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INTRODUCTION

AN

TO

LIVING

THE

RELIGIONS

STUDY

OF

OF

SOME

THE

EAST

STUDIES

Christianity

Ethics.

and

By

13.

D.

By

S.

ARCHIBALD

ALEXANDER,

D.D.

M.A.,
The

THEOLOGY.

IN

Environment

of

Christianity.

Early

M.A.,

ANGUS,

Ph.D.

History

of

the

Study

of

Theology.

Vol.

I.

of

the

Study

of

Theology.

Vol.

II.

C.

Dr.

By

A.

BRIGGS.

History

C.

Dr.

By

A.

BRIGGS.

Christian

The

Hope.
and

Christianity

Christian
A

Critical

Gospel

By

and

and

Protestant

WILLIAM

By

FORSYTH.

GARVIE.

Testament.

WEST

GEORGE

By

before

M.A.

HOLDSWORTH,

WILLIAM

ROBERT

By

Thought

Old

By

Sin.

E.

A.

the

T.

D.Litt.

D.D.,

Psychology.

its

Christianity

Rev.

to

GRAY,

P.

Rev.

By

Introduction

Origins.

Faith

God.

Apologetics.

BUCHANAN

R.

D.D.

MACKINTOSH,

Kant.

By

D.D.

INGE,

C.

A.

MCGIFFERT,

D.D.

Ph.D.,
The

of

HAM,
CUNNING-

WILLIAM

By

D.Sc.

D.D.,

Justification

D.D.

Ph.D.,

BROWN,

ADAMS

Questions.

Social

F.B.A.,
The

W.

By

of

Theology

the

Gospels.

JAMES

By

D.D.,

MOFFATT,

D.Litt.

History

of

Christian

CALDWELL
The

of

Doctrine

Revelation
A

Critical

The

D.C.L.

Holy

Spirit.

EDWARD

By

By
the

M.A.

MOZLHY,
D.D.

ORR,

JAMES

New

K.

Testament.

ARTHUR

By

D.D.

By

HASTINGS

D.Litt.

RASHDALL,

(Durham).
By

T.

REES,

(Lond.),

M.A.

of

the

Old

of

the

New

B.A.

Testament.

By

(Oxon).
H.

WHEELER

M.A.
and

Christian

Canon

Testament.

By

ALEXANDER

D.Litt.

SOUTER,

Thought

WORKMAN,
The

to

Ideas

Religious

Kant.

J.

By

Religion.

and

(Oxon),

Text

Atonement.

PEAKE,

ROBINSON,
The

the

Introduction

Philosophy

since

D.D.

Inspiration.

and

SAMUEL

The

Thought

MOORE,

Theology

the

Reformation.

Epistles.

By

to

By

HERBERT

B.

D.Litt.
of

the

H.

A.

A.

KENNEDY,

D.Sc.,

D.D.

The

Pharisees

and

Jesus.

By

A.

T.

ROBERTSON,

A.M.,

D.D.,

LL.D.
The

Originality
MACKINTOSH,

of

D.D.,

the

Christian
D.Phil.

Message.

By

H.

R.

INTRODUCTION

AN

THE

TO

STUDY

SOME

OF

LIVING

RELIGIONS
THE

OF

EAST

BY

SYDNEY
PRESIDENT

OF

D.D.

CAVE,
CHESHUNT

COLLEGE,

CAMBRIDGE

LONDON

DUCKWORTH
3

HENRIETTA

"
STREET,

COVENT

CO.
GARDEN

BL
o.

First

All

published
rights

in

reserved

1921

TO

E.

J.

C.

PREFACE

THIS
as

book

guide

beginner's

of the
it will

have

what

for

ignore,

the

and

the

hope

his

study

The
with

that

the

and

Hindus,

modern

many

them,

not

of

fear

that
of

popular

evil

first

be

Christian
Western
to

such

non-Christian
is

for

has

end

and

books

hi
base

first, to

sought

to

the

the

the

the

nobler

the

contact

task

more

than
7

of
and

allegiance
deal

with
but

as

been

well

may

given

conspicuous

so

are

^to-day.

have

that

made

these

complaint

understanding

Besides,

to

research,

is

better

Buddhism

the

world

forms

association

retain

to

should

which

seems

in

creative

such

that

the

East,

religions urgent
to

still

forget

has

in

appreciate

to

the

intimate

antiquarian

the

But
it

religions.
culture

task

spirits

and

taught

he

operative

religion.

sympathy,

to

prominence

more

Upani-

the

Islam

ever

and

with

familiar

made

the

still

of

still able

are

subjects

forces

some

him

men,

as

spiritual

be

which

in

years

enough

for

like

passages.

some

saw

impossible

it

By

for

he

but

to

from

learn,

may

history,

have

given

are

may

classic

lived

living religions,
of

reader

their

on

writer

make

references

from

as

Hinduism

its

which

Bhagavadgltd,

detailed

of

books,

appreciate

purpose,

it omits

student
of

serve

significant

more

what

phases

many
and

the

and

power,

time,

the

it may

If it fulfils its

from

the

Thus

of

East.

much

as

understand

to

shads

value

includes.

it

needs

its

that

hope

study

of the

Religions

Living

the

to

the

in

written

been

has

impossible
beginner
elements
of

Eastern

to

part
out
with-

should
of

non-

with

relating Christianity
imperative,

and,

profitless recrimination,

if

PREFACE

it

be

must

the

the

has

writer

but

he

first

instance

the

readers

to

but

without

in

familiar

the

help

Mr.

for

has

his

in

the

to

of

non-

to

express

D.

E.

Buckler,

suggestive

of

case

and

of
of

criticisms

thanks

B.A.,

Trinity
the

the

use

their
in

vowel

long

Sanskrit

in

and

long.
of

one

of

now

the

Hall,

chapters

to

given

are

to

for

manuscript

M.A.,

places

invariably

his

the

not

by

words,

are

Jarvis,

kind,

seemed

consonants

of

foreign

has

it

this

the

vowels

revising

in

W.

F.

Rev.

of

Names

other

these

where

writer

his

In

except

words

students,

to

readily

phases

words

render

to

equivalents.
form.

indicated,

for

to

inadequate

some

Eastern

manual

but

marks,

English

The

of

elementary

an

nearest

Pali

in

expressed

aspirations

and

West

is

Christianity

which

inspire

anew,

the

in

the

in
to

serve

may

ligions
re-

made,

is

prepared

was

we

these

attempt

Christianity

which

transliteration

diacritical

their

explore

of

religions.
the

best,

which

Elsewhere
one

such

no

students,

elements

it

relate

to

try

book,

this

considered.

is

Here

theological

spiritual

In

to

for

in

Christian

is

that

its

rediscover

ignore,

that

ventured

trusts

of

alone

Christianity.1

to

some

ideal

his

Gravesend,
press,

and

Cambridge,
dealing

with

Islam.

on

the

based.

In

his
first

Redemption,
half

of

which,

Hindu

Chapters

and

(Oxford

Christian
II-IV

of

the

section

University
on

Hinduism

Press,
are

1919),

partly

CONTENTS

HINDUISM

I."

PAGE

I.

RELIGION

THE

OF

RIGVEDA

THE

.13
.

II.

III.

THE

BEGINNINGS

ESSENTIAL

HINDUISM,

STUDY

23

SPECULATION

BRAHMANIC

OF

IN

UPAN-

THE

30

ISHADS
.......

IV.

V.

HINDUISM

POPULAR

SOME

FURTHER

SONG

THE

AND

DEVELOPMENTS

OF

OF

LORD

THE

39

HINDUISM

47
.

VI.

SOME

MODERN

MOVEMENTS

RELIGIOUS

55
.

II."

I.

THE

LIFE

AND

ZOROASTRIANISM

TEACHING

ZOROASTER

OF

64
.

II.

RELIGION

THE

OF

LATER

THE

AVESTA

74
.

III.

THE

FURTHER

HISTORY

ZOROASTRIANISM

OF

"

THE

PARSIS

83

HI."

I.

BUDDHISM

INTRODUCTION

89
......

II.

THE

LIFE

OF

BUDDHA

THE

.93
.

III.

THE

TEACHING

OF

THE

BUDDHA

.114
.

IV.

THE

ORDER

V.

THE

FURTHER

129

HISTORY

OF

BUDDHISM

IN

INDIA

132
.

VI.

BUDDHISM

IN

CEYLON,

BURMA,

SIAM,

AND

TIBET

140

10

CONTENTS

IV."

THE

RELIGIONS

OF

CHINA

JAPAN

AND

PAGE

I.

ANCIENT

THE

RELIGION

or

CHINA

.147
.

II.

CONFUCIANISM

.154
.

III.

IV.

V.

TAOISM

159

BUDDHISM

THE

161

POPULAB

RELIGION

OF

CHINA

169
.

VI.

THE

CONTRIBUTION

SHINTO

OF

TO

RELIGION

THE

JAPAN

OF

173
......

VII.

THE

CONTRIBUTION
RELIGION

BUDDHISM

OF

TO

JAPAN

OF

.181
.

VIII.

THE

CONTRIBUTION
RELIGION

II.

III.

THE

THE

AND

THE

.191
.

MISSION

HIS

OF

AND

TO

ISLAM

FOUNDATIONS

FAITH

JAPAN

OF

V."

MUHAMMAD

CONFUCIANISM

OF

I.

THE

.194
.

ISLAM

PRACTICAL

.215

DUTIES

OF

ISLAM

219
.

IV.

THE

SECTS

OF

ISLAM

228
.....

V.

THE

ASCETIC

ELEMENT

IN

ISLAM

237
.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

.241
.

INDEX

249
.

USED

ABBREVIATIONS

Analects.

Ana.
.

Atharvaveda.

A.V.
.

"

Brdhmana.

Br.

Brih.

Brihaddranyaka

Up.
.

Chhdnd.

Upanishad.

Chhdndogya

Up.

Upanishad.

The

C.C.

Chinese

by

Kdthaka

Up.
.

and

Hindu

and

Christian.

Rigveda.
.

Sacred

S.B.E.
.

Satapatha

Br.

Books

of

the

East.

Brdhmana.

Surah.

S.
.

Svetdsvatara

Up.

Upanishad.

Vendlddd.

Vdd.
.

Warren,

W.B.T.
.

Yasna.

Y8.
.

Yt.

Religion

Upanishad.

Redemption,

R.V.

Svet.

of

R.H.C.

Sat.

and

Legge.

Encyclopaedia

E.R.E.

Kaih.

edited

Classics,

Yasht.

Buddhism

in

Translations.

Ethics.

lated
trans-

INTRODUCTION

AN
TO
LIVING

SOME

OF

STUDY

THE

EAST

THE

OF

RELIGIONS

I
HINDUISM

I."

THE

RELIGION

THE

OF

RIGVEDA

Introduction.
WHAT

Hinduism

much

religion

one

has

had

either
"

writer

Christians
of

faith

are

in

Yet
is

unity

some

based

either

brief

sketch,
of

this

Brdhmanas,
Mr.

man

from

Hindu

we

shall

essential
then

or

deal

first

on

pass

Essentials
on

the

"

13

Hinduism
for

with
the

the

So,

the

may
in

our

tions
presupposi-

Rigveda
Upanishads,

8,
of Hinduism,
p.
question,

difficult

chief

its

which

process,

in
to

has

faith,

others."1

from

devotion.

by

Hinduism

lyengar, in
twenty-five Hindus

by

karmic

the

point

one

Essential
and

the

and

neither

them

has.

karma,

in

by knowledge

and

Srinivasa

symposium

it

thought

least

have

distinguish

to

belief

redemption

won

of

the

on

concern

be

law,

nor

It

they

because

at

so

Hindu

modern

law;

have

not

authoritative

one

Hindus

the

is

religions.

common

they

but

are

and

because

one

of

As

conduct.

or

It

say.

lacks

and

Muhammadans

common

practice,

nor

founder

religion,

common

to

conglomeration

belief

of
the

says,

have

as

impossible

is

historic

no

standards,

it

is,

"

an

What

and

the

where
interesting
makes

14

HINDUISM

the doctrine

[i

of karma, and

of knowledge,
redemption by means
first taught, and to the Song of the Lord, where
are
the
of
another
of redemption is proclaimed
way
way
devotion
to a God.
Then, after a hasty glance at some
further developments, we
shall look for a little at some
"

modern

repulsion of
The

in Hinduism

movements

Western

due

Christian

or

attraction

the

to

or

thought.

Religionof the Rigveda.

Scripture of Hinduism, is a vast


and
turies
cenheterogeneous compilation representing many
Its oldest part, the mantra
of religiousculture.
or
the Rigveda,the Sdmaveda,
songs, exists in three collections,
of hymns
and
consists
formulae
the Yajurveda, and
and
with the sacrifices to the gods. A fourth
largelyconnected
collection,the Atharvaveda, is a collection of magic spells
which
later obtained
only much
recognition. To these
the Brdhmanas,
four verse
added
collections were
tions
exposithe
in prose
of the meaning of the sacrifices and
these,
to
are
Appended
writings of a more
hymns.
parts
mystic kind, of which the ritualistic and allegorical
are
usually called Aranyakas, Forest Books,1 and the
philosophic parts, Upanishads. It is impossible to state
what
books
confidence
with
to
belong.
any
ages these
We
give as tentative dates :
may
The

Veda, the Sacred

of the

1. The

Period

2. The

Period

1000

of the

?-600

of the

Rigveda
arranged in ten

consists

The

after books
which

embodies

reflect the
i

to

age

of the
they

and

Upanishads,
of

first book

the

hymns

Brdhmanas

and

to

be

studied

?-

B.C.

Brdhmanas,

a
was

B.C.

thousand

hymns
clearlycompiled

of all is the

earlier

were

600

than

more

Latest

nine.

with

So called because

Atharvaveda

The

books.

two

?-1000

B.C.

Period

3. The

Rigveda, 1500

some

tenth

hymns

will be

in the seclusion

book,
which

dealt with
of the forest.

in

RIOVEDA

THE

i]
the

chapter.

next

religionof

The

the

of later

Hinduism

Rigveda

is in marked

times.

Its

mark

the

hymns are
the expressionof the simple pastoralworship of the Aryan
invaders
of India, who
as
yet had only penetrated to the
Yet
it is impossible with
of India.
north-west
corner
Max
Miiller to speak of their
"primaeval simplicity."1
the childish age of the human
mind,"
They reveal not
centuries
of religious
but an age which had behind it many
of the earliest hymns
culture
; and, although some
may
without
reference to
to the gods, made
be genuine prayers
the sacrificial cult,very many,
possiblymost, are not fresh
but
works
of art
and
composed by
ingenuous songs,
tions
rhymesters to be used as incantahighly paid professional
of a theurgy. Yet the hymns
in the service
as
a
whole
are
primitiveto make it possibleto trace
sufficiently
the development of natural
phenomena into personified
deities,and, different as is their religionfrom that of later
India, they have not entirelylost their influence in the
No one, who
has listened to the chanting
world.
modern
the

to

contrast

"

ancient

of these

which

with

still in

daily use.
Savitar

to
"

the

been

to have

prays

they

May
So

whilst,as

regarded. The Rigvedic age is held


of these prayers
golden age, and some
are
Morning by morning the devout Hindu
:

excellent

that

shall see,

glory
"

stimulate

he

may

veneration

are

attain

we

fail to

can

songs,

our

prayers

of

Savitar, the God

;2

of the most

important of modern
the
reform
movements,
Arya-Samaj, goes back to the
and
cultured
Hindus
of every
Rigveda for its inspiration,
school quote lines from
these
hymns with affection and
we

one

reverence.

To

in

give, even
Rigvedic gods

is

of all the
outline, an account
impossible in the space at our disposal.

India

R. V., Ill, 62. 10.

What

meagre

can

it teach

us

1899

Quotations from

edit.,pp. 108,

109.

Griffiths' translation.

16

HINDUISM

It must

[i

suffice to indicate

brieflyby a few examples the


With
God
offthese hymns.
one
general character
only
shall we
deal at any.Jength
with
Varuna, the sublimest
and
most
deeply religiousof Vedic conceptions. In the
next
chapter we shall describe, with such fulness as our
speak of that
permits, those later hymns which
space
and
quest for the unknown
only God, which led in the
of
end to those conceptions of the infinite,characteristic
"

classic Hinduism.
The

earliest commentator

have

classifies the

knowledge,1

of earth, and

realms

air,and

this classification,
we
Gods

of the

Earth

of

the Air

Indra, Vayu,
Gods

Vedic

of the

the

deities into

we

three

the

Brihaspati.

the

Maruts, Rudra.
:

Savitar, Surya, Ushab, Pushan,

Gods

of whom

of the Bright Heaven


her sons,

Rigveda

bright heaven.
Adopting
the chief gods thus :
arrange

may

Agni, Soma, Yama,


Gods

the

on

of whom

the

chief

are

Vishnu
Varuna

Aditi
and

and

Mitra.

Earth.

popular of Vedic
Agni ranks with Indra as the most
the conception is
much
gods. Agni is fire,and however
with
the
it always remains
in close connection
personified
the wood
the altar.
flame that burns
Agni is the
upon
Men
friend.
ask his blessingfor the bride that
domestic
she may
have
in her new
home
happiness and abundant
offspring. Ancient as is his work, he yet is the youngest
of the gods for new
morning is he born on earth
every
is the messenger
the sacrificial fire. He
between
as
gods
and men
beg him to bring the gods hither to the
; men
feast their sacrifices have
hymn it is
provided. In one
1

Yaska,

about

500

B.C.

See Kaegi, The

Rigveda,Eng.

trans., p. 7.

he

said

that

make

him

best

from

grew

labours, and

to

promise

the

For

with
us

his

Men

and

shine

Agni,

thou

wealth

sin away.

our

fields,for

pleasant homes,

for wealth,

we

sacrifice

light chase
him

praise

functions

happy

thee

his

May

sin away,

light our

light chase

goodly
to

them

free

on

J[May

gods, to
last and

first and

the

to
to him
sacrifice.1 Men
of every
pray
be
the effect of sin that their lives may

Chasing

even

17

of his

weary
continue, had

prosperous
"

RIOVEDA

THE

i]

of the

our

sin

away."2

by assigning to
other gods. They

him

the

call

him

and

names

Indra,

and

Varuna.3

intoxicatingdrink delightedin by gods and


Its cult is closelyconnected
with that of Agni, the
men.
feel themselves
sacrificial fire. Drinking the Soma, men
from ill ; to the gods it is equally
immortal, and immune
Indra
the better
slays his
invigorating. By its power,
the
for Soma
dragon, and in return
gives men
enemy,
hundred
Over
riches.
a
hymns, including all the ninth
to this god.
book, are devoted
Soma

Gods

is the

of

Indra

the Air.
is the

chief of Vedic

gods, and

to

his

praise more

live
No one
can
hymns are devoted.
long in India without realisingthe supreme
importance of
the monsoon
there on which
the prosperity of the people
chieflydepends. Indra's task is to slay the dragon Vritra
who
keeps the waters locked up in the clouds, so that the
rain may
fall and
make
the earth fertile. The
hymns
with which
he, the thunder
praise him for the prowess
wielder, smites in pieces the evil Vritra.4 Indra is more

than

fourth

of the

than

force of nature

to

which

men

pray.

R.V.,X.51.

"

R.V.,1.97,

e.g. R.V., II. 1.

"

Cp. R.V.,

He
1.2.

I. 32.

is

thought

HINDUISM

18

[i

personalgod, a genialhero, the friend of the Aryans,


foes. Into his
and their helper against their dark-skinned
this as its
is put a half -tipsy boastful
mouth
song with
the Soma
I not drunk
refrain :
Have
juice ? '31 Dearly
he loves the Soma
drink, and is lavish to those that give
it him, but to the miserly he is stern in vengeance.
Of Vayu, or
Vdta, the Wind-God, there is no need to
of some
interest as
are
being so
speak. The Maruts
who
pany
accomclearlynature gods. They are the Storm-Gods
of

as

"

thunder,
the

strives

he

as

of

importance
great gods of

as

the

with

battle-axe

their

against the dragon,

Chief

rain.

monsoon

him

assist

and

Indra,

of the

Maruts

that

is

prototype of Siva,

holds back

Rudra, who

one

and

of the

is
two

Rigveda hides his


nature, and calls him
propitious (siva)yet, even
savage
is deprecated, and
his grace
is extolled, his anger
when
his bright arrow
jured
uninmen
may
pass them
pray that
by and that he will inflict no evil on their progeny.2
modern

The

Hinduism.

"

"

Gods

of the Bright Heaven.

Heaven

itself,Dyaus,

Rigveda, and
littlecelebrated in hymn
time

of the

associated
is made

had

lost his

importance by the
become
a dim
figureof antiquity,
With him is generally
or sacrifice.

Prithivi,the Mother

Earth, who, as his consort,


the pair
fruitful by the impregnating rain, and

hailed

the

of the

gods to whom
sages
times
had assigned precedence.3 Savitar repreof ancient
sents
the more
spiritual,and Surya the more
physical,
was
worshipped. Savitar is the
aspect in which the sun
in the morning
quickener,the enlivener,who brings to men
the good gift of brightness,and
in the evening, rest and
the
kindly night. He is the golden-eyed, the goldening
handed, the golden-tongued. Surya is depicted as followeach
man
a
maid, Ushas, the
morning, as a young
is portrayed the sudden
lovely goddess, in whom
splendour
are

as

R.V.,

X.

119.

great parents

R.V., VII.

1C.

R.V., VII.

53.

beauty,

Vishnu

is of

she

importance

three

In
the

"

He

him.

"

steps

is

other
her

for, whether

sons,
"

Rigveda only
solar god and

"

youth
daily task.
the allegiance
few hymns

his

famous

and
is

later

probably

"

translate

we

Mitra, and
"

Aditi

as

the

the

conception is
abstract, and she is not sufficiently
personifiedto have
In a famous
she
stanza
to her a specialhymn.
addressed
is identified with all the gods and men.
"

infinite

Aditi

or

is the

born

mid-air, Aditi is the mother

is

and

son.

gods, Aditi

is all
been

untrammelled,"

Aditi

heaven,

sire and

the
Aditi

the

Siva

and

come

celebrated.1

already

are

with

Varuna
stand
highest heaven
Adityas. Aditi, their mother,

the

than

In the

their

to

men

divides

he

as

Hindus.

assigned to

are

awake

to

appears

of modern

19

generations of men
morning, in undiminished

each

unwearied

but

go,
and

VEDA

The

dawn.

Indian

of the

"

RIG

THE

i]

and

five-classed

shall

Aditi

men,

all that

hath

born."2

be

gods, the Adityas are holy gods, feared,


because
of their caprice, but
because
of their allnot
seeing righteousness.
Unlike

"

the other

gods,

These

fain

eyes,

Looking
is

Adityas,vast, profound

within

Greatest

behold

the

even

deceive

to

thing

them

of

faithful,with

and

wicked,
the good and
evil

all is

Varuna,

the

In
three

of Job, he is hailed

the It.V, the

regions

three

of the

that the three


myth arose
dwarf, tricked the demons,
R. V., I. 89. 10.
"

steps

world.

steps
and
"

seem

It
are

the

kings

the

grandest of all
Veda, do we approach

conceptions. Here alone in the


the moral
In
sublimity of Hebraism.
Christian reader inevitablysuggest verses
the Book

to

near

distant."3

most

Vedic

and

many

the

to

the

as

the

strides

regained the

B. V., II. 27. 3.

by

earth.

that

from

course

times

which

of the
that

to

the

the Psalms

punisher of

represent the

in Brahmanic

was

words

the

sun
now

wrong,
through
current

Vishnu, incarnate

as

HINDUISM

20

almighty and all-seeingGod,


they have violated his holy

the
when
"

whose

fear

men

anger

law.1

with
those
dread
which,
Varuna,
weapons
sinner.
wound
the
Asura, at thy bidding,
from
Let us
not
Scatter, that we
light to exile.
pass away
who
hate us.
live, the men
may
of old, will we
O mighty Varuna, now
and
as
hereafter, even
Strike

not,

us

speak forth our worship.


in thyself,infallible god, thy statutes,

For

fixed

are

Wipe

as

on

profit,king, by gain
a

many

Varuna,
And

while

they plead

Not

our

is

old

near

leadeth

men

Mitra

the

only hymn
kindly sun, who
men

the

with

open

lead

to

evil

to

solemnity

of

or

astray

anger.
the younger

Varuna

is

dates

from

before

is another
devoted

eyes.4

heaven
Some

drew

forth

the

more

invasion

friend," and,

praise,is

and

Aditya,

Aryan

"

for

would

be easy
but it seems

and

slumber

Mitra, another

name

his sole

to

sustains

Varuna,

thousand

in these, O

even

hailed

earth, and

as

Kant's

the

as

great confession.

to understand

the

quiet

impossible to limit
not only the god of
that

hymns

in

watches

interpret Varuna

is
in this way, for Varuna
night,he is also the god of the waters, who

the

seduction, thoughtlessness,

with

reference

Of

not

me

doing."3

so, it would

were

let

us

upon
us."2

but

us,

wine, dice,

starry sky, which

If that

dawn

to

betrayed

Closelyassociated
whose
worship also
of India.

moved,

Varuna,
The

contracted

myself

live, direct

we

will

own

to be

of others.

remains

morn

ne'er

mountain.
I have

debts

what

out

Full

"

[i

directs

make

the
the

the rain.
up

the

JRigveda,nearly half are directed to Indra and Agni. To


It is clear that
Varuna
only twelve hymns are addressed.
his worship is already receding in popular favour, and in
1
"

R.V., I. 24 and
V., VII, 86. 6.

e.g.

26.

"
*

B.V., II. 28. 7-9.


R. V., III. 59.

THE

RIO

hymns
passing into

there

i]
later

of the

one

his

power

VEDA

seenis

Indra's

21
to

hands.1

be

In

reference

to

Brahmanic

unimportant god of the waters,


and the word
asura," with which the Adityas had been
not
described, is taken to mean
mysterious beings but
used
of the evil spirits,who
a-sura," "no-god," and
the enemies
of the devas, the gods.2
were
Varuna

times

becomes

an

"

"

"

"

The

Character

of the Rigvedic Religion.

hymns of the Rigveda reflect on the whole a simple


The
worship of the objects of nature.
gods are, for the
most
part, kindly. The capriceof Rudra is feared, although
the
and
call him auspicious (siva)to avert
his wrath
men
sublime
of the
Adityas is deprecated ;
righteous anger
but, as we have seen, the god most
praised is Indra, who
is a congenial god for a soldier race,
a
fighter himself,
and
kindly to those that gave him the Soma
juice he
loves.
Although the gods, apart from the Adityas, are
not
of religionare
thought of as holy, the baser elements
not
prominent. Fear of devils there clearlyis, and some
of the hymns provide magic spells,
the
but, on the whole,
religionis a healthy, happy system. Neither asceticism
nor
austerity,neither pessimism nor philosophy, disturbs
the sunshine
of that early day."3
Life is thought of as a
that they
survive a hundred
blessing,and men
pray
may
at last death
When
lengthened autumns."4
they
comes,
that deathless,undecaying,world wherein
hope to dwell in
the light of heaven
is set and everlastinglustre shines/'
the land ruled over
who
now
by Yama, the first of men,
reigns where
joys and felicities combine, and longing
The

"

"

"

"

wishes

are

fulfilled."5

It is sometimes
"

R.V., X.

For

datva
3

"

the

claimed

that

the

Rigveda, rightlyunder

124.

ahura
opposite development of the corresponding Iranian words
later on
see
Zoroastrianism, Chap. I.
J. X. Farquhar, An
Outline of the Religious Literature
of India, p. 13.
*
A V., IX. 113.
B.V., X. 18.4.

and

22

HINDUISM

were

there

so,

There
his

at

one
"

this

but

unstable

business

to

sell

his

in

in

an

the

have

we

Varuna

was

of

quest

one

in

of

hymns

decay

of

God,

the

the

but

of

R.V.,

IV,

the

who

offers

need

not

finds

to

led

the

Rigveda
of

sublimity

the

the

not

was

substrate

of

being.

Op.

tit., p.

147.

24.

10.

to

expression

of

unity

infinite,

the

hymn

polytheism

moral
for

quest

become

Indra,

do

book

last

simpler

polytheism

late

which

The

study.

to

now

men

principle,

forgotten
holy

The

of

that

way

rhymester,

in

is

have

service

;2

the

to

phrase,1

prayers

stanza

one

faith.3

unitary

speculative

which

all

of

quest

and

god

attributes

It
but

milch-kine

faith

each
and

such.

to

the

ten

which

Miiller's

polytheism

In

for

of

age

lead

commanded

for

prays

pray
the

right

it

that

gods.

many

highest

Max

use

Sacrifices

decay.

has

song

singer

as

transaction.

his

by

in

the

to
did

so

function,

ascribed

are

religion

of

if

why,

see

in

permanent

nor

to

worship

kathenotheism,"

and

hard

pantheon

"

time

the

describe

to

and

is

the

ordered

monotheism,

not

be

no

separate

"

gods

It

should

indeed,

is,

has

is

monotheism.

teaches

stood,

[T

7?.F.,

X,

151.

5.

BRlHMANIC

OF

BEGINNINGS

THE

II."

SPECULATION

The

Philosophic

IN

late

after

Hindus

to-day

by

means

but

of

did

god.

Einleitung
short

account

is

he

and

it

call

they

Agni,

These
und

46.

creation,

this

the

Garutman

in

The

and
cludes
con-

poem

it

it, whence

declare
creation

whether

des

R.H.C.

is the

VEDA
pp.

highest

he

knows,

who

formed

it all

celestial

are

well

bi9

auf

32-41.

23

he

heaven,

verily

it not."2

knows

he

philosophic hymns
given

in

world

perhaps

Philosophic
is

into

breathed

(kdma),

production,
being ?

world's

came

not-being

it,

controls

I. 164.

this

comes

this

un-

here

can

of

and

nor

created.

are

Hymn

the

Desire

bafflement

who

gods

breathless,

rose

was

whence

of

is

being

void

of

the

primaeval

Thing,

the

it first

it, or

famous

the

Rigveda

the

of whom

the

One

world

form

One,

neither

that

than

origin

not

eye

R.V.,

and

when

knows

wind

when

and

later

first

the
or

this

In

knows

are

then,

Whose

find

confession

gods

He,

of

books

describes

the

this

born,

was

Agni

title

many

Very

nature."

verily

The

"

only

own

Who

Garutman.

last

chaos,

with
"

the

educated

which

Varuna,

the

poet

differentiated

its

to

The

Creation.

existed,

poet,

language

stanza

the

Rigveda,

symbolic

quoting

manifestations.

the

of the

in

Mitra,

of

is made

endeavour

by

of

nobly- winged
give
sages

hymns

some

thus

Rigveda.'

Matarisvan."1

Yama,
In

'

and

declares

Indra,

is one,

what

book

fond

are

heavenly
To

first

universe,

him

call

They

the,

obscure

in

describing
of the

"

the

of

hymn

enigma

of

Hymns

bird,

the

expounded
die

Sun.
in

UPAMSHADS*,
"

B.

Matarisvan

Deussen,

V., X.

pp.
129.

is

Attgemeine
105-158.

6, 7.

HINDUISM

24

[n

names
are
mysterious One various
assigned.
in the Hymn
Thus
of the Golden Germ the poet asserts that
in the beginning was
the Golden
Germ, and by him the

this

To

world

created

was

with

oblation
unknown
other

the
"

creator, and

is

namegiver

the

; but

of creation, and
en

One

the

shall

god

last stanza

invoked,
"

What

as

Father

who

that

complains
"

wrapt in misty cloud

understand
"

and

do

the
not

this

In two
all-

the

of the
deities'

the

us,

our

architect
"

made

the poet cannot

answer

Visvakarman,

the
high-priest,

the

as

the

cludes
con-

with

of creatures.1

Lord

is hailed

stanza,

adore

we

comes

Prajapati,the

the

and

universe,

line

In

god
hymns

'

Each

is conserved.

and

the

mystery

hymn-chanters
help his quest.2

are

the
have
was
Among
gods of the earth, as we
seen,
Brihaspati, or, as he is often called, Brahmanaspati. As
the high priest,the path preof Prayer, he was
the Lord
As
it was
natural
had
a
theurgic power,
prayer
parer.
that
priestlyspeculators should exalt him to the highest
hymn, the Hymn to Brahmanaspati, he
place, and in one
too is praised as the all-creator, who
produced the generations
of the gods
with blast and smelting,like a smith."3
of all the Rigvedic hymns is the Hymn
famous
Most
to
Purusha.
the
Purusha, man,
humanity, is here made
itself is conceived
as
a
origin of creation ; nature
unity,
extension
of the primaeval man
and is described
as
an
:
"

"

thousand

heads

had

Purusha,

thousand

thousand

eyes,

feet.
He

All

covered

earth

breadth

beyond."

creatures
"

of him

are

begetter
born

eternal

Purusha

offered
"

the
in

the creatures
1

R. F., X.

every

one-fourth

are

and

on

121.

side, and

of

him, while

life in heaven."
first

sacrifice,and

He

begotten.

of the

spread

The

from

air and

R. V., X. 81 and

is at

three-fourths
once

gods
that

the

and

sacrifice

animals, both
82.

fingers'

ten

wild

R. F.,r72.

first
seers
were

and

BEGINNINGS

n]

From
"

the

The

Brahman

his

was

the four

mouth

of

castes

both

and

sheep.
made.

were

his

arms

was

his feet

the

Sudra

the

made.

Rajanya1
His

body,

the

parts of

25

horses, cattle,goats,

Vedas,

three

the

tame,"

SPECULATION

OF

Vaisya,

the

thighs became

from

was

produced."
The

from

came

moon

great gods, Indra


Vayu, the god of wind,

the

formed
sky were
hymn is probably
and

and

Agni,

came

from

from
the

mind,

his

the
from

from

his

his mouth

his breath, and

his feet and


last

sun

from

eye,

whilst

the earth

his head.2

This

of the

Rigvedic hymns, for,


and
it was
when
written, the Sdmaveda
Yajurveda already
existed,if only in rudimentary form, and there was
already
which
has since been distinctive
that recognition of caste
of the social system
It would

be

of India.

from these hymns


pleasure to pass at once
the speculative genius of
to the
Upanishads in which
first its classic expression ; but, in order that
India found
be understood, it is necessary
their teaching may
to say
and
the Brdhmanas, for,
something of the Atharvaveda
the slow
be traced
can
dreary as are these books, in them
of that doctrine of the identity of the self with
emergence
in the Upanishads is transformed
which
Brahman
into a

great message
The

"

of

redemption.

Atharvaveda.'

Eigveda the references to magic are few, and


such spellsas it provides are
found
chieflyin the tenth
book, which, as we have seen, is a kind of appendix to the
But it is probable that the placation of
main
collection.
devils existed from the first,
side by side with the brighter
worship of the gods, and in the Atharvaveda, which was
compiled long after the central portion of the Eigveda,
have
the grand collection of spellsdesigned to avert
we
In

the

i.e. Kshatriya,the warrior

caste.

R. V., X. 90.

HINDUISM

20

the

of the

anger

destruction
other

devils,or
enemies

to

Such

means.

to

too

[ii
utilise their services

powerful

interest

the

as

be

to

book

to

attacked

has

bring
by

lies in

the

of the

ordinary life of ancient


consecrated
India.
Then, as now,
phase of life was
every
off the
are
provided to ward
by religion,and charms
the love of
beasts
and thieves, to win
attacks
of savage
the land
maid
husband, to speed the plough and make
or
harvest.
The
magic is not only
bring forth an abundant
white
black
but
are
spellsby which a wife
; there
kill a hated
rival, or a Brahman
destroy the noble
may
glimpses

"

it

that

gives

"

"

who

robs him

The

'

us

"

of his

cows.

