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# Melodic Transformation in

George Garzones
Jonathan De Souza
SMT | Nov 7, 2014

## Jazz, Math, and

Jonathan De Souza
SMT | Nov 7, 2014

## Instead of regarding the i-arrow [] as a measurement

of extension between points s and t observed passively
out there in a Cartesian res extensa, one can regard the
situation actively, like a singer, player, or composer,
thinking: I am at s; what characteristic transformation
do I perform to arrive at t? (Lewin 1987, xxxi)

## SMT | Nov 7, 2014

Jazz
SMT | Nov 7, 2014

George Garzone
Photo R. Cifarelli
SMT | Nov 7, 2014

Ab

Am

F#

Bb

George Garzone, Have You Met Miss Jones, Fours and Twos (1995)
(Transcription adapted from Lorentz 2008, 116)

## SMT | Nov 7, 2014

Basic Principles
1. Triads MUST be connected with a half-step in
between
2. The same inversion CANNOT be repeated
back to back
(Garzone 2008, 1)

## SMT | Nov 7, 2014

Math
SMT | Nov 7, 2014

## D6, a dihedral group

S3, a symmetry group
SMT | Nov 7, 2014

135

351

513

%-3:\$-''\$2"#\$#,-./'#0\$"-<#\$4#-'2\$()2"\$.-=&3\$23)-408\$\$>'#-0#\$?*&(\$2"-2\$2"#\$@-*4&.\$
-4)5\$A//3&-5"\$-//')#0\$2&\$.)*&3:\$4).)*)0"#4\$-*4\$-1+.#*2#4\$23)-40\$-0\$(#''8
531
315
153

Network
rotations
andconnected
flips
ure 2: Network
of three-note
contour
segments
by rotatio
root, 3 = chordal
chordal fifth)
inversion (1
(I),=isomorphic
to the third,
group 5of= rotations
and reflections
ilateral triangle, D3
SMT | Nov 7, 2014

%-3:\$-''\$2"#\$#,-./'#0\$"-<#\$4#-'2\$()2"\$.-=&3\$23)-408\$\$>'#-0#\$?*&(\$2"-2\$2"#\$@-*4&.\$
-4)5\$A//3&-5"\$-//')#0\$2&\$.)*&3:\$4).)*)0"#4\$-*4\$-1+.#*2#4\$23)-40\$-0\$(#''8

## Network of rotations and flips

ure 2: Network offor
three-note
contour
segments
connected by rotatio
a three-note
contour
segment
inversion
(I),
isomorphic
to
the
group
of
rotations
and
reflections
(0 = lowest note, 1 = middle note, 2 = highest note)

ilateral triangle, D3

012

120

201

210

102

021

root position

&dga

&gda

&dag

&agd

1st inversion

&dgq

&gqd

&qdg

&qgd

&gdq

&dqg

2nd inversion

&gqe

&qeg

&egq

&eqg

&qge

&geq

## SMT | Nov 7, 2014

\$
\$
\$
!"&()*+\$%'\$,\$-./)+.\$0+12/3\$
-3-

!"#\$%&''&()*+\$#,-./'#0\$)''1023-2#\$2"#\$)./3&/#3\$.#2"&4\$&%\$2"#\$3-*4&.\$23)-4)5\$-//3&-5"\$
6!"#\$%&7\$-*4\$2"#\$/3&/#3\$.#2"&4\$&%\$2"#\$3-*4&.\$23)-4)5\$-//3&-5"\$6!"#\$%'78\$91#\$2&\$2"#\$
5"3&.-2)5\$*-213#\$&%\$2")0\$5&*5#/2:\$/'#-0#\$*&2#\$2"-2\$)%\$-*\$#,-./'#\$"-0\$*&\$2).#\$0)+*-213#:\$-''\$
*&2#0\$-3#\$*-213-'\$1*'#00\$2"#3#\$)0\$-\$0"-3/\$&3\$%'-28\$
\$
\$
\$ A melody constructed according to the triadic chromatic approach, with Garzones
(a)
\$ !"&()*+\$%&\$,\$4()./)+.\$0+12/3\$\$
annotations
;&\$%-3:\$-''\$2"#\$#,-./'#0\$"-<#\$4#-'2\$()2"\$.-=&3\$23)-408\$\$>'#-0#\$?*&(\$2"-2\$2"#\$@-*4&.\$
Illustration of the triadic chromatic approach
!3)-4)5\$A//3&-5"\$-//')#0\$2&\$.)*&3:\$4).)*)0"#4\$-*4\$-1+.#*2#4\$23)-40\$-0\$(#''8

(Garzone 2008, 3)

