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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF LINEAR

INDUCTION MOTOR
Project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements
For the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
By
S.ANKITA

(10241A0259)

K.AKHILA

(10241A0223)

CH.MOUNIKA

(10241A0214)

B.SUSHMA

(10241A0208)

Under the guidance of


Dr. D. V. PUSHPA LATHA
Professor

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering


GOKARAJU RANGARAJU INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING &
TECHNOLOGY, BACHUPALLY, HYDERABAD-72.

GOKARAJU RANGARAJU INSITUTE OF ENGINEERING &


TECHNOLOGY
HYDERABAD, ANDHRA PRADESH.
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL &ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project report entitled DESIGN AND
CONSTRUCTION OF LINEAR INDUCTION MOTOR that is
submitted by S.ANKITA, K.AKHILA, CH.MOUNIKA, B.SUSHMA
in partial fulfilment for the award of Degree in Bachelor of
Technology in Electrical and Electronics Engineering to the
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University is a record of bonafide
work carried out by them under my guidance and supervision. The
results embodied in this project report have not been submitted to any
other University or Institute for the award of any graduation degree.

Mr. M.CHAKRAVARTHY
HOD, EEE
GRIET, Hyderabad.

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

Dr. D.V.PUSHPA LATHA


Professor, EEE
GRIET, Hyderabad.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This is to place on record my appreciation and deep gratitude to the persons Without whose
support this project would never seen the light of day.

I am very thankful to Dr. J. N. Murthy Principal, Department of Computer science


Engineering, G.R.I.E.T for their valuable suggestion

I wish to express my propound sense of gratitude to Mr. P. S. Raju, Director, G.R.I.E.T for
his guidance, encouragement, and for all facilities to complete this project.

I have immense pleasure in expressing my thanks and deep sense of gratitude to my guide
Dr. D. V. Pushpa Latha, Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering,
G.R.I.E.T for her guidance throughout this project.

I also express my sincere thanks to Assoc. Prof. M. Chakravarthy, Head of the


Department, G.R.I.E.T and for extending their help.

Finally I express my sincere gratitude to Assoc. Prof. E. Venkateswarulu, Project Review


Committee, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, G.R.I.E.T and all the
members of faculty and my friends who contributed their valuable advice and helped to
complete the project successfully.

ABSTRACT

Design and Construction of Linear Induction Motor

Nowadays, Linear Induction Motors are widely used, in many industrial applications
including transportation, conveyor systems, actuators, material handling, pumping of liquid
metal, and sliding door closers, etc. with satisfactory performance. The most obvious
advantage of linear motor is that it has no gears and requires no mechanical rotary-to-linear
converters.
The linear induction motor is very useful at places requiring linear motion since it
produces thrust

directly and

has

simple

structure,

easy maintenance,

high

acceleration/deceleration and low cost. Linear Induction Motor is basically a rotating squirrel
cage induction motor opened out flat. Instead of producing rotary torque from a cylindrical
machine it produces linear force from a flat one. The rotor of the linear induction motor acts
as the primary and the stator of the linear induction motor as the secondary. As a result, the
stator is built with steel laminations and rotor is built with lamination sheet over the
secondary iron.
In this project, a linear induction motor prototype has been designed and constructed
to identify and study the different concepts and parameters of the motor which are different
from other types of electrical machines.

CONTENTS
ABSTRACT
LIST OF FIGURES..3
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION4-8
1.1 BASIC PRINCIPLE FOR LIM4
1.2 OPERATION........6
1.3 HISTORY.....7
CHAPTER 2: PARTS OF LIM........9-10
2.1 THREE PHASE COIL ASSEMBLY...9
2.2 REACTION PLATE.9
CHAPTER 3: PROPERTIES OF LIM.11-17
3.1 LINEAR SYNCHRONOUS SPEED...11
3.2 FORCES IN LIM.....11
3.2.1 THRUST.....13
3.2.2 NORMAL...16
3.2.3 LATERAL..17
CHAPTER 4: DESIGN OF LIM......18-26
4.1 DESIGN PARAMETERS OF LIM..18
4.1.1 AIR GAP.....18
4.1.2 POLE PITCH..18
4.1.3 NUMBER OF POLES....19
4.1.4 SECONDAR SURFACE RESISTIVITY...19
4.1.5 PRIMARY CORE...20
4.1.6 THE GOODNESS FACTOR..20
4.2 DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS...22
4.3 DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION...23
4.4 DESIGN CALCULATIONS23
CHAPTER 5: CONSTRUCTION OF LIM..............................27-34
5.1 SLOT DESIGN IN AUTOCAD...27

5.2 AREA OF CONDUCTOR27


5.3 REACTION PLATE CONSTRUCTION.28
5.4 STATOR CONSTRUCTION...29
5.5 WINDING PROCESS..30
5.6 STEPS TO CONSTRUCT STATOR AND REACTION PLATE...32
CHAPTER 6 : EFFECTS IN LIM....35-38
6.1 END EFFECT...35
6.2 EDGE EFFECT36
6.3 GAP EFFECT...36
6.4 ADVANTAGES OF LIM.37
6.5 DISADVANTAGES OF LIM...37
6.6 APPLICATIONS OF LIM37
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE..........................39
BIBLOGRAPHY40