Brahmanas'
Bralimanas

The

the

are

reflection

of

an

age

in

which

in decay, prayer,
and
sacrifice were
mere
a
religionwas
for themselves
theurgy, and the priests claimed
greater
wearisome
and
importance than their gods. Unspeakably
puerile as these books are, they enable us to trace the
that has entered into the complex of modern
originof much
Hinduism.
from
Already the Sudra is excluded
religion,
for
the gods talk only to the higher castes," whilst the
divine
Brahmans
had
a
begun to claim for themselves
The
Brahmans, who have studied and teach
sanctity.
sacred
the human
lore," are
gods," and with giftsthese
be
human
gratified."1 Of great importance
gods may
the sacrifices. Unless the priestsacrificed before dawn,
are
the sun
not rise. It was
would
by sacrifices that the gods
for themselves
won
and, by the sacrifices men
supremacy,
offer,they may
be, not so much
worshipped, as overcome
and
utilised.
The
Brahmans
had
gained for themselves
a
monopoly not only in religion,but in education, and
already we read of the beginnings of the four stages into
"

"

"

"

which

Hinduism

Brahman's

to-day

life should
the

is
1

be

One

divided.

veneration

Sat. Br., II. 2. 2. 6.

of

the

cow.

mark

of
This

had

too

when,

curious

for the
"

wherefore

for the

cow,

that

she

"

of

comment

As

sage,

and

make

to

garment

of

presence

his skin

wears

and

runs

her," and, although


cow,

I eat

for me,

Agni,"1
the
gods

so,

wear

just

of

that

in the

naked

be

man

to

lest he should take the skin from


away
it is forbidden
to eat the flesh of the
the

seed

skin,

has

alone

knows

cow

his

cow

lost, man

let not

is

the

sacred

was

it is asserted

the

gave

skin

milk

"

Brdhmanas,

later

sacrificed,it

passage,

and

flayed man,

27

of the

time

was

white

Its

are.

and, in

up

the

beginning in
although the cow
its

totems

as

SPECULATION

OF

BEGINNINGS

IT]

there
it

is added

it is

provided

tender."2
Of

interest

some

the

are

of the

myths

many

gods

spersed
inter-

natural,
exposition of the sacrifice. As was
when
religionhad degenerated into theurgy, they are not
drunken
and
depicted as holy gods. They are sometimes
to
sense
lecherous, although they have sufficient moral
the incest of Prajapati with his daughter Ushas,3
condemn
read
in the sacrifices,
truthfulness
and
that they demand
we
indeed
the gods do keep that
for the vow
they
speak the truth ; and for this reason
they are glorious."4
in the

"

The

Speculation of

As

have

we

that

him

gathers.

It

in

as

the

much

and

by

it

passages,

by austeritythat Prajapatiproduced
and

all creatures

this

period

become
the

the

less,and

Brahman

that

live

on

Rigveda,

god,

and

it is

speculation of this period


culable
austerity,tapas, had incalable to subdue
the gods

were

so, in many

the

of

hymn

great unknown

that

men

Age.

famous

of the

believed

was

power

themselves,

seen,

extolled

Prajapati is
around

the Brdhmanic

the

earth.

read

we

that

it

was

gods, and demons,

Towards

the

end

of

importance of Prajapati appears to have


speculationbegan slowly to gather around
and

the

Atman,

until

Sat. Br., IT. 2. 4. 15.

"

"

Sat. Br., L 7. 4. 4.

"

at

last

the

Sat. Br., III. 1. 2. 16-21.


Sat. Br., I. 1. 1. 5.

great

28

HINDUISM

assertion

is

reached

principlesare

that

[n

the

and

cosmic

the

psychic

one.

Brahman.
The

origin of

it is hard

to

meanings

the

its root

find

idea

first the

at

such

spellsas
originallyto
denote

the

is

magic."2

With

Atharvaveda

Brahmans

sacred

alone.

which

of the

knowledge

honoured

now

as

which

without

songs,

Later

belonged

"

the

word

the

of

wielder

the

greater
Brahman

the

the

sorcerer,

man

fundamental

the

Probably

or

man,

that

of

will

the

and

various

supposes
"

suggests that
"

the

divine."1

and

holy

find in the

were

Vedic

Deussen

it denotes

medicine

we

the

Brahmans
sacred

"

prayer

of the word

meaning

to

"

Hillebrandt

likelihood,

bear.

may

obscure,

behind

unifying thought

after

is still

Brahman

word

word
is

striving up

was

the

came

and

Vedas,

the

of the

possessors

sacrifice could

no

be

"

secured
a loftier significance.
gradually brahman
have
We
that in a late hymn
of the
already seen
is hailed
the
as
Rigveda, Brihaspati, its personification,
All-creator,and in the Brdhmanas, as the importance of
elevated above Prajapati,
was
Prajapatigrew less,Brahman
and made
the creative principleby which
the gods
even
created.3
In one
of the hymns
of the Atharvaveda
were
Brahman
is identified with Purusha, the primaeval man.4
valid.

So

Atman.
Atman
and

so

came

the self.
is not

has

probably
How

clear.

to

the

mean

this

came

of

Prana,

first

to

denote

the

probable that the


popularity of the similar

the

from

whose

breath, which

Op. cit.,p.

e.g. Sat. Br., XI.

241.
2. 3. 1-4.

"

meaning

life-breath,and

It is

helped by the
the primaeval man,
and

its

as

breath,"
the

thus

self of the

soul,

universe

development
ideas

sacrifice the
is described

of Purusha,
world
in

E.R.E., II. 797.

"

A. V., X.

2.

was

one

arose,

of the

OF

BEGINNINGS

n]

of the

hymns

with

so

In

is identified
the Atman
hymn
or
pillar of the universe, and

another
the

prop

who

Brahman,

Atman

is hailed

of the
the

famous

most

creator

the

And

universe.2

in

the

made
in

place

one

Atman

identity of the
in language of which
one
the Upanishads is merely

this

passages

the

thus

and

Brahman,

is reaffirmed

Brahman

the

the

as

the

equated with
metaphysical principleof
in the Satapatha Brahmana
is

with

principle

creative

as

Skambha,

with

first and

the

Atharvaveda

nature.1

of

29

SPECULATION

transcript.
Let

1.

meditate

man

the

upon

Now

Brahman.

true

possessed of understanding, and according to


he departs this world,
how
great his understanding is,when
enter
does he, on passing away,
so
yonder world.
here

man

"

2.

Let

is

him

meditate

of

intelligenceand endowed
with
form
of light and
with
a
an
changes the shape at will,is swift
up

and

true

purpose,

(Atman),which

the Self

on

which

with

body

ethereal

consists

of

nature,

thought,

as

is made

spirit,
which

of true

of all sweet

solve
re-

odours

regions and
is speechless, indifferen
universe, which
pervades this whole
even
as
a
grain of rice or a grain of barley, or
a
grain of millet, or the smallest granule of millet, so is
in the heart ; even
the golden Purusha
as
a smokeless
light,
it is greater than
the sky, greater than
the ether, greater
than
the earth, greater than
all existing things ; that
self of the spirit(breath) is myself ; on passing away
from
I shall obtain
has this
hence
that self. Verily whosoever
trust, for him there is no uncertainty. Thus spake Sandilya
tastes, which

and

holds

sway

over

all

the

"

and

it is."3

so

So

Atman

have

we

is the
are

reached

Brahman,

at

the

last

the

psychic

great equation, the


and

the

cosmic

one.

1
"

*
A.V., XI. 4.
A.V., X.
Sat. Br., X. 6. 3. (=Chhand.

8.

Up., III. 14).

ciples
prin-

III."

ESSENTIAL

IN

STUDY

HINDUISM,

THE

UPANISHADS

OF

the

earlier
be

may

Upanishads

we

with

some

dated

which

is

clear

that

the

before
of

doctrine

and

from
the

have

we

of

grand

now

is

man

of
and

it

is

give

are

not

They
the

thoughts
self

is the

of

later

all

systematic
philosophic

folly

many

of the

of their

and

in

chapters
Brdhmanas,
passages

-contradictory.
30

The

great
in

the

fully reached,

as

Brahman,

and

free

from

of the

are

the

become

It

is

the

impossible

teaching,

do

cycle

Upanishads,

has

uncritical

and

becomes

the

their

which

of

record

soul

thought.

but

texts

the

individual

which

of

redemption

The

message

exposition

nobler,

is

and

Hindu

classes,

Brdhmanas,

and

language

great

inspired

leisured

quest.

redemption.

peace

ing,
teach-

foreshadowed

the

Atman

and

are

and

seems

became

now

seek

this

to

central

in

the

might

Rigveda,

the

this, wins

contain
senile

of

emerged

Upanishads

passage

expressed

commonplace
to

one

with

Such

rebirth.

the

his

religion,
rich

It

than

which

Brahman,

message

one

knows

whoso

in

seen,

and

answer

of

hymns

karma,

they

The

Atman=the

the

philosophic

that

Hindu

had

of the

those

order.

distinctive

equation,

and

thought

world

karmic

there

time,

Buddha,

B.C.

earlier

are

alone

event

life of the

560-480

the

of

age

great

the

to

many

the

One
"

Upanishads

Indian

the

the

by

especially

abandon

to

confidence

their

of

marked

little.

transmigration

axiom

many,

oldest

which

know

assigned

now

and,

the

revival

spiritual

for

they

compilations/
not

rise

beyond

fresh

and

living

unrelated,

and

times
some-

the

It

of

will

be

convenient

to

it may

well

be

that

thus

bound

back

to the obscure

and

Doctrine

At

from

man

felt themselves

men

births,that they turned


in the

Brahmanas
the secret

doctrine

-Brahman

the miserable

its

origin,
thought, and

all Indian

speculationembodied

in the

redemption

The

of endless

doctrine

the

be

whatever

because

was

in the chain

discovered

The

it

31

first with

deal

transmigration and karma, as,


has become
the logicalprius of

it

of

UPANISHADS

THE

in]

cycle of

rebirth.

of Transmigration.

earliest references

to

this

doctrine

are

apparently

speeches of Yajnavalkya, a Brahman


To a Brahman,
Artabhaga, who challenged his right
sage.
offered by a king, Yajnavalkya
to the
prize of wisdom
that the soul
explains,in language deliberatelydifficult,
of
is in bondage so long as it ascribes realityto the organs
to

be found

sense,

and

in

the

some

sage

knows

who

at death
this may
about
the soul not

be

at

thus
Artabhaga asked
him
in public
to
released, Yajnavalkya refused
answer
but took him
aside ;
then they two
out and argued
went
what
and
work
(karma], and what they
they said was
work
becomes
(karma), viz. that a man,
good
praised was
The teaching, so
by good work, and bad by bad work."1
the sage
to be this : at death
obscurely taught, seems
rest.

When

"

wins

finds

release from
some

rebirth, whilst the soul,not


embodiment

new

good, if

thus

its works

released,
have

been

Upanisgood, bad, if its works have been bad. In the same


had, Yajnavalkya explains this doctrine
more
lucidly in
classic in later thought.
metaphors which have become
The self at death approaches another
pillar
body, justas a caterfrom
blade of grass to another, or just
one
passes
as
a
a
goldsmith moulds
piece of gold into another and
A man
beautiful shape.
of good acts will become
more
He
of bad acts, bad.
becomes
good, a man
by pure
pure
"

Brih.

Up., III.

2. 13.

(S.B.E.,XV.,

p.

127).

HINDUISM

32

deeds, bad

is his

as

does, that
So

deeds.

of desires.

consists
and

bad

by

he

stated

will
the

And

And

here

they

is his

as

is his

will,so

[m

deed

that

say

is his will ;

desire, so
and

man

whatever

he

deed

reap."1
doctrine

is

simple

consistent

and

but

eschatology, which
the way
of the fathers," by which
men
might
spoke of
attain
Yama
the happy
to the
world
where
ruled
over
of the gods
by which
spiritsof the dead, and of a
way
men
Agni bore the offeringsto the gods, and by which
both
might ascend to enjoy the bliss of the gods. From
these paths the wicked
shut out ; for them
there was
were
The
of the
classic statement
only the lower darkness.
doctrine
of
earlier
transmigration incorporates these
with

this

combined

was

the

earlier

"

"

"

The

views.

the

in each

occurs

passage

of what

probably

are

oldest

Upanishads. We follow here the account


It is of interest
to
in the Brihaddranyaka Upanishad.2
notice that this teaching is given to Brahmans
by Janaka,
a
Kshatriya king, who declares that this knowledge has
two

"

before

never

The

is

the two

practised,it

dead
is

consists

passage

five fires and

as

five

this doctrine

The

Way of the

and

ways.

who

those

who

think

to

Brahman."

in

the

of the

doctrine

rise of the self to the

stages, till it

Those

any

parts : the doctrine of the


In a country where
cremation

is natural

with

"

with

of two

sacrifice,and

depicted the

in

dwelt

now

is born

is the famous

of the

again.

doctrine

thus know
in the

this,the doctrine

of the five fires,

light,from lightto
half, from the increasinghalf

the

to

goes

paths.

Gods.

and

sun

Combined

of the two

forest

go

fires

five

its descent

and

moon

earth

on

of the

burning

to the

worship faith
day, from day to

north, from

Brih.

Up., IV. 4.

Brih.

Up., VI. 2., op cit.,204-9.

5.

the six months,

to

these

six months

the

true,

increasing
the

when

to the

world

(op. cit.,
p. 176).
For

fuller statement

see

R.H.C.,

pp.

60-3.

THE

UPANISHADS

(gods),from

the

in]
Devas

of the

from

sun,

the

thus

near

them,

In

these

There

The

returning

no

Way

the

to

of Brahman

worlds

is

them

leads

and

the

to

they
place of lightning. When
place of lightning,a spiritcomes

the

reached

have

Devas

of the

world

the

to

sun

33

for ages.

exalted

dwell

they

Brahman.

of

worlds

for them.

the Fathers.

of

of sacrifice,
the worlds by means
they who conquer
to night,
charity,and austerity,go to smoke, from smoke
the
from
from
night to the decreasing half of the moon,
the
when
to the six months
decreasing half of the moon
"

But

the

to

south,

sun

goes

the

fathers, from
reached

Having
Devas

feed

on

it increases

their

ether, from

ether

from

rain

earth.

become

they
which

the

food, they

is man,

Thus
rounds
In

as

the

And

thence

up

towards

the

air, from
when

they
again

born

are

the

Soma,

on

as

in

the

in

and

earth

altar

fire of
go

-fire,

woman.

the

same

before."

Brihaddranyaka

Upanishad

there

is yet

third

neither of these
Those, however, who know
path.
birds, and creeping things."
paths, become
worms,
wise
of transmigration is fairlysimple. The
account
to

the world

The

good

and

then, after

born

In
made

ascend

again

death,

to

rain,

to

the

reach

the

worlds,

air

"

up

of

(the result
again
they return

offered

are

the

this

when

ceases,

the

to

and

rise

they

But

earth)

on

that

to

sacrificers feed

as

moon.

then

food, and

become

they

the

to

of

world

the

to

fathers

of the

decreases.

works

months

these

world

the

the moon,
there
them

and

good

from

on

of

Brahman,

by the
enjoying
earth.

way
the

The

from

of the

fathers

fruit of their

ignorant

is

there

which

and

to

no

the

two

This
pass

return.
moon,

good works,

are

careless, after

born

again as the lowest animals.


the Chhdndogya Upanishad a moral
differentiation is
of the
journey along the way
amongst those who

Fathers

are

"

Those

whose

conduct

has

been

good

will

34

HINDUISM

[in

quickly attain some


good birth, the birth of a Brahman,
conduct
a
or
Kshatriya, or a Vaisya. But those whose
has been
evil,will quickly attain an evil birth, the birth
of a dog, or a hog or a Chandala."1
As retribution is thus
introduced
into the way
of the Fathers, there is no need
for the
the
third
mentioned
in
Brihaddranyaka
way,
Upanishad, but this too is retained at the sacrifice of any
consistency.
Such
of transmigrais the classic text for the doctrine
tion.
Later to the wicked, before they are reborn on earth,
are
assigned terrifyinghells and there is thus a double
retribution : in the world
beyond, and in a miserable
rebirth
this

earth.

on

Inconsistent

doctrine, its influence


To

thought.

Hindus

most

life's mysteries, but

it has

as

are

been

has

the

eased

The

Life has

the

not

Indian
from

Way of Deliverance.

As
was

solve

to

appears
life's pain.

good but evil,and the supreme


quest of
philosophy has been, not abstract truth, but freedom
the bondage of the karma
of past deeds.
seemed

later

for

decisive

this doctrine
not

of

statements

have

we

seen,

in

already reached,

obscure
which

surmise
to

burden

many

of

rebirths.

the

What

the

of the

work

supreme

the

into
has

seemed

temporal
seems

to

Brdhmanas
At

man

the

the

great equation
It

Brahman.

was

this
Upanishads to transform
of redemption,
great message
the
from
to bring deliverance

and

the

be the

wearisome

round

earliest statement

of

of the

Upanishads, is ascribed to the Brahman


he
it is the
king Janaka whom
sage, Yajnavalkya, and
He
instructs.
the Atman
at first in language
describes
is
is deliberately
which
the gods love what
obscure, for
At length there
mysterious and dislike what is evident."
the famous
And
he
statement
comes
(the Atman)
:
doctrine

in

the

"

"

A low caste.

See Chhdnd.

Up., V.

10. 7.,S.B.E., I, p. 82.

UPANISHADS

THE

m]
can

only

for

he

he

be described

decay

cannot

attach

perish.

not

declares

"

what

He,'

body."

the

eye,

have

is

"

the

he

death

Brahman

alone
who

primaeval, Brahman.
it is to be perceived, there is in it no
perceives therein any diversity,goes
the

death."

to

ancient,

Thus

to

sole

the

Brahman

and

life,the eye of
of the mind, they

mind

the

ear,

life of

the

know

who

of the

comprehended

from

ness."1
fearless-

following dialogue, Yajnavalkya


the Self,saying, I am
understands
wish or desire that he should pine after

They

ear

By the mind
diversity. He

reached

indeed

have

you

'

man

could

the

he

the

in

If

incomprehensible,
is undecaying, for

is

attached, for he does not


unbound, he does not suffer,he does

Janaka,

So,

He

is not

he

; he

himself

no

comprehended

be

cannot

No,

as

35

that

know

the

Self

reality,gives the

is

solace

"

He therefore that knows


it,after having
quiet heart.
become
quiet, subdued, satisfied,patient, and collected,
of

sees

self in

him,
burns

he

Self,sees

Self.

as

all evil.

overcomes

all evil.

all

Free

Evil

Evil

does

does

not

evil,free from

from

not

overcome

burn

him, he

spots, free from


"

Brahman."
This great untrue
a
born
doubts, he becomes
Self, undecaying, undying, immortal, fearless, is
and he who knows
indeed Brahman.
Fearless is Brahman,

this, becomes
man

will

verily the fearless


of
realise the instability

be delivered

from

its

snare

and

win

Brahman.''2
the

The

visible world
"

consolation.

wise
and

so

Children

of
pleasures,and fall into the snare
Wise
men
widespread death.
only, knowing the nature
of what
is immortal, do not look for anything stable here
The wise, when
he knows
that
things unstable."
among
that by which
he perceivesall objectsin sleep,or in waking,
is the great omniscient
So the
Self, grieves no more."3
the
is the
All this is
one
Atman,
Brahman,
reality:

follow

after

outward

"

"

Brill.
Brut,

Brih.

"

Kath.

XV.
2.
iv.
V. (ajajs.,
(S.B.E., AV.
159, 160).
Up,, IV.
up.,
pp. lotJ
Up., IV. 4. (op.cit.,
pp. 178-80).
Up., II. 4. (op.cit.,
p. 15).

HINDUISM

36
"

Brahman."

In the

beginning there

only, without

is, one

[in

"

second."

that

was

It is the

only

which

Self and

thou

it."1

art

So

conceived

its message

and

the

felt to

was

blessed.

the world, and


It is the
have

Upanishads
significantthat the

unstable.

which

(1) The

explicitteaching

God

and

the worWs

and

the

Upanishad,3

even

the

world

(mdyin) is

illusion maker
and

which

there

not

may

influence,

always

been

three

cates
impliin

even

the

contradicted.2

unreal.

lifeare

that

and

it involves

frequently

are

actual

was

great Self of

has

accept, and

to

themselves

world

idealism

and

cycle of rebirth.
is expressed that

fame

their

natural, for

hard

are

Upanishads

The

this is

And

the

this doctrine

for the

it is

the

with

from

redeemed

in which

passages

won

but

is thus

which

liberation

bring a

self is identical

Our

purest idealism,

is the

doctrine

is illusion
first found

have

in

its later

(maya)
late

ing
mean-

in some
of the
impliciteven
of redemption.
earliest statements
of the doctrine
Thus
in the dialoguebetween
Yajnavalkya and his wife, Maitreyi,
it is clearlytaught that it is only as external
objects are
related
to the Self that
they exist.4 The Self alone is all
but

the

is.

that

doctrine

But

the

seems

doctrine

maintain.

This

always
pantheism, which, assuming
to

difficult for the

too

was

idealism
the

often

passes

reality of

the

sages

into

universe,

Atman
alone is real, for the Atman
yet teaches that
is the universe, and the world's creation was
the projection
the

of the

Atman.

(2) God
As
So

and

Self are

alike unknowable.

duality, God
Yajnavalkya is asked to

there

when

the
is

no

Up., III.

14. 1.,VI.

2.

1.,VI.

ChMnd.

See R.H.G., pp. 68-75 for a fuller statement.


Svet. Up., IV. 10. (S.B.E., XV.
p. 252).

BriTi.

Up., II.

4.

(op. cit.,108-113).

inevitably unknown.

describe

14. 3.

is

"

the

Brahman

(S.B.E., I, pp. 48, 93, and

107).

couldst

"

he

couldst

hear

not

37

invisible,the

js visible,not
replies, Thou

who

UPANISHADS

THE

in]

the

not

the

see

of

hearer

is within

Self who

all,"

sight,thou
perceive the
of knowledge.

of

seer

hearing, nor

perceiverof the perception,nor the knower


At man,
all."1
Brahman
is within
This is thy Self who
or
the subject,and not the object of thought, is inevitably
as
at all,it can
unknowable.
If described
only be by a negation,
"

neti, neti, not

so,

of

sense,

for the

needs

often, instead of the neuter


Brahma, whilst Atman
sustainer
of the world,2 and
are

passages

Isvara, the
the

first

the

for

is

of the

the

have
the

to

world,3 yet

the

and

Upanis-

great Lord,

the

theism

speaks again

line
mascu-

creator

late Svetdsvatara

ascribe

soon

sage

we

depicted as

in the

works

no

change

characteristic

most

redemption
already is.
and

Brahman,

reached

of Brahman,

principle.

(3) Redemption
In

the

which

found

creation

unstable, and

is

is

abstraction

an

religion,and, as Oldenberg
in the
Upanishads themselves, God is often
indeed
not
as
personal in the full Christian
time, not as quiteimpersonal. Thus
but, at the same

inadequate
points out,
portrayed,

had

Such

so."

not

is

simply

Its best
thus

those

the

emblem
redeemed

in

man's

heart.

of the

Upanishads,
knowledge of what
is deep and dreamless
sleep,
life has
lost its meaning.

passages
intuitive

"

As water
good and evil are alike indifferent.
does not clingto the lotus leaf,so no evil deed clingsto one
it (i.e.
the Atman)."4 In passages often quoted
who knows
Hindus, certain moral prerequisitesof
to-day by educated
redemption are enjoined, but for the most
part there is
For

them

little ethical

interest, and

this

is indeed

inevitable, for

redemption, as the Upanishads proclaim it, is the


recognition of the identity of an unknowable
1

Brih.

Die

"
"

tuitive
in-

self

Up., III.

4. 2. (op. cit.,p. 129).


Upanishaden und die Anfdnge
e.g. Svet. Up., VI. 18. (op. cit.,
pp. 265, 6).
ChMnd.
Up., IV. 14. 3 S.B.E., I. 67.

Lehre

der

des

Buddhismus,

pp.

103, 104.

HINDUISM

38

with

failed

to

the

to

the

some

there

breath,

regulated

practice

sought,
mind

bring
Upanishads

earlier

of
in

all

which

whilst

actually

should

be

at

with

one

be

lost,

Cp.

the

instructions

given

in

the

Svet.

Up.,

and

attributeless

"It."1
II.

of
the

state

the

the

efficacy

cataleptic

in

Upanishads

later

and

distinctions

the

to

the

in

Even

sought.

references

are

evidently

recognition

they

peace

enjoined

was

yoga

should

This

Brahman.

unknowable

an

[ni

was

the

IV."

HINDUISM

POPULAR

Upanishads

but
their

redeeming
have

we

deal

to

with

the

needs

of

Song

of

in

finds

Lord

It

is

of
be

to

the

convenient

that

to

on

pass

and

cially
espe-

which

in

the

and

satisfied

influential

most

ism
Hindu-

expression,
so

receive

India,

Bhagavadgitd,

are

people,

to

Mahdbhdrata,

it, the

the

to-day

the

popular

will

then

the

feeling

of

epics

great

philosophical

and

for

ready

rise

first and

incident

thought

the

two

Hinduism,

devotion

popular

the

For

Rdmdyana
of

those

Mahdbhdrata.

the

that

to

for

the

to

religion

salvation

turn

thesaurus

vast

of

not

mysteries.

and

Rdmdyana
to

provide,

discipline

OF

SONG

LORD

THE

THE

THE

AND

that

this

of all Hindu

books.

'

The
It

Rdmdyana.'
is

make

the

up

to

Valmlki,

narrates

Sita's

faithfulness.

Kausalya,

may
exile

for
succeed

by

the

fourteen
the

Sita, his

and

six

which

and

Sumitra,

Kaikeyi

aged

in

that

Rama

is

wife,
39

and

trials

and

three

these

wives,

wives

he

tively.
respec-

banishment

the

order

falls
The

Lakshmana,

secures

king.

faithful

has

and

Bharata,

assigned

B.C.

century

by

later

are

date

Rama's

and

which

be

may

Dasaratha

king

last

whose

of

story

The

years

the

fourth

and

books

seven

composer,

famous

trick,

the

first

to

sixth

Rama,

sons,

By
Rama

the

Kaikeyi,

three

two

traditional

between

book

has

books

is

its

somewhere

the

Rdmdyana,

It

additions.

of

that

agreed

generally

her

son

Bharata
in

accompanied

Lakshmana,

of

his

his

half-

[iv

HINDUISM

40

When

brother.

seeks to

him, and

Bharata

and

consent,

not

refuses
king dies, Bharata
back again ; but
bring Rama

the

has

succeed
will

Rama

of

the functions

exercise

to

to

the demons,
combats
exile, Rama
the anger of Ravana, their chief,who, by
and thus arouses
craft and force, carries off Sita to Lanka, his island home.

In

king.

forest

his

ally, discovers her


leads his army
to Lanka, across
abode
and Rama
a bridge
Ravana
which the monkeys had miraculously constructed.
Sita won,
is slain, and
and, by the ordeal of fire,Sita
the preservationof her chastity. Rama
returns
vindicates
home
with her, and reigns in happy unison with Bharata,
the

Hanuman,

Such

his

brother.

in

Sanskrit,

Rama's

god,

bare

is the

outline

vernacular

in

or

of the

story which

translations, is the

of all Indian

loved

best

and

known

monkey

tales.

Rama

best

is here

a religious
leader, but an earthly hero.
god, nor even
this
The
religiousinterest is incidental, and, just on
is one
that
account, the picturegiven of popular Hinduism
The
old Vedic
be readily trusted.
can
gods are for the
less powerful than
most
part recognised, but they are
new
gods and goddesses are now
they were, and many
worshipped. Greatest of all the gods is Brahma, whilst
in importance.
Vishnu
have
We
Siva and
gained much
and
his son, the god of war,2
read of Siva's wife, Uma,

not

of Siva's

and

sacred

the

image
At

bird ; his wife

later

first and

seventh

Vishnu,

and

life is

Vishnu.
1

and

Siva

had

Macdonnel
Buddhism

*
"

says,
additions

there

After
to the

was

added

Garuda,

on

and

thus

was

an

period 200

movement

made

illustration
the

boon

Karttikeya.
B.C."

the

her

chief
of the
he

had

the

poem
manual

is still maintained, but

abused

300

to

clearly the

are

made

now

Ravana

it

polytheism

i.e. Ceylon.

assigns these

rides

now

is mentioned,

were

books, and

old

"

Lakshmi

period,4there

religion. The
Rama's

Vishnu

already worshipped.

was
a

bull.3

sacred

of

ma,
Brah-

gods,

and
of

mercy
won

from

Nandi.

(Sanskrit Literature,p. 307). Farquhar


B.O.-A.D.

towards

both
in Hinduism
200, in which
83).
(op. cit..,

Theism

THE

rv]
Brahma

that
and

demons,
he

curb

may

descends
a

the

gods beg

his power
earth

on

god

Vishnu.

The

Mahdbhdrata.

This

as

Vishnu

to

Vishnu

be

is

gods

to

born

as

their

grants

who

and
that

man

prayer

and

praised, not as
of the great
partialincarnation

the

contains

work

vast

invulnerable

Rama,

as

hero, but

human

be

should

he

41

EPICS

it

as

now

stands

over

100,000

clearly stated that the


was
only 8800 couplets long, and that it
added
contained
24,000 couplets before the episodes were
;
clear
it seems
and, difficult as is the analysis of the poem,
is indicated
that the history of the poem
roughly by these
short epic narrating the
three
a
stages. The nucleus was
already ancient
story of the tragic defeat of the Kuru
their
in
the
struggle with
princes at Kurukshetra
of Pandu, who
their victory largely
treacherous
owed
sons
to the help of Krishna, the clever,and
unscrupulous, chief
This
short epic probably dates from
the
of the Yadavas.
same
period as the originalRamayana, and reflects much
It is concerned,
the same
stage of religiousdevelopment.
with
not
heroes, and the supreme
gods but with human
In the next
God
of this period is the personal Brahma.
Panda
became
the
vas
stage of the epic, the victorious
is honoured
of the tale, and
Krishna
heroes
the partial
as
of Vishnu, who,
with
incarnation
Siva, is now
on
an
couplets. In
original work

equality
epic poem
these

of

Here

with

is

of

of Rama
is

regarded

as

now

the

of the

in
the

there

goes
later books

full incarnation

All-God,

and

Upanishads.

identified

to

this

Most

material.

Krishna

the

added

were

Bhagavadgltd,

is the

exaltation

Krishna

Brahman

of didactic

additions

the

it is

Later

Brahma.

masses

exaltation
for

first book

the

important
Lord's
Song.

the

farther

than

the

of the
of

Rdmdyana,
Vishnu, who

with

the Atman-

HINDUISM

42

'

The

Bhagavadgitd.'

It would
the

be

difficult to

Bhagavadgltd

lines,the Vedas

but

Gltd

the

Krishna
the

Gospels.

who

would

That

and

The

problems

was

written

Hindu

view
the

Arjuna

in that

dim

those

about

presents

it is hard

of

to

the

as
are

say.

makes

thought

that

of

Hinduism.

only

it

the

work

is of

actual

dialogue between
antiquity,in which was
Pandavas

the

between

is

Christ

study by

book

and

such

many

of the

the

language
narrates

battle

the

fought
Among

of

it

and

age,
and

but

When

development
impossible the common

to

merits

so

difficult.

Gospel,

elusive.

immemorial

book

on

often left unread

rival

worthy

educated

men

the vital forces of modern

is very

The

Krishna

seems

understand

John's

as

loved, and

and

Hindu

No

study

many

Gltd

to-day. By
praised,but

are

is known

of the

exaggerate the importance of

India

in

Western

long

[rv

Kurus.

and

to be a growing
European scholars there seems
of opinion that the poem
written after the
was
consensus
second
of the later
period of the Epic, but before most
We
additions.
assign it tentativelyto the first,or
may
This date
possibly even, the second century of our era.
is of interest
it makes
as
improbable the theory once
advocated
scholars
that
the many
blances
resemby Western
of the Gitd to our
ing.
Gospels are due to direct borrowwitnesses
to a mind
Instead, they are
naturally

Christian.
Short

as

irreconcilable.
the

It contains

theistic,the other

one

been

made

it,is

by

Professor

The
of Hindu

Die,

101, and

strata
clearly marked
Vedantic.
The suggestion has

Garbe

theory, with
history,is

Bhagavadgltd,pp.
250.

6-64.

His

vital and

are

two

theistic work, redacted

Vedanta.1

book, its contradictions

is the

views

"

that

the

poem,

as

later in the interests


its

are

of the

struction
corresponding recon-

attractive

an

have

we

summarised

one,

but

in E.H.C., pp.

the
100,

BHAGAVADGlTA

THE

iv]

of evidence

balance

its

probable that the Gita in


Upanishad, written somewhat
Upanishad, and modified in
that

so

personal God.

As

against it.

present form

later
the

than

becomes

he

of

more

is

verse

Krishnaism,

now

nantly
predomi-

identified

was

It is

Svetd"vatara

the

interests

Brahman

absolute

the

be

to

seems

43

with

Vishnu,

temples could find here


its intellectual
its justificationand
expression. But,
whatever
theory we adopt of its origin,it is its theistic
and
it is this that
portion that is of prime significance,
the

will be

of the

devotion

Vaishnavite

first described.

Arjuna on the battle-field hesitates to order the fighting


it be
to slay our
kin from
to begin. A heavy sin would
of kinship."1 Krishna
lust after the sweets
bids him
lay
without
and
aside his scruples. Souls are
beginning
end,
the connection
of a soul with a particularbody is of
and
no
importance. So there is no real slaying for, at death,
the soul puts off its outward
body and takes another, as
a man
puts off and on his clothes. Let Arjuna then do the
in battle.
This
is
much
duty of his caste and engage
let him
according to the doctrine of the Sankhya. Now
"

learn
but

without

the

self,but

Krishna

Yoga
with

to

Krishna

which

best

thought

are

the

moods

of nature.

has

taught

his many
yet is workless.

works

and

many,

and

Krishna

and

consents,

and

mouths

to

reveal

Arjuna
eyes,

"

sight the worlds


grim with fangs and
I, 45.

Quotations

and

arms

with

from

is

done,
not

"

to

teaching
previous births.
a

The

ways

all ; but

of
the

who

worships me in faith,
me."2
At length Arjuna
in his glory. The
Lord
his mighty form
of many
and thighs,and feet, of

many

teeth,"

and

at

"

he

terrible
are

"

beholds

grim

This

accepts them

himself

of many

bellies,and

many

in

himself

Krishna

be

must

reward, for they belong

of

Yogin, says Krishna, "is he


self dwelling in
his inward

asks

Works

Yoga.

of the

doctrine

the

the

his mouths
quake." Into
were
enteringhis adversaries,

Dr. Barnett's

translation.

VI. 47.

HINDUISM

44

between

caught

some,

the

[iv

teeth, appeared

blazing mouths
passing with exceeding speed
Krishna
himself again in
to show
heads

"

"

and

diadem,
Lord

his

Lord

and

concludes
"

with

remembrance

be

Such

Arjuna's

manism

grace,

I will do

form,

away

Never

seek

to

sins, and

of faith
;

and

the

refuge

the

in

with

poem

Krishna

I have

gotten

Falling. I stand

free

word."

thy

worship

of Krishna

has

all

confession

outline

that

Krishna

from

were

perish.1 Arjuna begs

is bidden

vanished

has

too

his less awful

Arjuna

briefest

in

The

Oltd.

to

worlds

hand, four armed

in

delivered

by thy

doubt

disc

request.

bewilderment

My

from

and

mace,

grants

in the

the

the

into

crushed

with

is the
is

theistic
so

far united

Krishna

is identified with

become

the

supreme

God.

of the

element

Vishnu
And

with

Brah-

and

Vishnu-

this

religion

expressed in terms of the Sankhya and Yoga systems.


asserted
This Sankhya system was
the
a dualism, which
of a primordial matter, on
the one
existence
hand, and a
individual
soul
The
multiplicityof spiritson the other.
is unchangeable, inactive, and
impassive, and absolutely
all activities and
distinct
matter
from
to which
feelings,
the
intelligence,belong ; redemption
including even
consists
in the recognition of this distinction.
This conception
of redemption had its counterpart in the practical
the Yogin, by control
enabled
disciplineof Yoga, which
is

of the
from

breath
material

and

the

like,to withdraw

objects into

the

all his activities

and
then
intelligence,
by
sciousness.
concentration, meditation, and absorption,to reach unconAlthough the Bhagavadgitd employs the
its conception
categoriesof the Sankhya, usually it transcends
of redemption, and teaches that the discrimination
the spiritual
between
and the material is merely preliminary
to the redemption which
tion
comes
through the way of devo(bhakti)to the Lord ; and, instead of the denial of the
him
God, it portrays a livingGod of love. From
supreme
"

XI. 23, 27. 29,

BHAGAVADOITA

THE

iv]
All

"the

of work

doer

the
not.

In

does

the

is

me

and

is the

yet

One

"

Yogin,

for he

Works

defile

fruit of works."2
the

conserve

world.