## SMT | Nov 7, 2014

\$
\$
\$
!"&()*+\$%'\$,\$-./)+.\$0+12/3\$
-3-

!"#\$%&''&()*+\$#,-./'#0\$)''1023-2#\$2"#\$)./3&/#3\$.#2"&4\$&%\$2"#\$3-*4&.\$23)-4)5\$-//3&-5"\$
6!"#\$%&7\$-*4\$2"#\$/3&/#3\$.#2"&4\$&%\$2"#\$3-*4&.\$23)-4)5\$-//3&-5"\$6!"#\$%'78\$91#\$2&\$2"#\$
5"3&.-2)5\$*-213#\$&%\$2")0\$5&*5#/2:\$/'#-0#\$*&2#\$2"-2\$)%\$-*\$#,-./'#\$"-0\$*&\$2).#\$0)+*-213#:\$-''\$
*&2#0\$-3#\$*-213-'\$1*'#00\$2"#3#\$)0\$-\$0"-3/\$&3\$%'-28\$
\$
\$
\$ A melody constructed according to the triadic chromatic approach, with Garzones
(a)
\$ !"&()*+\$%&\$,\$4()./)+.\$0+12/3\$\$
annotations
;&\$%-3:\$-''\$2"#\$#,-./'#0\$"-<#\$4#-'2\$()2"\$.-=&3\$23)-408\$\$>'#-0#\$?*&(\$2"-2\$2"#\$@-*4&.\$
(r0, +1)
(I, +1)
!3)-4)5\$A//3&-5"\$-//')#0\$2&\$.)*&3:\$4).)*)0"#4\$-*4\$-1+.#*2#4\$23)-40\$-0\$(#''8

(r2I, 0)

(I, 0)

(I, 0)

(b) An improper sequence of triads that does not follow Garzones approach
\$
SMT | Nov 7, 2014
\$

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

...-4 -3 -2 -1
0.5

0.5

0.5

0
0.5

0.5

0.5

1
0.5

0.5

2
0.5

0.5

3
0.5

4...
0.5

## the drunkards walk

Markov chain
SMT | Nov 7, 2014

Db

Ab
F

C
A

Bb

Eb

F
D

A
F#

C#

C #/Db

Bb

D
Eb

Ab
G

F#

## SMT | Nov 7, 2014

C
C
D
E
E
F
X=
F
G
A
A
B
B

0
0

0.167

0.167

0.167

0.167

0.167
0.167

0
0

C
0
0
0
0
0.167
0.167
0.167
0
0.167
0.167
0.167
0

D
0
0
0
0
0
0.167
0.167
0.167
0
0.167
0.167
0.167

E
0.167
0
0
0
0
0
0.167
0.167
0.167
0
0.167
0.167

E
0.167
0.167
0
0
0
0
0
0.167
0.167
0.167
0
0.167

F
0.167
0.167
0.167
0
0
0
0
0
0.167
0.167
0.167
0

F
0
0.167
0.167
0.167
0
0
0
0
0
0.167
0.167
0.167

G
0.167
0
0.167
0.167
0.167
0
0
0
0
0
0.167
0.167

A
0.167
0.167
0
0.167
0.167
0.167
0
0
0
0
0
0.167

A
0.167
0.167
0.167
0
0.167
0.167
0.167
0
0
0
0
0

B
0
0.167
0.167
0.167
0
0.167
0.167
0.167
0
0
0
0

0
0

0.167

0.167

0.167

0.167

0.167

0.167
0

0
0

Figure 4: Transition probability matrix for a random walk on the Tonnetz, corresponding
movement
the a
chromatic
approach
Transition
probability
matrixinfor
random
walk
on the

C
C
D
E
E
F
Y=
F
G
A
A
B
B

0
0.5

0
0

0
0.5

C D
0.5 0
0 0.5
0.5 0
0 0.5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

E E
F
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.5 0
0
0 0.5 0
0.5 0 0.5
0 0.5 0
0
0 0.5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

F G
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.5 0
0 0.5
0.5 0
0 0.5
0
0
0
0
0
0

A A
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.5 0
0 0.5
0.5 0
0 0.5
0
0

B B

0 0.5
0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0.5 0

0 0.5
0.5 0

## ure 5: Transition probability matrix for a random walk on the pitch-class

Transition
probability
matrix
for
a
random
walk
on
the
oachpc clockface, corresponding to between-triad movement
C

C
0

C
0

D
0.083

E
0.083

E
0.167

F
0.083

F
0.167

G
A
A
B
SMT | Nov 7, 2014
0.083 0.167 0.083 0.0

Figure 5: Transition probability matrix for a random walk on the pitch-class cycle, corresponding to between-triad movement in the triadic chromatic approach

