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ABSTRACT

The report is prepared after conduction a field visit


under the department of civil engineering (Kathmandu
Engineering College) according to the curriculum of
Engineering Geology I on Poush 23-24, 2072. In the
field visit, we studied, observed, analyzed, and
identified different types of rocks as per our theoretical
course on the basis of geology and structures.
The field visit was conducted in Malekhu, which has
availability of different rocks natural topography in
small extent of area and easy accessibility from the
Kathmandu valley, a three hours bus travel along the
Prithvi Highway from Kalimati. It gives us the clear
ideas about the importance of geological structures in
the field of civil engineering. This visit also provided us
the knowledge regarding the different geological
problems that are likely to occur during engineering
works.
The report includes all studies data, relevant
photographs, theories, and discussion of geology of the
site.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
At every step, an engineer has to encounter earth and
earth, as a material or as construction site. So it proves
the importance of geology to civil engineering
professionals. He or she must go through the inner core
of engineering geology for his/her perfection and for
professionalism.
The trip was really fruitful to us and certainly we got a
lot of knowledge about the rocks and its structures.
Thank you Dr. Kamal Kant sir and Dr. Subesh sir for
sharing a part of his brain and to help us in field and
giving complete suggestions. We also express our deep
sense of gratitude to Ramin sir and Ganesh sir for
guidance during field visit. Also thanks for the driver dai
for taking us safely to the spot. At last, we would like to
thank all our friends of other groups who cooperate
kindly in team work ...
All of you did a wonderful job to lay out these pages.
At last, we would like to express our gratitude to our
college, Kathmandu Engineering College. We are proud
to be students of Kathmandu engineering college
Bibek Silwal (071bce031)
Bikalpa Subedi(071bce032)
Bikesh Karmacharya(071bce033)
Bikram Dhungana(071bce034)
Bipin G.C.(071bce035)
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TABLE OF CONTENT
1.

Introduction
.
introduction of field work
Objective of the study

Location of study area


methodology
limitations
02. Measurements of
rock

attitude

of

planar

features

of

Types of geological compass


Instruments used during geographical study of
malekhu

04. Geological traverse along malekhu


Location L1
Location L2
Location L3
Location L4
Location L5
Location L6
Location L7
Location L8
Location L9
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Location L10
Location L11
Photographs

05.Recognition of geological units


Geological structures
Phenomenon of geological structures
Classification of geological structures
Folds Observed
Engineering significance of the geological
structures
Photographs
06.Conclusions
07.References

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1.0 Introduction
What lies on the earth and inside it?
The curiosity gave birth the geology; the science of
earth. It is an applied science, which deals with hills
and mountains, valleys and Georges, and along lonely
forests and rugged terrain. In geological fieldwork
examination of the outcrops of rock, bodies upon the
earth surface are carefully studied in details and
reasonable inference on the geological structure and
history of the region are drawn. With good approach to
the geology and reasonable common sense of logical
interpretation, one can form a neat picture of the
geology of the region.
The two days tour from we were taken to Malekhu for
geological study. First day, we were taught to handle
the geologist compass to measure dip and strike and
we got ideas about river morphology, identification of
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rock and different geological units of lesser Himalaya


and Kathmandu nappy. However the two days trip was
not sufficient to fulfill the thirst of us.
1.1 Introduction of field work
This field work was done in the Malekhu area for
the partial fulfilment of BE Civil Engineering degree
under Tribhuwan University.
The study team of students were accompanied and
guided by our respected subject teachers during the
field study in order to obtain knowledge about the
geological structures, their engineering significance and
distribution of different rocks and rock types.

1.2 Objectives of the Study


To measure strike of bedding plane
To measure the dip direction and dip amount
of the bedding planes and joints
To identify the rock type and its property.
To be clear enough about joints, faults and
folds.

1.3 Location of study area


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Malekhu lies on lesser Himalayan unit of Nepal. It


has peculiar geological features within a small range of
area. The Malekhu V.D.C. of Dhading district lies about
70 Kms south west of Kathmandu valley and is located
at latitude of 27o 50' 38'' to 27o 45' 50'' and longitude
of 24o49'5'' to 84o50' 50. It is situated on the bank of
Trishuli and Malekhu river. The Trishuli river is running
from the eastern direction to the western diredtion and
the Malekhu river from south to north which mingles
into the Trishuli river. Also, the Malekhu river has a
tributary namely the Apakhola which meets the
Malekhu river at a distance about 3 kms from the
Malekhu bazzar. Climatically Malekhu is a sub-tropical
zone. Mainly the rainfall is during the monsoon.