"Whensoever

arises.

need

model

worker.

no

longing for

no

Blessed

when

earth

He

proceeds."1

45

Not

He
the

is
me

only

is born

on

fails and

law

uprises,then do I bring myself to bodied birth.


guard the righteous,to destroy evildoers, to establish
into
birth, age after age."3 He loves
law, I come

lawlessness
To
the

men's

receives

and

men

"

love.

dear

Exceedingly

am

knowledge and he to me."4


The
formed.
practicaldisciplineof the Yoga is likewise transold Yoga method
The
the world,
of flightfrom
and
austerity,and meditation, is not rejected; but a new
all alike could
better
Yoga is taught, which
practise.
has made
Hindu
The fear of karma
thought reluctant to
think of God as active,and has made
flightfrom the world,
and
the first requisite of redemption.
inactivity,seem
But
the Gltd bids men
work, and yet to work in the Yoga
without
spirit,
hope of reward, and so free from attachment
does my
He who
to the fruit of work.
work, who is given
to

the

of

man

"

to

over

who

me,

hatred

without

is devoted
to

born

any

do the

duty of his
knight, there is nothing more
Better
than
the casting off
And
the Gitd proclaims a new
must

man

"

t;

is better

than

It is the

way

accepts

even

to

me,

of attachment,

void

being, comes

to

Thus

caste.

blest than
of works

"

of

way

to
a

Each

me."5

Arjuna,

lawful

as

strife."6

is selfless

activity.
redemption, which

of wisdom, or oven
the way
of selfless work.
of devotion
(bhakti).This devotion, Krishna

though

it be

offered

to

other

gods.

"

If any

worshipper, whatsoever, seeks with faith to reverence


any
faith in him
I make
fast."7
steadbody whatsoever, that same
"They also, who worship other gods and make
offeringto them with faith,do verilymake offeringto me,
will
though not according to ordinance," and Krishna
1

X.

"

XI.

8.
55.

IV.

"

IL

13. 14.
31.

IV. 5-8.

VIL

21.

"

VII.

17.

HINDUISM

46
"

accept

even

leaf, a flower, fruit, or

devotion."1

with

devotion
"so

To

the invitation

castes

all

and

men
"

is made

Side

by

side with

related

to

it,is the Vedantie

of

women

teaching, and

this theistic

four

the

"

sacrifice to me,
shalt thou come."2

me

if offered

water,

thy mind on me, thy


do homage, to me
;

Have

thy

to me,

to

[iv

imperfectly
is the

Krishna

element.

All,

He
is veiled
by
mystic syllableOm of the Vedas.3
illusion (may a) and known
to none,4 and, in contradiction
the
to
central teaching of the Glta, he is described
as
indifferent to all born beings," hating none,
and loving
the

"

none.5
Such

contradictions

do

affect the

not

Gild's

popularity,

just such a compromise of impersonal pantheism and


Hindus
educated
is congenial to many
personal theism
to-day. It is not through its systematic teaching, but
for selfless obedience
to duty, and
through its demand
its portrayal of a gracious,loving God
that it has won
It is a great
its place in the affections of modern
men.
for

and

noble

and

seers

ordinary

book, and it has


alone, but for men
tasks

unfortunate.

of life.6
The

and

In

two

Sankhyan

for

not

message,

ascetics

engaged

women

respects

philosophy

its

writer

he

employs

was

unethical, in that it .teaches that the self is unaffected


And
deeds, which
belong only to the material world.
Krishna

the

in

is

by
the

depictsis not a figureof history,but a product


be foul, as well as
of the imagination ; imagination can
of the
and, in the popular mind, the ideal Krishna
pure,
of the Purdnas,
with the Krishna
Gitd is inevitablyconfused
who
is the
product of an imagination both lewd and
that is perhaps the saddest
And
fact of India's
foolish.
religioushistory.
1

IX.

he

23. 26.

It is

noteworthy

that

IX.

well be that, from this time


s
31-4.
VII. 8.

Dr.

Farquhar

and

it may

p. 88.

well

describes

the

there

on,
"

VII.

Oltd

is

mention

no

Vaishnavism

as

25. 26.

the

of animal

rejectedanimal
s

IX.

sacrifices

sacrifices.

29.

layman's Upanishad,

op.

cit.,

V."

DEVELOPMENTS

FURTHER

SOME

OF

HINDUISM

WITH
in

the

cult

the

women

the

of

speculations

the

gods

intelligible interpretation
the

religious

look
between

the

India

at

of

the

some

of the

which

the

an

gave

is necessary

of the

beginning

to

Hinduism

of

developments

first and

and

understand

can

it

to-day,

the

men

Gltd

the
we

was

wise

the

to

ordinary

to

but, before

in

end

and

to

situation

little

offer

could

it

UpanisJiads,

of

Hinduism

Bhagavadgltd

the

for

complete,

sense

of

completion

teenth
nine-

centuries.

TJie

Development

The

of Speculation.

UpanisJiads,
but

philosophy,
dominant

as

the

which

Sutras

are

which

on

still be

those

and

based.

Of

Sankara1

was

protagonist

of

still

although

famous.

history,

and

which

the

Hinduism

they
His

"

is

difficult
1

as

Born

of

much

the

is his
in

of

47

be

telligible
unin-

with

the
"

Vedantic

must

Sutras,

these

greatest importance.
the

but
of

of their

commentary,
A.D.

be

institutes

on

greatest

Malabar,

These

to

three

founder

the

lost

one

to

philosopher,

and
have

the

commentaries
are

Veddnta-

written.
as

Their

the

form,

They

Ramanuja
only

not

have

claims

many

and

in

concise

so

provide

not

philosophy.

to

Bhagavadgltd,

the

system

any

said

exposition.

of Sankara

which,

is

mnemonics,

without

Upanishads

for

systematised

was

Badarayana
mere

do

seen,

materials

teaching

sutras,

have

we

788.

names

vigorous

monasteries

influence,

are

in

India's

it well

repays

HINDUISM

48

the

heavy

labour

the full and

have
which

involved
classic

has

[v

in its careful

in it

study, for

expressionof that form of


greatest influence, and

to-day the
described
simply as the Vedanta.1
attempt to give the teaching of
he
This
unity and coherence.
between
kinds of knowledge,
two

work

His

is

we

Vedanta
often

is
a

sincere

the

Upanishads greater
does
by distinguishing
a higher knowledge and
a lower
puts it, a knowledge and a
; or, as he sometimes
the
nescience.
To
higher knowledge there is only one
herently
reality the Self which, as subject and not object,is inunknowable.
The
phenomenal world, the not-I
but unreal ; it is the business of philosophyto
is knowable
the two
distinguishbetween
spheres and give to the self
the
alone real
infinite and
of its unity with
the sense
Brahman.
Ethics
and
religionthus alike belong to the
unreal.
The knowledge of active religiousduty has for
that
and
its fruit transitory felicity,
again depends on
The
the
inquiry into
performance of religious acts.
"

"

Brahman,
and

does

Brahman
that
the

the

on

other

depend

not

self."3
whole

As
and

the

on

Brahman

is

undivided

for its fruit eternal

has

bliss

performance of any acts."2


Silent is
by word or act.
the one
realit}^,
-every soul is
"

revealed

be

cannot

hand,

and

Brahman

so

is

infinite.

come
only by the knowledge of this
Redemption can
is nothing
Release
identity of the self with Brahman.
Therefore
Release
is not something
but being Brahman.
relation
in the slightest
stand
to be purified." It cannot
to any
tion
action, excepting knowledge."4 Yet this redempis available only for the three higher castes, for they
such
alone
knowledge
can
study the Veda from which
comes.
Spiritualcapabilityis (in the case of the Sudras)
the study of the
from
excluded
by their being excluded
For those thus
Veda."5
qualifiedand redeemed, life has
"

"

'

The

work

and
S.B.E., XXXIV.
in
is
R.H.C.,
teaching given

is available

textual,expositionof his

in

III. 2. 17.

On

I. 1.

On

"

On

I. 1. 4.

"

I. 3. 34.

XXXVIII.
pp.

80-97.

short, but

v]
further

no

with

one

and

The

meaning.

who

Brahman,

hence

"

he says,

is

"

I neither

nor

thus

involves

What

then

the

destruction

of the

external

Brahman

knows

who

man

is

neither
was

agent nor enjoyer,"


an
agent nor an enjoyer
such at the present time,

I
previous time, nor am
any
future
shall I be such
at any

at

49

DEVELOPMENTS

FURTHER

time."1

of moral
world

Redemption
responsibility.

and

of the

duties

of

of the absolute
religion? Sankara
rejectsthe doctrine
unrealityof the phenomenal, yet such realityas it has is
due
with
sion,
illuis associated
Brahman
only to nescience.
mdyd, and it is through this that the created world
into
existence.
came
it, is Isvara, the
Supreme over
Lord, but he too is unreal with the unrealityof the whole
karmic
alone
is
Thus
to knowledge, Brahman
process.
real ;

all else

is

mdyd,

yet illumined, the

gods

is illusion ;

yet

and

soul

his

own

to

the

and

man

the

not

tions
obliga-

of

real, and are to be treated


as
religionappear
Thus
realities until true knowledge comes.
the antinomies
is
of the Upanishads are resolved, and an absolute monism
reconciled with the practices
of polytheism. It is significant
that Sankara
himself is honoured
by Hindus, not only as
the teacher of the absolute, but as a Yogin and a miracleworker, and to him are assignedhymns of devotion to the
gods.
In Ramanuja's2 commentary,
have a sincere attempt
we
with a difference.
He rejects
at Theism.
His is a monism
the higher and
the distinction between
the lower
ledge,
knowand
between
Brahman
and
Isvara, and also the
doctrines of the unrealityof the world, and the absolute
identity of the individual and the highest Self, and enin the Vedanta
the belief in a
deavcurs
to legitimatise
God

supreme

Scripturethat
1

near

IV.

1. 13.

His

death

of grace.
there

is

know," he writes, "from


Supreme Person, whose nature is
"We

is connected
with Srirangam,
assignedto A.D. 1137 His name
w
here
stands
the
Trichinopoly,
to-day
greatestof Vaishnavites temples. His

commentary
D

is

is translated

in the

S.B.E., VoK

XLVIII.

[v

HINDUISM

50

absolute

bliss and
all

to

evil,who

tation, and

fundamentally antagonistic
sustenof the origination,

goodness, who
is the

dissolution

is

cause

differs in nature

world, who

of the

beings,who is all-knowing,who by his mere


is
; who
thought and will accomplishes all his purposes
of kindness, as it were,
for all who
an
ocean
depend on
Souls are
is the highest Brahman."1
Him, whose
name
freed from
the cycle of rebirth
to the
by their devotion
Lord and meditation
on
Him, and, being redeemed, are not
Yet
merged into God, but enjoy intercourse with Him.
in
the
Theism
is very
reached
imperfect. Ramanuja,
with
Hindu
most
common
thinkers, accepted the doctrine
from

of

all other

karma,

and

desire.

and

from

not

has

so

He

made,

love, but

others

This

leaves

sufficient

The

is

we

have

Brahma.

Brahma

the

interests

three

of

was

not

functions.

expression in

the

S.B.E., XLVIII.

So

the

An

supreme

Brahman

the

and

livingGod.

Siva claimed

Brahma

made

the

functions

destroyer.3

This

creator,

for its

god

sectarianism
which

the

found

women,

and

of

Vishnu

failed to

This

became

later in the

was

the

for their

Saivism

and

attempt

claimed

p. 770.
of Sankara
and

co-ordinate

to

the Puranas,

followers

of the

Vaishnavism

gods by making

all these

for

completion of the
had
been
made
equal with
naturally,
popular god, and, not un-

of Vishnu

sects.

sustainer, and Siva


sectarian
zeal, which

time

Siva

Thus

peace

universe

the

and

the followers

god supremacy.
mutually hostile

in

redeemer,

were

Sectarianism.
at

seen,

Vishnu

Ramayana,

if he

as

his

place in

Development of

As

"

part in redemption is merely


of karma
inevitable, for the doctrine

that

passive.
no

"arranged," the world,


sport,"2 and, although in some
rather

or

is described

it is clear

motive

is without

God

that

assume

from

Brahman

passages

to

the

satisfy

exercise

its
men

of

literary
of low

Op. cif.,p. 477.


recognise the triad as coequal manifestations

destined

the

to be reabsorbcd

into

it.

of

v]

FURTHER

DEVELOPMENTS

caste

also may

and

been

greatly influenced.

read

51

which

by

popular

has

Hinduism

YaisJinavism
.

In the

Pur

Vaishnavite

and

luscious

and

prominent,

the

anas,

Krishna

child

licentious

stories
and

his mischievous
with

bo}Thood as a cowherd,
shepherd girls. Later there
legend of the love of Radha,

the

stoiy the
the
a

of the

relation

soul

passionate woman

become
has

still

been

West

erotic

more

of

Hindu

India,

lover of Radha,

his

his lawful

Here

speaks

wife.

the

mistress,but

Holding my
My comrade
As

I go

011

lean

Thus

tak'st

thou

to

So

like
In

me

happy

From

Dr. Macnicol's

as

the

of Rukmini,
which

in God

me,

say,

away.

hope
bringest in
new

man

my
child

dost

of

send,

friend

kin.

play

"

Psalms

not

trust

world,
God,
thy
I Tuka,
everywhere
say
Thy bliss is spread abroad."

1608-49.

of

hymns

foolishness,

shame

dear

And

nobler

bear.

would

all I meet

And

dost

I every

know

too

distress

my

world

new

Now

no

to

thee,

right my

settest

And

are

Marathi

leadest

on

thou

as

Thou

of

everywhere.

and

I go, in my
I frantic
words

If

the

that

Krishna

conceived,

thou

hand

burden

My

there

of devout

language

to

religiontended

the husband

as

as

for instance, by Tukaram

is one,

universal
"

is

added

Yet

the

Krishna

which

in

than

of

his mistress, and

; thus

purity, and

told

his dalliance

was

sensuous.

devotion

are

described

was

lover

and

in

worshipped

hymns

her

to

God

to

becomes

Jtardthd

Saints.

"

Tukaram

lived

from

A.D.

52

HINDUISM

As

we

have

Rama

and

have

their
a

many

no

story is

Sita,his faithful
version

Hindu

Christian
Hindi

seen,

lands.

version

of

home

as

From

snake

of Tulsi Das1

annihilate

to
"

of hell."2

Rama

alone

that

of

has

it

Old

great vernaculars
the same
place in

Testament

had

once

in

the

of
partialincarnation
compassionate Redeemer,
a

as

All the

wife.

the

in India

loved

so

it, and

the

"

[v

standpoint of religion,the
is the most
significant.Rama,
Vishnu, is here presented as a
and
his story is described
as

toad-like

error,

the

annihilator

is all

beautiful, all wise, full of


compassion, and of loving-kindness for the destitute,
disinterested
in his benevolence, and
the bestower
of final
deliverance."3

In

North

India

this

book

has

brought
to
its promise that
who
believe
by
many,
of Rama,"
incessantlyand devoutly repeating the name
all the faithful may
attain to felicity.4
comfort

"

Saivism.
It is difficult to
has

understand

the

fascination

that

Siva

for his

worshippers. In the Eigveda Rudra, his prototype,


is a
dreaded
storm-god. In the Svetasvatara
In the
Upanishad, he is exalted as the Supreme Lord.
Mahdbhdrata
his symbol is already the phallic emblem,
by which to-day he is chieflyrepresented. He is the god
connected
with the mysteries of procreation and of death.
Of him there are no
descents
or
incarnations, but only
around
this strange
temporary theophanies ; yet somehow
tion.
deity there has gathered a wealth of speculationand devoSankara
himself
is claimed
by the Saivites as a
follower of their God.
Not
only is Siva honoured
to-day
at Benares, the metropolis of Hindu
orthodoxy, but his
emblem, roughly hewn in stone, is found in most villages,
"

however
1

A.D.

I.

small.
1532-1623.

Chaupdi,

31.

Especiallyin
A

"

South

India

is

Saivism

brief account
is given in R.H.C., pp. 119-24.
8
"
VII. Chhand., 12.
I. Chaupdi, 24.

DEVELOPMENTS

FURTHER

v]

influential ; and to Siva


of Tan jore and Madura,
Tamil

and

supreme
release

from

devotion

we

which

the

his grace

to

It is hard

and

stand
under-

to

intense

have

can

unattractive

seem

the

as

grotesque legends of

mercy.

beautiful

the

praise Siva

ascribe
the

temples

but

it

great Hindu

temple still presents,


of the
strange conjunction,the devotion

in

see,

still sung

are

genuine

so

the famous

saints, which

and

power

gathered round myths


is only the problem that
where

where

compassionate God,
bondage, and see, in

him, proof of his


how

dedicated

are

of the Saiva

hymns

53

worshipper, and the foolish,and often obscene, statues of


received
of the gods. In South
India this devotion
many
later a philosophic expression in the
Saiva
Siddhanta,
which
able
valuhas been described
the most
as
intrinsically
of all the religionsof India,"2 and which
is still influentia
and
its disciplessome
numbers
learned
among
"

devoted

and

men.3

with
Saivism
Closely associated
goddesses, and especiallyof Durga
of Siva, conceived
his sakti,or
as

that

the

dualism

movement

represents

is
or

the

Kali,

power.
coalescence

worship
the

as

of

consort

It is

possible
Sankhyan

of

with

superstition. In its left hand form, it is


and
vile. In its right-hand form it is respectable,
obscene
and is connected
Throughout
up with ordinary Saivism.
India Kali is much
in
feared, and
Bengal it is estimated
that the majority of Hindus
are
goddess -worshippers.4
It is clear that
the

vital forces

exhausted.

1
"

the

close of the

of Hinduism

124r-40,for

had

had

Learning

See R.H.C., pp.

of these

by

become,

almost

account

an

eighteenth century
for the
Even

ceased.

of Manikka

Vasagar, the

most

time,
the

famous

saints.

So Dr. Pope, Tiruvdsagam, p. Ixxxiv.


Filial,whose Studies
e.g. Mr. Nallasvami

in

Saiva

Siddhanta

is well

worth

reading.
"

J. C. Oman

estimates

religionof probably
Tfteists and

that

three-fourths

Muslims

the

worship

of the

of

Hindu

of India, p. 24).

or
Kali,
jjDurga,

population of

is

practicallythe
man's
Bengal (The Brah-

54

HINDUISM

Upanishads
jealously

of
and

the

South
but

India
the

has

been

has

been

of

Hinduism,

and

explored,
a

new

the

repression

and

brought

of
then

rich
in

the

were

heritage
noblest

significance

prevalent,

utterances

has

and
The

been

the

were

Hinduism,
ism
Hindu-

discovered.

with
There

hope.

have

of

with

contact

baser

past

of

contact

Its

life

of

temples

Its

values.

of

widows

century

weakness.

new

coarse

part

of

nineteenth

it

alone

was

great

degradation

the
the

was

of

the

is

was

formed

purified.

to

transformation

The

forgotten.

of
and

which

of

the

to

it

that

burning

sculptures

enriched

has

and

witness

Then

obscenity

were

it

Idolatry

and

beginning

meant

Christianity

saints

foul

still

since

Islam

worshipped.

infanticide

The

common.

To-day

Purdnas

the

and

scholars,

praised.

of

Self-torture

Female

few

knowledge.
hear

we

and

ignorant.

to

popular

Krishna

known

religion.

only

Gltd

foolish

generally
and

from

kept

Krishna
lewd

known

were

[v

elements

been
has

Indian

largely
been

seers

re-

and

VI."

THE

in

the

and,

met,

It

there

hard

is

yet clear.

it

is

It

must

modern

the

Brahma

about

of

from

ancient

the

So

modified

came

West,

of the

most

The

Rammohan

Samaj
When

and

elements

was

twelve

educated

the

Theosophy
in

the

old

and

was

social
at

East

the
much

so

more

defence

vigorous

represented

movements
a

was

Later,
should

the

by

departure

religious

Arya Samaj
in

sacred

of the

represented

its civilisation

and

tive
opera-

of government,

ideas

Why

of

complex

demanded.

reaction.

the

in

Hinduism,

Brahma

and

their

illustrate

to

abrupt

were

when

have

we

Ramakrishna

by

religious

beyond

scholars

an

duism,
Hinis not

chiefly

and

phase,

1828,

issue

some

far

been

Western

nature

forces.

of

intricate

have

Hinduism,

radical

there

and

first

in

vital

serve

education

the

founded

popular

1870,

learn

In

briefly

may

forces

by

remains

final

its

extended

vast

Western

India.

from

reforms

the

in

Three

Samaj

made

has

teaching

exploration

of

literature

whose

have

transformation
and

new

West

and

of its

describe

to

influence

Christianity,
and

notable

Hinduism

old

the

incomplete,

Hinduism.

"

East

revaluation

suffice

elements

new

been

still

and

membership,

of

this

whose

movements,

of

has

describe

to

for

the

much

marks

century

Hinduism.

of

history

MOVEMENTS

nineteenth

the

although

unchanged,

be

of

beginning

epoch

RELIGIOUS

MODERN

SOME

confident

apology

for

religion.

Samaj.
Rai
born

in

years

for

(1772-1833),
a

old

Kulin
he

Government

the

founder

Brahman
sent

was

service.
55

of the

family
to

Patna
Patna

Brahma

of

Bengal.

that

he

was

might
seat

of

HINDUISM

56

[vi

Rammohan
returned
learning,and, when
after three years'study there, he objected to idolatry
home
and, in consequence,
quarrelledwith his father, who was
Muhammadan

not

reconciled

settled

in

him

to

till

after.

years

Sanskrit

studied

and

Benares

some

Rammohan

and

afterwards

published a pamphlet in Persian


entitled A Giftto Deists.
Shortly after he entered the East
India Company's service, and in ten years saved enough to
reform.
enable him to retire and devote himself to religious
tion
In 1815 he established a societycalled the Friendly Associa(Atmlya Sabhd) which met weekly for the recitation of
from
the Hindu
scripturesand the singing of
passages
mohan
RamThis association
only lasted four years.
hymns.
believed that he could find in the Upanishads that
which
he held to be the true religion,and
Theism
pure
he published in Bengali and
1816-19
between
English an
In

English.

of the

abstract

he

1804

Veddnta-sutras

translations

and

of four

of

these
to
Upanishads. In the introductions
works, and in two pamphlets, he denounced
idolatry and
with uncompromising vigour. Rammohan
immoral
superstitions
got to know at Calcutta the Serhampore missionaries
that he might be able to
Hebrew
and Greek
and studied
he
In 1820
better.
understand
the Bible
published in
Bengali and English a little book entitled The Preceptsof
Jesus, the Guide to Peace and Happiness, a notable book,
which
was
harshly criticised by the missionaries, who
complained unreasonably that it did not express the fulness

the

verse

of the

Christian

Sabha, which

In

faith.
became

soon

Weekly services were


generosityof Prince

1828

he

known

held, and

two

founded
as

the

years

the

Brahma

Brahma

Samaj.
later,through the

Dvarkanath

Tagore1 and other friends,


Its trust
Theistic Church
was
a Hindu
opened in Calcutta.
that no
deed
enacted
image, carving or picture should be
allowed

in

sailed for

it, and

England

no

and
"

The

sacrifice offered

there.

died in Bristol in 1833.


grandfather of

the

poet,

Rammohan
At

his death

SOME

vi]

57

MOVEMENTS

MODERN

Society began to languish, and was


only maintained
Tagore.
by the generosityof Dvarkanath
when
The
in 1842
influence
of the Society revived
of Ramwas
joined by Debendranath
Tagore, the son
the

mohan's

friend.

Born

"

year he was, as he tells us,


pleasuresof the flesh,"but he awoke
twentieth

and,
world
and

he

as

narrated

the

afterwards,

this

leader

Covenant
love

of the

of

Samaj,

and

solemn

seven

"

and

world

to

vivid

1843

in

to

drew

up

renounce

him

serve

of God

sense

He

became

the

Brahma

sin."

and

sorrow

the

long strugglethe
only comfort
my

became

vows

God,

venerate

to

his

to

with

intoxicated

after

God

and

lost its attractions

delightin

"

sixteenth

his

1818, from

in

it

by

idolatry, to
righteous life,

been
had
Samaj. Rammohan
support the Brahma
unduly Deistic,but Debendranath
Tagore, although he was
less conscious
of obligationto Christ, was
more
a
deeply
and

to

religiousman,
Samaj a new
about

arose

doctrine

and

inerrancy was
Upanishads remained

Keshab

1857

became

soon

others

became

and

Brahman,
He

toured

and

bade

"

of the

was

explicitly renounced,
the chief scripture of
the

joined

member.

In 1861

Society
he, with

and

some

members, gave up their livelihoods


its missionaries, and
Keshab, though not a
made

"

men

minister

India

and

kill the

customs

Debendranath
the

the

younger

He

lived

"

evils

and

the

the minister

Society.
idolatry

reform

of great

apprehensive, and

authorised
thread

of caste

involve

grew

sacred

Acharya of

or

vigorouslydenounced

monster

which

Debendranath
when

Sen

Chandra

prominent

through

marriage

of

services

Difficulties
and
of prayer
devotion.
authority of the Vedas, and, at last,the

their

although the
the Society.
In

the

into

element
the

of

introduced

at

of the

the

magnitude."
length,
Society

when

and his
Keshab
officiating,
from the Samaj.
The old Samaj (the Adi
party withdrew
Debendranath
's leadership, more
Samaj) became, under
to

wear

conservative.

to

great old

age,

and

is revered

HINDUISM

58

throughout India as
He was
unwilling to
Ramrnohan

followed
had

Keshab

great Eishi or seer.


Christ, and yet, as he
of karma, he
doctrine

the

Mahdrishi,

anything to
ignoring the

central

Christian

studied

in Calcutta

owe

in

the

abandoned

the

[v.i

his memorable

of Hinduism.

interest

and in 1866 delivered


literature,
lecture Jesus
Christ,Europe and

protested against that denationalisation


native
converts
to Christianity
which
is so general among
who
an
Asiatic,"
forget that Christ, their master, was
which
with
and
Europeans condemn
against the harshness
the European hates the native
If
Indians.
as
a cunning

Asia.

In

it he

"

"

"

"

fox, the

latter

child

immortal
I reflect

the

former

as

on

intensified

of God.

Was

he

"

of the
not

Blessed

Asiatic

an

love for Jesus becomes


this my
heart
I feel him
and
nearer
my

He

wolf."

ferocious

passionate admiration

with

spoke

fears

Jesus,
When

hundredfold

deeper

in my
find

his countrymen
he bade
sympathies." And
the inspirationfor lives of self-denial that
in Christ's cross
service and their
to God's
they might dedicate themselves
country's welfare.
Brahma
founded
In the same
a new
Samaj
year Keshab
in his hands.
It lacked organisation,and all the power
was
A selection of theistic texts from the Scripturesof the chief
national

religionswas

published,and

introduced.
he

was

Keshab

methods
then

of Vaishnavite

left for

enthusiasticallyreceived, and,

on

England,
his

tion
devowhere

return,

he

As his success
increased, he
pressed on with social reform.
to be guided by specialrevelation
and more,
claimed, more
(ddesa)from God. This provoked oppositionin his followers,
at the marriage of his daughter to the
culminated
which
rites were
heir of Kuch
Behar, as idolatrous
formed
peryoung
the bride and bridegroom were
at the wedding, and
below the age the Society approved for marriage. In consequence,
the majority of its members
seceded, and became
the General
known
Samaj.
as
(Sadharan) Brahma

In

1881

Keshab

announced

that

his

was

the

Church

of

59

MOVEMENTS

MODERN

SOME

VT]

Its emblem

symbol made
and
of trident, cross
crescent, and, through Ramaup
if all religions
krishna's
as
influence, Keshab
spoke now
of the
ritual
New
in the
were
true, and
Dispensation
but
Hindu
sacraments
imitated
Christian
not
monies.
cereonly
claimed
that his New
Keshab
Dispensation was
New

the

Dispensation.

Christ's second
with

Paul

is my

"

could

For

say,

that, for himself, he

declared

Christ is the

he

at times

"

he
retained

the

his death

Buddha,
is

not

are

in

Christ.

his last words


of the

Mother
very

death

His

His

left the

natural

work, but

notable

sympathies,

and

The
he

Adi

In

Western

of the

formation
This
to

was

founded

Bombay,

reform.
Sadharan

India

Prarthand
in

having
beliefs

Its

Brahma
1

Modem

similar

Samaj,

are

much

Samaj.

theistic
same

of

Many

ReligiousMovements

in

from

P.

C.

beautiful

in his

through

still

its

continues.
which

has

of its membership.

have

led

to

the

Prayer Society.

after Keshab

years

the

been

Christian

limits

the

to-day

Dispensation

Samaj

influences

1867, three
for its aim

the

of
He

ideals

Christ is

Samaj

far outside

who

have

influence

At

Nirvana."

their

Brahma

He

Mother

lost

Sadharan

important is the
permeating influence

"

too

More

Christ,

hands."1

deemed

Brahma

clear

Lord.

as

of the New

Oriental

was

to

Hindus

would

Church

the

The

dissensions.

Church

due

own

yet derive

successor

book

whose

Mozoomdar,

and

seems

Christ,

Farquhar says,
tian,
were
fullyChris-

me

noble-minded

many

It

these

were

Sakyan, grant

fully Christian,

divided.

and

1884

Christ

cleanses

level with

Christ

to

of his life in his

government

type of

himself

surrendered

never

that

water

placed himself on a
and
turned
to other
religionsfor comfort.
that
his deepest religiousexperience was
but
he was
no
systematiser,and, as Dr.
although his deepest theologicalbeliefs
Yet

me."

"

live is Christ."

to

me

drink, and

and

food

and

Advent,

was

worship
as

its

and

those

members

India, p. 67.

's visit
social
of

the
are

60

HINDUISM
the

and

Marathis,

poet-saintsare
small, but

is

beautiful

Sir R.

of

leader

of the

leaders

instead

of

karma

of evil deeds

Social

of

Reformer

has

he

born

have

in

the

asked

and

of Siva

in the

temple

home,
ascetic

and,

he
at

of the

Dayananda.
found

him

that

its

and

with

studied

tells
"

Siva's
the

with

win

lad of
"

night

in

emblem

Mahadeva

the

the

idea

allows

of
of

an

the mice

redemption, and,
as

gave

Yoga, but,

teachings were

the

later,his sister's sudden

initiated

who

known
a

hideous

unmarried, he

order

in

in

that, as

us

"reconcile

years

eagerly to

India

of his best

this idol which

Four

Sarasvati,

available

now

whether

not

by

thirty-threeyears
his autobiography,

in

identical

might remain
length, was
Sarasvati

known

first

father

his

he could

desire

He

the

In it he

was

omnipotent livingGod
to run
its body."
upon
that

this

English translation

his father

for
Scriptures,"

order

Of

Theosophist

the

to

temple

made

Indian

spiritedof
Society, Mr.

in Western

clear account

book, Satydrth Prakdsh.


fourteen, he spent with

death

of

finest

of

in Kathiawar

family.

we

introduction

the

the

imitation

(1824-83), better
assumed, Dayananda

afterwards

Brahman

published

which,

through

Sankara

in Tankara

life

of his

Mission

Its founder, Mula


name

member

the

perhaps the
supplied most

uplift. The

of the

one

the most

for its editor.

Arya-Samdj

wealthy

for their

the

Ranade,

accursed

as

of

some

previous life,in

Bombay,

weeklies,

Natarajan,

was

in

done

has

Classes'

outcastes

missions, labours

modern

the

society that

Depressed

of the

regarding the

Christian

The

It is this

membership

G. Bhandarkar,

scholars, and Mr. Justice


Social Reform
are
Movement,

illustrious.

most

been

Indian

of the

Maratha

old

Its

have

its members

among

of the

hymns

in its services.

employed

greatest Indians, of whom


famous

[vi

on

false to

ran

from

away

sannydsin by
him

the

name

dissectinga
fact.

In

in

an

of

corpse,

1860

he

became

studied

under

pupil

him.

crowds.

In
used

of his
with

Brahman

61

and

Sanskrit

ancient

him

1872

Hindi

he

for three
In

works.

of

and

terminated

this

his

Sen

ChancLra

Sanskrit

not

of

leaders

Keshab

met

published
teaching. From

the

book,

blind

he

1874

MOVEMENTS

idolatry. He tried
the pandits in Sanskrit, but they
He then appealed to the people and

with

reason

heed

of

his denunciations

began

In

MODERN

ME

vi

in

his

Satyarth Prakd.sh.
he

1879"81

Theosophy,

connection.

In

worked
but
the

yeaxs

he

1866

first to

at

would
drew
and

not

large
forth
hence-

public lectures.
a
compendium
in conjunction
violent
quarrel

first edition

of

his

beef

eating had not been condemned, but in 1882, as


and
Muslims, he
part of his polemic against Christians
He died in 1883.
founded
a Cow
Protecting Association.
He claimed
he meant
the
to find in the Veda-s,by which
Vedic hymns, not only a pure monotheism
but the anticipation
the
of such
modern
discoveries
the railway and
as
his movea fierce controversialist, and
ment,
telegraph. He was
which
is numerous
and influential in the Punjab and
the United
Provinces, is bitterlyopposed both to Islam
and Christianity. His work
is commemorated
in the AngloVedic College of Lahore
and in a great C+urukula
at Hardwar,

where

are

trained

not

return

allowed

The

to

the old Brali machdrin

from
home
see

the
for

their

Hinduism

Students

of

eight to twenty-five,and
the whole
of this period, and are
a year.
parents once
age

Complete Defence of Hind

The

ideal is revived.

may

only

""

was
Dayananda fiercelydefended
Hinduism
a
changed beyond recognition; but unreformed
Hinduism
has
also found
enthusiastic
advocates.
Very
in this respect is the work
of Gadadhar
significant
Chatterji,
better known
he assumed
when
he became
a
by the name

which

i lamakrishna

the
and

Hoogly

district of

conceived

Paramahamsa.

Bengal in 1834.
passionate devotion

He
He
for

was

became
an

image

born
a

in

priest,
of Kali

HINDUISM

62

[vi

hours in
temple which he served, and spent so many
religiousecstasy that he lost his positionas a priest. For
God
he sought to realise his unity with
twelve
and,
years
a
sannydsin.
forgettingthat he had been married, became
the trance
When
period passed, he craved for redemption
by the way of love, and, dressing himself up as a woman,
as
passionate as that of Radha
sought a love for Krishna
his paramour.
Desiring to enter into the experience of
and
he lived for a while as a Muhammadan,
other religions,
later,saw Jesus in a vision, and for three days was absorbed
that all
to the conclusion
So he came
in thought of Him.
for the Hindus
the ancient
religionsare alike true, but
path, the path of the Aryan Rishis is the best." He himself
than any other deity,and his worship
worshipped Kali more
After his death in 1886, his discipleViveidolatrous.
was
tion,
kananda
who, unlike his master, had had an English educain the

"

travelled, far and

wide,

to

master's

his

propagate

Religions,held in Chicago
in 1893, he attended
and,
as
a representativeof Hinduism,
and
persuasive speech, made
by his impressive presence
Miss Margaret Noble
has since
some
converts, of whom
teaching.

as

greeted

was

Parliament

the

famous

become

he

At

his influence

of many
that, while all
quarry

philosophicof

On

Sister Mvedita.

with

of Hinduism.
but

of

acclamation
He

remains.
educated

as

died in 1902
His

at the

speeches

Indians

who

is materialistic,the

can
spiritual
; everything Hindu
much
be preserved. Yet he owed
he scorned, and
proclaimed what

echo

his

whereas

the

most

pean
Euroof India

and

to the Western

forty,

teaching

is the

civilisation

tagonist
pro-

favourite

the

are

called

of

age

be defended

he

to India

successful

the

religionsare true, Hinduism


all,its idolatryis right,and,

civilisation
is

his return

should

influences
Practical

service for the Motherland.


self-sacrificing
those elements
Theosophy also has sought to defend even
had
of which
educated
of Hinduism
men
begun to grow
its justification
of
ashamed, and, in South India especially,

Vedanta

of

MODERN

SOME

vi]

hoary

to
a

refer

reader

the

This

brief

reference
the

Hindu

noblest
The

the

bhakti

of the
of

speculation

with

difference,

"

from

the

God

fruitful

darkened
';

is there

where

them

in

dust.

off

the

on

of creation
Come

flowers

him

"

the

soil

and
in

sweat

find

with

and

mantle

and

seeks

ground

He

is with
with

is covered

like

even

the

world.

hard

stones.

love
in

not

for the

his garment

munion
com-

make

to

tillef is tillingthe

breaking

with

which

Him

Him

sion.
expres-

secluded

in

strength

to

books

him

come

has

thy

"

but

is

Where

of

"

Hinduism

religion,4 and

of

labour

in

it

find

to

expects

is this

joyfully

is bound

tattered

e.g.
renewed

is

shower,

incense

in toil and

but

thy holy

He

out

and

become

in

seer,

pathmaker

himself

master

Hindu

form

where

dusty

Deliverance

Our

"

and

sun

Put

down
"

the

combined

refuses

with

exquisite

is here

and

but

temple

He

and

"5

service

find

saint

selfish ecstasy

narrative.2

Hindu

which

highest

not

in

the

must

we

whose

in

Tagore,3

of Hinduism

aspirations

history

fitly close

may

Rabindranath

Dr.

to

Hinduism

of

sketch

its

been

has

Hinduism

fascinating

Farquhar's

Dr.

to

"l

influenced

for

and

movement,

63

science

it has

Although

many.

it is not

"

modern

by

superstitions

attractive

MOVEMENTS

with

deliverance
taken

us

what

harm

stained

of

thy

Meet

be

found

bonds

the

ever.

and
is

him

upon

all for

meditations

to

leave

there

if

him

and

aside

thy

thy

clothes

stand

by

brow."6

sanctified
and
properly prepared image
by the daily
by mantraf,
of the worshipper's devotion
becomes
a
strongly magnetic centre,
issue
powerful vibrations, which
regularise and
steady the invisible
Text-Book
(An Advanced
of Hindu
worshipper."
Religion and Ethics,
"

forces

"

from

which

bodies
p

of the

215.
*
*
"

Modern

in India,
Religious Movements
208-90.
pp.
the
resigned his knighthood as a protest against
*
Sadhana, p. 129.
36.
Gitanjali,Poem
He

Amritsar
"

massacre.