C
C
D
E
E
F
XY = Z =
F
G
A
A
B
B

0
0

0.083

0.083

0.167

0.083

0.167

0.083

0.167
0.083

0.083
0

C
0
0
0
0.083
0.083
0.167
0.083
0.167
0.083
0.167
0.083
0.083

D
0.083
0
0
0
0.083
0.083
0.167
0.083
0.167
0.083
0.167
0.083

E
0.083
0.083
0
0
0
0.083
0.083
0.167
0.083
0.167
0.083
0.167

E
0.167
0.083
0.083
0
0
0
0.083
0.083
0.167
0.083
0.167
0.083

F
0.083
0.167
0.083
0.083
0
0
0
0.083
0.083
0.167
0.083
0.167

F
0.167
0.083
0.167
0.083
0.083
0
0
0
0.083
0.083
0.167
0.083

G
0.083
0.167
0.083
0.167
0.083
0.083
0
0
0
0.083
0.083
0.167

A
0.167
0.083
0.167
0.083
0.167
0.083
0.083
0
0
0
0.083
0.083

A
0.083
0.167
0.083
0.167
0.083
0.167
0.083
0.083
0
0
0
0.083

B
0.083
0.083
0.167
0.083
0.167
0.083
0.167
0.083
0.083
0
0
0

0
0.083

0.083

0.167

0.083

0.167

0.083

0.167

0.083
0.083

0
0

Figure 6: Transition probability matrix combining both random walks, corresponding to a complete step of the triadic chromatic approach

C
C
D a complete
E
E
Fstep
F
G Garzones
A
A
B
B
corresponding
to
of
approach

C
C
D
E
E
F

0.125
0.097

0.104

0.069

0.076

0.056

0.097
0.125
0.097
0.104
0.069
0.076

0.104
0.097
0.125
0.097
0.104
0.069

0.069
0.104
0.097
0.125
0.097
0.104

0.076
0.069
0.104
0.097
0.125
0.097

0.056
0.076
0.069
0.104
0.097
0.125

0.069
0.056
0.076
0.069
0.104
0.097

0.056
0.069
0.056
0.076
0.069
0.104

0.076
0.056
0.069
0.056
0.076
0.069

## 0.069 0.104 0.097

0.076 0.069 0.104

0.056SMT
0.069
0.056

| Nov 7, 2014

## 0.076 0.056 0.069

Figure 6: Transition probability matrix combining both random walks, corresponding to a complete step of the triadic chromatic approach

C
C
D
E
E
F
Z2 =
F
G
A
A
B
B

0.125
0.097

0.104

0.069

0.076

0.056

0.069

0.056

0.076
0.069

0.104
0.097

C
0.097
0.125
0.097
0.104
0.069
0.076
0.056
0.069
0.056
0.076
0.069
0.104

D
0.104
0.097
0.125
0.097
0.104
0.069
0.076
0.056
0.069
0.056
0.076
0.069

E
0.069
0.104
0.097
0.125
0.097
0.104
0.069
0.076
0.056
0.069
0.056
0.076

E
0.076
0.069
0.104
0.097
0.125
0.097
0.104
0.069
0.076
0.056
0.069
0.056

F
0.056
0.076
0.069
0.104
0.097
0.125
0.097
0.104
0.069
0.076
0.056
0.069

F
0.069
0.056
0.076
0.069
0.104
0.097
0.125
0.097
0.104
0.069
0.076
0.056

G
0.056
0.069
0.056
0.076
0.069
0.104
0.097
0.125
0.097
0.104
0.069
0.076

A
0.076
0.056
0.069
0.056
0.076
0.069
0.104
0.097
0.125
0.097
0.104
0.069

A
0.069
0.076
0.056
0.069
0.056
0.076
0.069
0.104
0.097
0.125
0.097
0.104

B
0.104
0.069
0.076
0.056
0.069
0.056
0.076
0.069
0.104
0.097
0.125
0.097

0.097
0.104

0.069

0.076

0.056

0.069

0.056

0.076

0.069
0.104

0.097
0.125

Figure 7: Transition probability matrix for two complete steps of the triadic
chromatic
approach,
with non-zero
probabilities
for complete
every pitch-class
regardTransition
probability
matrix
for two
steps
less of the starting note

