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FINAL REPORT

Government of Nepal
KIRTIPUR MUNICIPALITY

PREPARATION OF DPR OF LOWER GAMCHA LAND


READJUSTMENT PILOT PROJECT

FINAL REPORT

Submitted By:
Morphogenesis Consultant Pvt. Ltd.
Kirtipur, Kathmandu
June 2016

Project and Submission Information


TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.

INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................... 1-4

1.1
1.2

Background................................................................................................................ 1-4
Land Pooling: Literature Review.................................................................................1-4
1.2.1 Theory and Philosophy of Land Pooling.................................................1-4
1.2.1

Different Steps of Land Pooling..............................................................1-5

1.2.1

Review: Prevailing Acts, Policy and Design Guidelines..........................1-7

2.

PROJECT AREA DESCRIPTION...............................................................................2-8

2.1
2.2
2.3

Geographical Description...........................................................................................2-8
Socio Economic Condition..........................................................................................2-8
Physical and Social Infrastructures.............................................................................2-8
2.3.1 Road......................................................................................................2-8
2.3.2

Water Supply..........................................................................................2-8

2.3.3

Sewerage and waste management........................................................2-8

3.

FIELD SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION......................................................................3-8

3.1
3.2

Public Meetings and Consultation..............................................................................3-8


Demarcation of Land Pooling Area.............................................................................3-8

4.

OVERALL SITE ASSESSMENT.................................................................................4-9

4.1
4.2

Features of Project Area.............................................................................................4-9


Land Ownership Status..............................................................................................4-9
4.2.1 Households............................................................................................4-9

4.3

Challenges................................................................................................................. 4-9

5.

CONCEPTUAL BLOCK PLAN...................................................................................5-9

5.1
5.2

Design Criteria............................................................................................................ 5-9


Planning Components..............................................................................................5-10
5.2.1 Land Use Plan......................................................................................5-10
5.2.1

6.

Infrastructure Development Plan..........................................................5-10

CONCLUSION.......................................................................................................... 6-10

FIGURES
Figure 1.1: Different steps of Land Pooling Program................................................................................1-6
Figure 1.4: Land Pooling Reference Manual............................................................................................. 1-7

ANNEXES
Annex 1:

Land Owners List

Annex 2:

Drawings
o

Block Plan

Chaurjahari New Town

Page 2

FIELD REPORT

January 2016

Preparation of DPR and Partial


Page 3
Implementation of Landpooling Project
at Chaurjahari, Rukum.

FINAL REPORT

1.

June 2016

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background
In the early hours of 25 April, 2015 a magnitude 7.8 earthquake occurred in Nepal, the biggest
earthquake in over 80 years. The earthquake was followed by several aftershocks, including a
magnitude 6.7 earthquake on 4 May 2015 which triggered many areas of the Nepal where towns
and villages have been cut off by the severe damage. In Kirtipur only 43 lives were lost with
3513 residential buildings completely broken down and 4157 buildings were partially damaged.
The historically, culturally and archeologically famous Kirtipur suffered huge human and
economic loss. Almost all temples, patis, pauwas and other public buildings are at higher degree
of risk in terms of its serviceability and cultural values. People are worried about extinction of
history, architecture and civilization of Kirtipur. Hence Kirtipur Municipality as the responsible
governmental organization it shall take overall management of such assets of Kirtipur. Till date
no major study in terms of technical evaluation and social evaluation of our nearby public assets
has been kept in priority by the municipality hence early and timely planned maintenance is
essential in order to preserve our architecture and technology and to handover the culture, art
and technology to the upcoming newcomers.
Due to the recent earthquake, most of the temples are demanding great degree of maintenance
and repair activities as these structures are the edge of its existence. Therefore the municipality
should keep its intention towards the reconstruction of the damaged temples, damaged
settlements through the sustainable, resilient and planned manner.
Gamcha - an ultra-poor community in Kirtipur Municipality of Kathmandu was completely
devasted due to the recent earthquake. Thus to respond to the unbalanced and congested
settlement, the Municipality has decided to readjust the lower Gamcha as a pilot project to plan
and build it with sufficient road infrastructure and other public amenities.
The project aims to adjust the existing housing plots of Lower Gamcha and Upper Gamcha.
However the present works limits to the land readjustment of Lower Gamcha as a pilot project. If
it succees upper Gamcha will be adjusted soon.