Op cit.,Poem

11.

II
ZOROASTRIANISM

I."

TEACHING

AND

LIFE

THE

ZOROASTER

OF

Introduction.
Zoroastrianism

ALTHOUGH
Parsis

and

preaching

which

and

had

simple

is

is

consensus

no

of

irreconcilable

the

fact

least

at

to

had

have

authentic

an

of

views

seems

religion

The

opinion

suggested,

mesteter

regard

to

we

be

certain

merely

there

instead

with

Yet

is not,

one

Dar-

as

This

name.1

legendary
and

are

facts

scholars.

; Zoroaster

founder,

-historic

of

scholars

essential

individual

brief

in

knowledge

our

confronted

are

with

religion

Avestan

some

scholars

describe

for

but

prophet's

some

No

to

source

Avestd,

in

even

hard

so

chief

the

which

religions.

is

The

terms.

and

few,

deal

to

Zoroastrianism
very

other

on

of the

nobility

influence

of the

because

have

we

intrinsic

Persia, it merits

in

community

the

by

only

professed

to-day

small

of the

has

it

suppose

by

because

study

our

and

India,

in

is

of

his

teaching

we

record.

Avestd.

Pars!

tradition

the

Avestd

and

that

the

order

In

of
the

utilised
the

destroyed

were

the

that

asserts

Avestd,
the

as

first

fragments

introduction

to

his

it

the

in

the

exists

translation
64

of

invasion

king
a

complete

to-day,

Sassanian
that

two

(A.D. 226-240)

the

Avestd,

had

8.B.E.,

of

Alexander

compiled

was

predecessor
of

copies

at

who

collected.
IV.,

p.

Ixiii.

ZOROASTER

i]
Doubtless

compilation
Persia, and

invaded

Muhammadans

of Zoroaster
The

this

of

much

the

lost, when

was

faithful

the

followers

fled to India.

Avestd

divisions

main

three

has

to be recited

(1)The Yasnas, Hymns


making offerings.Imbedded
ancient

65

by

in this book

the

priestswhen

are

the far

more

Gdthds.

Vendiddd,

(2) The

Law,

Anti-daemonic

or

pilation
com-

prose
detailed

and
laws,
containing mythological matter
dealing with the purificationand punishment of offences.
of Praise
the Yazatas,
to
or
Yaslits, Hymns
(3) The
minor
Angels. These, with some
pieces,form the Little

Avestd,

Khordah

the

Avestd,

the

well

as
use
laity may
It is probable that

books1

contain

collection

the

as

later

the

which

priests.
Pahlavi
(Middle Persian)

material

much

of prayers

derived

from

Avestan

sources.2

The

Gdthds

all to

about

are

nine

hundred

language closelyrelated
than

ancient

more

the

Gdthds
their
record
account

The

is

with

described

the

mnemonic

of his

of the

mission

of Zoroaster

these

difficulties and
candour.

provide

to

in

In

The

of Zoroaster, and

words

It is from

teaching.

hero

engaging

seem

evidence

of content.

whose

in

obviously far
This

evidence

an

written

are

Avestd.

man

very

verses

and

in

amount

are

legendary

actual

profess to give
terse

the

by

They

Vedic

of the

rest

language is confirmed
later writings Zoroaster
he is an
primitive poems
are

the

to

and

number,

lines.3

of

limitations

in

seventeen

these

authentic

an

Gdthds

will be

that

our

derived.

Life of Zoroaster.

The
1

Five

Thus

familiar
volumes
the

name

of the

Bundahishn

Zoroaster
S.B.E.
is said

are

to

is

devoted
be

the

an

adaptation of

to these

Pahlavi

epitome of the

V. p. xxiv).
subsequently lost (see S.B.E.
with
notes, in J. H. Moulton's
They are translated,
340-90.
from
this translation.
are
Passages quoted
pp.

the Latin

texts.

Avestan

DdrndcU

Na$k,

Early Zoroastrianism,

ZOROASTRIANISM

6(i

Greek

and

[I

(Zw/xxzcrrpys)In

Zoroastres

Avestd

the

his

is

name

Middle

usually given as Zarathushtra


added, Spitama Zarathushtra.
Zaratust

Persian, books

The

date

of the

writers, for the

Thus

Pliny

that

Zoroaster

the

"flourished
others

his

the

legendary

Zoroastrian

direct

Zoroaster
scholars

to

have

tradition,

held

and

antiquity.

the

give

this

date

of

and
The

of Ninevah.1

other

as

death

the

of Semiramis

king

on

may

that

Greek

reported that he
the Trojan war";

it is

and

queen

period we

or

form.

to dim

before

before
years
with
the time

name

ronymic
pat-

Pahlavi,

commonest

years

that

says

five thousand

connect

Ninus,

six thousand

Plutarch

whilst

Plato,

is the

the

authority of Aristotle,asserts

the

elder,on
lived

In the

part, assignhim

most

with

is still uncertain.

prophet

Latin

or,

hand,

660-583

Some

B.C.

Thus

late.

is too

assigns
Dr.

argued that Zoroaster lived not later than the tenth


possibly another
century or two earlier.2
century, and
but it seems
Such
difficulties,
a
theory would solve many
rob the prophet of
unlikely that native tradition would
that antiquity confers, and the traditional
the veneration
date may
probable.
perhaps be regarded as more
The
place of the prophet's birth and early life is also

Moulton

Dr.

uncertain.
Iran

Western

and

his message

that

last,won
We

born

was

in

began his mission there ; later, finding


and, at
was
rejected,he turned eastward

little of the

We

to reform.

he

in Bactria.

success

know

suggests that

Jackson

religionwhich
that

assume

may

Zoroaster

it contained

the

sought
elements

Rigveda, which go back to


and
Indians
the time
before the Iranians
separated. This
primarily a worship of the forces of nature.3
religionwas
to

common

For

the

the

relevant

and

Avestd

passages

see

the

A. V. W.

Jackson, The Prophet of Ancient

Iran,

152-7.

pp.

Early Zoroasirianism, pp.


(ZoroastrianTheology, p. 11).
-

So

Herodotus

Jrtrc,Water,

and

tells

Winds

us

17-22.

later

(I.131).

that

Dr.
the

Dhalla

Persians

is inclined

sacrifice

to

to

similar

view

Sun, Moon, Earth,

ZOROASTER

i]

Conspicuous
the Dews

the

gods
Rigveda. The

among

of the

67
"

Shining Ones,"
liquor,Sonia in the
almost
certainly

the

were

sacred

in
the
Avestd, was
Rigveda, Haoma
Haoma
employed, for, although the word
in the Gdthds, Zoroaster
speaks of "the
the Karapans
intoxicant, through which
of the Daevas] evillydeceive."1

Of the events
have

we

which

record,

no

does

not

occur

filthiness

of

(i.e.the

this

priests

of Zoroaster

led up to the conversion


reflect the
for the Gdthds

maturity

of

proclaimed that there was one God


there
alone who
was
holy and almighty. For every man
Truth
between
was
one
necessity to choose
supreme
(Asha) and Falsehood
(Druj). Zoroaster for himself had
his

Zoroaster

teaching.

"

chosen

who

and

Truth

have

set

with

Good

dah

Ahura

for

"

This

that

endure

to

his message

met

human

I ask

camel

I have

as

with

for

and
token

some

of

success

whether
ten

even

Gdthds

the

mares

I shall
with

promised to me, 0 Mazdah,


and
future
gift of Welfare

was

thee

He

little success.

contempt,

reward

which

and

power

Right."2

truly, Ahura,

me

that

earn

through
Immortality 3
as

and

prayer

thee, tell

indeed, O Right,
well

after

poverty

very

stallion and

seek

to

men

I,

watching over the soul,in union


as
knowing the rewards of Maz-

on

works, will, while

our

"

his mission.

his choice

in

and

Thought,

It is clear

record

heart

my

strength,teach
had

found

the

"

feels that

He
few

it is because

followers.4

then

in

do not

Yet

he

next, God

the

is

he has

of life."5

will

be

given
;i

unbelievers

He

will vindicate

prays

to

the

that

he

Ys., XLVIII.

"

7*., XLIV.
r*., XLV.

that

wise
may

10.
IS.
3.

cattle that

that, if

sure

put in practicehis word

end

few

there
he

and

may
what
all

convert

"
"

not

him
"

in

this world

to

those

shall be
know

woe

what

punishment
livingmen.'56

Ys., XXVIII.
Ys., XLVI.
Ys., XXXL

he has

4.
2.
3.

who
at

the

reward
to

the

With

ZOROASTRIANISM

68

the

of

word

horde
At

he

length

ministers, the

When

the defenders

defended

to

He

"

is

of the

and

Teaching

great God

The

the

"

turn

the

even

at

the

robber

about

and

and

his

two

and

Jamaspa.
stirred up neighbourold religion
ing
Zoroaster's
bidding, Vishtaspa
new
religionwith force of arms.2
God.

is Ahura

First

Vishtaspa

Frashaoshtra

brothers

attack,

himself

Zoroaster's

to

chief

the

converts

chief

tribes

hopes

Greatest."1

the

unto

he

promise

[i

the

Last."

God

the

Mazdah,

He

it

was

of Wisdom.
who

the

in

"

Let the blessed realm


be filled
beginning thus thought,
with lights."3 His holy spirit clothes himself
with the
4
heavens
His is an
absolute lordship."
as
a garment."
massy
5
the future.
with
He knows
He sees
a
flashing
be visited
secret
whatsoever
or
things may
eye
open
with judgement." 6
Yet Zoroaster
speaks of this sublime
but with great
God, not only with profound reverence,
and himself that
to
intimacy. He prays for Frashaoshtra
all eternitythey may
of God." 7
He speaks of
be beloved
himself as
of God.
So long as he has strength
the friend
and power
he will be the praiserof Mazdah.8
Side by side with
Ahura
Mazdah, the Wise Lord, are
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

other

"

Ahuras.9
and

six of them

In

the

their number

Odthds
is not

these

abstract

are

defined.

In later

tions
concep-

thought,

become

of Immortal
archangels under the name
Holy Ones (Avestan, Amesha
Spenta : Pahlavi, Ameshasto represent a diversity
pand). In the Gathas they seem
in unity. They are
within the Being of God, not separate
from
Him
members
of the heavenly court,"10
exalted
as
and their names
better translated, as their personificaare
tion
is incomplete. The
Right and Good Thought occur
"

"
'

10

2
18.
5.
Ys., XXXI.
Ys., XXVIII.
s
5.
21.
Ys., XXX.
Ys., XXXI.
"
XLIX.
8.
6.
11.
L.
Ys.,
Ys.,
J. H. Moulton, The Teaching of ZarathusUra,

"
"

p. 13.

Ys., XXXI.
Ys., XXXI.
Ys., XXX.

7, 8.
13.
9.

69

ZOROASTER

i]

frequently. In the Gathds it is difficult to


the less important of these conceptions
draw a line between
tory,
and others of the same
class, but, in view of their later hiswith these six Ahuras.
it is necessary
to deal especially
1. Asha
is the Right, or Truth, or Righteousness, or, as
by

far the most

it could

Right will become


to
special mission
Right.
2. Vohn
Manah,

He

translated, Order.

be

sometimes

Ahura.1

like Mazdah

bid

Good

Thought,

chooses

It is Zoroaster's

Lie

the

leave

men

who

and

seek

the

closely associated

is

spoken of as the son of Ahura Mazdah.


first
when
It was
Good
to Zoroaster
Thought that came
Mazdah
the
and
he was
instructed
as
recognised Ahura
holy one.2 These two, Asha and Vohu Manah, are in the
Asha.

with

Each

closest association
3.

is

with

is the

Khshathra, Dominion,

"

Kingdom to be
accomplishes what

Mazdah.

Ahura

Divine

It is the

desired."

Reign.
"

man

who

It is the
with

zeal

through his actions," who will


receive
the good, the precious Dominion
from the Right
as
a most
surpassingportion," and Zoroaster prays for this
before
all else.3 At the coming of the Dominion
Dominion
and sinners judged.4
the righteous shall be rewarded
4. Aramaiti, Piety,is a feminine
counterpart of Dominion,
later was
The
attribute
holy (spenta) which
regularly
is only occasionallyconnected
with
prefixed to her name
the comrade
She is
of Right,"5 and
her in the Gdthds.
the future birth." 6
brings earthly happiness and
6. Haurvatdt
and Ameretdt, Welfare
and Immortality,
5 and
tion,
are
always found together. They represent salvaMazdah
Ahura
here and hereafter.
declares that they
who
render
Zoroaster
obedience, shall all attain unto
Welfare
and Immortality." 7
Although in the later Avestd these six alone become
is best
"

"

"

"

"
"
'

F*.,'XXXI. 16.
6.
Ys., XXXII.
5.
Ys., XLV.

*
5

Ys., XUII.
Ys., XXXIV.

11.
10.

"
"

Ys., LI. 1, 2.
Ys., XLVIII.

5. 6.

ZOROASTRIANISM

70

[i
abstractions

Spentas,in the Gdthds other


Ahuras, as, for instance, Obedience
(Ashi).
Amesha

Zoroaster's

Teaching

Zoroaster

and

of

he reminds
in the

to

others

summon

than

more

fight

human

range

replica on earth of the age-long


by superhuman beings. Thus, in a terse
their choice,
make
his mission, as he bids men
It

meaning.
conflict waged
manifesto

Destiny

called to

been

and

wrong,

conflict had

This

this conflict.

to

had

he

that

Right against the

for the

(Sraosha)and

Evil.

about

conscious

was

called

are

was

it

that

them

the

was

choice

same

as

made

was

beginning.

"

Now

vision
word

the
as

Twins,

and

action.

"

the
"

last

the

Worst

Lie,

but

the

Of

doing

the

clothes

that

likewise
dutiful

Read

Spirits came
Life

be

shall

Existence

Best

Thought

to

they

the

with

him

that

chose

one

him

are

massy
fain to

in

together

Not-Life

and

and

follows

as

please

at

of

Right."

Spirit chose
Ahura

that

Lie

the

heavens

the

followers

the

to

that

followed

Spirits he that
things : the holiest

worst

and

thought

wise

the

two

twain

these

in

so.

twain

established

beginning, they
the

not

these

when

And

these

between

And

in

themselves

Bad

the

and

Better

the

are

foolish

aright, the

revealed

primal Spiritswho

two

chose
he

Right,

garment.

So

Mazdah

by

actions."1

in

the

seem

to teach

that

Zoroaster

light of later thought, these


a metaphysical dualism,2 but
was

uninterested

in

such

would

verses

it is

probable
speculations.

Holy Spirit is very closely identified with Ahura


that the
Mazdah
and, as he is personal,we must
suppose
Spiritwho chose evil is also personal,and that the conflict
and not a mere
thesis
antibetween
is thus one
personal spirits,
of the Better and the
between
logicalabstractions
The

1
*

7*., XXX.
Thus

Ahraman

the

3. 4. 5.
Pahlavi

Dmkart

(Ahriman=the
enemy
XXXVII.
p. 242).
(S.B,E.,

says

Onnazd

spirit)have

(Ormazd=
been

two

Ahura
brothers

Mazdah)
in

one

and

womb

ZOROASTER

i]
Worse.

Yet

the

was

sole and

Spiritmight
the spiritof
this

but

It is

evil.

I will

of the
'

speak

Xeither

words

thought
deeds

nor

holier

the

selves

Spiritdoes not
the Shining Ones, remained
degraded into demons.
Zoroaster

They at the
together to

first

"

Here

of

gods
the

us

and

to

one

passage

later

became

beginning

the

to
nor

Devas,

Asuras
takes

reverse

nor

agree.' "2

twain

the

:l

enemy

beliefs

In India the

the enemies

the

chose

nor

alone.

as

Daevas

in the

sees

wills

souls

nor

work

Evil

The

spake

of

chooses

first

the

at

thus

teachings

nor
nor

which

term

Spiritstwain

of the

world, of whom

by

in

Holy

work

the

if he

that

notice

to

of His

by

fault

own

Mazdah

Ahura

work

defeated

not

It is of interest

Bad

"

The

man's

Spiritis described
familiar designation.

its

Zoroaster,

to

God.

supreme

checked

be

evil.

serve

that

it is clear

71

of Ahura

were

place.
Mazdah.

"

"

and
rushed
Thought
that
Violence
they might enfeeble the world
of man/'3
They, with the Bad Spirit, defrauded mankind
tribes who
of happy life and of immortality." The nomad
better
than
their evil gods. Like
are
no
worship them
seed
of the Bad
of
them, they are
Thought
3^ea and
of Arrogance." It is men
who
do the worst
the Lie and
beloved
of the Daevas, separating
things who are called
Good
from
themselves
Thought, departing from the will
Ahura
and of Right."4 Chief among
of Mazdah
those evil
spiritsis the Druj, the Lie, the counterpart of Asha, the
Truth.
Obscurely Zoroaster
speaks of the fall of man
through the fatal gift of Yima,5 but in speculation he is
worst

"

"

"

"

"

"

little interested.

(Asha)

and

Falsehood
Let

tolerated.

be

The

Hebrew
*

is

great conflict between

(Druj),in

each

which

choose

man

Truth

compromise
aright,or heavy
no

can

will

punishment.

be his

source

Life

Angra,

enemy,

of the
"

later

Satan

Ya., XLV.
The Yama

hostile.

This

word, Ahriman,

"

or

2.
of the

the

English
"

the
"

combined

meaning

with
of which

mainyu
is thus

(spirit)is
the

same

fiend."

Ys., XXX.

6.

Rigveda. Ys., XXXII.

"

8,

Ys., XXXII.

3-o.

as

the
the

72

ZOROASTRIANISM

Zoroaster's

Teaching

Zoroaster

to

often do not

good

the

shall the

in this world

experience,that

own

prosper,

he looked

and

future

to the

"

In immortality
injusticesof the present.
of the righteous be joyful,in perpetuity shall

the

redress

soul

of the Liars."1

the torments

be

his

Punishments.

and

Rewards

on

knew, by

[i

faithful look forward

The

Kingdom (Khshathra),when
and those
their righteousness. Zoroaster
God will vindicate
of
that help him
will be saoshyants,deliverers,hasteners
the
when
time
righteousness shall triumph. Doubtless
not
felt at times
Zoroaster
was
impatient that his cause
certain.
but of the final issue he was
to be sooner
justified,2
used
Zoroaster
two
figurativeexpressionsin connection
with the next
with the judgment.
This world is connected
by a Bridge of Separation. In the Gdthas the souls of the
this
good and of the evil are separated before they cross
shall tremble
at the Revelation
the
on
Bridge. The Liar
the Bridge
Bridge,"3 but Zoroaster himself will guide across
eagerly to

the

of the

coming

"

whom

those

he

that

the

wicked

the

later

Pars!
will

of

assigned

exist

sometimes

followed

render
It

to

would

Zoroaster

things

and

makes

his

men

works.

It does

be

for
"

in

House

the

to

not

Unlike

Hell.

Hell

of the

Mazdah

"

is

Lie,"

function

The

teach

to

seems

the

that
the

worst

"

the

Dwelling
judgment is

of

himself,

fire,

appear

ultimatelyconsumed.

Zoroaster

ever

The

sometimes

to

(Obedience) shall
by treasure -laden Destiny (Ashi) who shall
severallythe destiny of the twofold award."0
in

his

stead.

Sraosha5

"

that,

appear

in

addition

to

"

Ys., XLV.
Ys., XLVI.
Ye., XLIII,

"

7.
10.

12,

z
5

""

Cp. Ys., XLVIII.


the Angel

Later

Ys., XXXIII.

2.
of

1.

and

heaven

recognised a third place for those


Whoso,
good things balance."7
and
better,now
thought now
worse,

"

"

test man's

Thought."

Sraosha, acting
come

of God.4

thought,

Worst

the

service

will thus

It is

Existence."

the

to

won

flood,shall

the molten

wicked

has

Judgment.

"

whose

hell,
false

Mazdah,

likewise
Ys., LI. 13.

his

ZOROASTER

I]

Self

and

action

by

wishes

place

separate
Heaven
best

Zoroaster

to

"

and

thy

Abode

the

as

all

"

followers

his
This

time."2

Thought."3
"

the

It
that

felicity
shall

Right

is

be

"

the

be

the

through

can

powerful

Deliverers,"6
those

that

make

Ys.,

XLVIII.

"

Ys.,

XXVIII.

'

Ys.,

XXX.

4.
9.
9.

the

glorious

by
hasten

its

of

and

the

this

world

"

faithful

Good

of

It

which

The
Zoroaster

It

the

that

of

LIII.

Ys.,

XXX.

1.
1.

"

Ys.,

LIII.

"

7*.,

XL

may

4.

VI.

the

;i

they

advance."7

Ys.,

be

shall

wisdom

pray

is

through

God.

of

coming.

teachings

life

blessed

of

thinks."5

wisely
will

the

gives

Blessings."4

lights

who

'.'The

heritage

of

heavenly
him

come

followers

in

Mazdah

glories

Dominion

by

shall

his

future

with

"

the

the

beheld

Consummation
and

is

"

is

be

Song."

Ahura

"

unto

tions,
inclina-

own

purpose

of

which

reward

the

is

possession

in

his

last."1

the

described

is

follows

shall

he

choices,

at

and

word,

by

and

73

3.

II."

IT

THE

is

RELIGION

not

with

the

combated

that

but

reinstated,

professed
have

inversion

of

Magi
Media,

and

priestly
the

to

be

devoured

cruder

the

Avestd

if

the

it

should

"-

Aryan

us

Strabo,

XV.

books,

been

Early

no

3.
but

obsolete.

20.

they
See

Zaroasirianism,

be

so

reference

It
are

is clear

to

that

obviously

West's

the

relapse

the
them

S.B.E.,

182-253.

74

to

tribes

leave

the

their

to

of

influences,
of

and

Yashts

the

Vendiddd

and

from

of
in

are

sentiment

one

nate
cog-

sources

It is strange

389-430.

unreformed

into

marriages
XVIII.

of

custom

influence

Persian

of

them

assertion

except

incestuous

opposed

excursus

have

is

remarked

but

interpreted

to

it

The

assigned

religion.2

much

its

indigenous

writer

worship
a

the

and

six
an

planetary

portion,

Iranian

or

owed

make

ritual

the

dead

but

nature

possibly

cannot

texts,

in

as

view,

were

they

customs,

represent

the

of

Moulton

belief

book
ritual

Greek

that

Dr.

Zoroaster

deterioration.

the

bury

not

the

may

religion,

give

although

Yasnas

Iranian

long

and

who

of

Moulton's

one

is

measure

those

a
on

they

stock.

these

only

not

that

It

Zoroaster

how

the

Avestd

large

such

Dr.

us,

birds, and

by

that

Pahlavi

do

they

dualism

argued

held

marriages.1

influence,

that

tells

Aryan

non-

that

incestuous

and

of

caste

Magi

In

explains

Moulton

Dr.

in

emphasis

values.

which

which

followers

the

Scripture

Herodotus

as

been

later

Gdthds.

the

understand

immense

moral

were,

of

its

influence

an

have

sense
as

the

worship,

to

any

AVESTA

of

of

nature

hard

is

in

with

religion

should

accepted

Vendiddd,

Magi

it

be

to

the

LATER

monotheism

the

ignored,

or

could

ethical

sturdy

unnatural

not

THE

connect

to

easy

OF

the

that

Magi

passage

extolled
and

in

have

the

for

held

also

Moulton

Dr.

which

AVESTA

LATER

THE

n]

75

late

interpolation.
of the priestly
caste
priest.1 So far from

was

Throughout the sacred texts, members


Athravan, fire
are
given the name
view, Dr. Jackson
accepting Dr. Moulton's
the

Zoroastrian,

was

himself

Magian.
shepherd of the

"

The

Thus

the

with

the

drove

the

stones

in

"

Zoroaster

Gdthds

the

in the later Avestd

fully
faith-

so

legendary hero.

of his conflict
given in the Vendlddd
Druj (the Lie) is clearly mythical. Zoroaster
and
then pursued her,
Druj away
swinging
his hands, stones
as
big as a house, which he
account

"

the

from

utters

Mainyu and
vainly desire

the
to

to

formulae

potent

demons

he is

The

ruler of the nations.

renounce

Zoroaster

Angra

stricken
"

Zoroaster

counter-fiend

Evil

that

panic

are

his death.

secure

Mazdah."

bids Zoroaster

terror

such

other

fiends

fells the

Ahura

Maker,

refuses, and

is

whom

poor

Spirit(Angra Mainyu) in
the good law and become

that

that

to

portray, becomes

obtained

classical,tradition

and

still holds

is the

to the

and

stroke

fiends,he

"

the

Druj to the Druj."


They run away, they rush away,
wicked, evil-doingDaevas, into the depths of the dark,
of hell."2

world

horrid

Zoroaster's

modified
self
or
teaching was
rejected; he himwho
first thought
was
greatly praised. He it was
what
is good, who
first spoke what
is good, who
first did
is good." He was
what
the first Priest,the first Warrior,
the first Plougher of the ground
He
firstin the material
world proclaimed the word
that destroyed the Daevas, the
"

"

"

"

law

of Ahura."3

The

Doctrine

Even
from

earlier
"

of God.

in the prose

Gdthd

of Seven

periodnot

far removed

than

rest

Dhalla,

the
op.
8

of the

from

Chapters, which

dates

the Gdthds, and is much

Avestd,

*
cit.,
Vdd., XIX.
p. 70.
Yt,,XIII. 87-90 (8.B.E.,XXIIL

we

find

(S.B.E., IV.
pp. 201-2).

that
pp.

Ahura

214-18).

ZOROASTRIANISM

76

Mazdah, though
worship, for the
God

with

Avestd,

Waters

and

The
Aryan nature
persons.
Zoroaster
protested,has reappeared

objects like

natural

The

Ones,
Holy Immortal
and
definitelysix in number
mere

was

the

attributes

of

God.

first to offer to them

sacrifices

connected

Earth

the

and

the

worshipped.

are

not

Zoroaster

which

exclusive

an

divine

worship, against which


in the

longer receives

abstractions

here

are

no

supreme,

[n

they

extolled

shield

Amesha

the

Spentas, are now


divinities or Archangels,
are
Among mortals, Zoroaster
All who

sacrifice.1

from

harm.2

These

offer them

divine

beings

splendour and their power ; but it


is impossible to study the Avestd
without
realisingthat
the importance of the Amesha
Spentas is less than that of
of the Yazatas or angels.
some
Thus
in number.
The
Yazatas
or
one
angels are many
of the Yashts speaks of the heavenly Yazatas risingup by
About
"hundreds
and thousands."3
tioned
forty only are menare

in the

for

their

extant

texts.4

Avestan

Some

of them

bear

already familiar to us from our study of the Rigveda,


thus clearlyrepresent an earlier Aryan worship. Thus
and
read
of Ushas, the lovely maiden
of the dawn, and
we
that Zoroaster
makes
We saw
Vayu, the God of the wind.
direct mention
of Haoma,5 the sacred liquor,but in the
no
is
later Avestd his cult is prominent. Haoma
the enlivening,
the healing,the beautiful,the lordly,with golden eyes."6
He is to be propitiatedwith animal
sacrifices. It is significant
that although this ancient
cult is thus restored, it is
and Haoma
is no
ness.
purified,
longer associated with drunkennames

"

"

demon
with
Of

All other

of anger,

drinks,"

read,

we

"

are

drinking of
Righteousness and Piety." 7
great importance is Mithra.
very
1
4
'

but

the

18.
Yt., XVII.
Dhalla, op. cit.,p. 96.
Yt.,IX. 17.

*
5
7

Yt., I.
Soma

24.

of the

Yt., XVII.

attended

Haoma

the

is attended

Zoroaster

'

Rigveda.
5.

with

makes

Yt., VI. 1.

ii]

of Miihra

mention

no

that

the

AVESTA

LATER

THE

in the

of the worship of any


approve
the worship of Mithra
too
was

people.

To

illustrate the

to

created

him

To

Ahura

him

all,and

sees

him.

on

as

He

and

ears

ten

from

;'

in which

sacrifices.
the

and

men

pray

As

him.

has

all the

him

that

the

never

may

serve

may

Ahura2
himself.

light,he
that

those

uttermost

From

eyes.

yet

In

as
prayer
the god of

pastures who

is the lord of wide


thousand

which

held

himself

to

attack.1

to

men

of sacrifice and

defend

Ahura, and

Yasht

long

not

chief divinities of the

worthy

can

flee in terror
withstand

esteem

popular

posed
sup-

would

He

save

of the

clearlyone

is devoted

him

God

been

it has

Gotham, and

is intentional.

omission

later Avestd, he is

77

call

thousand

evil

they

spirits

have

to

the rush

of the angry
lord who goes and rushes
sides against his foe, he, of the ten thousand

thousand

spies,the powerful, all-knowing,undeceivable


god."
The lord of light,he is the lord of truth, and lying he hates,
and
that his
so
severelypunishes. He enforces contracts
is used
to denote
how
is. Men
name
binding a contract
sacrifice to him
cattle and
small birds, and, before they
dare to drink libations in his honour, they endure scourgings
that they may
expiate their sins.3
has in the later Avestd
Sraosha
an
increasingplace. To
him Ahura
had
Mazdah
his religion,
revealed
and
it was
his special task to fight day and night against the Evil
Spiritand his associates. His sister,Ashi Vanghuhi, Good
to
the
men
Sanctity,conveys
plenty, and gives them
sanctity they seek. In view of the place which Fire has
the symbol of the faith,the references to A tar, the Angel
as
of Fire, are of importance. Afar is the friend of those that
tend

the

fire with

One

sin

of the Magi,

p. 86.

fuel.

'foulton,Treasures

he

Dr.

will not

Dhalla

tolerate,the

is leas

certain, op. cit.,

X
"

"*.,
X.

Yt.,X.

of the
_-o

(S.B.E., XXIII.
119-122.

119-58).

Darmsteter

"

says,

the
painful trials through which
before being admitted
to initiation."

One

may

adepts

of

find
the

in this passage

Mithraic

the origin
mysteries had to

ZOROASTRIANISM

78

defilingthe

sin of
faithful

see

fire

by burning

who

anyone

[n

has

flesh

in it dead

offended, they

thus

must

if the
kill

him

straightaway.1
Among the superhuman beings to whom
prayer is made
the Fravashis, who apparently formed
are
part of that aspect
Zoroaster
had
of popular Aryan religionwhich
ignored.
Not
good men
only, but divine beings and all creatures
Thus
belonging to the good creation,have their Fravashis.
the Yasht devoted
to their praiseextols not only the good,
Fravashis

strong, beneficent

ranging
"

The

from

Fravashis

than

those

Fravashis

of Ahura

that

of the

of the

faithful,but Fravashis

of the
Mazdah

living faithful

dead,

and

of the faithful

are

the

are

more

powerful

most

those

of

that

to

of the

plant.
powerful
a

among

the

of the

primitive
Saoshyants

men

(i.e.true believers)or those of the


not
(Deliverers),
yet born, who are to restore the world."2
The Fravashis
secure
happy and healthy birth, they help
in their struggleagainstthe demons, and are co-workers
men
and
with Ahura.
Eagerly they desire from men
prayer
sacrifices. It is clear that in this doctrine two conceptions
combined.
The Fravashis
who
include ancestral spirits
are
law

need

the

offeringsthat

such

their

make, and

can

help. But they are not the


spiritsof the dead alone. Every livingthing of the good
creation
has a higher counterpart ; thus each good man
his ideal self,
has as his guardian angel an immortal
spirit,

reward

offeringswith

descendants

existed

which

before

their

his birth

and

is destined

to

survive

him.

The

Doctrine

To
no

of Evil

the

comes
question whence
decisive
answer.
Vaguely

who

followed

and

he

calls

(mainyu)*
"

the
him

In the

evil,Zoroaster

had

given
he spoke of the twin-spirit
Lie, and chose to do the worst
things,
in one
place the hostile (angra) spirit
later Avestd Angra Mainyu becomes
the

Vdd., VIII. 73. 74.

Yt., XIII.

17.

"

See

p. 71.

fixed
evil

name

of the

world

is due.

Vendiddd, Ahura

AVESTA

LATER

THE

ii]

79

spiritof evil,and to his activityall


Thus, in the opening chapter of

the

of

of his creations

tells Zoroaster

Mazdah

the

of evil. As
creations
Angra Mainyu's counter
created
Ahura
created
a good land, Angra Maiiiyu counter
cold or heat, sins of lust
some
plague or vice. Excessive
there
is no
and
pride and unbelief, and sins for which
atonement, such as the burying of the dead or the burning
of corpses,1were
thus created.
In another
are
we
passage
and

good

of

told that

Angra
that

he made

99,999 diseases.2

Mainyu

created

the sacred

thousands

the

"

fire

of fiends."3

Because

warily. Thus,

if

his hair

parings of

the

or

crack, then, for


Daevas
which
the

eat

the

up

wardrobe."4

is

Chief

Ahura

Mazdah

of the

faithful

belong to
Druj."5

the

So

the

often

powerful
"

that

end

brood

the

she shall

combing

of

hole

is she

Manah
Avestd

in the
in

Yasht

one

Fravashis

the awful

would

dominion
.

would

world

in

the clothes

that

not

or

produced

are

is Aka

demons

me

be

lice

and

walk

to

being observed,

rites

mentioned

had

given help unto


Druj, the material

need

men

field and

corn

among

more

confesses

In the

hundredfold

in the

corn

Druj (the Lie).

earth

Daevas,

unseen

fall into

to

lawful

in the

(the Evil Mind), but

of them

his nails

of the

want

produced

are
"

of

they

are

many

carelesslyallows

man

So

Daevas.

kill thousands

may

in his work

aid him

To

destroyed,

belong
"

she

to

and

the
her

perish,as it is the will of the Lord."G


The
Gdthds
speak of only one Druj, but in the Vendiddd
read of other female
called drujes,and
demons
we
we
are
told that it is by the sins of men
that the Druj is enabled
to
conceive
her evil progeny.7
The
conflict with evil spirits
is not primarily the conflict
between
It is offences against ceremonial
rightand wrong.
purity that are most dreaded, for such place a man
more
1

Vdd., I. 13. 17.

Vdd..

body
5

XVII.

will be

1.

utilised

Yt., XIII.

IL-.

shall

"-

'2.

by

The

3.

demons
"

Ydd.. XXII.
view

that

is, of course,
y/.,XIX., 12.

2.

Vdd., VIII.

anything separated
very widespread.
""

Vdd., XVIII.

from

80.
the

30-o9.

human

80

ZOROASTRIANISM

firmlyin

the

of the

power

[n
To

demons.

combat

the

Vendlddd

provides potent spells. As

was

Zoroaster

who

firstin the material

their power

have

we

world

it

seen,

said

the

word

that

Most powerful of all the spells


destroys the Daevas.1
is the Ahuna
Vairya.2 With this Zoroaster smote
Angra
Mainyu and felled him down, for it is as strong a weapon
as
a
Libations, and especially
stone, big as a house."3
"

libations
For

of Haoma,

also efficacious.

are

crimes, punishment

many

provides

of

measure

makes
expiation. The scale of stripesin the Vendlddd
strange reading. A manslayer is let off with ninety stripes,
the killer of a shepherd's dog gets eight hundred, the killer
of a water
dog ten thousand
stripes. It is hard to believe
that
such
carried
out.
were
Probably,
punishments
in Avestan
into
commutable
even
times, the penaltieswere

payments.

money

Death

was
or

corpse,
water

or

chief

it into

throw
; to

of fire.

the

burn

stream

it would

comes

To

impurity.
to

was

contaminate

that

Everything

of

source

from

bury

earth

contaminate
the sacred

element

the

has

body

the

impurity of death, and so at death and birth,and at certain


that those who have become
periods,great care is necessary
unclean
the
are
segregated. As the corpse contaminates
ground for a year after death, it is laid in some
solitary
place,and separated from the earth by a layer of stones or
bricks.

places

are

to kill

in

Ahura

"

"

their

tells Zoroaster

Mazdah

troops of fiends

where

Dakhmas

rushing along

come

"

of

myriads."4
Although the moral vigour of the
the later Avestd, life is regarded in
myriads

that these

Gdthds

is thus

lacking

healthy and natural


of asceticism
the depreciation
There
is no
trace
or
way.
of natural instincts.
of fightingthe Daevas
is to
One way
till the land that it may
He who
sows
bring forth corn.
a

"

Vdd., xm.90.
is given
the Magi.
"
Yt., XVII. 20.
1

Its text

on

91, and

p.
"

translation

Vdd., VII.