LIST OF FIGURE
FIGURE 1.1 GEOMETRY OF SINGLE SIDED LIM6
FIGURE 1.2 LIM CUT OPEN FROM NORMAL INDUCTION MOTOR7
FIGURE 2.1 THREE PHASE COIL ASSEMBLY..9
FIGURE 2.2 SECONDARY10
FIGURE 3.2.1 LINEAR AND ROTARY GAP SIZES...12
FIGURE 3.2.2 FORCES..13
FIGURE 3.2.3 THRUST LINE VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS......14
FIGURE 3.2.4 AIR GAP ON THRUST AND CURRENT CHARACTERISTICS.......14
FIGURE 3.2.5 LIM CIRCUIT.16
FIGURE 3.2.6 NORMAL FORCE IN LIM.17
FIGURE 5.1 SLOT DESIGN IN AUTOCAD.....27
FIGURE 5.2 ACTUAL SLOT BEFORE WINDING......30
FIGURE 5.5.1 WINDING DESIGN IN GRAPH SHEET...32
FIGURE 5.5.2 WINDING DESIGN IN AUTOCAD..33
FIGURE 5.6.1 LAMINATION....34
FIGURE 5.6.2 CORE AFTER WINDING THE COILS.35
FIGURE 6.1 NORMAL FLUX DENSITY DISTRIBUTION OF LIM..36
FIGURE 6.2 EDGE EFFECT IN LIM.37

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
A Linear Induction motor (LIM) is a special type of induction motor which gives
linear motion instead of rotational motion, as in the case of conventional induction motor. It
operates on the principle of which a conventional induction motor operates. In contrast with
its rotary counterpart, a LIM may have a moving primary (with a fixed secondary) or a
moving secondary (the primary being stationary). In our project stator of LIM act as primary
and rotor acts as secondary. LIM can be a short primary or short secondary, depending on
whether the primary or secondary is shorter. In each case, either primary or the secondary can
be the moving member in our project, secondary is short. In addition, the LIM may have two
primaries face to face to obtain a double-sided LIM (DLIM). If the LIM has only one
primary, it is called as single sided LIM from the figure 1.1. The secondary of the LIM is
normally conducting plate made of either copper or aluminum in which interaction currents
are induced. In a single primary system a Ferro magnetic plate is usually placed on the other
side of the conducting plate to provide a path of low reluctance to the main flux. However the
ferromagnetic plate gets attracted towards the primary on energization of the field and this
causes unequal gap length on the two sides of the conducting plate. Depending on the size
and ratings of LIM they can produce thrust up to several thousand Newtons .The speed of
the LIM is determined by winding design and supply frequency. Conceptually all types of
motors have possible linear configurations(dc, induction ,synchronous and reluctance).The dc
motor and synchronous motor requires double excitation (field and armature).This makes the

hardware applications rather complex .The reluctance motor requires thrust since it has no
excitation. This is the reason why most of the attention is diverted to LIM.
As in a rotary motor, a LIM may have three phases two or one. The primaries of these
all LIMs are essentially similar to stator winding of rotary machine .The starting mechanism
in a single phase LIM is similar to that in the single phase conventional induction
motor[1,2,3]. LIM can have various configurations like the air gap can be flat or cylindrical,
and the flux can be longitudinal or transverse. The primary goal is to analyze a small
laboratory sized linear induction motor for educational purpose. This project describes the
design and construction of LIM. It describes implementation of the stator component of
LIM. The completion of the stator design is necessary in order to analyze LIM. Finally stator
is built with steel lamination having 8 poles and wound with double layer distributed
winding. The design incorporates many effects which are associated with LIM. This project
also focuses on the advantages and drawback of LIM along with comparison with
conventional rotary motor. LIM belongs to the group of special electric machine that converts
electric energy directly into mechanical energy of linear motion. A LIM is a non-contacting,
high speed, linear motor that operates on the same principal as a rotary, squirrel cage,
induction motor. Progress in power electronics and a.c. variable speed drives has had a strong
impact on the development of linear induction drives [1]. Linear electric machines are direct
drives, they allow accelerations, and velocity and position-accuracy far better than their
rotary counterparts; however, they are usually more expensive. LIM is conceptually a rotary
motor is cut and unrolled. It can be thought to be basically a rotating squirrel cage induction
motor opened out flat. Instead of producing rotary torque from a cylindrical machine it
produces linear force from a flat one. Depending upon size and rating of the linear induction
motors they can produce thrust up to several thousand Newton. The speed of LIM is

determined by the winding design and supply frequency unrolling of stator of rotating
induction motor

Figure 1.1 Geometry of single sided LIM


LIM can have various configurations, the air gap can be flat or cylindrical and the flux
can be longitudinal or transverse. LIM can be of short primary or short secondary. Depending
upon whether the primary or secondary is shorter, in each case either primary or secondary
can be moving member. Finally the motor can be single sided or double sided. Our project is
concerned with designing of short primary, flat air gap, longitudinal flux and a single sided
motor.