1.4 Methodology
The geological field study was carried out in the
following ways:
Field reconnaissance and geological traverse of the
study site,
Sketch of the field topography and rocks,
Photographs of the field topography and rocks,
Description of the field topography and rocks.
The study team of students were accompanied and
guided by our respected teachers during the field study.
The rock samples were observed, the altitude
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parameters of bedding planes were obtained by the use


of Brunton Compass. The idea obtained was noted and
photographs of important spots were taken. A film blow
of hammer checks the strength and rock types
(Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic) were
obtained and acid test were performed on the rocks

1.5 Limitations
Malekhu was the best possible spot for this
geological study while the time allocated was not
enough for the detail study . The study could have been
more effective if a little more time was provided. The
field work was carried out and completed within two
days, which means the study couldnt be very thorough
due to lack of time available, and the areas to be
covered were more.

2. Measurement of Attitude of Planner Features


Of Rock
2.1 Types of compass :
1. Clinometers compass: The compass, which can
measure bearing and orientation with two sets. Since it
doesnt consist the sprit level, it should leveled by
approximation and may not be accurate.
2. Burnton compass: It consists of sprit level and can
measure bearing and inclination with relatively less
error.

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3. Clar compass: It can read both inclination and


bearing at once. Relatively easier to handle.
4. Digital compass: Displays digits as reading. Easy to
handle.
5. Digital PC compass: The compass directly
connected to the computer. Do not need to booking.
2.2 Instruments used during geographical study
of
/
malekhu:
1.geological compass (Burnton compass)
A geological compass is used to measure the
attitudes of the geological features. The compass was
mainly used for measuring the bearing of object with
respect to north and to measure inclination .The main
operation of geological compass consists of opening
the compass carefully, leveling the spirit level and
placing the compass on the planer feature for
measurement.
2. Hammer
A hammer was used to test the hardness of
rock in the field. It was performed by striking the
tip of the hammer and the surface of the rock
whose hardness was to be determined and for the
extraction of the sample.
3. IDENTIFICATION OF ROCKS
Petrology is the scientific study of rocks.
3.1 Classification of rocks
1. Sedimentary rocks:

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The sedimentary rocks, as the name indicates, are


those rocks which are derived from the consolidation of
sediments of the preexisting rocks (igneous,
sedimentary or metamorphic) under the influence of
mechanical, chemical or organic activities of the
denuding agents (i.e. wind, running water, glacier etc.)
The products of wear and tear of the rocks due to
natural agencies like blowing wind, running water,
percolating underground water etc when subjected,
under favorable conditions to sedimentation and
subsequent compaction results in the formation of rock
masses due to pressure and temperature conditions
which are known as the sedimentary rocks. Well known
examples are sandstone, lime stone, shale etc.
2. Metamorphic rocks:
The rocks formed from the pre-existing rocks (igneous,
sedimentary or metamorphic) by the processes of
metamorphism (Greek, Meta=Change, morphe=form).
It is a process by which existing rocks are modified
under the influence of heat pressure or both
The ultimate product of metamorphism of already
existing igneous, sedimentary or even metamorphic
rocks incorporating temperature, pressure, stress,
chemically active substances are called metamorphic
rocks, e.g. Slate, Marble, Schist, Gneiss, Phyllite.

3. Igneous rocks
Primary or first formed rocks are called igneous (Latin,
Ignis=Fire) rocks. It has been observed in deep wells,
borings, mines, etc. that the temperature increases
with the depth, generally there is an increase of 1o C for
every 40m. depth.
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The consolidation of magma results in the formation of


igneous rocks e.g. of igneous rocks are granite, rhyolite.
The magma remains in the molten state; so long its
physical and chemical environments remain
unchanged. But whenever some changes (pressure,
temperature etc) takes place; the magma no longer
remains in molten state, but is changed into solid state
called rock. Those rocks, which are formed directly by
the solidification of magma on the earth's surface or
below it, are called igneous rock.

4. GEOLOGICAL TRAVERSE ALONG MALEKHU


RIVER
Location no. L1

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The first field spot of geology was conducted on the left


bank of Malekhu River. It is located near broken bridge
about 200m upstream from the Prithvi Highway.