56.

of it

on

p. 42

of the Treasure

of

LATER

THE

n]
corn,

holiness,"for

sows

of the

Daevas

turned

about

The

Doctrine

At

death

It is

81

is

corn

there

ripe

red

though

as

when

in their throats

of the

the

when

"

faint."

A VEST

""

hot

iron

plenty of

is

hearts

the

were

com."1

Things.

Last

for three

the
lingernear
body at the Tower of Silence. To the soul of the righteous
it is a time of joy. On each of the three nights, his soul
tastes as much
of pleasureas the whole of the livingworld
taste."
At the end of the third night,his conscience
can
of the size of a maid
in her fifteenth
(daend)draws near
year as fair as the fairest thingsin the world," and she leads
him through the three Paradises
of Good-Thought, Goodinto the place of the Endless Lights.
Word, and Good-Deed

soul has

the

days

to

"

";

But

the soul of the wicked

to

each

of the three

"

three

hells

of the

much

as

livingworld can taste." And


fourth day, it passes through the
Evil-Deed
and
Evil-Thought, Evil-Word

of

place of Endless
righteous alone that

the

On

of terror.

time

the

the

to

his soul tastes

nights,

the whole of
as
suffering
at the beginning of the

it is

Darkness.2
cross

the

In

Gdthds

the

Bridge

of

it is

Separation,3

but in the later Avestd

it. The conscience


all alike go over
the bridge.
righteous escorts the soul over

of the
(dae.no)
A well-shapen,strong, and wTell-forrned maid
is she, with
the dogs at her side."4
the wicked
Whether
the
cross
bridgeit is not clearlystated, but, as in one passage we
read
that
has killed the hedgehog shall fail to
whoso
";

"

the

cross

the
the

it would
bridge,'"5

doctrine, which

the

picturesquefigureof
over

pass
pass,

so

it,narrow

that the wicked

that

later Pahlavi
a

the

as

appear

the Avestd
books

Vdd., III.

"

Vdd., XIX.

"

e.g.
F

105.
30.

fall

"
*

over

5.

wicked

into hell.6

1-36.
Yt.,XXII.
Vdd., XIII. 3.

Dadistdni-i-Dlnik,XXL

by
righteous

express

bridge,broad when the


when
the
edge of a*razor,

Zoroaster clearlyhoped that the Renovation


1

accepts

B.E., XVIII.
(."'

"

pp.

The

would
Chinvat

48, 49).

come

Bridge.

ZOROASTRIANISM

82

In

speedily.
and

coming

the

in

three

maidens,

number.

who

will

the

last,

shall

old

"...
will

"

and

Mainyu

the

will

books,

but

It

as

warm

Families

sins.

and

voice

is

to

of

victory

in

the

is

assigned

so

certain

can

be

Pahlavi

is

the

Yt., XIII.
e.g.

So

united,

speak
Ahura

It

142

of

and

interprets

will

take

the

21

Pahlavi

all

is

where

shall

righteous

their

from

of

become

will

the

implied

thus

of

one

still

from

greater

in

evidence

of

V.

p.

89

and

Mainyu),

96.

126).

(S.B.E.,

XLVII.

first.

importance

Renovation

the

2398.

A.D.

Yt., XIX.

(8.B.E.,

the

Angra

date

exact

Zoroastrianism,

certain

(Ahriman=

20.

In

wicked

dualism

the

place

62.
XXX.

Angra

Archangels.3

Spirit
the

the

and

less
death-

grow

evil-doing

the

to

and

Mazdah

that

life

powerless."2

purge

His

Evil

Bundahishn,
West

be

issue

foretold.

will

writings,

the

to

milk

never

when

will

the

which

them

helpers

his

restoration

fire

and

"

and

universal

lously
miracu-

henceforth

rise,

becoming

molten

God

praise

customary

the

Even

will

the

three

of

with

creation

"

perish
flee

and

who

will

the

from

Zoroaster,

will

dead

when

shall

explicit.

seem

the

come,

bow

Pahlavi

made

but

it comes,

Greatest

which

world,

Druj

of

Saoshyant,

when

born

Fravashis.1

99,999

the

immortality

is

its

(the Saoshyants)

be

seed

from

Supreme

restore

grow

later

by

the

shall

They

conceive

preserved

"

before

Deliverers

The

happen

must

will, but

it

come

for

pray

are

is

that

faithful

the

teaching,

certain

are

events

many

later

[n

p.

xxxi).

III."

FURTHER

THE

HISTORY

The

Further

As

has
the

to

of the

from

by

canon

thus

was

with

of which

II

clearly

which

begun

scholars

based

threw
over-

was

zealous

heretics.1

Alter

busied

and

be

to

all

of

commentaries

seem

thus

309-379),

(A.D.

enemy

who

dynasty,

work

closed, devout

Pahlavi

compilation

king Ardashlr,

The

bitter

the

its

owes

established

Shahpiihr

and

Zoroastrian,

selves
them-

works,

original
A vest

on

material,

an

lost.

now

In

the

650

A.D.

Muhammadan

Empire

armies

of

Zoroastrians

and

became

Tradition
on

the

As

Gujarat
Pars!

that

in

Bombay,

and

to

their

He

the

the

devas

their

Parsis

they

have

as

land
of

Sanjan

sacred

of

evil."3

importance

an

there.2
at

their

fugitives

India, about

in

716

them
the

India

to

community
A.D.

the

Iran

To-day,

half
out

said

are

fled

the

fire.

devas,
whose
there

of whom

are

of all relation

numbers.
had

Some

India,

and

to-day

Some

in

with

bringing

Zoroastrians

Islam,

and

Pars!

the

landed

says,

branded

100,000

of

welcomed

had

few,

by

overrun

the

while,

number.

"

scholar

about

are

accepted

they

coast,

magnanimously
religion

Most

in

founders

assert.s

became

10,000

the

after

and,

Persia

about

only

be

to

completely

was

fiercely persecuted.

were

in

and

224-650.

A.D.

completed

some

Sassaniaii

Parthians,

the

the

first

Avestd

the

already stated,

piety

reigned

Zoroastrianism.

History of

been

PARSlS

THE

ZOROASTRIAXISM"

,OF

to

put

scholars

interests

of

death

hold

Mani,
that

from

they

whom

Manicheism
to

came

trade.

India
s

83

not

Dhalla,

derives
because
op.

ite

name.

of persecution,

cit., p. 304.

but

ZOROASTBIANISM

84

The

Pdrsi

Of

Community.
immigrants into India there
before the British period. The
struggle
probably prevented any literaryactivity
centuries,but it would appear that learning

history of

the

is little record

with

poverty

in the first^ew
revived

in

Sanskrit
Pahlavi

the

their

nearly

the Pars!

century the Parsis of

It is clear

that

the

Parsis

were

much

large parts
some

later

of

the

works.

sought guidance

India

intercourse

such

centuries

of

Zoroastrians

the

religionfrom
three

Avestd, and

of the

version

of

made

were

centuries, when

thirteenth

and

twelfth

translations

In the fifteenth
in

[m

of
was

Persia, and

for

maintained.1

influenced

duism.
by Hinpriesthood

and the
marriage became common,
late as the
Even
so
was
changed into a hereditary caste.
lost their
not
time
of Akbar, the Parsis apparently had
missionary zeal,for they responded eagerlyto his invitation
As Parsis gained wealth,
their faith.2
to explain to him
some
bought slaves and received them into the Zoroastrian
fold.
Their action was
approved by their co-religionists
of Persia, but was
opposed by the majority of Parsis,who
be affected,3
afraid that their social standing would
were
and who
also have been influenced
by the caste ideas
may
Child

of Hinduism.
It is

agreed

century the

that

Parsis

beginning of the nineteenth


in the general stagnation of
time.
at that
India
Many of

the

at

shared

religion,characteristic of
and
the Parsis were
influential,but
by then prosperous
sacred learning had
decayed, and most of the priesthood
In so far as
too
were
ignorant to be spiritualteachers.
ceremonial
than
.observance, it had
more
religionmeant
its basis the theology of the late Avestd and the Pahlavi
as
honoured
as
were
potent
texts, for although the Gdthds
of a great
the medium
studied
not
as
spells,they were
Dhalla,

See

In A.D.

1587.

Dhalla,

op.

op.

305-8.
cit.,

See Treasure

cit.,
pp.

324-5.

of the Magi,

p. 129.

PARSlS

THE

in]

century the Parsis have


great religiousrevival in India, due to the

prophetic

message.

shared

the

in

85

In

last

the

rediscovery of ancient scripturesand


repulsionof Christianity.
Western
1820.

education

In

Dr.

1835

there, and

Inevitably it
not
a religion
made

began Christian
published his book of

with

great impression, and


for

vigorous

of his

Zoroastrianism

the

Gathds, but

of the

in
Bombay
tion
College educaPars! religion.1

into

Wilson

in 1843

dealt

introduced

was

helped

reform.

These

stimulate

to

time,
book

The

VendMad.

the

and

attraction

the

ments
move-

strengthened
longer had

were

by the results of Western


scholarship. No
knowledge of the Avestd to rely on Pahlavi versions and the
study of the Avestd revealed the priority of the Gathds
became
and the battle-cryof some
reformers
of the young
Back
Gathds ; away
to the
from
spurious traditions to
the pure teaching of the Prophet."
They protested against the unintelligentrepetition
,

"

of prayers
should

about

be

in
said

reforms

and

corrupt Avestan,

English, and

Gujarati or
faith and practice. Thus

in
in

desired

of the souls of the dead

with

the

that

sought

prayers
to

bring

the identification

Fravashis

had

led to views

opposed to the
scholarship had shown, were
earlier scriptures. Why,
for the dead,
then, offer masses
when, according to earlier teaching, the destiny of the
dead is fixed on the fourth day after his decease
; or again,
for modern
is it to wash
for what
use
men
morning
every
with
the
urine
of an
ox
or
she-goat ? Naturally the
orthodox
party has indignantly repelled such views, and
have
of them
been glad to utilise the sort of argument
some
that theosophy is able to provide for any
such
observance
which,

as

belief.2

or

Parsi

and propounded and defended


religionas contained in the Zand-Avesta
tianity.
India
and
of
Persia, unfolded,refutedand contrasted with Chris-

by the Zoroastrians

8
The
importance
symbolic of- conscience

of the
!

dog

in

the

Avestd

is

doe,

e.g., to

the

fact

that

it is

86

ZOROASTRIANISM

The

Ceremonial

[in

Life.

The

priesthoodis hereditary,but the priestlyrightlapses


if, for the third generation,a family has refrained from
qualifyingfor the priesthood. Most of the priestsbelong
to the

lowest
if he

may,

desire

To

temple.

rank

Tasna.1

do

At

of Ervad.

the age

to, qualifyas

so, he

Highest

know

must

in rank

Mobed,

by

the

are

of twenty,

Ervad

an

priestof

heart

the

Dasturs,

whole

of the

Priests.

High

or

Fire-

Usually their office passes from father to son.2


A Pars! community has two requirements
a Fire-temple
for the living,
and a Tower
of Silence for the dead.
sacred
Most
of the Fire-temples is the Atesh
Behrdm,
of which
there are eightin India.
The buildingis plain and
of the Fire is very
inconspicuous, but the establishment
costly,for it is compounded out of sixteen other fires,and
"

the

of

process

is elaborate.

consecration

The

class

next

has a fire combined


from four
Fire-temple Atesh Adardn
the third
fires only, whilst
class,Atesh Dddgdh, has an
Parsis
ordinary house fire. Devout
go often to the Firetemple and recite their prayers before the fire,but they are
not
fire-worshippers.The fire is not the object of their
and
sacred
devotion, but the ancient
symbol of their
of

faith.3
the

For

required,as
the

burn

to

dead

The

the

is

is

down

would

Tower

of

and

sacred

the

remove

and

Silence, is

defile the

their power

and

of fire.

tower, and

flesh.

throw

earth,

element

floor of the circular

the

on

the

defile the

corpse-bearersreturn
central well, as by now

the

into

dead

would

laid

swoop

the

bury

dead

are

vultures

days

to

DaTchma,

the

dead,

the

After
dried

the
some

bones

to contaminate

gone.4
1

There

Dr. Dhalla, to whose

an
3

is

obligationto

no

understand.

Zoroastrian

Theology frequentreference

has

been

made,

exception.
Dr.

Dhalla

preaches at

his

Fire-temple at Karachi,

but

this

is

contrary

to

usual custom.
4

An

model

obliging attendant
of the

famous

tower

in the
ther^.

Malabar

of Bombay
hill-gardens

readilyshows

PARSlS

THE

in]

private religiouslife

The

which,

initiation

ceremony
the
between

place

and

seven

and

fifteen.

girdleare

put

At

the

Before

on.

shirt,the child repeats the creed.

the

with

boy

and

shirt

sacred

the
ceremony,
the investiture

for

begins with an
girl alike, takes

Pars!

of the

of

years

87

holy
righteous the wisest the most
which
is the giftof Mazdah.
Law
and the best Mazdayasnian
God
has sent
to
The
good, true, and perfect religion,which
has brought
the prophet Zoroaster
is that which
this world
the
the
of
is
in here.
That
Zoroaster,
religion
religion
communicated
to holy Zoroaster.
Mazdah,
religionof Ahura
Righteousness is the best giftand happiness. Happiness to
is righteous for the sake of the best righteousness."
him
who
"

Praised

Later

the

the

child

most

joins with

the

Omniscient

The
evil

the

world.

is the

God

spirit that

the

May
and
dejected.

the

spiritwith
O

Omniscient

Mazdah
performed. May Ahura
the evil spirit,be condemned.
the most
praiseworthy."

The

girdleis

repeats
"O

with

the

then

am

The

put round

to

come

Zoroastrian

that
words

which

have

the

child's

help. I
worshipper

my

all

which

holy, and

good

religiongiven by
things proceed

religionbe

thus

"' See The

God

praised."

Treasure

to

God.

from

have

praised. May Ahriman.


will of the righteous
waist, and

pp.

he

"

worshipper

am

of

God.

of

I agree
to
in that religion.

of

actions.
curtails

I
cussions
dis-

kinship or
religions

all the

flourish

May

162, 3.

in

the

excellent, and

Zoroaster.

of the Magi,

is

and
are
likely to
yet flourished
the
and
the most
best,
greatest,

future, is the
is the
which
that

is

remain

I may

that

religion and to believe


praise the Zoroastrian
I praise good thoughts, good words,
and
good
which
praise the good Mazdayasnian
religion
which
and
quarrels,
brings about
brotherhood,

the

I repent of all my
I may
have
tained
enter-

Lord,

be

is

of

accomplices

priestthe followingcreed

Almighty,
I

advancement

all his

I repent of all the evil deeds


in my
mind, of all the evil

sins.

that

following
Ahriman

greatest Lord.

back

keeps

evil

that

fallen

God.

priest in

:"

prayer
"

be

I believe
the

asnian
Mazday-

ZOROASTRIANISM

88

These

should

[m

be

or
repeated seven
eight times,
and
are
commonly repeated three or four times a day ;
but the prayers
in a language unknown
who
to most
are
if many
use
them, and it is little wonder
complain of the
lifelessness of their religion.
Of the future of the Pars! community it is hard to speak
with confidence.
No community in India is more
advanced,
has gained more
from
Western
education.
Its women
or
educated
and have
The
are
a
munity
comEuropean freedom.
is wealthy, and
numbers
its members
some
among
of the greatest of India's merchant
princes. Its philanthropy

prayers

is world

Social

famous, and

Reform

there

of its members

some

India

in

movement

j1 but

to

is

the

immeasurably

debted
in-

is

widespread dissatisfaction at the


leads
present state of Zoroastrian
religion. Pride of race
fails to meet
to support an
the
some
orthodoxy which
needs
who
of educated
cannot
reverence
an
ignorant
men,
priesthood nor be satisfied by the unintelligentrecital of
in a language now
little studied.
There
is much
prayers
and some
indifference to religion,
of the reform party seem
littlemore

to have

have

than

they refuse
although without

that

Parsis

be

to

of its accretions

which

twelve, and

were

of the

the

by

his

Tata

that

followed

lavish

age

many

fold,2

how

see

the

like Dr.

men

priesthood and
Zoroastrianism

to its ancient

restored

an

freed

purity.

did

who

much
the passing of
to secure
very
within
the marriage state from
ten to

consent

writings,sought

to

the

expose

cruelty of

the

enforced

of Hinduism.

family
was

educated

allegianceto

of

to

efforts of

the

an

Malabari,

the

religion. The

admitted,

secure

virgin widows

of the

One

husband's
lawsuit

raised

who,

celibacyof
*

B. M.

Especiallyto
Act

it is hard

their

present position,for the


the decrease.
conditions, on

whether

and

of their faith

their

modern

devout

the orthodox

into

converts

any

even

to

whilst

great founder

additions

seen

will avail

and
intelligent

such

is, with

It remains
Dhalla

admit

to

maintain

can

birth-rate

the

vague
zeal of the

far lost the

so

Theism,

married

orthodox

indecisive.

of the

poorer
the

philanthropy which

French

refused
The

Hindus
poor

to

lady

orthodox
would
of the

who

desired

to

share

her

her

admission, and the


afraid that, if outsiders
are
seek admission
to gain a share

recognise

Parsi

community enjoy.

Ill

BUDDHISM

INTRODUCTION

I."

EARLY

Buddhism

is

from

derives

it

but

mythology,

in

Hinduism

having

found

his

in

in

Buddhism

can

study

to

understand

founder

Traditions
to

English
sources

known

accounts

of

but

and

alone

The

1870

Until

(Tumour,

(FausbSll,

1855).

Sanskrit
the

Lalita

and

Buddhism
that

to

Buddhist

based

Pali

the

and

for

come

has

the

only
earlier

Sanskrit

on

texts

tradition,
turn

Pali

scholars,

represent
it

its

books.

have

teaching

were

of

teaching

As

Western

to" try

need

we

and

his

seem

but, before'we

Sanskrit.

to

need

dictionary

1873.

of Ceylon
English

earliest

hism
Budd-

is

an

these

to

of

understanding

our

Buddhism.1

first
and

the
and

authentic

we

life

Buddha

clear

is

more

that

primitive
in

it

in

us

Pali

become

earlier

both

in

of which

the

they

tion
proclama-

some

forms,

present
of

to

the

about

us

recently

its

something
presented

as

down

in

and

that

To-day

forms,

over

redemption,

lives.

early Buddhism,

to

of

whose

to

its

serene

followers

their

different

very

teaching
his

of

most

whose

gospel

devote

to

relation

little

of

genuine

glad

is found
have

devotion

message

were

many

to

the

his

and

advantage

founder

actual

made

and

inestimable

an

historic

of Hinduism

complex
doctrines

its

it possesses

inspired

so

of

many

gracious personality
and

of the

part

poems,

1837)
Sir

readers

have
the

of

Pali

and

Edwin

derived
Bn"Mha

for

then, only
the

Arnold's
their
Charita

^Yestern

scholars

books

two

had

Dhammapada,
The

knowledge
(translated

Vistara.
89

Light
of

by

published

was

been

translated,

short

of Asia,
Buddhism,
CowelL

by
the

Buddhist

from

Childers
Chronicle

hymn-book
which

was

S.B.E.,

based

so

many
on

XLIX.)

two

and

90

BUDDHISM

Pali is

[i

form of the vernacular


literary
spoken in Magadha
in the first period of Buddhism.
Pali scriptureshave
The
down
to us
in the form
of palm-leaf books
based
come
written
in the first century B.C.
ultimately on books
by
scholars
Buddhist
feared
lest the rigours of
in Ceylon, who
of those
who
should destroy the succession
could
war
pass
a

the tradition

on

It may
241

safelybe

to

the

B.C.,

and

prior

assumed

it is held

chieflybased,

within

Bible.2

Three

Pali

Canon

Buddhism
that

the

Canon

Ceylon

first two

Buddha's

Buddha's

is at least

into

life and

already compiled

and

in

parts

of

teaching
recognised

death.1

is about

twice

of three

collections

It consists

Baskets,

the

some

were

Pali

the

extent

the

of

of the

of the

century

English

that

by

study

our

will be

In

contents.

introduction

which

it, on

of their

long

as

as

our

known

as

Tipitaka.3 The word


pitaka, or
Just as, in excavating,
basket, denotes something handed
on.
Indian workmen
passed baskets on, one from the other,
of teachers
succession
of these
baskets
a
so
by means
of Buddhist
passed on the treasures
learning.
1. The
the

DisciplineBasket, the
order.

monastic
and

embodies
which

rules

hold

Vinaya Pitaka, deals with


first part, the
Suttavibhanga,

The

explains the
form

the

of self-examination

they

the

twice

the

Pdtimokkha,
used

the

by
The

month.

hundred

two

and

twenty-seven

ancient

instrument

monks

second

the

on

fast

days

part, the Khandhakas

Treatises

or

the Mahdvagga and the Chullavagga),gives


(i.e.
of monks
and
nuns.
regulationsfor the behaviour

detailed

So

Oldonberg,

recognisedby
Leben, seine
that

only

the

is inclined

who

time

Lehre, seine

Gemeinde,

fragments

some

the

to

of

view

p.

books

these

that

are

bulk

the

Vesali, held
92). Poussin,

of

Council

of the

about
on

thus

of these

380

the

B.C.

other

ancient

and

books

were

(Buddha, sein
hand, believes
authoritative

(Bouddhisme,
pp. 35-50).

the

Rhys Davids, Buddhism,

T. W.

Tipitaka Pali
Pali

Sanskrit

texts, I
ia

instead of

more

the

use

p. 52.
In

Tripitaka, Sanskrit.
the

Pali

familiar

form
e.g. I

Pali nibbdna, kamma,

of

and

names

use

and

the

describingthe early Buddhism


technical

Sanskrit

dhamnui.

of

the
except where
nirvana, karma, and dharmq,
terms

91

INTRODUCTION

i]
An

which
forms
(Parivara.)
apparently of little importance.

the

Appendix

and

The

2.

Basket, the

Sermon

Sutta

third

part

Pitaka, is

is late

chief

our

It consists of
teaching of the Buddha.
four great collections
(nikayas). The first two of these,
of
the Dlgha and Majjhima Nikdyas, consist
long and
medium
length dialogues,arranged according to size,
whilst
and
fourth
the third
Nikayas, the Anguttara and
the
Buddha's
teaching in more
Samyutta, deal with
systematic order.
3. The
sists
Pitaka, conExposition Basket, the Abhidhamma
of a more
advanced
chieflyof manuals
type intended

authority for

the

"

"

"

"

for the
There

use

of members

is also

of the

Collection

fifth collection

of the

Works, the Khuddaka

of Smaller

is sometimes
Nikdya, which
Exposition Basket, but which
the

Order.

put

as

more

Sermon

appendix to the
usually is regarded as
an

Basket.

It includes

the

of Virtue, the
an
Dhammapada,
anthology of Buddhist
teaching in poetic
also is the Psalms
form.
Of great beauty and significance
collection of
a
of the Early Buddhists, the Thera-therl-gdthd,
(theras)and nuns
assigned to prominent monks
poems
with
the
Buddha.
famous
Another
(therls)associated
best

known

book

is the

of Buddhist

Birth

books,

Path

the

Tales, the Jdtaka,

collection

of stories

and
profess to deal with the five hundred
fifty
tales are
These
of great
previous births of the Buddha.
much
for us
Indian
folk-lore
interest, for they preserve
the
and
and
reveal
amalgamation of early Buddhism
which
alone form
popular beliefs. The verses
part of the
Canon
are
explained by prose stories of a later date.
which

One

book

requires to be mentioned
as, although
the
it
is
of importance for the understanding
outside
Canon,
the Questions of King Milanda, a series
of early Buddhism,
of dialogues assigned to a Greek
king of Bactria called
and
Milanda
Nagasena, a Buddhist
sage.
more

BUDDHISM

92

It
has
his

of
his

is
to

on

be

based.

Doctrine
the

Pali

these

and

Doctrine

We

will

his

Order,

"

Buddhist
and

books

creed
his

Order.

[i

then
deal

that

study

successively
thus

"

our

following
take

refuge

with
the
in

of
the

Buddhism

Buddha,

arrangement
the

Buddha,

II."

To

his

and

his

was

preserve.

We

doctrines

that

life.

his

have

which

The

his

Buddha

most

that

he

1. The

It

Age

Buddha
to

Brdhmanas,

"

like

are

the
the

which

are

Buddha,

to

which

deal

identity

of

of

books,
with

kings
1

Sat.

See

the

Self
the

nobles.3

W.

find

Rhys

the

way

the

"

is clear

to

in

the

anterior

See

Buddhist

pp.

India,
93

32-4
p.

60.

reflect

the

that

say

early
the

to

So

there

shads,
Upani-

in

in

of

time
texts

and

little

that,
"

they

classic

karma

of

and

of

one

the

born

that

come

contemptuous

than

low

the

Brahmans

in

more

recognised

"

the

Brahman.2

called

wlu'ch

Brahmanically

time

doctrines

great

in

naturally

assigned

are

1. 4. 10.

Davids,

no

certainly

It

the

have

Whereas,

Brahmans

and

this

at

Kshatriya,"1

with

sometimes

Br., VIII.
T.

two

are

they

that

Kshatriyas

the

supremacy

of

ception
con-

impress

and

age

and
in

even

opponent

an

the

Hinduism

editors,
Yet

almost

with

of

wisdom.

of

\\ords

the

books

can

words

worked,

some

Lived.

sacred

of

is

disciples,

reconstruct

Brahman

for

epithet

Buddha

it is clear

monopoly

no

mission.

standpoint.

Upanishads,

had

his

Brahman

through

us

Brahman

edited

the

the

his

on

to

he

the

forth

setting

reach

to

to

narrating

book

no

Teacher,

concerned

books

but

which

made

the

for

Pali

hope

can

in

to-day

lived,

down
the

which

difficult

is

we

the

most

were

taught,

conceived

in

they
early

environment

personality

which

that

BUDDHA

pre-eminently

was

many

the

THE

OF

Buddha

teaching

of the

in

the

disciples

it

LIFE

THE

the

is

the

Buddhist

comparison

was

not

cf. Kaush.

Up.

then
IV.

["

BUDDHISM

94

of
characteristic
rigid distinction of caste afterwards
tales were
when
the Jdtaka
at the time
India, and, even
and
written, Brahmans
Kshatriyas engage freelyin trade

the

loss of caste.

without

The

was

age

problems.
Basket1
and
eager

Thus

less than

no

they

marked

one

are

first

sixty-two

heresies

intellect could

in the

of

kind

evolve

or

interest

intense

by

dialogue

heresies

which
even

lative
specu-

Sermon

of the

enumerated,

are

only

in

subtle,

of

men

Earnest

understand.1

might, or might not, rejectthe complex of animism


and
the popular religionbut
polytheism which made
up
they sought outside this to discover a path to redemption,
And
to peace.
arose
so, in this quest for nirvana, there
be
what
neither
called
can
precisely philosophies nor
religions. They are not philosophies,for their aim is not
truth
but deliverance
not
religions,for their
; they are
men

is restricted to those
message
world-order.
The Indian
word
a

Prof,

They

ydna,

or

way,

de

vehicle.

la Vallee

Poussin

"unsocial"

are

and
"

who

have

mdrga, a path,
discipline is, as
is

for them
"

Perhaps
suggests, the
sometimes

of the

out

gone

"

best

even,

translation.2

by

their

hibition
pro-

They are not concerned


with
the
with morality, but with the
nor
These
from
the bondage of karma.
quest for deliverance
follow
different directions.
Thus, as we
paths
may
have
in our
seen
sought
study of the Upanishads, some
redemption by the realisation of the identity of the soul
with Brahman, others by practicesthrough which cataleptic
could
be artificially
states
be,
induced, others, it may
already held the theory afterwards
developed into the
the paths led,whether
Sankhya system ; but, whatever
way
through monism, mysticism, or dualistic atheism, all alike
The
ascetic did not
were
prized as paths of deliverance.
of

marriage, anti
worship of God,

-social."

"

"

The

Brahma

hypotheses are
2

The

Way

Jala
(the PerfectNet), Dialogues of (he Buddha, pp. 26-55.
in T. W.
conveniently tabulated
Rhys Davids' Buddhism, pp.

to

Nirvana,

p. 4.

The
30-3.

OF

LIFE

ii]

which

something

that

at

many
"

and

ruled,

of the

lower

claimed

who

time
"

enlightenedones

of the

redemption wrho,alone

The

2.

Birth

Our

tell

texts

for his

and

youth,

become

themselves

with

quest.

one

the

early

concerned

not

the

ing
of wander-

groups

this

miles

visited
saw

era,

them

India

It is often

domain.

Who

Asoka's

born.

given

knew

further

as

the

is

Rhys Davids
Spooner

Dr.

hundred

theory, in
a

that

of

centuries

villageof Paderia on
inscriptionstatingthat
The

560

date

B.C.2

ford

discoveries

columns

or

the

(lirtha)which

of peace.
See
puts his birth
"

sister-marriagewith
the

seventh

pilgrims,
our

the

of
of

borders

in this

place

of his birth is uncertain.

He

belonged

to

high

caste

the

shore

of Iranian

were

Chinese

one

Sakya.3 His father,Suddhodana, became


tradition
the powerful king of a rich and
vast
It is more
not
a
likely that he was
king but

later

modern

was

family called

the

The

fifth and

in the

the

near

Buddha

in

of Benares.

about

which
one
ruins, and, using the information
in 1896, in the grove
gives, Fiihrer discovered

Nepal, King

the

of

north

the

men

its

Lumbini
of

child

having

who,

enlightened," proclaimed to
of redemption.
way
of the Buddha
The home
was
Kapilavatthu,

who

the

with

teacher

great

life of the

"

himself

hundred

after

Buddha.

little of

us

discipleswere
but

as

to

up

seekers

the

or

members

and

women

forest,or

"*

ford-makers

among

Early Life of the

Buddha,
the

in the

gave

and

earliest

Even

found

were

"

be

to

(buddhas).

castes

mendicants,

95

BUDDHA

gods and the paradises of the


These
belonged to the world in which
find
he sought beyond this world
to
could
And
there were
bring him peace.

deny the existence


popular mythology.
karma

THE

at

interesting one, but


very
the Buddha
of Indian
was

of

ocean

earlier
near

(Buddhism,

led

p.

him

his letter

to

90).

Patna, of the remains

type, in conjunction with

Sakyas, have

transmigration

op. cit.,Chap. I.

Knrnrahar

Magian origin. (See


latter's The

the

aeross

forty years

of Persian
the

led

Poussin,
especially

to

the

view

of

"

hall

the

ating
legend associthat the Sakyas

Dr.

Moulton, who accepted


Teaching of Zarathuthtra, pp. 93, 94.) The theory
stronger evidence
stock

is

likelyto

to

is

be

required before the


generallyabandoned.

tradition

BUDDHISM

96

rather

noble,

which

to

he

but

name,

given

in

was

The

earliest texts

one

of the later books


She

Maya.

as

of the

belonged

community.

ruling clan, and the state


probably a small agricultural

member

[11

is said

mention

do not

of the Pali
died

have

to

birth, and her sister,who also was


dana, brought him up in his mother's
this

he

the

Dialogues
of

name

he

ages

an

became

not

to

Suddho-

stead.

Siddhattha, but

was

left his

ancestral

frecently called

In

home.
"

the

ascetic

familiar
as
being a family surname
In after
ancient
family of Vedic bards.

In

the

the

as

the

early texts
The

occur.

"

Buddha,

first discovered

who

man

often

very

known

best

redemption.

does

him

find

we

One," the
to

he

after

Gotama

Gotama,"1
the

when

renounced

it is

days

seven

Buddha

of the

personal name

Canon

married

his

The

his mother's

the
"

word

Buddha

speaks

"

lightened
En-

the
true

way
"

Buddha

of himself

"

who
at redemphas arrived
the one
tion,2
Tathagata,
whilst his disciplesmost
commonly speak of him as
the Blessed
the Bhagavat,
The
other
One," the Lord.
title,Sakyamuni, the sage of the Sakyan race, is a poetic
portance,
expression,rare in the earliest literature,but of great imit is by names
derived
from
it that he is
as
to-day in China and Japan.
commonly known
information
In the earlier texts
there is scarcely any
which
events
the
preceded the Buddha's
given about
the

as

"

"

of home.

abandonment
one

of the

name

as

who

later

order.

We

an

to his

when

were

many

Gotama

In Sanskrit

these

Such

to be the

I he Buddhavam"a.

seems

that

bore

meaning

The

him

of

wife's

Rahula,

son,

the

Buddhist
which

spiritualexperience

Siddhartha,
of this obscure

Sanskrit

married, and

gives his

member

became

become

names

he

Canon3

great renunciation.
leaving the world to

that

appear

obscure

little of the

know

Pali

She

Bhaddakachcha.
became

know

of the

later books

led Gotama

would

We

Buddhacharita

He

lived at

time

redemption. It
satiated with pleasure
win

Gautama.
term

(see X.B.E., XIII.

givesher

name

as

83).

Yasodhara.

eager for
the
Sermon

and

of

narrates

how

the

when

time

to him

It is possiblethat a dialogue
peace.
it
Basket
history when
gives authentic

the
he

told

later

Buddha

of the
and

disciplesthat at
luxury there came
feel at the sightof
he pondered these

his

with

surrounded

was

sickness

and

97

truer

the realisation

old age

BUDDHA

THE

OF

LIFE

IT]

disgustmen

death, and,

as

things,his enjoyment of life vanished.1


details with
Later
fancy has filled in these meagre
suffice to illustrate briefly
luxuriant
legends. It must
from

such

in

was

the

future

him

to

Buddha
born

be

decided

be

to

that

commotion

great

then

born

as

the

Buddha

in

the

middle

to have

Kapilavatthu, and

Tusita

the

in

gods approached
heaven
and
besought
the

future

the

of

country

Suddhodana

king

world

The

tales

Jdtaka

to the

introduction

the prose

Buddha
India

his

as

at

father,

Strange marvels
Maya as his mother.
told of his conception, and at his birth he is received
are
deliver him to the
into a golden net by four angels,who
and
bid her rejoicebecause
a
mighty son has been
queen
her.
born
to
Immediately he receives the offeringsof
and

Maha

queen

"

and
with a
gods and men
of victory,beginning The

noble

'

And

the

at

time

same

he

as

wife, two

his future

existence

chief

friends,Kanthaka, who
Bo-tree, and the four

was

who
the

was

urns,

am

the

he shouted

voice

I in

there

born

to

were

king

of

song

world.'

all the

came

'

into

be his courtier

horses, the great


When

full of treasure.

the

of namedays old, the ceremony


were
performed,and eight learned Brahmans
giving was
of his person, and prophesy
the marks
summoned
to observe
foretold that,if he continued
of them
Seven
his future.
Universal
become
householder's
in the
a
life,he would
Buddha

future

Monarch,

and,

but

the

here

naught

1
2

era

five

was

if he

youngest
to

of

make

retired

them,
him

from

the

world,

Kondanna,

stay

in the

said,

household

"

Buddha

There

is

life.

He

Angntiara Nikdya, Oldenbcrg, op. cit.,pp. 120, 121.


Davids
assigns this prose introduction to the fifth century of
(Buddhism",
p. 87).
From

the

T. W.

Rhys

our

BUDDHISM

98

will

undoubtedly
ignorance from

"

will my

What

Kondanna
a

son

man,

dead

his

willing that

not

orders

that

Gotama

was

palaces,
when

yet

would
the

with

sixteen

him

four

become

old the

years
him

man,

the

Buddha,

near

him.

built

king

the world?"