1.1 BASIC PRINCIPLE OF LIM


Whenever there occurs a relative speed between the field and short circuited rotor,
current is induced in rotor which results in electromagnetic forces and under the influence of
these forces according to Lenzs law the conductor tries to move in such a ways so as to
eliminate the induced current[2,3]. In the simplest form of LIM, it consist of field system
6

having three phase distributed windings placed in slots while the secondary can be a reaction
plate of aluminum or copper, in which interaction current are induced.

1.2 OPERATION
The LIM operates on the same principal as a rotary squirrel cage induction motor. The
rotary induction motor becomes a LIM when the coils are laid out flat; the reaction plate in
the LIM becomes the equivalent rotor. This is made from a non magnetic highly conductive
material. The induced field can be maximized by backing up, the reaction plate with an iron
plate (conducting sheet). The iron plate serves to amplify the magnetic field produced in the
coil. The air gap between the stator and the reaction plate must typically be very small, much
smaller than the allowable gap for the synchronous motor, otherwise the amount of current
required for the stator coils becomes unreasonable. When supplying an AC current to the
coils, a rotating magnetic field is produced as showed in the figure 1.2. Currents induced in
the reaction plate by the rotating magnetic field create a secondary magnetic field. It is not
necessary to keep the field of motion synchronized to the position of the reaction plate, since
the second field is induced by the stator coil. A linear thrust is produced with the reaction
between these two fields.

Figure 1.2 LIM cut open from normal induction motor

1.2 HISTORY
The history of LIM extends as far back as the 19th century. Although these machines
have been practically forgotten for the last 30 or 40 years, there appears to be a genuine
revival of the interest in them.
The idea of the LIM is probably contemporary with the invention of the rotating field
machine by the scientists Tesla, Dolivo-Doborovolsky, and Ferrari sometime after 1885.
However, some of the authors give other dates for the discovery. The idea of a linear electric
motor is almost as old as that of a rotary electric motor. The first linear motor was a
reluctance machine built by Charles Wheatstone in 1845, to be closely followed by a similar
machine by Henry Fox Talbert. Nicola Tesla invented the induction motor in 1888.
The first patent in linear induction motors was obtained by the mayor of Pittsburg in
1895. The first electromagnetic gun was undoubtedly Birkelands cannon of 1918, again a
reluctance device, but possibly the first tubular motor using a row of simple coils energized in
sequence with DC. In 1946, scientist Westinghouse built a full-scale aircraft launcher, the
Electropult, which was an induction motor with a moving primary. It was this machine that
inspired E.R.Laithwaite to begin his own work on linear motors in the 1950s. Since from
1950, there have been rapid advances in linear induction machines for producing standstill
forces, for propelling high- speed vehicles and as accelerators for producing kinetic energy.

CHAPTER 2
PARTS OF LIM
2.1 THREE PHASE COIL ASSEMBLY
It consists of 3 phase windings that are wound on a steel laminated core. These
laminations are insulated from one another with very fine materials such as paper or adhesive
glue. The entire assembly can be encapsulated with thermally conductive epoxy for insulation
and stability. The core will require some mounting to ensure its stability during operation.
The core is provided with semi enclosed slots to house the conductors. The single sided
configuration consists of a single coil assembly that is used in conjunction with aluminum or
copper plate which may be backed with either steel or iron plate if necessary shown in figure
2.1. The coil assembly can be directly connected to A.C lines for single speed application.

Figure 2.1 Three phase coil assembly

2.2 REACTION PLATE


It is made up of non magnetic and highly conductive material. The easiest way to
build up this secondary circuit is by use of aluminum plate as it is cheap and easy to handle.
If the thickness of aluminum plate is small the conducting plate will get hot, if it is too big the
9

air gap would be large and the efficiency of the machine goes low. The plate may be little bit
wider than primary iron to allow the current closing its path outside the active area. The
induced field is maximized by backing up the reaction with the iron plate, this plate serve to
amplify the magnetic field produced in the coil [2].The reaction plate is used as secondary
shown in the figure 2.2

Figure 2.2 secondary

10

CHAPTER 3
PROPERTIES OF LIM
This chapter describes the various properties associated with LIM. When comparing
the properties of the LIM to the properties of the conventional rotary motor, these are the
properties of the LIM to the properties of the conventional rotary motor , these can be applied
directly to LIMs

3.1 LINEAR SYNCHRONOUS SPEED


Consider a conventional rotary motor, it is possible to lay a section of the stator out
flat without affecting the shape or speed of the magnetic field. Hence, the flat stator would
produce a magnetic field that moves at constant speed. The linear synchronous speed is given
Where
v= linear synchronous speed [m/s]
p = width of one pole-pitch [m]
f = frequency [Hz]
It is important to note that the linear speed does not depend upon the number of poles
but only depend on the pole-pitch width. By this logic, it is possible to for a 2-pole linear
machine to have the same linear synchronous speed as that of a 6-pole linear machine,
provided that they have the same pole-pitch width.