1.2 Land Pooling: Literature Review


1.2.1

Theory and Philosophy of Land Pooling

Land pooling as urban land management tool


Regarding to the historical development of modern urban development in Nepal, in 2033 BS,
landpooling along the road section of Chiplethunga (lrKn]9'uf) to Prithivi Chowk in Pokhara
was the initiative step under the public-private partnership approach. Prior to 2045 BS, many
other small LP projects went through without any acts, rules and regulations but after the
emergence of Town Development Act 2045, the nation got the legal mandate to practice and
operate the land pooling activities.
In difficult situations, land acquisition and lack of sufficient budget within the city areas, Land
Pooling procedure was proved to be the successful and effective tool for the Government of
Nepal in those urban development activities. On this regard, Government has initiated such
project in the ORR of Kathmandu, MHH and other strategic road corridors. Hence Land Pooling
has been proved the effective tool of the systematic urbanization process.
With increased population, housing plot demand will automatically increases and supply of such
developed plots may the prerequisite infrastructure in the newly perceived town and hence land
pooling is the best option.
Land pooling is an appropriate technique of urban development and land development of and
area. The technique helps to unified all the scattered small or big, irregular and inaccessible
physical infrastructures (road, sewerage) and develop with necessary physical infrastructures by
Preparation of DPR of Lower Gamcha Land
Readjustment Pilot Project.

Page 4

FINAL REPORT

June 2016

contributing the proportionally for the infrastructures and returning back with serviced developed
land plots to land owners.
1

Different Steps of Land Pooling

Preparation of DPR of Lower Gamcha Land


Readjustment Pilot Project.

Page 5

FINAL REPORT

June 2016

Figure 1.1: Different steps of Land Pooling Program

Preparation of DPR of Lower Gamcha Land


Readjustment Pilot Project.

Page 6

FINAL REPORT

June 2016

Review: Prevailing Acts, Policy and Design Guidelines

Nepal Government has promulgated supporting acts, policy and design guidelines for the
planned urban development and provides necessary legal provision to carry out the Land
Development projects.
Land Pooling Reference Manual

Preparation of DPR of Lower Gamcha Land


Readjustment Pilot Project.

Page 7

FINAL REPORT

The land Pooling Reference Manual is the


working manual which incorporates several
matters, subjects and methods relevant to
Land Pooling Project such as definition of
land pooling, prerequisite of the managing
LP project, site selection, feasibility study,
detail planning method, services facilities
standards, investment, existing acts,
regulations and law provisions,
implementation strategies, project handover,
monitoring and evaluation and others.
Preparation of DPR of Lower Gamcha Land
Readjustment Pilot Project.

June 2016

The consultant will follow the manual in


each stages of planning and implementation
of the land pooling.

Page 8

FINAL REPORT

June 2016

Figure 1.4: Land Pooling Reference Manual

Preparation of DPR of Lower Gamcha Land


Readjustment Pilot Project.

Page 9

Planning Norms and Standards 2013


The Planning Norms and Standards 2013 prepared by DUDBC in 2070 is a useful guideline for
urban development / planning work. The basic standard for medium sized city (pop. 40000 to 1
lakh) proposed by norms for roads, water supply and sanitation (mostly used in LP project) are
below in chart.
Town Development, Urban Planning and Building-related Basic Guidance, 2072
After the devastating earthquake of 2015 in Nepal, GoN, Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local
Development issued the concrete guideline related to the town development, urban planning
and building with an object of promoting safe and earthquake resilient buildings, well planned
settlement within all the municipalities, VDCs of Nepal. In turn, Consultant felt it as a strong tool
for the preparation of building bye laws and infrastructure plan of the land pooling site at
Chaurjahari New Town.
The guideline helps to set out the minimum requirements for the establishment a settlement
through a building bye Laws. The National Building Code 2060 will strictly be followed in the
preparation of building bye laws and design requirements within the Chaurjahari LP sites.
The guideline also introduces the necessary institutional and human resource management plan
for the successful implementation of the Building Bye Laws in the rural VDCs. As such the
consultant will recommend the implementation strategies of the byelaws.
Town Development Act (TDA 1989)

1. The Act under Section 3, gives power for integrated physical development of city in
reconstruction, further development in any parts of Nepal.

2. The act under Section 12 empowers the Town Development Committees for the initiation
and implementation land development for urban housing and development through Guided
Land Development (GLD), Site and Services and Land Pooling.

3. Under Section 16, the act has guiding provision for the involvement of various actors of
urban land development process.
Local Self Government Act 1999
Local Self Government Act 1999 is a policy of decentralization. The act empowers local
authorities to initiate especially the municipalities to land development activities relating to
guided land development, land pooling and site and services. It has also spelled the involvement
of private sector in local governance as a policy instrument.
Land Act of 1964 (for understanding of constraints related to land ownerships, tenancy rights),
Land Acquisition Act, 1977 (for understanding of constraints related to land acquisition,
compensation.)