And

be allowed

should

king asked,

decrepitold

monk."

should

son

the

"

the

remove

retire from

signs

and

man,

such

none

king,
gave

When

for him

three

thousand

forty

dancing girls,
his
feared lest, enervated
by luxury,
neglect manly arts, he proved that he had a skill
bow
could equal.1
that none
and

gave
relatives

the Great

3. From

The

and

When

world."

the

"

Buddha

to make

see

answered,

diseased

he

become

most

veil of

[IT

to the Attainment

Renunciation

of Budda-

hood.
Gotama

twenty -ninth year,


wife, and Ms infant son

In

his

young

ties,he might,

"

birth."2

free from

Nirvana

the

crave

teacher, Alara Kalama,

pupil

and

Gotama

soon

who

home,

his

that, stripped of all earthly

quote the Sutta which

to

narration,

own

left his

claims

give his
incomparable security of a

He

at

went

consented

learnt from

to

him

to

first to

have

him

all that

famous
his

as

he

could

still the

teach, and

secret

had

not

been

gained

; for

"

it

"

that this doctrine


does
me," said Gotama,
of passion, cessation, quieslead to aversion, absence
cence,
wisdom, and Nirvana, but only
knowledge, supreme

occurred
not

far

as

to

as

the

another

out

realm

of

teacher, Uddaka,

famous

all that

nothingness."

teacher

this

Gotama

So
but

when

sought
he

had

could

give, he found that he


still had not reached
but only so far as the realm
Nirvana,
of neither
perception nor yet non -perception." It is clear
the Dialogues that Gotama
had a profound knowledge
from
of the philosophiesof his age, and it may
safelybe assumed
gained

"

From

The

W.B.T.,

pp.

38-50.

Ariya Pariyesana

Sutta

of the

Majjhima Nikaya,

see

W.B.T.,

pp.

334-8.

LIFE

n]
that

it

teachers

these

from

Mas

BUDDHA

THE

OF

99

he

that

gained

this

knowledge.
ledge,
redemption by the way of knowof ausdetermined
to seek it by the way
Gotama
terity,
and
in a grove
Uruvela, by the most
near
rigorous
His
of that
the possibilities
austerities, exhausted
way.
watched
by five ascetics, who hoped that, by
strugglewas
of enlightenment
his extreme
self-mortification,the secret
from
food did not bring
would
be gained. But abstinence
the
abandoned
enlightenment, and, in the end, Gotama
of asceticism.
The
ascetics left him, for they felt that
way
that Gotama
had
now
given up his exertions, and returned
As

he

had

failed

to win

"

would

not

surpassingthat of men, nor


holy knowledge and insight."1

the

to

abundant

an

life,"he

power

As

Gotama

deserted, illumination
"

the

Enlightened

Messianic
that

He

the

so

weeks

Buddha,

of the
In

after

as

according

One

His

call

in the

to

His

wilderness

problems of His mission,


early tradition, spent four

the
to

the

near
2

the

For

tree

first

sat

which

under

days,

seven

cross-leggedat

the

foot

Tree, enjoying the bliss of emancipation.''


the scheme
this period,we
are
told, he pondered over

"

of

face

Blessed

the

"

full and

spent thirty days

fastingand meditation
received
enlightenment

read,

we

Just

in

had

he

One."

there

might

superiorityof

Bo-tree, disappointed and


he is the Buddha,
Henceforth

came.

work, Jesus

obtain

able

the

beneath

sat

to

be

"

Bodhi

Origination,"

Dependant

existence, which,
shall

later

have

analysis

intellectual

of

personal

of his message,
Arising from that state of

the

as

his

basis

study.
meditation, he sat cross-leggedat the foot of a banyan tree
near
by for seven
cipation.
days, enjoying there the bliss of emanA Brahman
of a haughty disposition drew
we

to

"

vv

and

near

Our

asked

Mahdvagga,

The

I. 6. 13.

period

quotations

him,

are

What

are

the

characteristics

(S.B.E., XIII. p. 93).


in the Ariya Pari"/ec'.ina
tiutta and
the latter (S.B.E., XI1J.
pp. 7C-84).

is described
from

"

The

that

Maitebagga,

iOO

BUDDHISM

make

man

that

Brahman

a
"

only

"

from

"

behaviour
restrained," whose
the world," can
justlybe called
week

he

is

haughtiness and selfto nothing in


uneven
For

Brahman.

another

sat, in like fashion, under

tells him

Buddha

the

and

is free

who

one

[n

tree

the next

by.

near

screened from
was
great storm arose, but the Buddha
for, according to Buddhist
tradition, a great serpent
him
"

into

One, who
In

the

last week,

cakes

the

feet

and
of

take

Dharma,
from

him

where

the

bowed

One

gained.
another

the

in

brought

down

in

thus

addressed

and

One

Blessed

day forth, while


"

be

to

him, and

to

"

and

Blessed

the

Blessed

the

to

happiness is

came

refuge, Lord,

may

obeisance

receive

life lasts,have

our

at

him,

and

the

discipleswho,

as

us

him

reverence

One

Blessed

its

serpent

sat, in like fashion, under

he

honey,

our

this

made

veloped
en-

him

above

abated, the

storm

who

merchants

two

rice

We

to

extended

and

the

youth,

declared

tree, and

'

When

hood."

large

turned

its folds

with

it,

taken

their

:'

These were
the first in the world to become
refuge in him
and his teaching
lay-disciples,
taking refuge in the Buddha
only, because the Order was not yet instituted.
.

Later

tradition

added

has

much

this

to

scanty story.

The

Gods, knowing that the time for Prince Siddhattha's


four
enlightenment was near, arranged to show him the
into a
of their number
signs." First they changed one
him
and showed
to the future
Buddha,
decrepit old man,
And
but
him."
that only he and the charioteer
saw
so
"

"

the
was,

future
that

Buddha

asked

his hair

not

was

'

heard, he said, Shame


is born

old

thereupon

age

must

returned

and

as

other

man.

; for

the

Again

he returned

gods

in sorrow,

"

when

man

he

that
birth, since to everyone
come,' and, agitated in heart, he
on

ascended

fashioned

the future

And

men's.

his

hearing of this,in great grief,extended


vain

this

who

charioteer

the

the

Buddha

again

the

palace." The king,


the guard, but in

second
asked

king

sign, a

who
had

he
the

diseased

again
guard still

was,

further

And

extended.

BTTDDIIA:

THE

OF

LIFE

ii]

the

gods

showed

1"H

him

third

the

and

and
monk.
At night time,
a
signs,a dead man
his dancing girlssought to distract
him, but taking no
he fell asleep awhile,
and
pleasure in their dance
song,
and
and
they were
slept ; and the
they lay clown where
and
future
Buddha
the women
awoke
saw
lying asleep,
that
of their slumbering, and
repulsive in the abandon
like a cemetery,
magnificent compartment
began to seem
filled with, dead
bodies, impaled and left to rot, and he
He
determined
the
forth on
to
great Retirement.
go
him
saddle
summoned
his courtier, Channa,
and
bade
first to see
his little son,
He
went
Kanthaka, his horse.
Rahula, who
was
side, and then
lying by his mother's
holding on by the tail,
mounting Kanthaka, with Channa
he sallied forth.
Mara, the tempter,1 met him and offered
him
world-wide
dominion, but the future Buddha
spurned
the offer,
I shall catch
the very
and
Mara
thought
you
first time you have
a lustful,
malicious,or unkind thought:"
And, like an ever-present shadow, he followed after,ever
the watch
for some
on
slip."
the story of Gotama's
With
attainment
of Buddha
ship
also legend has
been
busy. The earliest record tells us
simply that, after his four weeks of meditation, the Blessed
the

fourth

"

One

hesitated

to

reveal

his

secret.

The

doctrine

he

had

"

penetrated was
profound, difficult to perceive and
understand, unattainable
by reasoning,abstruse,intelligible
If I proclaim the doctrine, and other
only to the wise."
not able to understand
men
are
preaching, there would
my
"

result but
Blessed

weariness

and

annoyance

to

me."

"

When

One

the

this matter, his mind


became
pondered over
inclined to remain
in quiet,and not to preach the doctrine."
be destroyed, came
Brahma, fearing that the world would
and
to him
pleaded with him to preach the doctrine, and
the
Blessed
full of compassion, toward
One
looked
"

"

Mara, the ruler of the sisth, and highest, heaven


Introduction to the Jataka,\W.B.T., pp. 56-06.

of sensual

pleasure.

BUDDHISM

102

world," and yielded to Brahma's


With this as basis,the later tradition speaks much
terrific attempt to divert the Buddha
from
claiming
pro-

request.x
of Mara's

his
in the

where

the Buddha

entitled

Sutta,

reference

earliest

Book

the

tells his friend

reached

had

The

message.

occur

he

the

beings,over

sentient

[ii

of the

Great

Decease,2

that,immediately

Ananda

enlightenment,

to

seems

Mara

and

him

to

came

"

the time for the Blessed


One to pass
was
urged that now
I shall not
answered
die
him,
away," but the Buddha
of mine
shall have become
until this pure religion
successful,
widespread, and popular in all its full extent."
prosperous,
must
These traditions
embody history. The Buddha
may
his was
felt that
have
a
teaching hard to understand,
been
well have
and
tempted to keep to himself the
may
enlightenment he had won.
"

attack

Mara's

Sanskrit

the

power

in

follow

here

the

upon

the

Pali

Buddha

is described

Buddha

the

poem,
version

of the

with

vivid

Charita.*

Introduction

We
the

to

Jdtaka.*

"

of

Mara's

the

and

announced

Mara

war-cry,

extended

army

and

to

rear

as

the
far

right
as

to

leagues high."
Perfections

Ten

sitting,and

"
2

"

the

news

drew

in front

and

out

of him

left for twelve

the

confines

And

the

his

shield

reflected

whirlwind, thinking
different

to attain

god Mara
exclaiming, Prince
passing beyond my control, but

it,'went

sounding

about

was

ment,
enlighten-

'

the

is desirous
allow

Buddha

the future

When

on
'

By

of the

future
and

this

for

battle.

and
"

it

And

will

Now

in

the
nine

of

the

remained

caused

away
all the

Straightway the east wind, and


winds
began to blow," and yet they

and

was

made

Mara
drive

never

leagues,

leagues, and

sword," and
"

his army,

for twelve

Buddha

them.

I will

to

world,

his

Siddhattha

hattha.'
Siddother

"

were

I. 5. (S.B.E., XIII. pp. 83, 8-1).


MaMvagga,
The
Mahdparinibbtlna RvJta, Chapter III. (8.B.E.,XI. p. 53).
"
Bk. XIII. (8.B.E., XLIX.
W.B.T., 76-83.
pp. 137-147).

not

able

to

cause

much

as

when

discus,

inundation
as

At

flowers.

the

'

The

victory

taste,"

the

deaf

the

use

from

"

the

coals,"
became

hurled

his

last,

at

of the

hosts

has

Siddhattha

Prince

victory.''1 and
each
victory, which

the

illustrious

Buddha

"

And

blind

the

won."1

utterance

which

hearing ;

; and

"

had

their

sight,

cripplesfrom birth
and fetters of captives

breathed

been

never

received

sweet

the

the bonds

Buddha

became

ocean

birth

from

their

the

"

radiance," the

with

birth

fell off."

forth

omitted

by

the
any

solemn
of

the

"

278.

find

"

Thy

rafters

all

And

pointed

This

mind

form

roof

hath
the

It is the
is

shalt
are

late

on,

thee

ne'er

broken

demolition

of the

now,

demolished

commentary,

rebuild

lies !

reached,

last of all desire

verses

round,

incessantly !

discovered

I've

thou

27-1-7.

birth

fabric

present

endless

this edifice.

framed

This

seen

rebirth's

in vain, I hastened
who

builder,

And

es

and

misery

What

279.

birth

Through
Seeking
To

in its

live

flowers, and,

extolling his

of their limbs

Buddhas

of

caused

He

they

fury, Mara

his

priestly

"

flooded

now

the

"

and

but

worlds were
made
victory,the ten thousand
the eight-thousand-league-longhells
even

glorious,and
to

"

Buddha

celebrate

this

his

wet

his

of his

Because

were

future

is defeated.
go

of

edge

done/'

weapons,"

canopy

hath

now

have

to

scattered, and

of Mara

gods cried out, Mara


conquered. Let us
they sang four verses
begin with the line :
"

able

not

length, in

it became

but

followers

the

reached

of

the

great rain-storm,"

would

"

103

of
fluttering

was

dewdrop

they

celestial

BUDDHA

caused

he

of rocks," and

shower

but

THE

as

Then

"

robe

much

so

priestlyrobe.
this mighty
a

OF

LIFE

n]

Julitia

that

embodying

"

are

these

canonical.
verses.

The

Book

BUDDHISM

104

Buddha

The

4.

Of

the

of the

"

The

One

Blessed

'

easily?

At

teachers, Alara

"by

determined
who

had

that

he

they

Kalama

and
"

him

saw

did

he

'

If

this

his

to

'

"

mil

you

So

he

Benares

to

show

to

When

him

their

keep

called
"

warned

teaching.

not

old

five ascetics,

the

travelled

did

his

dead.

were

to

and

he

preach

doctrine

was

determined

them

but

them

Friend.'

doctrine.

shall

it to

and

they

tradition.

proclaim

they

honour,

appellation
the

to

to

forbad

one

whom

doctrine

came

all

him

Blessed

by the
preach

To

his austerities

when

authentic

an

understand

that

coming they

It is natural

clearlyremembered,

Uddaka,

communicate

might

the

desired

witnessed

but

and

first he

deity
preach the

to

courtesy, but
And

will

Who

invisible

an

'

thought,

first ?

doctrine

the

this embodies

preacher,

as

account.1

be most

should

possiblethat

it is

and

work

Buddha's

detailed

his first utterances

that

"

Preacher.

as

beginnings
early text gives us

an

[IT

"

him

no

ment,
agree-

Friend."

call him

by name,
you," he said,

To

walk

in

the

have

way

the
will, ere long,
penetrated
you
you,
will live in the possession of that highest
truth ; and
you
noble youths
goal of the holy life,for the sake of which

I show

go
up the world, and
Thrice
demurred
they

forth

fully give
state."

knowledge

and

could

have

not

insight when
them

his doctrine.

At

and
willingly,

the

length they
Buddha

the

houseless

he

"

had

turned

offered to

convinced,

were

uttered

the

an

give them

and

discourse

to

listened
which

is

of the Kingdom of Righteousness.2


it he proclaimed the Middle
Way he had discovered,
explained the Noble EightfoldPath and the Four Noble

known

and

that

now

into

that, as he did not win


practised austerities,he

life,"and thrice the Buddha

abundant

In

he

to

as

the

Foundation

Truths.
1

The

of the
2

Mahdvagga,

four

This

weeks
sermon

I. 6.

in the
occurs

"

continuation

wilderness

was

also in the

of the

based

narrative

(8.B.E., XIII.

Anrjuflara Nikdya

on

which

our

account

89-102).
(8.B.E., XI. pp. 146-55).

LIFE

ii]

105

BUDDHA

THE

OF

given up the
to
A life given to pleasures,devoted
world ought to avoid.
pleasures and lusts, this is degrading, sensual, vulgar,
life given to mortification.
a
ignoble, and profitless
; and
By avoiding these two extremes, the Tathagata has gained
leads to insight,
Path
which
the knowledge of the Middle
"'

There

which

two

are

leads

wisdom,

to

which

extremes

he who

conduces

which

has

to

calm,

to

ledge,
know-

This
Middle
enlightenment,1 to Nirvana.
Path
is the
holy eightfold Path, namely, Right Belief,
Right Aspiration, Right Speech, Right Conduct, RightMeans
of Livelihood, Right Endeavour,
Right Memory,
Right Meditation."
the

to

The
the

medical

lore

categoriesof

of that

its

dealt

time

with

its cause,

symptom,

under

disease

its cure,

and

the

Buddha, as a physician of
souls,adopted these categories,and proceeded to state the
Truth
of Suffering,which
is the symptom
of human
Noble
of the Cause
the Noble
of suffering,
need, the Noble Truth
Truth
of the Cessation
of suffering,
and
Truth
the Noble
of the Path
which
leads to cessation
of suffering,
which
is
And
the holy Eightfold Path
because
already mentioned.
Buddha
the
possessed with
perfect purity this true
knowledge and insightinto these Four Noble Truths," he
knew
had obtained
the highest universal
that he
ment
enlightenand
and
this
in the world
of men
knowledge
gods ;
and
in his mind.
The emancipation of my
insightarose
mind
be lost ; this is my
last birth, hence
I shall
cannot
be born again!
Thus
the Blessed
One spoke." His
not
five hearers
were
delighted and rejoiced at the words of
the Blessed One."
They received ordination,into the Order
of which
the first members.
So, as the
they thus became
narrative
six Saints2
concludes, at that time there were
obtain

to

way

the

cure

; the

"

"

'

'

"

"

in the

world

With

had

this

Sambodhi.

Arahat
not

"
"

sermon

the

Buddha
at

(Sanskrit,Arhat), one

to be reborn.

himself

Benares,

and

his five

in Buddhist

who, like the

Buddha,

disciples.
phrase, the

having

"

reached

Nirvana,

BUDDHISM

106

Wheel

of the Law

began

if not

the

words

actual

[n

of the

Buddha

believed
early Buddhists
teaching. It is clear that the
is
redemption. The Buddhist

not

of God

there

which

and

the

how

suffering?
well

may

To

world.

can

And

to that

believe

be

him

free

in this
least

at

the

were

sermon

ideas

the

essentials

of his

thought is that of
troubled
by problems

central

from

question

is

one

tion
ques-

supreme

world

sufferingin

this

this

gives what

Buddhist

the

was

have

We

to move."

sermon

of
we

answer.1

youth of
Benares, whose
lay disciples.
parents and wife became
Many of Yasa's friends, belonging to the highest families
in the country, and to those next
to the highest,"accepted
the Buddha's
teaching,so that speedilythe Order numbered
and
wander
sixty. And the Blessed One bade them
go
Next

Order

the

join

to

Yasa,

was

noble

"

"

sake

for the

of

of the

compassion

the

of the

welfare

many,

out

for the good, for the gain, for


many,
"
men."
Let not
of you
and
two
go

for the

of

welfare

for the

many,

gods
which
the doctrine
is
the same
Preach
way," he said.
gloriousin the beginning, gloriousin the middle, glorious
in the letter ; proclaim a conat the end, in the spiritand
summate,
There
are
perfect and pure life of holiness.
beings whose mental eyes are covered by scarcelyany dust,
but if the doctrine
is not
preached to them they cannot
the doctrine."2
attain salvation.
They will understand
"

The

himself

Buddha

going there,he

rested

and

asked

men

came

by,
the

and

he

when

set

in

grove

him

asked

if he
them

they replied:
thirty friends,rich young
had

no

wife

Lord, while
See

;
we

for him
did

not

Mahavagga,

had

We

The
the

I. 11. (8.B.B., XIII.

was

of rich young

band

seen

he

passing

woman

were

they had to do with


sporting in this grove,

with

our

had

pay

; soon

what

men

we

Oldenberg, op. cit.,149.


greater length in our exposition of
1

"

woman,

As

for Uruvela.

out

wives.

procured

attention, and
Four

Noble

Buddha's

112-13).

Truths

teaching.

One

harlot.
were

will be

of

us

Now,

indulging
discussed

at

in

our

to

us

"

THE

OF

LIFE

n]

BUDDHA

sports, that harlot has taken


and

Which

has

be

would

in search

of

the

"

yourselves ?
that they should

And

and

listened

his

the

Order.1

to

up the articles belonging


the Buddha
asked
them
:

for you,

that

in search

that

you

go

it would
and

of

be

better

sat

down

seeing the truth, joined

found

he

should

go in search

of themselves,

preaching, and

Uruvela

that

should

you

admitted

they

go

At

better
or

woman,

And

away."

run

107

thousand

ascetics

And
these,
leadership of three Brahmans.
tradition,he converted
by
according to the early Buddhist
his mighty miracles.2
From
the Buddha
Uruvela
went
to Rajagaha, the capital
of Magadha.
Its king, Bimbisara, went
with a great
out
to welcome
him, brought him into the palace,
company
waited
of his people, became
on
a
him, and, with many
and
his monks
a pleasure
lay discipleand gave to Buddha
there
the
Buddha
converted
two
men
garden. Whilst
whom
the Buddhist
Church
afterwards
held in highest
honour
two
Sariputta and
Moggallana.
They were
Brahman
had
abandoned
their
that
homes
youths who
they might seek the path to redemption, and had vowed
reveal
it to the
the path, he would
that, if either found
other.
And
Sariputta saw in the street one day a disciple
of the Buddha,
and, admiring the dignity of his deportment,

under

the

"

up to Mm

went

In

whose

the

monk

name

and

"

said, Your

have

retired

you
repliedthat he

countenance

from

the

world

is serene.
?

"

And

discipleof the Blessed One,


and
Of all objects w^hich proquoted to him the words,
ceed
from a cause
the Tathagata has explained the cause,
and
he has explained the cessation
also."
And
Sariputta
summoned
his friend and togetherthey went
to the Buddha,
and
he bade
them
also
lead a holy life for the sake of
of suffering,"
ordained
and they were
complete extinction
the
And
into
Order.
so
distinguished young
many
led
life under
the direction
a religious
Magadha noblemen
was

"

"

"

"

Op. cif.,I. 14.

"

Op. cit.,I.

15-21.

108

BUDDHISM

of the

"

complain,
no
sons,"
families

The

5.

The

The

Pali

life of the
his first

the

people began angrily to


Gotama
fathers to beget
causes
to
become
widows, and causes

wives

become

Work

that

ascetic1
"

and

to

"

One

Blessed

[n

extinct."2

of the

Buddha.

history of the
scripturesgive us no connected
in the long period between
Buddha
the time of
and

success

the time

when

he

drew

to

near

death.

His

not biographers,and, besides, a life such


discipleswere
his would
Numerous
as
inevitably have lacked incident.
the records of his conversations, it is impossible to
as
are
in them
trace
development of teaching ; the Buddha
any
and
his disciplesare
presented rather as types than as

individuals.

During
which

the

of the

months

three

months'

his monks

with

resided
with

the

Order
year

in

one

had
he

his message

rainy
or

been

wandered

the

season,

other
endowed.
from

of the
The

Buddha

monasteries
other

nine

villageto village,

of

redemption. His field of labour


Eastern
the so-called
was
Lands," the ancient kingdoms
and
Kasi-Kosala
of Magadha
the neighbouring free
and
states.3
It would
that only rarely did he journey
appear
Western
influence was
to the
Lands," where Brahmanic
Numerous
and
stronger and his teaching less successful.
beautiful
parks were
given to the Order, in the shade of
trees the Buddha
whose
and his monks
could rest in quiet
and receive the people who
to learn
their message.
came
the Buddha's
admirers
were
Among
wealthy men
many
who
delighted to invite him and his followers to a feast
after which
he would
such
preach. When
hospitalitywas
and
his companions would
lacking, the Buddha
go from
to beg their food, the Buddha,
to house
house
for all his
preaching

"

"

1
"

Samana.
i.e.the modern

provincesof

Op. cit.,I. 24.


and Oudh, with the adjacent part of Nepal.

Bihar

OF

LIFE

n]

fame, holding

his

out

BUDDHA

THE

beggar

109

the

with

bowl

humility he enjoined on all his monks.


of the Buddha
the first the disciples
From
with
the
Order
formed
a
regular monastic
head.

The

have

Buddha,
who

its

as

occur

very

the

but
disciples,

associated

is often

name

his first

the Buddha's

monks

the

to find among

Rahula, whose

Buddha

of the

comfort

the

made

It is of interest
son

Buddha

of its members

some

have

to

seem

Dialogues. Of Sariputta and Moggallana


with
the
in influence
already spoken. Next
man,
and
Ananda, his kinsfirst in his friendship,was

frequentlyin
we

of

names

and

modesty

care.
own

the chief

with
been

have

prominent
Order
in the Order.
Outside
the monastic
were
pious
laymen who, unlike the monks, did not aspire to win
in their present birth, but improved their future
Nirvana
lot by obeying the moral
precepts applicableto them, by
works
of charity,and, above
all,by giftsto the Buddhist
the yellow robe of the
Order.
The monks
themselves
wore
ascetic,had
and

does

their hair

chastity,free
And

care.

from

not

to

seem

lived lives of

tonsured, and
all bonds

within

the

of

Order

family love
no

and

differences

poverty
hold
houseof caste

recognised.

were

Some
was

the

which

writers

modern
who

one

to

who

poor
he

broke

the

have

chains

spoken
of caste

and

despised a place in
founded.
Certainly he

exclusiveness

of

the

Brahmans,

as

if the

Buddha

and

sought to bring
the spiritual
kingdom
opposed the arrogant

and

it

was

doubtless

teaching that early Buddhists


proclaimed that
the true Brahman
the man
whose passionsare extinct
was
and
his knowledge perfect,"1but it is misleading to speak
of him
Social
a
as
a social reformer.
as
democrat, or even
the thought of his age
alien from
reform
movements
wrere
and
land.2
social
He
to change the
concerned
not
was
through

his

"

"

customs
1

See

of his
Chapter

time, and the "sorrow," which

XXVI.

of the

Dhammapada,

I. pp. 89-95).
1

Cp. Oldenberg, op. cit.,p. 172.

is the

entitled the Brahman

symptom
(S.B.E.,X.

110

BUDDHISM

of

human

our

world

monks, for they had


caste

ties,they
had

his

now

futilityof

life.

nor

the

concern,

the

of

leisured

The

injustices
of his

concern

of

justbecause, like family


which

In this the Buddha

original. Side by side with


and probably hostile
mans,

and

poor

Differences

world.

the

Order

the

connection.

no

sorrow

part of the earthlylife with

were

the

as

the

renounced

ignored within

were

rather

of the
not

were

"

sorrow

but

sorrow,

aristocrat,conscious
of the

"

is not

need,

oppressed count

In

sacred

the monks
in

was

no

of the

caste

way
Brah-

to their

pretensions,there had
been, before his time, bands of ascetics1 who ignored caste
because it was
they had renounced
part of the world-order
and
deemed
of their birth, but
were
holy, not because
because of their renunciation
Actually it would appear that
very few low caste people entered the Order in the Buddha's
lifetime. The Buddhist
texts tell us with some
complacency
that his converts
deed
were
wealthy and of noble birth. And inthe message
that the Buddha
not
one
preached was
the ignorant could understand.
A great scholar has said
that
most
to acknowledge
probably the world will come
.

"

him

in

as

form

of

his

the

respects

many
t
eachers
religious

intellectual

most

of mankind."2
is

with

the

asked

his

regard
"

"

if

Abstain

Sam

Hunt
ana

2
3

close

distrusted

of the

master,

"

Thus,

How

should

we

from

anas.

And

are

"

see

speech,"
Gotama

ia

to

and

them,

the

refused

read

conduct

what

Buddha

not
are

for

p. 117.

long

Ananda

that

with

ourselves
to

them.

see

to

we

"

answers.

by

to

deals

which

often, in the Dialogues,described

Rhys Davids, Buddhism,


Cp. Oldenbcrg,op. cit.,
p. 176.

of God,"

childlike.3

Discourse

is told

Gotama.

T. W.

and

life,we
we

the

nor

in the

Buddha's

womankind

to

But

Buddha

into his Order.

admit

for children

not

was

have

not

"

for his message


the
Women

ill-

and

certainlyintellectualistic
adapted to the needs of the simple. He would
said of children,
is the Kingdom
For of such
teaching

be, the

this may

However

the

of

do

But

others

as

"

if
the

LIFE

ii]

they should
Keep wide

speak

"

awake,

Tradition

begged
state

she

that

as

off her

cut

and,

with

and

of the
and

was,

covered

refused

her

fruit

Buddha

left

conversion

admitted

the

the

household

doctrine

and

At

of the

clan, came
"

porch

length
ascetic,

to

asked

the

thrice
if

feet

swollen

with

sorrowful, weeping

for her, but

where

and

in

Buddha

might not
their household
state, of realising
The
or
even
becoming saints.2
pleaded
they might, and Ananda

that

that, since Mahapajapati


and
aunt
mother, women
from

at the

Ananda

desire.

of

stood

robe

yellow

homeless

the

enter

refused.

of her

women

interceded

capable, if they

the

the

on

to

Buddha

the

dust, sad

with

Ananda

tears."

be

hair, put

many

the Buddha

be allowed

"

times

three

Mahapajapati

his aunt

time

each

but

nuns,

do

us,

might

women

111

BUDDHA

to
we
Lord, what
are
the reply.1
Ananda,"
comes

to

that

asserts

THE

OF

had

him

been

to the

be

should

life and

enter

women

Blessed

allowed

the homeless

"

to

One

both

go

forth

state

and

under

disciplineproclaimed by the Tathagata."


The
Buddha
yielded, but laid down
eight stringent rules
and
for the ordering of nuns,
prophesied gloomily that, if
had
received
then
not
women
permission to become
nuns,
would
the pure
religion have stood fast for a thousand
it would
years," but now
only stand fast for five hundred
did not
refuse
years."3 Yet it is clear that the Buddha
and
of the Psalms
some
giftsnor hospitalityfrom women,
of the Sisters4 of a later age give beautiful
expression to
the joy with which
those who were
honoured
matrons
once
live a homeless
life of poverty and
or
gaudy prostitutes,
chastity,having put away all desires and reached Nirvana.
the converts
of which
the Pali scriptures
Many as were
was
success
speak, it is clear that the Buddha's
by no
have
resented
his
must
means
complete. The Brahmans
than
of more
merit
teaching that giftsto the Order were
;'

"

Mahaparinibbdna

Arahfif.

ThzrlgatM,

Sutln, V. i":j(X.B.E..
"

translated

by

ChuUavagga,
Mrs.

X.
X.

p.

91).

(8.B.E., XX.

P.livs Davids.

320-6).

112

sacrificial
but

and
offerings,

in the

have

been

They

were

lands

nor

doubtless

in which

much

Brahman

serious

age

Brahmans

the

were

dissatisfaction

ascetics

with

in the

take

6. The

The

long

Buddha
before

Of

his

Sutta

of
in

rare

last

days

the Great

became

said,

"

have

Be

he

that

in

lamps

He

died

account

in

not

have

detailed

written

with

the

glow of feeling
the
rainy season,
a

scriptures. At the
ill,but, by self-control,restrained
very
that, before he died, he might take leave
for

the

such

truth

and

thing as

See Chullavagga, VII.


So

But

the

without

esoteric

the closed

behind
Buddha

making

doctrine."

"

any
The

fistof the teacher

Why should he lay down


Order ?
matter
concerning the
Betake
yourselves," he enjoined.

"

"

unto

leave

"

things back."
any

he should

Order.

the

exoteric

no

that

desired

preached

(8.B.E., XX.

Oldenberg, op. cit.,p.

pp.

224-271).

pp.

1-136).

221.

Mahdparinibbdna-sutta (S.B.E., XI.


W.B.T., pp. 95-110.
3

ye

content

death

old.

eighty years

Decease,3

between

Tathagatha has
who
keeps some
instructions

the

B.C.2

instructions

distinction

"

be

we

Ananda

of the Order.
some

that, not

Buddha's

Pali

his illness in order

him

utilised

Buddha.

after 480

or

Most

refusing to practise
the
expected from
in forming
succeeded

asserts

the

secure

lived to

these

Buddha

Tradition

to

Order.

the

the

place.1

of the

Death

were

in this way

Order.

his

Buddha

which

and

age,

this,he sought

might

the

by

opposition of

the

within

the

from

came

Devadatta, who

was

austerities

of that

schism

caused

the

enjoin

or

than

unquestioned.
thought, and,

of

converts

dissensions

in his influence

malignant

schools

and

Buddha's

More

caste.

authoritative

an

of their caste

sects

an

would

Scripturessuggest.

powerful priesthood of

of many
actually,several of the
was

vehemently,

their influence

Hindu

the

the supremacy

was

him

opposed

worked

he

less than
the

not

Church,
It

[n

BUDDHISM

There

are

extracts

from

it

yourselves
as

to

refuge

to

the

thoughtful

he

of

the

to

as

he

five

hundred

brethren

you

saying

So
His

word

in
"

divided

they

discovered
"

the

an

remains

under

of

the

'

Op.

cit., II.

Some

suppose

32.

of

great

the

the

no

exhort

things
was

the

Those

his

and

according

to

word

denotes

Buddha

here

the

mushroom.

of

teachers.
and

reverence,

monument,

exalted

race's

33.
that

is

addressed

This

clan."

these

is assured

One

all

and

component

nobles.

which,

urn

all

greatest

various

buried

of

and

any

silent,

were

brethren,

diligence

with

among

of

"

cremated

was

contained

of

one

in

with

all

Blessed

them

mind

they

now,

inherent

Tathagata

the
away

body

is

the

suffering,

the

Behold

salvation

your

of

'

asked

converted,
of

any

Before

backward

most

state

and

in

but

become

Then

said,

Decay

passed

received,
was

born

and

out

ashes

has

salvation."

the

last

be

to

the

even

brethren

liable

final

that

With

near.

him

to

teaching,

from

Chunda

drew

misgiving,

"

gracious

flesh2

spare

death

monks

or

his

or

testified

longer

Work

doubt,

any

of

day
the

Buddha

and

of

His

With

not

dysentery.

Ananda

bade

summoned

was

produced

it

he

remorse.

he

died,
there

and

truth

Look

truth.

boar's

accepted

Buddha

kindness

the

to

the

to

yourselves."1

besides

smith,

fast

Hold

refuge

113

BUDDHA

refuge.

as

one

the

Chunda,

feeling

fast

any

condescension

THE

external

no

Hold

lamp.

for

if

OF

LIFE

ii]

the

kinsfolk
in

1898

inscription,
the

Sakyan

THE

III."

THE

second

take

refuge in

article

that

What

left behind
which
until
extent

OF

the

on

after

written

no

his

teaching,was

the

better

Buddha,"

to

his

call this
"

but

not

It is

long
it reallyreproduces
be

hard

to

The

Buddha

The

say.
the

Pali

committed

to

and

records,

his death.

is this

confession

Dharma.

Teaching, the
Teaching was it is

Mm

BUDDHA.

THE

Buddhist

the

embodies

it would

of

TEACHING

impossible to

words,

and

say

it may
"

chapter not
Teaching

The
of

Canon,

writing
to

be

what
that

Teaching
the
Early

Certainlyit is hard to believe that the founder


with
of a world
religioncould have expressed his message
the
abstruse
scholasticism
depicted in the Dialogues.
Part
be due to our
of our
difficulty
expectation that
may
the Buddha,
like our
own
Master, would have spoken with
words
of timeless
simplicity; and such an expectation is
unreasonable.
He
lived in an
of acute
speculation,
age
that seems
and much
pedantry to us would have sounded
Buddhists."

natural

his

to

consciously the

hearers.
founder

Besides, the
of

new

thinker, who

religion,but

to
graciously showed
the way
deliverance
by which he himself
ignorance. Although we cannot
say

Pali

books

reflect the

afterwork

Buddha

to

been
what

not

illumined
after

freed from
extent

the

it seems
disciples,
that, in the main, they reflect faithfully
possibleto assume
the general outlines of the Buddha's
teaching.
Pedantic
at times
its expression, the puras
seem
may
pose
of the Buddha's
teaching was
practical. It had only
114

of his

an

seekers

other
had

was

aim

one

the

him

deliverance

"

words,

taste, the

was
were

of
the

be

desire

desire

to
to

Will the

the

to

ascetic

asks

the

"

115

has

won

Or

has

of

assigns to
only one

doctrine

this

flavour

who

text

ocean

has

so

his

and

emancipation."1

discipleshad to eh'minate
to questions which
know
the answers
redemption. Is the world eternal or

man

of that

Buddha

to

be existent

deliverance

if

reborn, where

questions

were

thinkers

the

great

which

These

interest

salt, just

after death

non-existent

reborn

the

BUDDHA

ancient

an

as

flavour

one

irrelevant

finite ?
or

the

and

Just
of

taste

disciplineonly
Part

"

THE

OF

TEACHING

in]

of

but

age,

the

he

profoundest
a wandering

when

them, he

answer

will

is rebuked.