3.2 FORCES
The main forces involved with the LIM are thrust, normal and lateral. Thrust is what
this thesis interested in and its relationship with the other adjustable parameter the normal
force is perpendicular to the stator in the z direction. Lateral forces are side forces that are
undesirable, due to the orientation of the stator.Under normal operation, the LIM develops a
thrust proportional to the square of the applied voltage and this reduces as the slip is reduced
11

similarly to that of an induction motor with a high rotor resistance. The amount of thrust
produced by a LIM is as follows:
F=Pr/Vs..(3.2)
Where,
F=thrust [N],
Pr=power transmitted to the rotor [W],
Vs=linear synchronous speed [m/s]

Figure 3.2.1 Linear and rotary gap sizes : (a) effective radius;(b) effective radius 2R;(c)
travel length 2R;(d) travel length 4R

for case (a),

for case (b),

12

For each one cycle of current the field travels two pole pitches. In Figure (3.2.1 b), the
pole pitch is twice that of Figure (3.2.1 a). The results clearly indicate that linear synchronous
speed does not depend on the number of poles, but depend on the pole pitch.
To increase the linear synchronous speed of the LIM, the designer could either:
(a) Design a longer pole pitch.
(b) Increased the supply frequency.
The main forces involved with the LIM are thrust, normal and lateral (Figure 3.2.2).
Thrust is what this thesis is interested in, and its relationship with the other adjustable
parameters. The normal force is perpendicular to the stator in the z-direction. Lateral forces
are side forces that are undesirable, due to orientation of the stator.

Figure 3.2.2 Forces

3.2.1 THRUST
Under normal operations, the LIM develops a thrust proportional to the square of the applied
voltage (Figure 3.1.1 a), and this reduces as the slip is reduced similarly to that of an
induction motor with a high rotor resistance [3].
13

The air gap for a typical LIM machine is 2mm, variations up to 20% are considered
acceptable. The effect of the air gap on thrust and current line is shown in (Figure 3.2.3 ).

Figure 3.2.3 Thrust line voltage characteristics

Figure 3.2.4 Air gap on thrust and current characteristics


The amount of thrust produced by a LIM is as follows

where
14

F = thrust [N]
= power transmitter to the rotor [W]
= linear synchronous speed [m/s]

The equivalent circuit of the LIM shown in figure 3.2.5 is exactly the same as of a
conventional 3-phase rotary machine. The power output is as follows:
Power output

,.(3.2.1.1)

Referring to equation (2), if F is the amount of thrust produced in Newtons and is the linear
synchronous speed in m/s, then:
=

,(3.2.1.2)

If the iron loss is very small, thus:


Power output

= Power input - 3

,(3.2.1.3)

The power input can be approximately related to the mechanical input of the machine

Figure 3.2.5 LIM circuit

3.1.2 NORMAL
In a double-sided linear induction motor (DLIM) configuration, the reaction plate is
centrally located between the two primary stators. The normal force between one stator and

15

the reaction plate is equal and opposite to that of the second stator. Therefore, the resultant
normal force is zero. A net normal force will only occur if the reaction plate (secondary) is
placed asymmetrically between the two stators. This force tends to center the reaction plate.
A small displacement of the reaction plate from the center is directly proportional to the
displacement.
In a SLIM configuration in which this thesis is based on, there is a rather large net
force between the primary and secondary. This is because of the fundamental asymmetrical
topology. Figure (3.2.6) shows the variation of the normal force with speed and frequency of
primary current. At synchronous speed, the force is an attractive force and its magnitude is
reduced as the speed is reduced. At certain speeds the force will become repulsive, especially
at high-frequency operation.

Figure 3.2.6 normal force in LIM

3.1.3 LATERAL
Lateral force moves in the y-direction as shown in Figure 3.2.2. These occur due to
the asymmetric positioning of the stator in a LIM. Any displacement from the central
positioning will result in an unstable system. Generally, small displacements will only result
16

in very small lateral force. At high frequency operation, the lateral force can be become quite
chaotic. A set of guided mechanical wheel tracks is sufficient to eliminate small lateral force.

17

CHAPTER 4
DESIGN OF LIM
4.1 DESIGN PARAMETERS OF LIM
The design parameters of LIM are

Air gap

Pole pitch

Number of poles

Secondary surface resistivity

Primary core

The goodness factor

4.1.1 AIR GAP


The length of the air gap is very important parameter in machine design. A large air
gap requires a large magnetizing current and results in a smaller power factor. In the case of
an LIM, exit-end zone losses increase with a larger air gap. Also, output force and efficiency
decrease when the design incorporates a large air gap. The goodness factor is inversely
proportional to the air gap. Using the goodness factor concept, machine design can be
optimized, since for a low-speed LIM, to a certain extent, the larger the goodness factor, the
better the machine [2]. Thus, it is clear that the air gap should be as small as is mechanically
possible
4.1.2 POLE PITCH
For larger goodness factor, the pole pitch should be as large as possible. Note that the
pole pitch ( ) is squared in the expression goodness factor. However, too large pole pitch
results in increased back iron thickness, which could tremendously increase the weight of the
LIM. Also, if pole pitch increases, efficiency decreases, resulting in less active length of
18

conductor (conductor in the slot) to the total length of the conductor (conductor in the slot
plus the end connections). As known, end connections serve no useful purpose and can
produce very high leakages and losses. Synchronous speed ( ) is related to frequency and
pole pitch as follows:
=2

