hydraulic radius as:
(a) 4 m (b) 3 m (c) 2 m (d) Cannot be ascertained.

xix.

Mannings rugosity coefficient is proportional to:


(a)

d (b) d (c) d1/6 (d) d3/2.

xx.

The critical velocity suggested by Kennedy for design of trapezoidal irrigation channel is:
(a) The maximum permissible velocity.
(b) The minimum permissible velocity.
(c) Both (a) and (b).
(d) None of these.

xxi.

The Garrets diagrams are based on:


(a) Laceys theory (b) Khoslas theory (c) Blighs creep theory (d) Kennedys theory.

xxii.

Lining of irrigation channels:


(a) Increases water logging.
(b) Increases channel cross-section.
(c) Increases command area.
(d) Increases chances of breaching.

xxiii.

As per Laceys theory, silt factor is:


(a) Directly proportional to average particle size.
(b) Not related to average particle size.
(c) Directly proportional to half of the average radius.
(d) Directly proportional to the square root of the average particle size.
(Theoritical Type Questions)

1. What do you mean by evaporation? Discuss the factors that affect the evaporation from a water body.
2. Define the terms: (a) Potential Evapotranspiration (b) Actual Evapotranspiration (c) Field capacity (d)
Infiltration rate (e) Infiltration capacity.

3. What type of tube-well you will provide in an area with aquifers with predominant fine grains? Describe the
type of tube-well to be provided. Supplement the answer with sketches.
4. What is meant by duty of water? Explain the factors which affect the duty. What are the different ways duty
can be expressed?
5. What is meant by Furrow irrigation and Sprinkler irrigation? Which one is preferred in India and why?
6. What is meant by water logging? What are its ill-effects?
7. What open drainage and closed drainage is as applied to draining irrigation tracts?
8. What are the different types of rain gauges used in practice?
9. What are isohyets?
10. Explain the terms direct runoff and base flow.
11. What is a unit hydrograph? What do you mean by Effective rainfall?
12. Differentiate between a shallow open well and deep open well. Can a shallow open well be deeper than a deep
open well? If so, how?
13. Derive an expression for specific yield or specific capacity of an open well.
14. (a) Work out a relationship between duty and delta of a crop.
(b) How the duty varies from the canal head regulator to head of the water course?
(c) Discuss the factors on which duty depends and what measures you can take to improve the duty of water?
15. Write detailed notes on:
(a) Importance of sediment transport in designing irrigation canals.
(b) Kennedys and Laceys silt theories for designing irrigation canals in India.
(c) Comparison of Kennedys and Laceys silt theories and further improvements over Laceys theory.
16. Derive an expression for the spacings of the closed drains to check water logging.
(Numerical Type Questions)
17. A catchment has 6 raingauge stations A, B, C, D, E, F. In a year the annual rainfall recorded by the gauges are as
follows:
STATION
A
B
C
D
E
F
RAINFALL
(cm)

106

91

65

55

62

48

Determine if these rain gauges are adequate to give reliable measurements of rainfall with an error of less than
10 %? If not, how many additional rain gauges are needed?
18. For a drainage basin of 600 km2, isohyetals drawn for a storm gave the following data:
ISOHYETALS
(INTERVAL)
(cm)
INTERISOHYETAL
AREA (km2)

15-12

12-9

9-6

6-3

3-1

92

128

120

175

85

Estimate the average depth of precipitation over the area.


19. A storm over a catchment of area 10 km2 had duration of 14 hours. The mass curve of rainfall of the storm is as
follows:
Time from
start of storm
(hrs)
Accumulated

10

12

14

0.6

2.8

5.2

6.6

7.5

9.2

9.6

Rainfall (cm)

If the index for the catchment is 0.5 cm/hr, determine the volume of direct runoff from the catchment due to
the storm.
20. A tile drainage system draining 12 hectares flows at a design capacity of 2 days following a storm. If the system
is designed using a drainage coefficient of 1.25cm, how many cubic metres of water will be removed during this
period.
21. Design a lined channel to carry a discharge of 15 cumecs. The available and accepted country slope is 1 in 9000.
Assume suitable values of side slopes and good brick work in lining.
22. The normal annual precipitation at four rain gauge stations A, B, C, D are 120, 100, 84, and 120 cm,
respectively. During a particular storm the rain gauge at station A became non-functional. The rainfall depths
recorded at B, C, and D are respectively, 10, 7 and 11 cm. Estimate the rainfall depth at station A during the
storm.
23. A network of 5 raingauge stations is located over a catchment approximated by a circle of radius 200 km as
given in the figure below. The annual rainfall values recorded in them are given below:
STATION
A
B
C
D
E

RAINFALL (cm)
85
105
130
98
90

Draw the Thessien Polygon and calculate the mean depth of precipitation over the area.
24. Given below are the observed annual rainfall and the corresponding annual runoff values of a small

catchment spanning over a period of 12 years from 1964 to 1975.


YEAR
ANNUAL
RAINFALL
(P in cm)
ANNUAL
RUNOFF
(R in cm)

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

90.5

111.0

38.7

129.5

145.5

99.8

147.6

50.9

120.2

90.3

65.2

75.9

30.1

50.2

5.3

61.5

74.8

39.9

64.7

6.5

46.1

36.2

24.6

20.0

Develop a linear correlation equation to estimate the annual runoff value for a given annual rainfall value. What
annual runoff can be expected from the catchment for an annual rainfall of 120 cm?
25. The following are the data obtained in a stream gauging operation. A current meter with a calibration equation V
= (0.32N + 0.032) m/s, where N = number of revolutions per second was used to measure the velocity at 0.6
depth. Calculate the discharge in the stream.
Distance
from Right
Bank (m)
Depth (m)
Number of
revolutions
Observation
time (s)

12

15

18

20

22

23

24

0.5

1.10

1.95

2.25

1.85

1.75

1.65

1.5

1.25

0.75

80

83

131

139

121

114

109

92

85

70

180

120

120

120

120

120

120

120

120

150

15
26. Given below are the observed flow values from a storm of 6 hr duration on a stream with a catchment area of
500 km2.
TIME (hrs)
OBSERVE
D FLOW

0
25

6
100

12
250

18
200

24
150

30
100

36
90

42
70

48
55

54
50

60
40

66
30

72
25

(m3/s)

If the base flow is 25m3/s, then derive the ordinates of the 6-h unit hydrograph. Also derive the coordinates
of the Direct Runoff Hydrograph due to a rainfall excess of 3 cm occurring over the catchment in 6 hrs.
27. During a recuperation test, the water level in an open well was depressed by pumping 2.5 m and is recuperated
by an amount of 1.6 m in 70 minutes. Determine (a) the yield from an well of 3 m diameter under a depression
head of 3.5 m. (b) the diameter of a well to yield 10 litres/ second under a depression head of 2.5 m.
28. In a tile drainage system, the drains are laid with their centres1.5 m below the ground level. The impervious
layer is 9 m below the ground level and average annual rainfall in the area is 80 cm. If 1% of the annual rainfall
is to be drained in 24 hours to keep the highest position of the water table 1 m below ground level, determine
the spacing of the drain pipes. Coefficient of permeability may be taken as 0.001 cm/sec.