"

a
Every such theory, he is told, is
jungle, a wilderness,
a
puppet-show, a writhing, and a fetter,and is coupled
with misery, ruin, despair, and
and does not lead
agony,
of passion, cessation, quiescence,
to
aversion, absence
when
And
wisdom, and Nirvana.''
knowledge, supreme
if Gotama
the ascetic asks
has any theory of his own
?
Gotama
replies, The Tathagata is free from all theories ;
of form,
but this does the Tathagata know
the nature
and
how
form
arises,and how form perishes; the nature
of sensation, and how
sensation
sensation
arises, and how
of perception ; and
how
perishes; the nature
perception
how
of the
arises, and
perception perishes; the nature
the predispositionsarise, and
predispositions,and how
how
the predispositionsperish ; the nature
of consciousness,
and
how
consciousness
arises,and how consciousness
perishes. Therefore say I that the Tathagata has attained
all
deliverance, and is free from attachment, inasmuch
as
inaginings, or agitations,or false notions concerning an
Ego or anything pertaining to an Ego have perished."2
Here the Buddha
states
clearlythat he will neither affirm
One truth only is
at this time.
nor
deny theories current
"

"

"

"

he concerned

to

know

"

Chuttavagga, IX.

Svtta

72 of the

the

Irnpermanence

1. 4. (S.B.E., XX.

Majjhima-Nvkaya

p.

of the

304).

(W.B.T.,

pp.

123-8),

Ego,

as,

BUDDHISM

116

by

this

and

so

had

asks

and

him

that

not

that

it

And

the

not

was

who

man,

smeared
or

problems

to

surgeon

had

thrown

the

and

bow

arrow

dogmas dealing with

lead

nor

to

of

misery,

to

the

what

and

of the

the

of

cessation

of

to

"

these
he

he

began
1

misery.
and
religion,

man

of the

nature

for

its cure,

does

of his

preached in
his work
63

as

of the

the

and

this has

do

so

the

profit
origin
path leading

to

not

; the

do

with

the

lead to Nirvana.1

his work

is not

Truths

are,

speculative,
as

we

have

categoriesof

his time.

of the symptom

of their

the way
will be

to

secure

this

cure.

arranged according
dition,
Truths," which, according to tra-

teaching

Noble

Four

and

they

he elucidated

For

that

declares

cause,

Sutta

of

them

therapeutic. His Four Noble


an
applicationof the medical
seen,
He
a revelation
brings to sick men
account

the

Order

sort

after death, and

but

Our

what

was

misery,

of

Gotama

disease,its

allow

to

Order.

thickly
physician

saint

had

This

Nirvana.

cessation

Thus

refuse

elucidated

not

fundamentals

admit

foolish,

as

arrow,

an

nor

religiouslife does not depend on


the eternityof the world, or the possibility

existence

had

Buddha

exists

The

arrow.

of the

world

the

be

would

it,until he told him

remove

that

neither

with

wounded

poison, should

with

say to you,
I will elucidate

or

saint

their

ever

and

me,

elucidated

been

had

not, Tmow
I

Did

Buddha

disciplehas to
that he joined the
to refuse to join the

that

were

to the

goes

His

terms

tells him

Buddha

'

these

on

the

that

sage, who
the Buddha

because

is eternal

world

after death

exist

until these
if

attachment,

find

we

does

or
"

or

...

does

does,

replies,

the

eternal

is not

he

religiouslife under

the

either

you

as

book,

same

Buddha

the

lead

Come,

to

of the

whether

But

answer.
'

Sutta

joined the Order, deeply disturbed


these problems. He
not elucidated

had

from

freedom

win

can

Nirvana.

another

In

he

knowledge,

[m

that

Sermon

at

Benares, with

teacher.
Majjhima-Nikdya (W.B.T., pp. 117-122).

which

OF

TEACHING

in]

The

Truth

First Noble
said

"This,"

the

THE

BUDDHA

117

Suffering.

"

Buddha

Benares, "is

at

the

Noble

Suffering: birth is suffering; decay is suffering;


is suffering. Presence
of objects
illness is suffering
; death
hate is suffering; separation from
objects we love is
we
suffering; not to obtain what we desire is suffering.Briefly,
the fivefold clingingto existence is suffering."1
disease
of man's
This, then, is the symptom
misery.
have
the symptom
And
would
not
the Buddha
ignored.
He
bids a monk
of his own
life.
contemplate the sordidness
the sole of his feet to the
Let him
consider his body, from
Truth

of

"

of

crown

his

contained

head,
his

by
his

compare

full of

Gotama's

age, this first truth

Western

writers

"

pessimism,"

to show

but

the way

all the
in

see

uncleanness

cemetery

corpse

festering putridity, let

body, saying,
this destiny, and

own

this nature,

has

If he

skin.

and

swollen, black,

remember

and

would

have

spoken

it has

to

"

Verily, my
body also
is not
exempt."2 To
have required no proof.
of

much

be remembered

from

to deliverance

him

Buddha's

the
that

he claimed

the

that

misery he indicated.
cannot
unless we
feel
justlycall his system pessimistic,
the redemption he taught was
inadequate.3

The

Second

We

"

This

Noble
is the

Thirst, that

Truth

the Cause

"

Noble

Truth

of Suffering.

of the

Cause

of

Suffering:

leads to rebirth,accompanied

by pleasure and
lust,finding its satisfaction here and there.
(This thirst
is threefold),
namely, thirst for pleasure,thirst for existence,
thirst for prosperity."
Here
1

in the

the

we

reach

the

most

quote in this section from


Mahawgga
(8.B.E., XIII.

"

See Sutta

"

See Mrs.
common

22

of the

difficult part of the

Oldenberg's translation
pp.

of the

Buddha's

Sermon,

as

found

95, 96).

Digha-Nikdya (W.B.T., 369-62).


Rhys Davids, Buddhism
(pp. 161-72),for an indignant protest against
view
is pessimistic.
that Buddhism

BUDDHISM

118

[in

teaching. It is well to realise its central significance


in the details of his elaborate
before becoming immersed
have
the most
characteristic
psychology. As we
seen,
a permanent
teaching of the Upanishads recognisedin man
habitation
another
soul which
to
one
passed on from
in the cycle of rebirth,and could
to rest through
only come
the realisation of its unity with
Brahman.
The
Buddha
denied

that

there

the

soul

the

temporary

was

beings together
When

rebirth.
is

broken,

and

him

What

soul.

men

had

ever-changing appearance
of various
concourse
bodily and
is thirst,1or craving,which
holds

to

It

occurrences.

such

was

due

an

in

state

thirst is

of existence

and

eliminated, then

the miserable

cycle of

to

mental

all

living

necessitates

the causal

rebirth

called

nexus

ceases.

This

of Dependant
theory is expressed in an abstruse scheme
not
Origination which, if tradition is to be believed, was
own
teaching, but the means
only part of the Buddha's
through which, as he sat at the foot of the Bo-tree, he
sists
conexperienced the bliss of emancipation.2 The scheme
of twelve

On
On
On
On
On
On
On
On
On
On
On

:
ignorance depend the Sankhdrd
the Sankhdrd
depends consciousness
;
and form
consciousness
depend name
;
the
six
and form depend
of sense
name
;
organs
of sense
the six organs
depends contact
;
contact
depends sensation ;
sensation
depends desire (or thirst);
desire depends attachment
;
attachment
depends existence ;
existence
depends birth ;
birth depends old age and death, sorrow,
tion,
lamentaand despair.3
misery, grief,

Pali tanM.

Translators

translation

links.

vary
in the text

"

much

See

earlier,p. 99.

in their

is based

on

rendering of

Warren's

the

B.T.t p.

84.

more

difficult terms.

The

OF

TEACHING

in]
Our

does

space

THE

allow

not

than

more

difficult and, in parts, obscure


denotes

but

Upanishads,
Sankhdrd

is

technical

consequently

systems, and

for

here

Sankhdrd

the

Four

word

the

"

by

of deliverance

"

"

form

the

"

and

name

the

the functions

denotes
"

"

and

and

name

the

second

and

form,

shape
that

is

maternal

womb
is

existence

new

under

and

by

the

called

time

to surmise

by

that

in

current

were

the full formula

time

The

The

way," by
'-

For

Buddha,

religion.

but

is

one

two

present
or

him

by
at

more

any

"

rate

which

B.T.,

115.

It

was

might

man

commentary,
p.

scheme

require further
of Karma.

and

Soul.

of the

message

constitute
"

of the

Doctrine

this

of the Soul

the doctrines

"

in

implied

doctrines

treatment

(thirst)
"

in its

and

one."2

into

Two

karma

of desire

perhaps expanded, perhaps contracted,


made

existence

existence, and

Buddha's

the

is

consciousness

piece of patchwork put together of

It

repeats

ignorance and

means

form

to

begun.

of

name

of

means

birth, and

in

again, this

inclined

the

with

unites

the formula
points out, that
human
being is brought into

time

karma

much

so

first time

the

and

'

sensation, whilst

Consciousness

body.
in

with

"

clear, as Warren
itself,that the
"

connected

"

form

individual,

twice

message
Name*

' '

inevitable

existence

ence
exist-

one

here

denotes

further

karma,"

immaterial

aggregate of

the

is made.

or

which
from
capabilities,
pass over
another, where ignorance of the Buddha's
makes

later

our

qualitiesand
to

here

Truths.

Noble

makes

all that

are

this

on

of the

nescience

which

translates

Warren

In this scheme,

brief note

philosophical
language, have no equivalent.

our

denote

Sankhdrd

The

for

term

119

analysis.1 Ignorance

Maya, the creative


ignorance of the

the

not

BUDDHA

see

as

we

have

rather
be

freed

seen,
"

did

not

discipline,"a
from the cycle of

Oldenberg, op. cit.,pp.

251-90.

BUDDHISM

120

But, although primitive Buddhism


it was
Indian rationalism, which
an
rationalistic,
existence.

miserable
thus

was

[in

popular beliefs in transmigration,


and
in paradises and
hells,and it is not easy to reconcile
definition of man
with
these beliefs the early Buddhist
as
to
selflessness
(nairdtmya)1 Yet this definition seems
be
the
teaching.
legitimateexpression of the Buddha's
Thus, at the very beginning of his teaching work, at the
utilised and

the

absorbed

"

"

of his

conclusion

five ascetics

the

to

sermon

Benares,

at

of the self as
definitelydenied the existence
absent.
distinct reality. All signs of a self are
Form,
a
of these
none
Sankhdrd, consciousness
sensation, the
things are the self,and it is by considering this that a
of these things,and
learned,noble hearer becomes
weary
becoming "weary of all that, divests himself of passion,"
there is for him no further return
and so is made
free,and
the

Buddha

"

"

"

"

finds
"

And

world."2

this

to

the

in

Buddha's

central

Buddhas

arise,

whether

passage

in

which

teaching,

it

is

the

stated

Buddhas

whether

or

Warren

do

that
not

a
fact, and the fixed and necessary constitution
arise,it remains
of being, that all its elements
are
lacking in an
Ego."3 As the great scholar Buddhaghosa puts it,in the
Visuddhi-Magga
.

"

Misery only
No

is there

doer

miserable.
exist, none
the deed
save
; nought

is,but not the


exists, but not

Nirvana
The

doth

Path

who

man

the

it.

seeks

traveller

is found.

on

it."4
"

book puts it :
Just as
chapter of the same
wheel in rollingrolls only at one
a chariot
point of the tire,
and in restingrests only at one
point,in exactly the same
the life of a livingbeing lasts only for the period of
way
that thought has ceased
the
as
one
thought. As soon

Or,

as

another

See

Poussin's

Way

to

Nirvana,

pp.

30-56, for

an

expositionof

adopted.
2

Mahavagga,

I. 6. 38-46.

(S.B.E.,XIII.

pp.

100, 101).

p. xiv.

W.B.T.,

"

Visuddhi-Magga, Chap.

XVI.

(W.B.T., p. 146).

the view

here

OF

TEACHING

ni]

being is said
affirmed

that

for

vigorously
absolute

Buddha's

the

belief in

any

unnaturally it has been


ever
teaching leaves no place what-

ceased."1

to have

Not

than

annihilation

at

Yet

soul.

denounced

that

death

of

the

alike

deal, whilst,in
the

discourse

of the

ruler

of the

characters

meritorious

dead, condemns

the

the

which

they
Yama,

Buddha,

sinner, saying,

wickedness, and

yourselfwho did this


you
feel its consequences."2

with

Buddha

with

past

assigned to

-stories,the

Birth

be

evil deeds

and

good

more

taught

who

those

that

so

is

heresy

no

the
unrequited. And
the continuity of
Jdtaka, clearlyassume

would

121

BUDDHA

THE

you

"

It

alone

was

shall

apparently to be found
in Warren's
phrase, Rebirth, not Transmigration." So
kindles
the metaphor of a lightwhich
a later dialogue uses
another
light without
passing over, transmigrating to it ;
be rebirth
"without
there
migrating."
so
even
anything transmay
Although there is no transmigration,for there
is no
identity,yet there is no annihilation,
permanent
because
if the new
the old it is
as
being is not the same
The

solution

of the

problem

is

"

not

unconnected

Poussin

with

the

points out,

only by the
only when
also by the

';

static

"

it.

As

Pali

texts

metaphor

its constituents
"

are

Professor
describe

of

Vallee

la

de

existence

exists

chariot, which

associated

not

together,3but

"

turns
to
dynamic
metaphor of milk which
the
curds, which, though different from
milk, are
yet
produced from it without
interruption,"or of the grownup
who
is
the
the
not
child-bride
for whom
same
as
girl
the dowry was
of the
continuation
paid and yet is a
And
child.
in exactly the same
way," the Buddhist
is
and form which
although the name
sage Nagasena adds,
"

"

"

"

"

born

into

form

which

"
*
"

the

next

existence

is to end at

is different

death, nevertheless

from

the

and

name

it is sprung

from

Op. cit.,
(W.B.T., p. 150).
Chap. Vm.
the Anguttara Nikdya, III. 35. (W.B.T., pp. 255-7).
The Questions of King Milanda, XXVII.
(W.B.T., pp. 131. 2).

From

it.

122

BUDDHISM

Therefore

is one

then

seem

not

that

[in

freed from

although

one

the

"

's evil deeds

It would

early Buddhists,

like their

Master, refuse to recognise the existence of a soul as


a
metaphysical entity yet in its stead
they recognise a
fluid complex, both
livingcomplex, a continuous
bodily
and mental, a person which, in fact,possesses
nearly all the
"

"

characters

The

Doctrine

The
karma
the

of

soul

"

as

understand

we

word."2

the

of Karma.

Buddha

which,

assumed
as

have

we

axiomatic

as

seen,

had

the

doctrine

already been taught

oldest

of
in

Upanishads and used it with great effectiveness.


It is clear that, although he rejectedthe view that the soul
a
was
metaphysical entity,he used the hope of winning
aid
good karma and the fear of winning bad karma
as
an
in his moral
teaching,and an incentive to generous
giving.
Thus, as we are told, a queen asked him why one woman
is ugly and
another
ugly and rich, another lovely
poor,
and poor, another
lovely and rich,and the Buddha
replied
that if a woman
was
lovelyit was because she had not been
rich it was
she had given
because
irascible,and if she was
Brahman
in a previous birth.3
or
a
generously to a monk
And
he warns
that those who
do evil do not truly
men
love themselves.
It is those who
do good deeds who
truly
love themselves
'*

His

for

good deeds

Whate'er

mortal

'Tis this that


This

with

This

is what

And

like

Let
A

Will

3
"

he

can

take

shadow

all,then,

his wickedness,
does

follows

treasure-store

For

him

and

after
ne'er

noble

while

here

call his own,


he goes hence.
as

deeds

him,

departs.
perform,

for future

weal

merit

gained this life within,


yield a blessing in the next."4

*
Op. cit.,XLVII.
(W.B.T., pp. 236-8).
Poussin, op. cit.,
p. 65.
the Anguttara Nikdya, TV. 197. (W.B.T., pp. 228-231),
From
Samyutta Nikaya, III. 1. 4. (W.B.T., pp. 213. 4).

OF

TEACHING

m]
This

doctrine

deeds

their

aim

That

they

the

was

lot in

which

It would
free

in

out

them

deeds

in

were

destined

to

their

present

life

that

seem

existence.

enabled

of meritorious

work

to

birth

next

cycle of

although they

annihilate

must

their

of the

result

laitythan of
stage of desiring

the

in circumstances

born

were

previous birth,1and, even


win Nirvana, they have
the evil of past misdeeds.
of karma

nobler

123

of the

concern

Nirvana, the end

was

Nirvana

win

to

win

to

BUDDHA

passed beyond

had

monks, for monks

by good

the

more

was

THE

the doctrine

will,but the Buddha

spoke

by all. He himself
the Enlightened One," but
not
only the Buddha,
Hero
(Vlra) the Conqueror (Jina), and his followers
his triumph.2
As the
Buddha
called to emulate

if self-restraint

as

could

be

cultivated
"

was

the
were

his

warned

followers, in his last address

to them

his

before

"

salvation
their own
with
out
had to work
death, they
deliverance,
diligence." He did not claim to bring to men
the path by which
them
but only to show
they could attain
after him, sought to find in their
it,but he, and his disciples
the past which
hearers
roots of merit from
they could bring

maturity

to

enable

thus

and

them

to

accept the

message

of deliverance.3
In

one

moralised
the
important respect the Buddha
of karma, for he emphasised that the intention

important

as

well

as

the

deed.

Thus

we

read

of

ception
conwas

treasurer

miser.
wealthy, but childless,and a miserable
The
Buddha
explains that he was
wealthy because of a
giftin a previous birth of which he had afterwards
generous
of his gift he was
born in a heavenly
repented. Because
times
held the post of treasurer, but,
world and had seven
he had suffered in hell
he had repented of his gift,
because
thousands
of years and, as a further result
hundred
for many
died

who

the

Cp.

Saint in

frequent

Cp. Poussin,

Thus

the
a

references

previousexistence

some

root

op.

to

such

in the

meritorious

Psalms

acts

of the Early

as

doing service

to

Buddhists.

cit.,p. 98.

Buddha

was

of merit

under

able

to

convert

his many

sins.

celebrated

robber

because

he

covered
dis-

BUDDHISM

124

of

his

for

feelings,was

mean

[m
seventh

the

time

dying

no
new
merit, was
childless,and, as he had accumulated
in one
of the hells.1
sufferingtorment
Not
the
under
but
only men,
gods themselves, were
who
reaches Nirvana
has reached
karma, and the monk

than

higher stage
The

Third

"

it

This

they.
Truth

Noble
is the

Noble

with

the

ceases

with

abandoning

consists

It

because

was

Nirvana

it is hard

of

the

flame

his

the

clear, Nirvana

this

thirst

denotes

the

Buddha,

life. But

word

denotes

The

is much

found

long

"

whether

way

to

to

its

and

what

Nirvana

"

the cessation

existence, but

annihilation

of

Suffering:
"

have

to

became

to say.

for

craving

of

of desire."

It has to do with

absolute

cessation

claimed

he devoted

proclamation

Cessation

of every
passion
of this thirst,with the doing away

Gotama

that

means

he

of Suffering.

in the absence

it,with the destruction

with

is

of the

complete

which

as

the Cessation

"

Truth

cessation

the

of

going out,"
the
thirst,
' '

it involves

' '

also

disputed. One thing at least


the highest good, the state
of
"

the master
with
was
complete painlessness.The Buddha
have only to turn
eye divine, the quencher of griefs."2 We
to the Dhammapada
the Psalms
or
of the Early Buddhists
to realise how
actual was
the joy of this deliverance.
"

Let

greedy
greed

Among

free

happily then,
men

who

from

greed

greedy, let

are

among

dwell

us

the

free from

Let
own

live

us

live

us

! We

happily then, though

shall

call

nothing our
bright gods, feeding on happiness

like the

be

we

breeds

Victory
He

who

has

contented
There

is
is

hatred,

given
happy.

no

the

up

fire like

for

both

the

is unhappy.
conquered
and
defeat, he, the
victory

passion

From

IV.
Mahdpariniblana-Srita,

Samyutta Nikdya,

; there

III. 2. 10.
3.

is

no

losing

(W.B.T., pp. 226-8).


(S.B.E.,XI. p. 65).

throw

OF

TEACHING

in]
like

hatred

pains

if

no

than

happiness higher
Hunger is the
of

is

there

BUDDHA

pain like

this

125

body

there

is

no

rest.

diseases, the body the greatest


the
this truly, that
is Nirvana,

of

worst

knows

one

THE

highest happiness."1
Of

the

"

translator,remarks,
and

the

of

Psalms

Davids, their

Rhys

the

where

Even

breathe

poem*

rest

hedonistic,tellingof

and

is exalted

their tone

peace,

Mrs.

Sisters

'

Of

of

exceeding store
impassioned quietude.' "2

of

lady, like Metta, who, before she joined the Order,


rejoicesbecause
princelyrank, now
"

To-day
Enough
Heart's

joy

and

courtesan,

"

for

reached

on

the foulness

Entrance

am

"

Order
We

sense

five and

Full

read

twenty

troubled
in my
Could*! discern
the

sought,

Long
I dwelt
To

of

peace

calm

mind,

Nibbana's

"

always

not

Was

withered

Dhammapada,

"

Psalms

"

Op.

and

up
199-203

once

joined the

the
Order

the

seventh
within

forth,

of thoughts,
governance
with
and
:
anguish thrilled

the

on

the

at

secure

Conqueror's

free my
breedeth
path from
with
I
ardour
and
passionate

now

she had

peace."4

since I came
years
in no
heart
yet
way
path of victory.
the

in memory

is

preaching

out,

I strove

To-day

the

of desire.

of Sanaa, who

I found

is dead

away."3

command,

all that

Craving

gods.

But

The

is rooted

did not

friend

of

I trained

body

fever

and

now

into the

of peace.
at the death
of

of the

is all the

Expunged
Cool

have

at his

how,

us

of lust

throb

yellow robe,

saintshipthrough

monk, tells

Till every

heaven

110

pining,

heart's

pain,
who

shaved,

I want

me.

of her son,

meditated

meal, head

one

was

Lord's

day
that

word.

ill,
won.

will is done.
since
ancient

first

thirst."5

(S.B.E., X. I. pp. 53.64).


*
Canto XXV.
Op. cit.,
*
Canto XXIX.
cit.t
Op.

of the Sisters,p. xxxiv.


Canto XXVL
cit.,

BUDDHISM

126

then

Nirvana

has

who

man

system

a
"

thirst

Buddha

It is difficult for

if that

message,
Prof. Max

life won

that

view

of the

Arahat, the
deliverance, and for

Logically the

rebirth.

no

Westerners

us

to understand

good

seems

peace

Buddha's

there will be

at death

The
cessation
of
complete annihilation.
have
up the cycle of rebirth, and, as we
does not recognise any
permanent soul.

man

breaks

the

seen,

be

to lead to the

seems

for such
"

will

the

this

already in

there

whom

denote

may

[in

Miiller's view

meaning

of the Buddha's

that

have

some

Nirvana

death,

life,not

the attractiveness
his

was

whom

to

accepted

have

cannot

meant

annihilation, for
early Buddhist's
to be
nothing as its goal would cease
the

religionwhich had
religion. The argument

for the

"

Buddha

insufficient.

seems

this life does

whom

to

man

worth

and

have

can
living,

no

true

As

and

elevated

not

appear
longing after

said,

Rothe

life."1

future

suffering,and to him, as to many


have
seemed
of his time, the cessation of sufferingwould
sufficient good. Nirvana
was
a
only for the monk, who
all ties of wife and child.
had abandoned
Yet, as Oldenberg
be mistaken
if we
should
thought of Buddhism
says, we
in this the kernel of its
as
a
religionof nothing and saw
of the Buddha's
not
was
teaching.2 The essence
message
To

the

refused
a

to

say.

was

the

Whether
had

question which
of the

What

Nirvana.

but

annihilation

was

life

Buddha

later

that

saint

nothing

Buddhists

of the

Nirvana

would
to

after death

exist

do

with

he

was,

deliverance.
school

Mahayana

only
Nirvana
annihilation
to mean
and postponed
understood
its operation to a distant
Possibly they were
right in
age.
accommodated
his teaching to
their view that the Buddha
Many

the

needs

that

the

of his hearers, and


Buddha

annihilation
the

path

he

did

not

1
Stille Stunden,
From
Christentum,* p. 50.

p.

be those
its

because
219 ;
*

it

was

on

plainly that

say

lest there should

taught

that

goal was

quoted

in

A.

Op. tit.,
p. 307.

who

this account

Nirvana
would

means

not

unattractive.
Bertholet's

Buddhismus

tread
But
und

OF

TEACHING

m]

THE

BUDDHA

127

We
cannot
question is reallyirre'evant.
go behind
the Buddha's
pragmatic agnosticism. His purpose was that
either the existence
of a physician,and he would
not assert
such

of the

the non-existence

or

The

Fourth

"

This

death.

Truth.

Noble

is the

after

saint

Truth

Noble

of the

leads to the

which

Path

suffering: that holy Eightfold Path, that is to


say, Right Belief, Right Aspiration, Right Speed, Right
of Livelihood, Right Endeavour,
Conduct, Right Means
Right Memory, Right Meditation.
The
called his path a middle
Buddha
path ; sensuality
of

cessation

be

must

avoided,

Doubtless
in

yet there

is

no

virtue

in asceticism.

of the power
of the Buddha's
nobility and the sanity of his moral

the

much

preached
ruler

and

without

his message

any

reference

to

teaching lay
ideal.
an

He

almighty

ing
categoricalimperative of duty ; but if his teachignored God, it emphasised what
corresponds to a
belief in God's justice,
for he so moralised
belief
the current
in karma
its operations,although mechanical,
to make
as
and
adaptable "x and able
yet wonderfully well informed
to deal not with acts only but with thoughts, and especially
with that pride of heart to which
the monks
have
would
been peculiarlyliable.
Most
of all did the Buddha
praise a peaceful, kindly
stories illustrate the truth that hate
disposition and many
cannot
end hatred ; only through love will hatred
cease.
Thus there are assigned to him the words
:
or

"

"

Let

in

no

one

deceive

place, let him

any
harm
to another.
As

mother,

at

the

child, her only child, so

friendly mind
1

another, let him


not

out

of

risk of her
also

towards

not

anger

or

despise (another)

life,watches

let every
one
all beings."2

wish

resentment

cultivate

Prof. L. de la Vallee Poussin, Bouddhisme, p. 70.


Sutta Nipcita,
I. 8. 6. 7. (S.B.E., X. II. p. 25).

her

over
a

own

less
bound-

128

BUDDHISM

But,

[m

Oldenberg points out, the love thus praised is not


much
relation
positive as negative. It bears the same
the love which
Christ preached
Christians fail
however
doctrine
of Nirvana
does
practise it as the Buddhist

so

to

as

"

to

"

to the
not

Christian
much

so

be

doctrine

to

attached,

love

and

of salvation.
not

as

The
To

hate.1

to

monk

is meant

should

none

he

the

blessings of the solitary life are


extolled.
bidden to refrain from murder,
Lay discipleswere
theft, adultery, lying and the use of intoxicating drinks,
and
and
were
encouraged to live lives of kindliness
The
generosity. But they have no part in deliverance.
best they can
hope for is a better state in their next birth.
could win Nirvana, and
he wins
it by the
Only the monk
truths.
path of the Buddhist
So, from the first,
faith,in the
of assent

sense

the

Buddha

how

to

pass

from

their

use

to the

did

Buddha's
desire

not

themselves,

save

faith
the

to

Four

teaching,was

blind

and

He

assent.

the

monks

were

required,but
showed

men

intended

to

sight.

The

Intent

Contemplations by which they


no
permanent Ego, and, by the

Buddha

recommended

for

might realise that there is


of their own
bodies and
the
thought of the uncleanliness
foulness
of putrifying corpses,
the
might be freed from
glamour of human
beauty. The Buddha
promised his
that
monks
if they practised these contemplations they
either to attain
to perfect knowledge
in
might expect
"

this life or, if at death

returning."2
tradition
the

can

typical

by

which

and

non

These
be

the

groups

still remained,

disciplineswere

believed, the Buddha

to

never-

intellectual, but
did

not

leave

if

unused

Indian

trance
or
disciplineof concentration
the very ideas of being and not-being,perception
to have
-perceptioncease
any meaning.3

Op. cil.,p. 335.


Dlgha-Nikaya, Sutta 22 (W.B.T., pp. 353-75).
"
Samyutta Nikdya, 36 (op. cit.,p. 384). The great scholar Buddhaghosa gives
elaborate
directions
of trances
for the induction
(Visuddhi-Magga, IV., W.B.T.,
in
which
and
of
trances
be recollected
293-6),
speaks
previous births may
pp.
unusual
in Hindu
a claim
writings(op cit.,XIII., W.B.T., p. 319).
1
*

"

THE

IV."

As

have

we

founder

the
he

of

instituted,
had

who
"

the

not

"

Entrance
the

before

he

refuge

second

The
of

himself

clad

took

was

free

four

chief

obligatory

all

on

from

forbidden

couch

or

seat,

Order

thus

home
The

bond.

For

modern

boasting

indulging

and

the

the

receiving

into
Buddha

ordination

supernatural

129

in

power

which

prohibit

attending

using

or

Entrance
The

from

see

all

broad

into

monk

the
must

property

wealthy
W.B.T.,

at

shows,

to

high

for

Ceylon

life, sexual

liquor, eating

poverty.

accepted

first, the

of

homelessness,"

service

the

taking

money.1

complete

Order.

candidate

forbad

body,

that

assembly

an

From

or

made
beard

the

the

precepts

singing

and

and

unless

fermented

in

dancing,

involved

from

monks

be

declared

and

before

diseases.

are

perfuming

or

"

and

monks

times,

adorning

go

for

hair

Teaching
taken

First

stages.

might

his

robe,

granted

not

prohibitions

also

be

disqualifying

stealing

them

the

only

was

intercourse,

had

yellow

Buddha,

could

and

from

the

lation
regu-

books
Buddha

the

two

which

candidate

in

the

in

stage

Order,

the

The

monk.

of

arose.

in

inovitiate

those

the

Vinaya

which

made

was

and

first

The

these

occasion

as

the

into

entrance

any

off,

cut

but

for

with

dealing
that

much

so

salvation,

ties.

of instructions

Order

the

into

books

not

designed

earthly

probable

codification

systematically

not

came

It is

Order

an

all
to

of

discipline

but

is devoted

Order.

the

represent

of

as

from

away

consciously,

was

Church,

broken

of the

gave

religion,

Baskets

Buddha

the

seen,

ORDER

395-401.

laymen

is

BUDDHISM

130

dwelling-placesfor
"

"

the

[iv

Order, and

When
rainy season.
monks
on
were
begging tours, the younger
encouraged to
associate with older monks
that they might learn from them,
but the monks
base
not to speak much
bidden
nor
on
were
have
with
things. As we
great reluctance,
seen,
very
into the Order
admitted
women
were
stringent
; the most
Even
to ensure
made
regulations were
perfect decorum.
the oldest of nuns
had to treat with humility the youngest
of monks, and
in no
rebuke
circumstances
a
might a nun
monasteries

for the three

resided in such

the monks

months'

monk.1
In

early Buddhism
worship, for there was
in a month,
at full
district had
senior

to

monk

no

was

prayer

and

assemble

would

Disburdenment."

there

new

for

recite

was

corporate

no

offer.

the

monks

solemn

fast

day,2
"

this that

none

the

Twice

of each

moon,

Pdtimokkha,

the

So sacred

naturally
nor
praiseto

when

the

Words
but

of

monks

as
a
might hear it, and it does not exist in the Canon
with its commentary
separate text but only in connection
in the first part of the Vinaya Basket*
It begins with the
recital of offences against the four chief commands,
and
the monk
it asks his brethren
who
utters
if they are pure.
If any confess his guilthe is,for these sins,expelled from
the Order.
Those
to be
who
keep silent are assumed
innocent.
offences
The recital proceeds,mentioning grave
for which
serious
is enacted, until at length it
penance
deals with trivialities of indecorum.
Later, two other fast
instituted so that the Buddhist
is divided
month
days were
into weeks
months
are.
as
our
by four sacred days much
Once
held the
a
was
year, at the close of the rainy season,
Ceremony of Invitation,4 designed to prevent the perpetuation
of quarrelsamong
who
monks
had lived together.

See the

Uposatha.

chapter on

It is translated

Pavdrana,

see

the Duties

of Nuns,

Chullavagga,X. (S.B.E.,XX.

in S.B.E., XIII.
1-69.
Mahavagga, IV. 1. (S.B.E., XIII.

327-9).

320-69).

THE

TV]

Each
to

monk,
tell

him

beginning
of

any

that,

if

from

the

Vinaya

were

many

there

he

see

an

offence

offence,
texts

dissensions

ORDER

with
he
he

that,

131

the

senior,

has

committed,

will
in

in

spite
the

and
for

atone

of

Order.

such

others

the

invites

it.

promises
It

is

clear

provisions,

V."

THE

FURTHER

HISTORY
INDIA

IN
1. The

BUDDHISM

OF

Councils.

BEFORE

Buddha

the

died, he

is said

have

to

handed

over

Kassapa the superintendence of the Order, and he, in his


but these
turn, appointed before his death
a
successor,
to have
had great authority. Tradition
patriarchsdo not seem
to

tells

that

us

"

rejoicedbecause
like," and

Buddha's

at the

now

death

of the monks

one

shall be able to do whatever

we

in consequence

Kassapa chose out at once


hundred
and
monks
to
arranged for them
spend
rainy season
together at Rajagaha and there recite
Buddha's
teaching and his regulationsfor the Order.1
this "Council"
and

which

large party

of the

would

made

have

condemned

were

held, it failed

was

at

after the Buddha's

monks
their

council

desired

of Buddhism,

sought
of the
as

the
1

to

and

combine

king, and

the
to

of

some

this

it
"

India
a

the

If

monk

had

found

wide

the

him

this Council

royal
knowledge

as

man

who

the wisdom

with

the

century
council,

of
a

the

ness
righteousGod."3

In

formation

given in the Chullavagga, XI. (S.B.E., XX.


of this
Council
story,as there is no mention
the corresponding narrative
of the Mahdparinibbdnasutla.
*
See Chullavagga,XII.
(S.B.E., XX.
386-414).
V. A. Smith, The Early History of India, p. 167.
account

Council

reveal

of the next

kingdom
theocracy without

scholars,to

370-85). Many scholars doubt


in

edicts

piety of

make

he conceived

opinion of
An

whose

the

rigorous. They

held at Vesali about

By the time
which
at Pataliputra, Buddhism
met
champion in Asoka who spread far and
"

the

concessions

ten

less

death.

five

prevent dissensions,

to

lives

we

is

"

the

132

"

MAHAYANA

v]
of the

Buddhist

India

influence

land of small

increased, but

states

Mongolian tribes and,


-Scythian or Kushan
empire
of

Indo

famous

of its rulers

the

accepts

in Kashmir

hara

of Sanskrit
the

form,
be

the

sanctioned

which

of

from

"

the

Mahayana,

distinction

modified

the

"

in

Buddhism

primitive

first

to the Canon

systematic
claimed

to

of salvation

in

which

Vehicle

the

at Jaland-

more

"

Most

Buddhism

council

the addition

Great

more

reigned in

Northern

embodying,

commentaries
views

established.

that he convened

tradition

vasion
by the inend, a powerful

checked

the

who

era.

our

death, North

Graeco-Bactrian

was

"

century of

second

or

in

Kaniska,

was

Asoka's

length

at

was

133

After

is due.

Canon

again became

BUDDHISM

Buddhism

which

it

"

called the

Lesser Vehicle."
It is impossible
Hinayana, the
to speak with
certainty of any of these Councils, but we
that by Kaniska's
assume
reign the Mahayana school
may
already existed, and had begun to find literaryexpression.
2.

Mahayana
As

the

Buddhism.

Buddhism

of China

and

is

Japan

Mahayanist,

is obviously one
of the most
ential
influMahayana Buddhism
it originatedis still uncertain.
phases of religion. How
Its earlyhistoryis only partially
investigated,whilst
those

of its texts

which

of views.

The

medley

transformed.