(m/s).(4.1.2)

Thus, for a given frequency, the pole pitch alone determines the synchronous speed of
the machine .For a given machine length, a large pole pitch results in a smaller number of
poles, which is usually not desired.
4.1.3 NUMBER OF POLES
End effects are reduced with an increase in the number of poles, in the LIM. This is
because more poles tend to share the constant end-effect a loss between them, resulting in a
better performing machine. Thus, it would be advantageous to have a machine with a large
number of poles.
4.1.4 SECONDARY SURFACE RESISTIVITY
The secondary thickness and the material play an important role in the performance of
a LIM. The thicker secondary, the larger goodness factor. In case of a nonferrous secondary,
a thicker material results in a larger air gap, which is undesirable. For nonferrous secondaries,
then, the thickness must be small, but strong enough to withstand the magnetic-forces
present. In ferrous secondaries, the air gap is independent of material thickness. However, a
thicker secondary results in larger starting currents. As a result, the thickness chosen depends
on the starting current limitations rather than the desired increase in the goodness factor.
The secondary material is as effective as thickness on secondary resistivity.
Therefore, the lower resistivity improves the goodness factor and also gives less secondary
loss. But low resistivity results in a shower decay of the end-effect travelling wave which
reduces the output. Thus, a compromise between goodness factor and secondary resistivity is

19

necessary. Of the two homogeneous materials, ferromagnetic material has the advantage of
high permeability, which means less magnetising current; but a disadvantage is the strong
magnetic pull between the primary and the secondary [2]. A nonferrous but electrically
conducting material reduces this large magnetic pull, but when the permeability of air gap is
low, magnetising currents are very large. A composite secondary of both ferrous and
nonferrous materials combines the advantage of each (high permeability and reduced
magnetic pull) and appears to be the best secondary electromagnetically. Cost considerations
are not included in our discussions.
4.1.5 PRIMARY CORE
The variations in stator core design also affect the performance of a LIM. Given a
constant cross-sectional area of copper in the slot, a machine with narrower teeth produces
more force and has better efficiency and a better power factor than a machine with wider
teeth. This is because a machine with narrower teeth has lower primary and secondary
leakage reactance that results in a smaller secondary time constant. A smaller time constant
produces an end-effect travelling wave of smaller magnitude, and this leads to larger machine
output. To determine the narrowest tooth width, the flux density in the tooth must be
considered, tooth saturation setting the limit on the narrowest tooth

4.1.6 THE GOODNESS FACTOR

Induction motors draw current from its primary source and then transfers it to the
secondary circuit crossing the air gap by induction. The difference between the power
transferred across the air gap and the rotor losses is available as the mechanical energy to
drive the load. In prospective of energy conversion, the primary resistance and the leakage
reactances of the primary and the secondary circuit are not essential. The energy conversion
efficiency can be improved as the mutual reactance

of the motor is increased and the

20

secondary circuit resistance

is decreased. The goodness factor is

for a basic

motor. As the value of G increases, the performance of the machine gets better.
The goodness factor for a linear motor can be defined as :

=(

)*

.(4.1.6)

Where
f = source frequency
p =pole pitch of primary winding
= surface resistivity of the secondary conducting sheet
g = air gap
= permittivity of free space
= linear synchronous speed
From the equation(4.1.6), it can be seen that a LIM is a better energy conversion device
at high synchronous speeds and also when the ratio (p / g) is large. This can be explained in terms
from a more fundamental point of view. For example, a linear motor, just like any other
electromagnetic device, has an inherent force density limitation imposed on it by the design
constraints of electric and magnetic loading [4]s. With the resulting thrust limitations, high power
for a given sized of motor is only possible at very high speeds. When the ratio (p / g) is small, the
primary leakage flux is large, and consequently the effective magnetic coupling is reduced and
the LIM shows poor performance. The air gap is determined by mechanical considerations and
hence, for a given linear synchronous speed, the pole pitch and therefore the ratio (p /g) are
reduced as frequency is increased. Low-frequency motors therefore perform much better than
high-frequency ones.

21

Parameter
Air gap(g)

In case of Increasing

In case of Decreasing

Larger magnetizing current

Larger Goodness factor

Larger exit and end losses

Larger output force


Larger efficiency

Pole pitch ()

Larger Goodness factor

Larger number of poles

Increase back iron thickness


Number of

Smaller end effect

poles (2p)

Larger secondary leakage


reactance

Secondary

Larger starting current

Larger secondary leakage

thickness

Larger goodness factor

reactance

Secondary

Smaller end effects

Larger goodness factor

resistivity
Tooth width(w)

Less secondary loss


Larger leakage reactance

Large force
Larger efficiency

4.2 DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS


Type of machine: 3 Asynchronous, linear induction motor
Supply Voltage: 440 V,
Rating: 1HP,
Poles: 8 Pole,
Frequency: 50 Hz.,
Slot: 24, double layer

