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April 2015 Nepal earthquake

The April 2015 Nepal earthquake (also known as the Gorkha earthquake)[5][8] killed more
than 8,800 people and injured more than 23,000. It occurred at 11:56 NST on 25 April, with a
magnitude of 7.8Mw[1] or 8.1Ms[2] and a maximum Mercalli Intensity of IX (Violent). Its
epicenter was east of the district of Lamjung, and its hypocenter was at a depth of
approximately 15 km (9.3 mi).[1] It was the worst natural disaster to strike Nepal since the
1934 NepalBihar earthquake.[9][10][11]
The earthquake triggered an avalanche on Mount Everest, killing at least 19,[12] making it the
deadliest day on the mountain in history.[13] It triggered another huge avalanche in the
Langtang valley, where 250 people were reported missing.[14][15]
Hundreds of thousands of people were made homeless with entire villages flattened,[14][16][17]
across many districts of the country. Centuries-old buildings were destroyed at UNESCO
World Heritage sites in the Kathmandu Valley, including some at the Kathmandu Durbar
Square, the Patan Durbar Squar, the Bhaktapur Durbar Square, the Changu Narayan Temple
and the Swayambhunath Stupa. Geophysicists and other experts had warned for decades that
Nepal was vulnerable to a deadly earthquake, particularly because of its geology,
urbanization, and architecture.[18][19]
Continued aftershocks occurred throughout Nepal within 1520 minute intervals, with one
shock reaching a magnitude of 6.7 on 26 April at 12:54:08 NST.[4] The country also had a
continued risk of landslides.[20]
A major aftershock occurred on 12 May 2015 at 12:51 NST with a moment magnitude (Mw)
of 7.3.[21] The epicenter was near the Chinese border between the capital of Kathmandu and
Mt. Everest.[22] More than 200 people were killed and more than 2,500 were injured by this
aftershock.[23]
Agricultural machinery
Agricultural machinery is machinery used in the operation of an agricultural
area or farm.
The Industrial Revolution

With the coming of the Industrial Revolution and the development of more complicated
machines, farming methods took a great leap forward.[1] Instead of harvesting grain by hand
with a sharp blade, wheeled machines cut a continuous swath. Instead of threshing the grain
by beating it with sticks, threshing machines separated the seeds from the heads and stalks.
The first tractors appeared in the late 19th century. [2]
Steam power

Power for agricultural machinery was originally supplied by ox or other domesticated


animals. With the invention of steam power came the portable engine, and later the traction
engine, a multipurpose, mobile energy source that was the ground-crawling cousin to the
steam locomotive. Agricultural steam engines took over the heavy pulling work of oxen, and

were also equipped with a pulley that could power stationary machines via the use of a long
belt. The steam-powered machines were low-powered by today's standards but, because of
their size and their low gear ratios, they could provide a large drawbar pull. Their slow speed
led farmers to comment that tractors had two speeds: "slow, and damn slow."
Internal combustion engines

The internal combustion engine; first the petrol(Otto) engine, and later diesel engines;
became the main source of power for the next generation of tractors. These engines also
contributed to the development of the self-propelled, combined harvester and thresher, or
combine harvester (also shortened to 'combine'). Instead of cutting the grain stalks and
transporting them to a stationary threshing machine, these combines cut, threshed, and
separated the grain while moving continuously through the field.
Microorganism

A microorganism (from the Greek: , mikros, "small" and , organisms,


"organism") is a microscopic living organism, which may be single celled[1] or multicellular.
The study of microorganisms is called microbiology, a subject that began with the discovery
of microorganisms in 1674 by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, using a microscope of his own
design.
Microorganisms are very diverse and include all the bacteria and archaea and almost all the
protozoa. They also include some fungi, algae, and certain animals, such as rotifers. Many
macroscopic animals and plants have microscopic juvenile stages. Some microbiologists also
classify viruses (and viroids) as microorganisms, but others consider these as nonliving.[2][3]
Microorganisms live in every part of the biosphere, including soil, hot springs, "seven miles
deep" in the ocean, "40 miles high" in the atmosphere and inside rocks far down within the
Earth's crust (see also endolith).[4] Microorganisms, under certain test conditions, have been
observed to thrive in the vacuum of outer space.[5][6] The total amount of soil and subsurface
bacterial carbon is estimated as 5 x 1017 g, or the "weight of the United Kingdom".[4] The
mass of prokaryote microorganisms which includes bacteria and archaea, but not the
nucleated eukaryote microorganisms may be as much as 0.8 trillion tons of carbon (of the
total biosphere mass of 4 trillion tons).[7] On 17 March 2013, researchers reported data that
suggested microbial life forms thrive in the Mariana Trench. the deepest spot in the Earth's
oceans.[8][9] Other researchers reported related studies that microorganisms thrive inside rocks
up to 580 m (1,900 ft; 0.36 mi) below the sea floor under 2,590 m (8,500 ft; 1.61 mi) of
ocean off the coast of the northwestern United States[8][10] as well as 2,400 m (7,900 ft; 1.5 mi)
beneath the seabed off Japan.[11] On 20 August 2014, scientists confirmed the existence of
microorganisms living 800 m (2,600 ft; 0.50 mi) below the ice of Antarctica.[12][13] According
to one researcher,"You can find microbes everywhere they're extremely adaptable to
conditions, and survive wherever they are."[8]
Ingredient

An ingredient is a substance that forms part of a mixture (in a general sense). For example,
in cooking, recipes specify which ingredients are used to prepare a specific dish. Many
commercial products contain a secret ingredient that is purported to make them better than
competing products. In the pharmaceutical industry, an active ingredient is that part of a
formulation that yields the effect expected by the customer.
National laws usually require prepared food products to display a list of ingredients, and
specifically require that certain additives be listed.
In most developed countries, the law requires that ingredients be listed according to their
relative weight[1] in the product. If an ingredient itself consists of more than one ingredient
(such as the cookie pieces which are a part of "cookies and cream" flavor ice cream), then
that ingredient is listed by what percentage of the total product it occupies, with its own
ingredients displayed next to it in brackets.
The term constituent is often chosen when referring to the substances that constitute the
tissue of living beings such as plants and people, because the word ingredient in many minds
connotes a sense of human agency (that is, something that a person combines with other
substances), whereas the natural products present in living beings were not added by any
human agency but rather occurred naturally ("a plant doesn't have ingredients"). Thus all
ingredients are constituents, but not all constituents are ingredients.