S.N.

Physical Properties

Sample number 01

Color

Bluish grey

Texture

Crystalline

Grain size

Fine

Acid test

Vigorously reacts with HCl

Attitude

N 65 E/ 89 SE

Mineral comp.

Calcite

Scratch test

Scratched by hammer

Origin/rock
type

Sedimentary

10

Identification

Dolomite (CaCo3.MgCo3)

11

Uses

Raw material for cement and


sometimes in flooring

Location no.L2

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The next field visit was conducted on right bank of


Malekhu River. It is located far from the Malekhu Bridge
which is upstream about 400m from the Prithvi
Highway.
phyllite was found at this location.
S.N.

Physical Properties

Sample number

02

Color

Silver white

Texture

Crystalline

Attitude

N 80 E/77 SE

Structures/cleavage Foliation plane/slaty

Grain size

Medium to coarse

Sp. Gravity

Low to medium

Acid test

No reaction

Origin/rock type

Low garde-Metamorphic

10

Engineering
properties

Low strength

11

Identification

Phyllite

Location no.L3:
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The outcrop was located at the left bank of


Malekhu river about 300m upstream of previous
location. Amphibolite was found at this location.
S.N.

Physical Properties

Sample number

03

Color

Dark green

Texture

Crystalline

Attitude

N 23 W/ 85 SE

Structures/cleavage Foliation plane/slaty

Sp. Gravity

High

Mineral comp.

90% amphibole

Origin/rock type

Igneous (plutonic rock)

Engineering
properties

High strength

10

Identification

Amphibolite

Magma intrusion into the robang phyllite.


Hard, gave metallic sound when hammered.
Massive rock, couldnt found any exact
orientation.

Location no.L4
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The outcrop was located on the left bank of Malekhu


river about 200m upstream of the river.
S.N.

Physical Properties

Sample number

04

Color

Dirty white

Texture

Crystaline

Attitude

N 80 E/ 77 SE

Structures/cleavage Folliation plane/slaty

Grain size

Medium

Acid test

No reaction

Mineral comp.

Quartz

Origin/rock type

Low grade-Metamorphic

10

Engineering
properties

High strength, durable

11

Identification

Quartzite

12

Uses

For making reeling in home


applications,building stone, road
metal, concrete aggregates

Location no.L5
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The outcrop was located on the right bank of Malekhu


river about 100m from the previous location upstream
of the river.
Schist was found in this location.
S.N.

Physical Properties

Sample number

05

Color

Shiny green

Texture

Crystalline

Attitude

N 70 E/ 45 SE

Structures

Schistosity

Grain size

Medium

Sp. Gravity

Low to medium

Acid test

No reaction

Origin/rock type

High Grade-Metamorphic

10

Identification

Garnate Schist

Location no.L6
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The outcrop was located on the left bank of


Malekhu river about 200m from previous location. It
was far from the broken bridge about 1100 upstream
from the Malekhu river .
Folds were studied on that area . Folds are the
deformational structure on the rock strata formed due
to compressional forces. Folds are created when high
pressure is applied on rocks. When compressional force
is applied , ptygmatic fold is found and when tensional
force is applied boundinage is found.
Typical fold had observed in this location and is
described later.

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Location no.L7:
The outcrop was located about 500-600m from
the previous location upstream of the Malekhu river on
the left bank of the river.

S.N.

Physical Properties

Sample number

07

Color

White

Texture

Crystalline

Structures

Foliation plane

Grain size

Coarse

Acid test

Vigorous

Mineral comp.

Calcite

Scratch test

Scratched by hammer

Origin/rock type

Metamorphic

10

Engineering
properties

High strength, less porous, has rust


due to iron of pyrite

11

Identification

Marble

12

Uses

As face works like flooring, wall


panels, statue making, tabletops and
other decorative works

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Location no.L8:
The next field study was carried on the right side of the
river near Malekhu-Dhading road on uphill side and on
the appeal side of the road.
S.N.

Physical Properties

Sample number

08

Color

White/light grey

Pattern

G I sheets

Attitude

: N 87 E / 36 NW

Grain size

Fine

Acid test

No reaction

Origin/rock type

Metamorphic

Identification

Quartzite rock

Description

It produces metallic sound. It is a


primary rock.