4.3 DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION


Here the stator design is particularly important, many different design were evaluated
and analyze before achieving the final design. Theres no particular design procedure given in
22

any book or research paper, so we have tried to develop the design procedure step from our
knowledge of conventional This project describes the design and implementation of the stator
component of LIM. The design incorporates the theory discussed in the previous chapters
along with any additional theory required to produce induction motor. Care has been taken by
us to make necessary changes and modification in the design as per requirements

4.4 DESIGN CALCULATIONS


Q=Input power,
=total no. of stator conductor,
m=no. of phases,
= stator conductor per slot,
=no. of conductor per phase,
=per phase voltage,
=synchronous. Speed,
=per phase current,
q=no. of slot/pole/phase,
f=frequency,
P=Pole,
=flux,
=efficiency,
=turns per phase,
= power factor,
=stator pitch,
=Winding Factor,
ac =specific electric loading,
23

=specific magnetic loading,


D =Diameter of stator ( D=length),
L =length (width in our case)

slot= P x m x q
=4x3x2
=24.(4.4.1)
=120f/P
=120x50/4
=1500 rpm(25 rps) (4.4.2)
Taking =0.7 and cos=0.75
Q= output/(xcos)
=0.746/(0.75x0.72)
=1.388KVA..(4.4.3)

Now Q=Cox

xLx

Where Co=11 *

..(4.4.4)
*ac*10-3

It is defined as number of armature conductor per unit armature length and is given as
ac= 3 *

therefore ac = 3*
= 6*

*2*
*

/L
/L
/L..(4.4.5)

It is defined as average flux density over the air gap and it is given by

=P/ DL

Therefore,
m = DL/
For small motor taking

*P(4.4.6)
=0.4 and ac=24000 and

=0.836
24

We get,
Co=88.281..(4.4.7)
Substituting (5) in (4) and arranging in terms of D and L ,we get
D2L=Q/Cox
=1.388/88.281x25
=6.289x10-4 m 3 (4.4.8)
Assuming ratio L/=0.4 considering linear induction motor which should have D greater than
L ,as in the case of LIMs unlike rotary machines it is D( D) which is taken as length and L is
taken as width of LIM , the height of LIM is kept near to the width of LIM in our case.
Taking all these
Consideration we get L=0.3141D, substituting back we get, D=0.127m and
L=0.035m 13-14 May 2011 B.V.M. Engineering College, V.V.Nagar,Gujarat,India National
Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering & Technology
Hence D =0.3980.4m (Length) and L 0.04m (width) and height taken near to the width as
0.04 m
Now substituting value of D and L in equation no.(4.4.6) , we get
m = *0.127*0.04*0.4/4
=1.562 Weber..(4.4.9)

Turns per phase Tph:


=4.44*f**

Here

=E/3

=440/3
= 254.034 V.(4.4.10)
=

/4.44*f**

= 254.034/4.44*50*1.562*10-3*0.836
25

= 875.9
880 turns..(4.4.11)
= total stator conductor
=3*(2

=5280(4.4.12)
=total stator conductor per slot
= /
=5280/24
=220.(4.4.13)

26

CHAPTER 5
CONSTRUCTION OF LIM
5.1 SLOT DESIGN IN AUTOCAD
Slot designing in AutoCAD is done based on the number of poles, which is 8 as per
our requirement and pole pitch, which is 4. Here the slots are designed such that the core
material is utilized in an optimum manner as shown in the figure 5.1. Length of each
lamination sheet is 353x40 mm with slot area as 240

Figure 5.1 Slot design in AutoCAD

27

5.2 AREA OF CONDUCTOR


Stator current per phase

=Q/3*

And a=

/ Where =current density in stator

conductor. So diameter of stator conductor =(4*a)/ . the above equation diameter of the
bare conductor can be found keeping the allowance for insulation diameter. The gauge of the
wire can found from the standard table which comes out to be 0.457(nominal diameter)

Calculation of stator slots:


No. of slot=length of the stator/stator pitch
=L/

.(5.2)

Approximate area of each slot =stator conductor per slot/no. of slots/space factor as
=

/space factor.

Here we considered 21 guage wire whose diameter is 0.813mm.


Area of the conductor of size 21 guage is 05189

5.3 REACTION PLATE CONSTRUCTION


The reaction plate design can consist of either a solid or laminated design. To further
improve the performance, the reaction plate is coated with conduction sheet of either copper
or aluminum. In case of SLIM configuration, the secondary component is an important
segment of the LIM magnetic circuit. The SLIM performance is greatly degraded if the
reaction plate is solid instead of laminations. With laminated plate, the eddy current carried
by the laminations and the resulting ohmic losses and the thrust are both small enough to be
ignored. The amount of thrust produced by the SLIM will depend on the permeability of the
reaction plate; lower permeability will result in lower thrust and poor power factor.
28

There is no particular design consideration for reaction plate, but for standard operation it is
to be noted that the length of the reaction plate should be equal or more than the addition of
the width of the core and the pole pitch of the primary winding.
..(5.3)
Where,
= width of secondary,
= width of core,
p

= pole pitch

Now as far as the manufacturing process is concerned, the process is not a difficult job as that
of the stator construction. The aluminum plate of the necessary width, thickness and length is
designed. We have gone for an aluminum plate of the thickness about 0.5mm, which is
sufficient enough for flux linkage through it. .