2.

PROJECT AREA DESCRIPTION

2.1 Geographical Description


Gamcha lies at the western side of the Kirtipur Municipality at ward no 7. This settlement is 3
KM away from Nayabazzar. Total area of the Lower Gamcha is 56000 square ft.

2.2 Socio Economic Condition


The Gamcha is an ultra poor newar community. The average income of a family is around NRS
15000 to 20,000. The income sources of the family are agriculture, tradition Tye making,
construction working (reinforcement binding work). The total number of households are 25 and
the average family size is 5.

2.3 Physical and Social Infrastructures


2.3.1

Road

The Gamcha is connected by 16 feet roadway from the Nayabazzar- Bhaktepati Roadway.
2.3.2

Water Supply

A water tank is available to supply the water demand of the Gamcha people.
2.3.3

Sewerage and waste management

No sewerage and waste management facility is available.

3.

FIELD SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION

3.1 Public Meetings and Consultation


The main approach of the Land Readjuste Project is to participate the local people, political
parties and other concerned parties in all the levels of land readjustment process. So Consultant
has been in extensive consultation with land owners and concerned parties to get optimum
consensus, views and suggestions made by the public and plot owners. Consultations were
generally in the form of public meetings in close coordination with Municipality officials..

3.2 Demarcation of Land Pooling Area


Based on the field visits and consultations and interactions with the land owners, from the
meeting of landowners, following boundaries of the land readjustment project area has been
finalized;
North Boundary: House of Bhadralal Jaisi
Southern Boundary: Road to Upper Gamcha
Eastern Boundary: 10' Planning Road
Western Boundary: Road
The Project area covers around 56000 sq.ft as per the total station survey along the boundary of
the LP site.

4.

OVERALL SITE ASSESSMENT

4.1 Features of Project Area


Table 4.1: Features of Project Area
Site Attribute
1

2
3

Remarks

Site Location
District

Kathmandu

VDC(past)/Municipality(currently
announced)

Kirtipur Municipality

Ward Nos

Ward No 7

Accessibility
Nayabazzar

3 Km

Terrain

Plain

4.2 Land Ownership Status


The land owners have not the got their land ownership certificate till date. People are expecting
their land owner certificate from the project.
4.2.1

Households

The project area has total households of 25 nos.

4.3 Challenges
The Consultant is facing a series of challenges that could continue to create constraints in
planning and implementation of the project. Some of the key challenges and considerations for
Consultant include:
consensus and coordination.
Irregular and unshaped plots
As the existing plots are very length with narrow width, it seems to be difficult to hand over the
developed housing plots at the original location.
Cadastral maps and documents
The cadastral maps have errors due to smaller scale of maps, difficulty to match
adjoining sheets and errors of land records. Some of the parcel may not be registered or has
litigation or on mortgages. If the total area of the project and the summation of area of all parcels
as per the land records are same or more or less same, it will not be the problem. It there is
some discrepancy between field measurement and record, certainly disputes will occur.

5.

CONCEPTUAL BLOCK PLAN

5.1 Design Criteria


From the suggestions, views of local people, site condition, available design guidelines, the
consultant has fixed the following design criteria for the preparation of block plan of Chaurjahari
Land Pooling Project.
a. The existing house/building will not be shifted.
b. The road facilities will be 4m and 6m.
c. Open space not less than 5%
d. Minimum radius of curve at the road intersections, turnings will be 20% more than the
road width.

5.2 Planning Components


For the land development at the proposed site, following plans have been proposed
1. Land Use Plan
2. Infrastructure Development Plan
5.2.1

Land Use Plan

There will be no change in the land use pattern of the site than the previous land use pattern. As
land adjustment has been prepared on the existing residential area.
1

Infrastructure Development Plan

The required physical facilities for the project site of area 30 ha will be planned as follows
a.

Road Network

In order to supply road facilities to each and every plots of the site, a road network plan has
been prepared. While planning the road network, the existing roads and other affecting factors
have been kept in mind.
In the road network plan two types of road have been proposed.
4m- at the Western side of the project side
6m - at the Eastern side of the project side
b.

Drain Network

To catch the storm water surface drain along the sides of the roads are proposed.
c.

Open Space

About 328 sq ft area has been kept for the open space.

6.

CONCLUSION

This report presents the land readjustment plan of Lower Gamcha with the necessary road
infrastructure plan. The road facilities at each housing plot are serviced through 4m road at
western side and 6 mat eastern sides as per the municipal byelaws. The estimated cost for the
development is 5,268,219.49 inclusive of VAT.