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Location no.L9:
The next field study was carried near Malekhu-Dhading
road on the left side of the barhi khola.
S.N.

Physical Properties

Sample number

09

Origin/rock type Metamorphic

Identification

Meta-sandstone

Structure

Cross Lamination

Description

Layers separated by color contrast

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Location no.L10
The next field study was carried along the
Malekhu-Dhading road.

S.N.

Physical Properties

Sample number

10

Color

Black

Texture

Non crystalline

Attitude

N 153 E/ 32 SE

Structures

Foliation plane/slaty cleavage

Grain size

Fine

Sp. Gravity

Low to medium

Acid test

No reaction

Origin/rock type

Low-Grade metamorphic

10

Engineering properties

Low strength, slightly


weathered, slaty cleavage and
soapy feel

11

Identification

Slate

12

Uses

Roofing, in electrical industry


as switch board, bases and
various turned or shaped parts
due to its insulating property

Location no.L11:
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The outcrop was located about 500-600m from


the previous location upstream of the Malekhu river on
the left bank of the river.
S.N
.

Physical Properties

Sample number

11

Color

Light Grey

Texture

Crystalline

Attitude

N 80 E / 35 SE

Description

It had a metallic sound

Acid test

Vigorous

11

Origin/rock type Igneous Rock

12

Engineering
properties

High strength

13

Identification

Granite

13

Uses

As aggregates, foundations in the construction


and as slab

Thus all three types of rock we had found at our field


area. Mostly there were metamorphic rock and then
sedimentary and lastly igneous. For civil engineers,
only identification of rock is not sufficient. He or she
should have an idea about the engineering significance
of specific rock type. We all had learnt on this basis and
partially we got it too.
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PHOTOGRAPHS

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5.0 RECOGNITION OF GEOLOGICAL UNITS:


Nepal lies at active tectonic region. Indian plate has
been penetrating the Asian plate continuously. Due to
this several thrusts were formed and forming till
today .the Himalayas also formed due to tectonic
activity.

5.1 Geological structures


Geological structure is the study of the permanent
deformation and rock failure created by the changes in
stress through geologic time. It is by far the most
important aspect of geology for the engineer to
understand. Tectonic processes are responsible for the
many discontinuity planes (fractures, faults, joints) that
permeate rock masses controlling their strength, stressstrain characteristics and the transmission and storage
of fluids. The stress due to various geological processes
such as tectonic activities, earthquake, volcanic
activities, etc tends to displace and distort the rocks
within the earth.
5.2 Phenomenon of geological structures
Phenomenon of structures
subdivided into two groups:

may

be

conveniently

Brittle structures - recording the brittle-elastic


failure of rocks in the past. Faults and joints fall in
this broad category.
Ductile structures - preserving the permanent
viscoplastic deformation of rock throughout
geologic time. Folds and metamorphic foliations
are the expression of this type of structure.
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5.3 Classification of Geological Structure


5.3.1 Primary Structures
Primary Structures are those which are formed at
the time of rock formation. It often allows us to
determine the original facing direction of strata and are
also useful in age determination. Some major primary
structures are as follows :
a) Bedding
b) Mudcrack
c) Ripple Mark
d) Cross Lamination
a. Bedding
Beds refer to the layers of sedimentary rock
that posses almost planar top and bottom surfaces.
These layers are often easily distinguished on the basis
of variation in color, composition and grain size.
Beddings are planar top and bottom
surface of the beds. These are the planes of weakness.
Beds are classified according to their
thickness such as very thick bedded (above 100cm) ,
thick bedded (30com 100cm),medium bedded (10cm30cm) and thin bedded (1cm-10cm).
b. Mudcrack
Mudcrack are sedimentary structures which are
formed as sediment dries and contracts .These primary
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structure are concave in shape . They are concave


toward original direction of bed.
c. Ripple Mark
These are the sedimentary structures in which
the sediments are deposited in the form of wave by the
action of flowing water . The shallow slope faces of
source of flow create ripple marks. There are two types
of ripple marks :
a) Oscillation Ripple Marks
b) Current Ripple Marks
d. Cross Lamination
Deposition of sediments in different sets that
make an angle with each other is known as cross
lamination . Truncation occurs on upper portion of bed.
Younging direction is on concave side of cross
lamination.
5.3.2 Secondary Structures
Secondary structures are those which are formed
after the time of rock formation. Secondary structures
mainly consists of metamorphic rocks . Some of the
secondary structures are as follows :
a) Fold
b) Fault
c) Thrust
a. Folds:
Folds are ductile deformation on the structure.
They are the strata permanently deformed either by
buckling or fracturing, if subjected to stress in a rock
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mass, and they cannot resist. Type of deformation