5.4 STATOR CONSTRUCTION


The core manufacturing process started with purchasing of various lamination sheets
of steel alloys basically CRGO material used for core manufacturing. These lamination sheets
are painted with thinner to clean them from any oil or dust which might have accumulated
over storage time. Each of lamination sheets is handled with care because without cleaning
process the glue will not properly stick to one another to finally form a laminated core. Now
according to the design specification cuts the lamination sheet into required shapes as per the
slot length and width and number of slots so required. The height of the core depends upon
the number of stakes put together to form the core. After cutting of the laminations is done
the vendor prepares a necessary DYE or JIG for particular job. The following fig. gives us a
better idea of JIG or DYE. The stator must be designed as accurately as possible and this is
possible with help of a jig device only. The Jig lines each lamination into the correct slot,
29

forming a neat layer. Each layer is glued together with an adhesive glue or spray. Once 10
layers are filled up on the jig with the glue, they are compressed firmly to ensure an even
distribution of the glue. Finally all the layers are glued together and compressed to form the
stator as shown in the figure 5.4. Here it can be seen that the slots are to be securely insulated
to prevent from any short circuiting of the winding so as to avoid short circuit due to
overheating.

Figure 5.4 Actual slot before winding

5.5 WINDING PROCESS


There are various winding techniques which can be used for LIM
Triple layer winding
Double layer winding
Single layer winding
Single layer winding is simple and used in the low capacity of the machine as our
project is to analyze the working of the linear induction motor we have adopted this type of
winding. In this type of winding there is only one set of coil in each slot. It is actually mush
winding that is used for small rating machines.

30

Chording of coils is a technique used in conventional machines design to improve the


shape of the flux wave, but in LIM, the penalties for poor m.m.f shapes are not so severe as with
rotary machines.
The double layer has two sets of winding per slot, this results in a more neater
arrangement. The end of each coil is underneath the start of the adjacent coil. This special
arrangement ensures that all coils are identically situated with respect to each other. All three
phases will have the same amount of current and the winding is said to be balanced. The coils
discussed only have one turn, practical LIM must have a number of turns. The number of turns
depends on the supply current and size of the slot [4,7].
The pattern of the winding is seen to repeat every six slots, so that the six slots produce two poles,
or there are three slots /pole. A winding like this is said to have 1 slot/pole/phase (there being
three phase).

Figure 5.1 Winding design in graph sheet


31

Figure 5.2 winding design in AutoCAD

5.6 STEPS TO CONSTRUCT THE STATOR AND REACTION PLATE


Step 1
The purchased laminations contained a layer of insulation with some traces of oil to prevent
rusting and corrosion. The first step is to clean the laminations with paint thinner from any oil and
dust which might have accumulated over storage time. Methylated sprits will destroy the
insulation on the laminations. Each lamination must be handled with care, to prevent any
contaminations. Without the cleaning process, the glue will not properly stick onto each
lamination.

32

Step 2
The laminations are made to sets with each set containing 24 laminations. To make them tight,
without any air gap varnish is applied. Any varnish squeezed out through the sides is cleaned with
a cloth.

Figure 5.3 Lamination


Step 3
Now the winding of wire is done according to the winding scheme shown in the figure
Step 4
Each slot has two layers with 25 coils passing through each slot
Step 5
The slots are required to be securely insulated to prevent from any short-circuiting of the
windings. Standard insulation paper is used with some adhesive spray to cover the slots.
Step 6
The next step involves assembling the winding arrangements. It would be very messy and
troublesome to wind one wire at a time. A more realistic approach is to wind them per phase. A
33

bundle of 25 wires are twisted together to form a tight large group of wires as shown in the figure
5.4.

Figure 5.4 Core after winding the coils


Step 5
Now take a rotor usually a conducting material such as aluminium, copper etc of specified length
and of around 2mm thickness and place it exactly above the stator.

Step 6
Now connect the stator to 3 phase autotransformer and give supply to the stator and observe how
the rotor levitates and moves in a linear direction

34

CHAPTER 6
EFFECTS IN LIM
6.1 END EFFECT
One obvious difference between LIM and conventional rotary machines is that the fact
that LIM has ends. This means that the travelling magnetic field cannot join up on itself, and
introduces end effects. The end effects can result in characteristics that are much different from
rotary machines.
The end effect is clearly exhibited in the form of a non-uniform flux density distribution along the
length of the motor [6,7]r. For a LIM supplied with a constant current, typical variation of the
normal flux density with slip and position along the length is illustrated in Figure 6.1. With
constant primary current, its magnetizing component and consequently the air gap flux decreases
as the load component increases with increasing slip. This is true for any induction motor, with or
without end effect [2,3]. For a given slip, the flux density builds up along the LIM length,
beginning with a small flux density at the entry end. Depending on the length of penetration of
the entry-end- effect-wave, the flux density may not even reach the nominal level that would be
found in a motor without end effect.

Figure 6.1 Normal flux density distribution of LIM

35

The theoretical evaluation of these effects is much too complicated to explain, but the results can
be stated fairly simply. Laithwaite states that, if the total number of pole-pitches on the shorter
member (either short stator or short rotor) exceeds four, the additional effect of the transients due
to the edges is likely to be so small that it can be neglected, except in large, powerful machines.