4

## SMT | Nov 7, 2014

C
C
D
E
E
F
Z5 =
F
G
A
A
B
B

0.082
0.082

0.083

0.083

0.084

0.084

0.085

0.084

0.084
0.083

0.083
0.082

C
0.082
0.082
0.082
0.083
0.083
0.084
0.084
0.085
0.084
0.084
0.083
0.083

D
0.083
0.082
0.082
0.082
0.083
0.083
0.084
0.084
0.085
0.084
0.084
0.083

E
0.083
0.083
0.082
0.082
0.082
0.083
0.083
0.084
0.084
0.085
0.084
0.084

E
0.084
0.083
0.083
0.082
0.082
0.082
0.083
0.083
0.084
0.084
0.085
0.084

F
0.084
0.084
0.083
0.083
0.082
0.082
0.082
0.083
0.083
0.084
0.084
0.085

F
0.085
0.084
0.084
0.083
0.083
0.082
0.082
0.082
0.083
0.083
0.084
0.084

G
0.084
0.085
0.084
0.084
0.083
0.083
0.082
0.082
0.082
0.083
0.083
0.084

A
0.084
0.084
0.085
0.084
0.084
0.083
0.083
0.082
0.082
0.082
0.083
0.083

A
0.083
0.084
0.084
0.085
0.084
0.084
0.083
0.083
0.082
0.082
0.082
0.083

B
0.083
0.083
0.084
0.084
0.085
0.084
0.084
0.083
0.083
0.082
0.082
0.082

0.082
0.083

0.083

0.084

0.084

0.085

0.084

0.084

0.083
0.083

0.082
0.082

Figure 8: Transition probability matrix for five complete steps of the triadic
Transition
probability
matrixonfor
complete
steps
chromatic
approach,
starting to converge
the five
Markov
chains stationary
distribution

Selected Bibliography

## SMT | Nov 7, 2014

Weaving
SMT | Nov 7, 2014

Tim Ingold
SMT | Nov 7, 2014

## According to the standard view, the form pre-exists in

the makers mind, and is simply impressed upon the
material. Now I do not deny that the basket-maker
may begin work with a pretty clear idea of the form she
wishes to create. The actual, concrete form of the
basket, however, does not issue from the idea. It rather
comes into being through the gradual unfolding of that
field of forces set up through the active and sensuous
engagement of practitioner and material.

## Effectively, the form of the basket emerges through a

pattern of skilled movement, and it is the rhythmic
repetition of that movement that gives rise to the
regularity of form. (Ingold 2000, 342)

## The notion of making [] defines an activity purely in

terms of its capacity to yield a certain object, whereas
weaving focuses on the character of the process by
which that object comes into existence. To emphasise
making is to regard the object as the expression of an
idea; to emphasise weaving is to regard it as the
embodiment of a rhythmic movement.
(Ingold 2000, 346)

Db

Ab
F

C
A

Bb

Eb

F
D

A
F#

C#

## Even if you are following all the technical rules

its important to remember that its not
mathematics, as George says.
Ben Britton

## As a former student of Georges I think after

20-30 years of playing hes figured out a way to
explain what he does naturally. I dont think when
hes playing hes thinking up a major 3rd here,
play a diminished triad, down a minor second,
play a major triad up, etc.
Hes just doin his thing...
Greg Sinibaldi

## I cannot, will not and wont even try to apply TCA

directly (note-for-note) in my improvisations.
I dont see the point in doing so. I personally work
hard at the TCA simply to open my ears and fingers
to different sounds and new possibilities.
...and honestly, I don't think even George Garzone
himself applies the concepts when he blows! Its
more of a practice tool than a literal way of playing.
Marc-Andr Seguin
SMT | Nov 7, 2014

## The goal is to get this into your subconscious.

George Garzone (Downbeat January 2009, 99)

## If I am at s and wish to get to t, what characteristic gesture

[] should I perform in order to arrive there?
(Lewin 1987, 159)

## If I am at s and wish to get to t, what characteristic gesture

[] should I perform in order to arrive there?
(Lewin 1987, 159)

## SMT | Nov 7, 2014

Selected Bibliography
Clampitt, David. 1998. Alternative Interpretations of Some Measures from
Parsifal. Journal of Music Theory 42: 32134.
Cohn, Richard. 2012. Audacious Euphony: Chromaticism and the Triads Second
Nature. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Garzone, George. 2008. The Music of George Garzone and the Triadic Chromatic
Approach. Savannah, GA: JodyJazz.
. 2009. Basics of the Triadic Chromatic Approach. Downbeat 76/5:
5859.
Gollin, Edward. 2000. Representations of Space and Conceptions of Distance
in Transformational Music Theories. Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University.
Harrison, Daniel. 1988. Some Group Properties of Triple Counterpoint and
Their Influence on Compositions by J. S. Bach. Journal of Music Theory 32:
2349.
Ingold, Tim. 2000. The Perception of the Environment: Essays on Livelihood,
Dwelling, and Skill. London and New York: Routledge.
Lewin, David. 1987. Generalized Musical Intervals and Transformations. New
Haven: Yale University Press.
Lorentz, Jonathan. 2008. The Improvisational Process of Saxophonist George
Garzone with Analysis of Selected Jazz Solos from 19951999. Ph.D. dissertation, New York University.
Rockwell, Joti. 2009. Banjo Transformations and Bluegrass Rhythm. Journal
of Music Theory 53: 13762.