depends upon mechanical properties of rocks and the
nature of stress when applied slowly deep on the earth.
Folds are the ductile deformation which does not
rupture or fracture the rock but instead caused them to
permanently bend. Ductile deformation most often
occurs well below the earths surface. The
classifications of folds are:a) Based on upward and
downward bend:
Anticline fold
Syncline fold
b) Based on the basis of relationship of axial plane to
limbs:
Symmetrical fold
Assymetrical fold
Recumbent fold
Overturned fold
c) Based on the hinge line
Non-Plunging fold
Plunging fold
d) Based on the behavior of depth
Similar fold
Parallel fold
e) Based on the shape
Rounded fold
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Angular fold
Chevron fold
Box fold
f) Based on the mode of occurrence
Synclinorium
Anticlinorium
b. Fault
Fault is a rupture plane along which the opposite walls
are moved each other. This movement may vary from a
few cm to many km depending upon the magnitude
and nature of the stress and the resistance offered by
the rocks. The faults are also caused due to earthquake
but it is still a complicated geological problem, which
awaits satisfactory solution. Whether the earthquakes
are caused due to faulting or faults are caused due to
earthquake. The fault is occurred due to the plate
movements, which creates the shear stress. The
metamorphic form of gauge and breccia is called
mylonite.

The classifications of faults are as:


a) Geometrical classification:
Strike fault
Dip fault
Oblique fault
b) Genetic classification
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Normal fault
Reverse fault
Strike slip fault
c. Thrust
A kind of reversed fault in which the hanging
wall has actually moved relative to the footwall is called
thrust. It is also known as low angle reverse fault.
There are mainly following thrusts.
1) Main central thrust
2) Main boundary thrust
3) Main frontal thrust
The Mahabharat range lies between MFTand MBT.
Similarly, siwalik range lies below MFT. Our Study area
lies between Kathmandu complex and nuwakot
complex, both is the member of Mahabharat
synclonyrium.
The study area starts from Maleuku dolomite, robang
formation (robang phyllite with rock quartzite) to
raduwa formation ( garnetiferous schist). This is the
boundary between nuwakot and Kathmandu complex
and known as Mahabharat thrust.

5.4 Folds Observed


Ptygmatic Fold
The folds are created when high pressure is applied
on rocks. The pressure is applied due to compression
ptygmatic fold is formed
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Boundinage Fold
The fold created due to tensile pressure boundinage
fold is formed.
5.6 Engineering significance of the geological
structures
The most striking features of rocks as engineering
materials is that they are not simple, isotropic, elastic
and continuous but very complex, strongly anisotropic,
inelastic discontinuous. It is virtually impossible to
deduce the stress history of rocks from their observed
deformation. There are always many ambiguous
deformation paths that could have been followed to
produce what is observed.

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7.0 CONCLUSIONS:
At last we had concluded the malekhu and its
surrounding is the answer for geological curiosity.
Actually, the malekhu is small in area but it has large
amount or numbers of the geological phenomenon and
hence it can provide broad knowledge for the learners
Minimum knowledge require for engineers in geology
field is fulfilled in this trip.
Along the Malekhu River, we found sedimentary rock
and gradually metamorphosed from phyllite to
crystalline schist and along the way to Dhading, it
gradually metamorphosed to lime stone to phyllite and
then to slate.
Every major bed was dipped in north direction. This
proved the tectonic movement along the way from
south to north.
Handling the compass and to measure the attitude of
rock outcrop is now very easy to us.
Finally it will be better to say that if there had not been
any geological trip,we would not have learnt a lot of
these information as theoretical knowledge is not
enough for field work. So this geological field work
helped a lot us for study and later on during field works.
.Really ...........beyond expectation! We do salute to our
respective teachers again!!

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REFERENCES:
Data collected during the field visit
Sketches drawn and photo taken in the field
www.wikipedia.com
http://www.geology.edu.np
Engineering Geology:
By Prakash Chandra Ghimire
Mahesh Singh Dhar
A Text Book of Engineering Geology
Recent Publications related to the subject
matters and other sites.

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