6.2 EDGE EFFECT


The edge effect is generally described as the effect of having finite width for a linear
motor. This effect is more evident with lower values of width-to-air gap ratio. Figure 6.2
illustrates the variation of the normal flux density in the transverse direction. The figure shows a
dip at the center due to the edge effect, and the dip is more obvious at higher slips.

Figure 6.2 Edge effect in LIM


As a result, the edge effect will increase the secondary resistivity, lateral instability due to the
uneven secondary overhangs and a reduction in performance.

6.3 GAP EFFECT


Conventional rotary machine has a very small air gap, in the order of 2mm or less. This
allows a high gap flux density. For LIM, the air gap can be as large as 5cm for one operating on a
traction system. The magnetic circuit reluctance is much higher for large air gaps, in which the

36

magnetizing current is also higher. There is a rather large leakage flux that further reduces the
operating power factor [5]. The gap density is less than for the rotary counterpart, and
consequently iron losses form a smaller part of the total loss.

6.4 ADVANTANGES OF LIM

Low maintenance cost because of absence of rotating parts.

Simplicity.

No limitation of tractive effort due to adhesion between wheel and the rail.

No limitation of maximum speed due to centrifugal forces.

Cost is less as we use less lamination and less winding.

6.5 DISADVANTAGES OF L.I.M

Poor utilization of motor due to transverse effect and end effect.

Larger air-gap and non magnetic reaction rail need more magnetic current resulting in
poor efficiency and low power factor.

Difficulties encountered in maintaining adequate clearances at points and crossing.

6.6 APPLICATIONS OF LIM:


Some of the applications of LIM are as follows:

Sliding doors

Metallic belt conveyers

Travelling cranes

Electromagnetic pumps

Catapults to accelerate warplanes

Robotic systems

Linear accelerators

Stage/curtain movement

37

OTHER APPLICATIONS :

Sliding doors

Sewage distributors

Automated ware housing

Aluminium can
propulsion

Crane drives

Stage/curtain movement

Mixer/stirrer drives

Scrap sorting/movement

Revolving doors

Baggage handling

Flat circular motors

Linear accelerators

Flexible manufacturing
systems

Personal rapid transport


systems

Ship test tank drives

Bogie drives

Turnable drives

Target movements

Steel tube movements

Wire winding

Slewing drives

Sheet metal
movements

Pallet drives

Research machines

Automated postal
systems

Multi-motor-In-Track
systems

Theme park rides

Extrusion pullers

Robotic systems

People movers

Low profile drives

Conveying systems

Airport carousels

38

CONCLUSION AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

CONCLUSION
It is observed that the required mmf /phase is not consistent among phases. This will
be worked only by isolating each phase group and measuring continuity, resistance and
inductance.
There by the coil to coil variations in turns, any shorts in turns can be predicted and
repaired as required.

FUTURE SCOPE OF LIM


Linear induction motor have potential to revolutionize how we travel. The trains
themselves are less costly and noisy than conventional trains and they require less
maintenance due to their levitation eliminating most of the friction[4]. Maglev trains use far
less energy than conventional trains and emit no pollutants. High speeds allow for maglev
trains to be a realistic alternative to flying, and they can help reduce air and road congestion
as more people are moving around the world. So far LIM has been controlled with few
classic controllers [6], in future various latest control methodologies are upcoming which will
have effective control of LIM in terms of the efficiency and performance of the machine.
The U.S. Navy plans to start launching future naval fixed aircraft using linear
induction motor. The scientists are changing the shape of stator to flat, and the vehicle is to
used in place of the rotor. This vehicle will move in straight line and will achieve high
acceleration quickly.

39

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

[1] Theory and performance of Electrical Machines- J.B.Gupta /

edition/ Published

by S Kataria & Sons

[2] A course in Electrical Machine design by A.K SAWHNEY/

edition/Published by

Dhanpat Rai & Sons, 1984


[3] Theory of linear induction motors /2nd edition/ Journal: New York, Halsted Press,
1979. 246 p. Publication Date: 00/1979

[4] A. Landovskis and V. Rondeau. Magnetic Levitation Trains [Online].Available:


http://ninpope-physics.com/maglev/index.php

[5] C. Woodford. (2011, Aug. 19). How linear motors work (including how MAGLEV
railroads work): An introduction [Online]. Available: http://www.explainth
atstuff.com/linearmotor.html
[6] I. J. Nagrath, M. Gopal, Control Systems Engineering, New Age International
Publishers, 2007, chap. 3.

[7] M. Mirsalim, A. Doroudi and J. S. Moghani "Obtaining the operating characteristics


of linear induction motors: A new approach", IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 38, no. 2
[8]W. Xu , G. Sun and Y. Li "Research on performance characteristics of linear
induction motor", IEEE Industrial Electronics and Applications Conf., pp.86 -88 2007
[9]T. Takao, A. Niiro, S. Suzuki, et al., "Experimental and numerical analysis of lift force
in magnetic levitation system," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol.15, no.2, pp. 22812284, 2005. (Pubitemid 40964302)

40