Instead

few

might
postponed,
a

reach
and

many

hell
from

ideal

of Buddhism

men

are

bidden

to suppose

confusing

of Buddhism

being

instead

to

is here

by which
is commonly

way

seek

to

become

engaged in the service of others.


like polytheism is thus introduced, and
are
realistically
portrayed. Different as
the Buddha's
teaching, it does not seem

Nirvana,
very

moral

present

Bodhisattva, and meanwhile, not to


out their own
salvation, but to put their trust
exalted Bodhisattvas
who, instead of entering

to work

in the

available

Nirvana, the goal of Nirvana

future-Buddha,

try

are

are

that

any

alien influence has been

Something
heaven

and

all this

is

necessary
work.
at
The

BUDDHISM

134

Buddha's

Hinduism, such

taken
in the

for
apparatus necessary
surprisingthat, in the environment

it is not

and
religion,
of

lacked

teaching

the

of Buddhism

modification

should

does it representa violent break.

place. Nor
Hinayana

there

had
than

of his followers

have

Already

in its direction.

tendencies

are

Buddha

It is clear that the


devotion

[v

far

greaterplace in the
dying words
enjoined.
are
assigned to him ;

his

quite early texts, great miracles


to do him
at his death, all the gods assembled
honour, and
his remains
those
of
treat
his disciplestreated
as
men
Buddha
tells Ananda of the earthquakes
a king of kings."1 The
mark
the birth of a Buddha, and speaks of
which
In

"

as

mother's

womb."2

"

Docetic"

gods

and

his

of the

one

form

temporary

heresies

his

into

condemned

Council, assignedto Asoka's

heresy
have

"

that

of men,

lived in the world


men

from

And

Third

at the so-called

the

"

descent

his birth

seen

phantom of
early Buddhism,
could

heavens
him."3

then that, in
appear
which
doctrines about the Buddha
would

has

in the Tusita

dwelt

he

only

Sakyamuni

reign,is
not
really

there

well lead up

It
were

to the

of the Mahayana
texts.
grandiose Buddhology of some
doctrine of Bodhisattvas
the Mahayana
Nor was
an
abrupt
in
for
the
Jdtaka, which
departure. It was amply prepared
folk-lore to describe the previous existences
utilises Hindu

earth,

on

as

Bodhisattva,4

charity which had marked


doctrines
The
Mahayana
concise description. It must
"

The

of the
In

"

systems, the

of the

Lotus
"

the

Paradise
Lotus

Good

"

of

full

the Good

Mahaparinnibanasutta,V.

Poussin, Bouddhisme, p. 259.

Literally,

suffice to

extols

of such

Mahayana
and

the

admit

to

indicate

the
a

text

of
two
as

simpler Mahayana

whose

essence

Law,5 the

26.

is

great textbook

Op. cit.,III.

Saddharma-Pundarika,

translated

of

15.

becoming enlightenment," i.e. " future, or

Buddha.
potential,
6

and

Scriptures.

he

Buddha,
diverse

too

are

Law,"

"

"

the

his acts.

the

chief

of

by

Kern

(S.B.E., XXL),

MAHAYANA

v]

BUDDHISM

135

climax.
its
reaches
Buddhology
In such a
text
as
Asvaghosa's Buddhacharita,1
is depicted as a god in human
form,
although the Buddha
the story of his temptation and enlightenment is retained,
is as exalted
but, in the Lotus of the Good Law, the Buddha
of the Bhagavadgltd. Thus, in an
a
being as the Krishna

orthodox

Mahayana,
Mahayana

the

"

addressed

utterance

declares

Lord

the

to

reached

he

that

infinite

number

of ages

ago,

to

creatures

in

infinite

number

live
final

extinction, he

Nirvana

earth

on

device, and
the

does

only
"

he concludes

Self-born, the

of

the

am

Healer, the

enlightenment
preached the law

worlds,

semblance,

Bodhisattvas,"

he

and

although he announces
finallyextinct.

become

not

was

has

and

of years,

infinite number

an

supreme

and

an

an

.host of

entire

Father

Protector

will

His

educative

an

of the

world,

of all creatures.

perverted, infatuated, and ignorant,


What
I teach
final rest ; myself not being at rest.
reason
I have
should
continually to manifest
myself ? When
become
men
unbelieving ; unwise, ignorant, careless,fond
into
of sensual
pleasures,and, from thoughtlessness,run
them

Knowing

then

misfortune,
declare

them

to

of the
"

the

to

am

so

be

I,
and

so,

enlightenment

Buddha-laws

Lord

of

chief

know

who

"2

and

the
consider

How

can

The

of

course
:

they

How

become

then

the

greatest

is,in
of

world,

I incline

can

Buddha

Lords,"

the

partakers
this

book,

the

gods,
in this school taught that
but, as the philosophy dominant
the
ultimate
reality was
vacuity,"3 the praise of the
Buddha
is so
expressed that "it is still capable," as
of an orthodox, i.e.Atheist interpretation.''4
Poussin
says,
Yet
for the purposes
of religionhe is the Supreme God,
of the Bhagavadgitd is,although identified
just as the Krishna
"

"

with
"

the attributeless

Translated

in

absolute

of the Vedanta.

S.B.E., XLIX.

Chap. XV. (S.B.E., XXI. pp. 298-310).


The
brief statement
of its doctrines
school.
For
a
see
Madhyamaka
(S.B.E., XLIX.
"larger" and "smaller"
Prajnd-paramitd-hridaya-sfttras
*

pp. 145-154).

Its best known

exponent

was

Nagarjuna.

"

E.R.E., VIII.

the

II.
145.

BUDDHHIM

136

Of the

Bodhisattvas

many

impossible to speak.

In

[v
mentioned

view

of her

in the

it is

book,

later

importance, it
is of interest to read of the goddess Tara, who
changed her
An epilogue to the book
Bodhisattva.1
to become
a
sex
the growing reliance on
of magic, and
illustrates the use
Thus
have
the grace of the Bodhisattvas.
we
a
long list
of spellsprovided for the protection of the preachers of
the law againstgoblin,giant,ghost,devil,imp, or sorcerer.2
Another
chapter is devoted to the praiseof Avalokitesvara,
from
whose
can
save
name
peril. No executioner
every
monster
or
hurt, any
can
slay,no fetter hold, no demon
To cherish his name
is to acquire
his name.
who
call upon
merit
as
by the adoration of myriads
a
great as that won
This
universal Lord, chief of kings,"
of Lords Buddhas.
"

will himself

become

for hundreds

of ages, he
the law, he

To
"

preach
With

would

that

save

as

he
the

can

but

Buddha,
is

not

engaged

assumes

inconceivable

such

endowed,"

in

yet

; for

now,

the

help

of

different

many

the

qualitiesis

Buddha,

the

to

appear

as

or

men.

forms.

Bodhisattva
that

creatures

god

goblin.

or

as

he
He

perfection of all virtues, and beholds


ocean
compassion, and benevolence
; he, an
itself,he, Avalokitesvara, is worthy
virtues, Virtue
"

possesses
beings with

the

all
of
of

adoration."3
With

this

belief in
order

exalted

Bodhisattvas, delaying

to

that

their
they might continue
natural
service
to others, there came
a
change in ethical
the virtue
ideal.
chieflyprized, and by
Charity is now
charityis meant, not the cold pity of an illumined aristocrat
is
for the folly of the ignorant, but a fervid love which
accumulated
in long years
that the merit
of
willingeven
if so another
be consumed
should
be helped.4
virtue
may
enter

Nirvana

in

Chap. XI. (S.B.E.,XXI. p. 253).


Chap. XXI. (op.cit.,pp. 370-5).
*
who
of the monk
case
Cp. the famous
of chastityfor 42,000 years
faithful to a vow
the desire of a licentious woman,
though, by
"

earned

hell (Poussin, op. cit.,


p. 338).

Chap. XXIV.

"

had
and
so

(op.cit.,pp. 406-18).

accumulated

yet,

out

doing, he

of

by being
charity,yielded to
merit

forfeited

his merit

arid

MAHAYANA

v]
This

ideal has
of

who

Indian

lived

seeker

of

Nirvana

in

found

seventh

Bodhisattva,

himself

in

the

our

monk

the

of the loveliest
of Santideva,

intent

the

grace

the

Here

era.

present life,but

seeks to imitate

who

of

century

is not

salvation
for

expression in one
Bodhicharyavatdra

classic

books, the
the

137

BUDDHISM

winning

on

the

of the

human

celestial

yield myself to all livingbeings to deal


with me
as
they list ; they may smite or revile me for ever,
with
bestrew
me
dust, play with my
body, why shall I
works
make
do whatever
? Let them
me
bring them
care
never
by
mishap befall any of them
pleasure ; but may
of me."
reason
May all who slander me, or do me hurt,
There is
or
jeer at me, gain a share in Enlightenment."1
no
equal to longguilt equal to hatred, no mortification
should
one
diligentlypractise
suffering; and therefore
the arrow
While
of hate is in the
patience in divers ways.
have
in equipoise,or feel
can
a peacefulmind
heart, none
win
And
the joy of kindliness,none
can
sleep or calm."2
since
there
is no
work
of mortification
equal to longis like a treasure
in my
found
house,
suffering," an enemy
without
I must
labour
of mine.
cherish him, for he
won
So by
is a helper in the way
to Enlightenment."3
our
those
of
service
must
doers
to
creatures," we
repay
bodies and
immeasurable
tear their own
kindness," who
into the hell Avlchi, all for the welfare of others
;
go down
then
do
who
most
to them
must
us
we
even
sorely wrong
the book
with the
of good."4 And
concludes
all manner
so
As long as the heaven's
and the earth abide, may
prayer,
I continue
the world's sorrows.
to overcome
May all the
and
be
the world
world's sufferingbe cast upon
me,
may
made
happy by all the merits of the Bodhisattva."5
A simpler type of Mahayana
is found
in the Paradise
Scriptures. Here
philosophic theories are ignored. It
"

Bodhisattvas.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Barnett's

L. D.

Op.
Op. cit.,p. 71.

"

cit.,p. 59.

partialtranslation,The
s
*

Path

of Light, p.

cit.,p. 69.
Op. cit,,p. 28,
op.

45.

138

BUDDHISM

bhakti

is the

school

[v

of Buddhism

and

the

worshipper

does

He thinks of the Buddhas


a Buddha.
aspireto become
as
gods and prays to them, hoping thus to be born at death
in their world.
is the
Most
praised of all the Buddhas
Buddha
of infinite splendour (Amitabha), of infinite light
land of
(Amitayus),who reigns in Sukhavati, a Western
tation
happiness and glory. One whole book deals with medithose who
him, and we are told that
practise
upon
this meditation
will,when
they die,be born in the presence
of the Buddhas."1
This
is praised in
Western
Paradise
small scripturedevoted
in a larger and
a
glowing words
to its description2and the promise is given that whosoever
not

"

"

shall
that

make

mental

blessed

again,"

Amitayus,
"

but

will be

if in this school
it is

prayer

of the

the

born

for

the

Buddha

Tathagatha
in that

Mahayana,

will

Buddha

country

of

return

never

land."3

So,
offered,

humbler

goal is
shorter path, in

goal which may be reached by a


one,
instead of in myriads of lives.
Not unnaturally the representatives
of the more
primitive
Buddhism
complained of the novelty of the teachings of
the Mahayana schools, but the Mahay anists asserted that
revealed
it was
the perfect teaching of the Buddha
now
to
men
they
through the grace of Bodhisattvas, and
the earlier system as the Hinayana, the little
characterised
could only carry a
vehicle which
a
Vehicle, because it was
theirs was
the
few along the way
to redemption, whilst
great Vehicle which put redemption within the reach of all.
a

There
the

is yet

third

Vehicle, the Tantric, which

represents

paganism. Magic was nothing new


Lotus
in India, and
even
of the Good Law is not free
from it,but, as the Chinese pilgrimsof the seventh
century
Tantric
took back
books, the full development of the
no
Tantric
probably subsequent to that date.
system was
of

triumph

Meditation

The

S.B.E., XLIX.

Buddhism,

gross
the

II. p. 181).
Amitayus, 19 (S.B.E.,XLIX.
II. pp.
Sukhavati-vyuha (8.B.E., XLIX.
of
is
Amida
modern
Amitabha
II. p. 101, 2.
the

Buddha

on

Longer

and

Shorter

1-103).

Japanese

MAHAYANA

v]

In

its

By

Most

hum.

Thus

became

divine,

is

spells
a

the

the

religion,

Jewel

be

may

-lotus

spell,
the

ignored

and,

in

as
"

had

inent.
prom-

gods

which

deities

female

of

worship

of

polytheism,

theurgic

the

Hinduism,
and

of

naturally

are

powers

all

powerful

padme

mani

om

the

formulae,

magic

139

goddesses

pantheon,

numerous

utilised.

BUDDHISM

Tantric

left

"

hand

form

obscene

Of
We

as

late

extended
too

weak

its

birth

as

the

eleventh

their
to

Buddhism

kings

Buddhist

of

hear

of

centuries

last

the

withstand

S.

but

persecution,

Lane-Poole,

the

there,

the

extinct.

Mediaeval

India-,

the

by

in

p.

22.

little.

lower

too,
was

and

know

we

on

Buddhism

practically

India

Magadha

century1

conquests.

became

at

in

Ganges
Muslims
this

country

time

of

VI."

BUDDHISM

BURMA,

CEYLON,

IN

AND

SIAM,

TIBET.

Buddhism

1.

THE

earliest

records

of Buddhism

to

Asoka.

King
251

him,

the

Order,

the

Bo-tree,

The

tree

world

placed

was

city,
the

which

and

Order.

and

to

of

and

place
1

A.D.,

Asoka

The

the

Dlpavamsa

but

based

mentions

on

and

Ceylon

reveal

the

far
among

reserved
to

with

Mahavamsa,
earlier
the

the

this

in

the

composed
now

to

which

the

had

of
the

city
have

images,

the

quiet

4th

the

of

must

lost.
he

of

extent

Buddhist
in

which

ruined

grotesque

temple,

Mahavamsa,,
countries

dwelt.

use

Buddhism

Hindu

worship

the

to

go

hill,

ruins
the

for

of

the

in

The

in

centre

have

to

it

tree

is

by,

Buddha.

influential

great

simple

the

the

impossible

familiar

one

movement

is

how

realising

been,
the

It

where

Anuradhapura,

at

gardens

ment.
enlighten-

the

believed

nun,

famous

the

venerable

Near

partly excavated,

now

monasteries

without

of

collar-bone

of

became

is

erected

learned

received

and

island.

Mahinda
was

are

Buddhist

the

in

desired

Anuradhapura,

Anuradhapura

where

dagaba

great

in

interesting

most

activity

Mihintale,

had

son,

Buddhist

women

branch

Buddha

planted

to-day.

Buddhist

her

his

there

her

in

embassy

sent

Sanghamitta,

with

the

was

the

stands,

the

which

under

of

Ceylon
an

Asoka

many

sister

brought

and

him,

and

his

sent

preach

to

missionary,

of

king

and

Ceylon

to

introduction

great

greatness,

friendship,

princess

of the

became

Asoka's

Mahinda,

enter

still

who

his

As

joined

Tissa,

desiring

doctrine.
to

to

the

assign

work

the

Ceylon

of

monk

extant1

now

hearing

B.C.,

to

Ceylon.

in

of

and
the

shrine

and

One
sent

of

5th

centuries

the

edicts

missionaries.

of

of

vi]

IN

BUDDHISM

the

kindly,placid,images

attractive.

Later,

of the

Buddha,

of the

tooth

141

CEYLON

unforgettably

are

Buddha

sent

was

the

to

splendid building,where it remained


until it was
transferred in the eighth century to Pollunarua,
which
had
the capital of the island.
by then become
Later
it was
where
sent
to Kandy,
a
spurious tooth is
venerated
to-day, the originaltooth having been destroyed
of the Portuguese.
by the vandalism
city and

The
and

received

Buddhist

traditions

which

of

them

the

was

famous

in the fifth century, wrote

Magga,

Purity, to

been

made.

learned

resemble
"

Order

The

of its members

Many
are

to

seen,

and

has

already
it was.1

indolent, but

Their

scholars.

Visuddhi-

than

numerous

ignorant

scholar,

the

reference

which

is less

are

Buddhist

have

we

preservation of the Pali


knowledge of originalBuddhism

Buddhaghosa, who,
the Path

island,

the

owe

we
our

Greatest

As

books.

of the sacred

of the

teachers

the

were

that

care

on

based.

monks

the custodians

it is to their

is

in

some

ordination

rites

the

primitive rites already described,2 and


differs little from what
system, as taught now,

moral

find in the
of Buddhism
ancient

books.

sacred

this

at

The

aim, indeed, of
is to

moment

teach

books

the

the
we

leaders

exactly as
helped by

the

the
taught."3 In this,they are
new
knowledge gained of early Buddhism
by the researches
of Western
scholars
and, partly, through the influence
of some
have
become
Buddhist
Europeans who
monks,
is now
endeavour
to
some
being made
adapt Buddhist
methods
Tamil -speaking people,
to modern
needs.
The
who
for
are
chieflyin the north of the island, preserve,
the

part, the Hinduism

most

Ceylon
and
1

from

among
The

India
them

Census

7,331 (Hackmann,
*

"

R.

p. 242.

full account

S.

; the

of their ancestors

Sinhalese

are

showed
9,598 monks.
cit.,
p. 118).

of the

ordination

Copleston,Buddhism,

service

Primitive

Ten
is

and

invaded

generally Buddhists,

is stillthe dominant

Buddhism

of 1891
op.

who

years

intellectual

later the

given in W.B.T.,

pp.

Present, in Magadha

number

was

393-401.
and

Ceylon,

BUDDHISM

142

force.

But

which

it is

has

dancers

are

to

devil

ward

trained

are

with

with

compromised
employed to

themselves
books

Buddhism

[vi

difference,a Buddhism

off disasters

use

passages

that

Buddhism

devil

that

worship, so
and

from

the

monks

the

sacred

charms.

as

2. Buddhism

in Burma.

Burmese

tradition
Burma

in

holds

who

by Buddhaghosa

lished
first estab-

was

there

came

from

show
Recent
excavations
Ceylon in the fifth century A.D.
that Mahay ana
Buddhism
in Burma,1 and
found
was
once
it is probable that, long before
Buddhaghosa's time,
Asoka's

missionaries

that

Burmese

that

later

had

Buddhism

dates

from

the

be

well

It may

there.

travelled

of

Asoka,
influential there,
time

became
Mahayana Buddhism
revival of
and that, in Buddhaghosa's time,2 there was
a
Hinayana influences so that Mahayana Buddhism
began
until at last it became
to wane
practicallyextinct.3
fluentia
inand
Nowhere
attractive
so
to-day is Buddhism
in Burma.

as

Its monasteries

are

In

numerous.

and often of his


largerhalls are images of the Buddha
chief disciples,
also
two
whilst sometimes
there are statues
of the three Buddhas
spicuous
Especially conprevious to him.
the
are
dagabas, here called pagodas. At the
ancient capitalof Pagan, now
9,999 of
ruined, there were
these.
To-day the most famous
pagoda is the Shwedagon
of Rangoon
under
hairs of
which, it is asserted, some

their

Gotama

buried, and

are

Buddhas.

It is
old

regildan

to

The

the

them
1
*

work

pagoda

have

children

of

The

relics of the three

some

greatest merit
to erect

or

made

education

learn

See E.R.E., III. p. 38. 39.


The
Ceylon chronicles make

Further
3

monks

also

simple
mention

no

rich

man

new.

their

poems

of

for

earlier

care,

dealing

Buddhaghosa

and

from

with

himself

the

going

to

India.
so-called Shan

Mahayana.

tribes have

Buddhism

which

seems

to

owe

much

to the

BUDDHISM

vi]
Buddhist

life,and

of

way

IN

those

even

143

BURMA

do

who

intend

not

to

only

of

of three' rainy seasons,


days' duration, sometimes
Full entrance
thus win merit.
that they may
a monastery
into
the
life is possible only after the
monastic
age
monk
the
title
the
After
ten
gains
twenty.
years,

at

the

enter
a

life

monastic

spend

sometimes

period,

few

and

pongyi

head

of

Government.
and

to

Great
much

the

as

festivals

met.

the

have

rise of
return

here,

respect with

the

the
the

luxury
which

party

culture.

which

Buddhism

people

held,

is

centres

around

clear that
the
pagodas, it seems
in popular religion is the worship
effective element
most
inactive.
is patient and
of the
The
Buddha
The
nats.
nats
are
everywhere and full of energy, and so the Burman
devotes

held

to

life of the

social

the

primitive poverty.
Ceylon, led to a
a
purified
adapt

in

of Western

undue

reform

by
by

revered

The

to

as

seeks

demands

is the

as

amply

which

movement

Buddhism

are

office

his

much

monks

of

nominated

Superior, now
in

At

chosen.

be

confirmed

should

influences

modern

the

monks

the

Grand

are

about

abbots

can

and
The

brought

that

European

and

is

needs

their

has

some

desires

Order

higher abbots,

British

people

alone

these

of the whole
the

by

from

of

much

at

the

attention

to

their appeasement.

Each

house

to cut down
village. It is not wise even
without
a tall tree
propitiating the nat who controls it,and
the
people are careful, by offerings or by devil dancing,
with
the
to keep on
and
to avert
their
nats
good terms

has

its nat, and

malice

himself
animism
the

as

times

at
as

has

Buddhist

learned

of

been

absorbed

priests act
only

purer

Yet

epidemics.
Buddhist, not

of them

suitable

spiritsa

each

as

Burman

regards
devil
The
a
worshipper.
into
and
at times
Buddhism,
exorcists, although the more

condemn

this

for the

ignorant

Buddhism

the

would

nat

worship,

whose
be

fear

unable

to

condone

or

of

it

malignant

remove.

BUDDHISM

144

in Siam

3. Buddhism

and

Siam

by

the

in

the

culture

have

of North

seventh

Cambodia.

and

Cambodia

[vi

It would

India.

century

influenced

been

earlytimes

from

that

appear

only

Buddhism

introduced, and,
losinginfluence in India,

was

was
although by then Buddhism
here
it superseded Brahmanism.
The
Buddhism
was
tury,
apparently of a Mahayana type, but in the fifteenth cenfrom Ceylon, the
through the influence of Buddhists
Buddhism
became
Hinayanist, and the kingdom of Siam,

which

formed

was

stronghold of

century, has become

in the fourteenth

type of Buddhism.

this

The

number

the

and

pagodas, and the great influence of the


monks, witness to the popularity of Buddhism, but in Siam,
has reached
in Burma, Buddhism
a working compromise
as
with
the animism
of the people. In one
respect only is
the Buddhism
of these countries
distinctive.
They have
in
Church
their own
kings who are heads of the Buddhist
in Siam
their realms.
Thus
the chief
the king nominates
to have
of the royal household
monk, and appoints one
oversightof the conduct of the monks, and provides amply
he visits the more
for their needs.
Once
a year
important
monasteries
at Bangkok
to renew
his vows
Buddhist
a
as
The interest
layman and to make presents to the monks.
of Siamese
in recent
has been shown
kings in Buddhism
by their generous expenditure on the publication of
years

richness

of the

Pali texts

and

the

introduced

was

century through
a

Buddhist

of whom
wives
consort

the

under

its

king Srong
China,

Nepalese

as

the

; the

green

Tsan

other

as

from

wife

the

seventh

who

became

chief wives,

Nepal.

incarnations

Chinese
Tara.

in

Gampo

of his two

the

to-day worshipped

of Avalokita

Tibet

into

the influence

from

came
are

research.

in Tibet.

4. Buddhism
Buddhism

of Buddhist

encouragement

as

Buddhism

one

These

of Tara, the

the white
made

Tara,
little

BUDDHISM

vi]

next

India

the

the

when

century,

145

worship of the people until the


from
then reigningking obtained
teacher

Buddhist

great

TIBET

devil

against the

headway

IN

Padma-Sambhava,

who,

spellsfrom the Mahayana texts, is believed to


of Tibet, sparing only
have
vanquished the chief demons
defenders
of Buddhism
those who
on
promised to become
still fed and worshipped. In this
condition
that they were
and Tibetan
Buddhism
that amalgam
of Tantric
way arose
Lama
called Lamaism,
is commonly
demonology which
monks.
In
being the name
given to the higher Tibetan
its power
the thirteenth
greatlyextended
century Lamaism
Mongol
through the influence of Kublai Khan, the famous
Tibet was
of China, to which
then subject,who
emperor
decided
that Lamaism
the religionbest adapted for
was
the less civilised people of his empire.
The
established
Church
of Tibet to-day owes
its origin
to a reformation
of religionbegun by Atisa, a Bengali
by

of

means

Brahman,

later

centuries

"

called

was

Lama,
that

its

is

century,

the

virtuous
its

in

divine

this into

four

Tibet,
the

emperor

incarnation,

and

the

the

present theory that the


of Avalokita, the Bodhisattva

reincarnation

Chinese

consolidated

sect
Tsong Kapa's new
order," Gelugpa. Its first grand
founder, propounded tlje theory

was

elaborated
a

and

by Tsong Kapa.

worshipped

most

the

eleventh

nephew of
grand Lama

fifth Lama
Lama

the

in

and

obtained

in

title of Dalai

from

1650

A.D.

Lama,

by

which

his successors.1
Lamaism
Europeans generally name
extends
golia,
to-day far beyond Tibet, and the Lamaists of MonManchuria
and the part of China
adjacent to Tibet
several
number
million,whilst in Nepal, where Buddhism
is gradually giving way
the Buddhists
before Hinduism,
are
chieflyLamaists.
The

Lamaist
At

gem

Dalai
oi

ocean,

order

in

its head
i.e. "

majesty" (see

vast

are

as

the

Tibet
Lamas
ocean."

L. A. Waddell, Buddhism

is very

in whom
Tibetans

and

numerous

speak

Bodhisattva

rather

of Tibet,p. 39).

fluentia
in-

of

"

the great

BUDDHISM

146

is

Greatest

incarnate.

death

of

born

the

near

chosen

the

monkish

and

four

time

the

There

worship.

of

hisattvas,

spirits

chiefly

Indian

demons

gods

papier

"

as

kinds

various

are

part

of

as

extensively

"

are

over

Waddell,

addition

op.

fierce

the

fiend.

and

tutelary
witches;
and

of

made

ordinary
him

monastery
forms

demons

kept

are
"

of

Charms

worship

plays

8.

Bod-

depicting

Every

the

to

country

to

dancers

cit., 327,

and

images

miracle

Padma-Sambhava

does

usually

Devil
devil

and

religion,

human

genii

employed.

sorcerer.

important
of

but

he

Manjushri

are

are

state,

demons

Faith

the

and

in

there

god

angry

patronises

or

Especially
victory

an

Buddha,

image,

and

Statues

assumes

in

important

of

godlings

gods.1

the

of

type

only

large

Of

mache.

saint

keeps

gods,

personal

defenders

four,

and

gods

most

infant

eighteen.

Maitreya,

the

are

Brahmanical

local

not

wife,

is

Bod-

The

although

celestial

Avalokita,

Avalokita's

Tara,

"

whom

he

of

Buddhas,

are

the

enthroned

the
child

held

is

of

monk,

till

power

from

age

is

full

abundance

an

the

at

and
a

it

At

incarnate.

and,

made

temporal

has

become

tonsure

is

whom

in

Lama.

chosen

is

death

Llasa

and

Dalai

the

is

successor

again

to

later

years

Lamaism

his

has

garb

these

of

is taken

receive

not

Lama

Avalokita

hisattva
thus

Dalai

of

|vi

which

in
is

busy.
the

depicted.

IV

RELIGIONS

THE

THE

A."

I.
IT

is

THE

"

for

misleading,

lacks

Canon,
alien

indeed

to

For

our

generally

used

Thus
the

called

religions

exclusive

palaces

And

word

Confucius
of

three

and

the

religion.

He

Chinese

has

the

the

as

Taoist

its

to-day

of

first

the

now

meaning

They

are

not

and

are

not

who

and

words

Buddhism

religion,

temples,

has

other,

and

thought,

state

stable

two

the

Emperor,

ancient

himself

avail

of

schools
So

the

customs,

religion,

or

language

Of

(san-kiao).

Buddhist

of

the

vast

receptive

too

religion

teachings

of

phases

is

ligions,
re-

trines,
doc-

has

it

and

distinct

and

separate

authoritative

Taoism

Maximus

will

religious complex.

one

expression.

distinct.

or

Chinaman
all three

but

in

Confucianism,

three

is

phrase

three

although

rites

"

China

has

religion,

the

but

"

thought,
a

as

translate

to

teaching."

Pontifex

word

(li)denotes

one

three

persist

corresponding

no

employed,

are

of

of China

Religions

Taoism

Buddhism,

definiteness

ideas

Church.

elements
nor

Chinese

and

Three

in

CHINA

OF

Buddhism

not

three

Confucianism

Neither

"

have

we

rather

but

of the
and

Taoism

CHINA

OF

RELIGION

speak

to

customary

Confucianism,

of

RELIGION

ANCIENT

JAPAN

AND

CHINA

OF

the

help

the

was

had

in

his

ordinary
offered

by

religion.
Confucianism
in

no

claimed

may

ranks

sense

to

be
147

"a

itself
among
transmitter

be
the

stood.
misunderfounders
and

not

RELIGION

THE

148

believing in and loving the ancients/'1


lay not chieflyin religionbut in correct

maker,
interest

and

statecraft.

The

Sources

The

ancient

his

and

conduct

Knowledge,

of our

books

of China

are

regarded

although they
The

[i

CHINA

OF

oldest of them

the

are

not

are

with

primarily religious,
religious veneration.
known

Classics

Five

the

as

Five

"

the warp-threads of a web


King denotes
is
what
to denote
and their adjustment," and so came
and thus the Five
King
regular and insures regularity,"2

King.

word

The

"

books.

the five canonical

are

The

Five

King

(1) The
This

are

as

follows

King, the
history in the

Shu

is not

Book

of

modern

Historical
sense,

but

Documents.
memoranda

of
to various
or
early emperors,
speeches, attributed
Its materials
them
and their ministers.
dialogues between
believed to belong to the period 2000-700
B.C.
are
(2) The Shi King, the Book of Odes, a collection of 305
character.
of which are of a religious
ballads and songs, some
Five of these
ancient, the rest may
are
perhaps be
very
century
assigned to the period from the twelfth-seventh
of

B.C.3

(3) The
curious

Yi

King,

collection

the Book

of

of Changes or Permutations, a
diagrams used for divination, with

commentary.

(4) The

Li

Ki, the Book

present form this book


second
century A.D., but

dating from
(5) The

of
1

before

Spring
Lu

from

In
of Rites and Ceremonies.
apparently dates only from
it contains

the time
and

the

earlier material,

of Confucius.

Autumn

722-480

much

its

or
B.C.

the Annals
This

Ana., VII. 1. (G.C.,I. II. p. 59).


der Chinesen,
W. Grube, Religionund Kvltus

book

pality
of the Princiis assigned to

I.
Legge, op. cit.,

p. 17.

p. 1.

i]
Confucius.
is

the

Primitive

Scholars

still

back

"

an

of every

to

China.

account

the

past

of
the

divided
De

Groot, who

thus

fillthe

of

nature

given the
present-day religionin China,

universe

has

present, and
based
the first,

of the

animism

the

spiritswhich

the

to

as

religionof China was,


implicitbelief in the animation
exists
being or thing which

that

holds

sharply

religionof

exhaustive

traces

on

Religion.

are

the ancient
most

of events

possiblethat the brief narrative


by a disciple.
commentary

It is

his,and

The

149

RELIGION

ANCIENT

THE

from

of the universe
in it."

And

and

as

the

both

good and bad,


the system is thoroughly polytheisticand
polydsemonin that it explains the
istic."1
His theory is attractive
complex phenomena of Chinese religionby one
unifying
clear that
the
dualistic
belief,but it does not
seem
are

"

of the

animism

Dr.

present is

the

Legge,

translator

that

to be found

of the

in

Chinese

our

earliest

sources.

Classics,held,

on

the

not
primitivereligionof China was
animism
but monotheism,2
although he recognised that,
side by side with the worship of the Supreme Being, there
also the worship of inferior spirits. As these spirits
was
have a real,if subordinate, importance, it seems
probable,
Grube
Professor
as
suggested, that the ancient religionof
much
not
China
a
was
so
as
a
primitive monotheism
received special
primitivenature -worship,in which Heaven
of all the powers
exalted
of nature.
worship as the most
describe
the
Accepting tentatively this theory, we
may
ancient
religionof China under the four heads : Nature
Worship, the Worship of Ancestors, the Cultus, and the
of Superstition.3
Elements

the

"

contrary,

Religionof the Chinese, pp. 3. and 5.


Giles, Confucianism and its Rivals (p. 264), speaks
Unitarian
worship of four thousand years ago."

The

So

old
"

Professor

Grube,

op.

cit.,pp.

19-54.

of

China's

THE

150

CHINA

OF

[i

Worship.

1. Nature

In

RELIGION

of the

one

Documents

earliest

Book

parts of the

of

Historical

"

sacrificed
Emperor Shun
ficed
specially,but with the ordinary forms, to Shang-ti ; sacriwith
reverent
Ones ;
purity to the Six Honoured
offered their appropriate sacrifices to the hills and rivers,
his worship to the host of spirits."1 The
and
extended
thousand
two
passage is of importance as it shows that, over
before

years

read

we

our

to

which

Worship
translates
the

was

and

was

the

simply by God, for


corresponding to our

word

the addition

with

same,

the

forces

of

made.

were

word

'

Shang-ti. Legge
he
'

held

God,'
of

'

"

that

Ti

that

and

Shang,' equal

'

Another
"

for the

word

this vague

term

is Heaven,
Supreme Power
is constantly interchanged

paragraph, not to say the same


Ti and Shang-ti."2
personal names
do

words

two

denote

not

Tien,
the

in

sentence, with

same

the

of the

some

offered in the first place to

was

part of

essential

an

also indicates

sacrifices

Shang-ti was the


to
Supreme.'
and

the

sacrifice

era,

imperial worship,
nature

that

It would

that

appear

separate Gods,

the

but

that

personal designation of Heaven


(Tien).3
If Dr. Grube's
theory be correct, Tien, Heaven, or Shang-ti
is primarily worshipped as the supreme
object of nature.
in the Vedic
Like Varuna
sends down
hymns, Heaven
and
calamities
the wicked
and
is
all-intelligent
on
Heaven
observing."4 "It is virtue that moves
; there is
it does not reach.
Pride brings loss
distance to which
no
5
and humility receives increase : this is the way of Heaven.
Shang-ti is

more

"

"

"

' '

Shu-King, II. 1. 3. It is
quotes a Chinese commentator,
1

heat, the sun,

and

Op. cit.,pp.

Shang-ti is

word

the

is the

more

God

the

the

in the

term

Shu

"

Op. cit.,II.

2. 3.

"

the Six Honoured

stars and

drought

Ones

"

Legge

are.

"

suggested that
"

the seasons,
they were
III.
(S.B.E.,
p. 39).

cold

xxiv.
to
generallyused by Protestant missionaries
although Dr. Giles now
sense,
suggests

Christian

appropriateword
King, IV. 4. 2, and

clear who
who

the

moon,

xxiii and

not

(p. 52).

(op. cit.,
pp. 12 and 265).
IV. 8. 1 (S.B.E., III. pp. 93 and

115).

translate
that

Tien

The

Emperor

such

Shang,

is the

"

that

claims
"

mandatory
justly. And

rule

must

RELIGION

ANCIENT

THE

i]

Great

151

of Heaven
the

earth, and

on

of

dethroner

Heaven

tyrant,

filled with

was

as

"

indignation
Shang

tyrant'scruelty. The iniquity of


is full. Heaven
If I did not
to fulfil it.
gives command
Heaven
obey Heaven
iniquity would be as great."
my
the
people desire,
compassionates the people. What
Heaven
is creator
will be found
Heaven
to give effect to."1
of men
and so they love virtue.
the

at

"

"

To

giving birth to the multitudes


faculty and relationshipannexed

every

The

people possess this normal


they [consequently] love

And

In

in

Heaven,

which

also

of the

people

its law.

nature,
virtue."2

its normal

from

the

Book

of Odes,
Shang-ti is spoken of in anthropomorphic language. In
the first of these Shang-ti is described
as
sation
holding a converwith a king,3 and in the second
there is a
passage
curious narration
of the miraculous
conception of a mythio
two

passages,

Hou

emperor,

Chi,

His
"

That
She

had

her

are

revered

now

Father

bandry.
of Hus-

mother

presented

trod

on

offering and

pure

childlessness

then

the

as

be

might
toe-print made

taken

by

sacrificed,

away.
God
and
(Shang-ti),

was

moved,
In

the

large place

She

became

She

gave

Who

was

Next
with

where

pregnant
birth

in

him,

first to have

she

to, and

Hou

she

dwelt

nourished

retired

to

Heaven,

Earth, Hou-tu.
been
was

The

and

so

little

that

its

Hou-Chi, Legge

writes

developed

Op. cit.,V.

Shi King, IH. 3. 6. (C.C., IV. II. p. 541).


Shi King, III. 1. 7. (op. cit.,pp. 452-4).

1. 1.

Op. cit.,III.

word

seems

at

pomorphism
masculine, and it is probable that anthro-

closely associated

Chinese

*
"

[a son],

Chi."4

importance
is

rested.

sex

was

(pp. 126, 127).

2. 1

(p. 465).

For

How-tseih.

not

THE

152

j1 Heaven

considered
of all
as

As

have

we

to the

and

hills and

"

parent
regularlythought of

is

as

Mother-Earth.

as

sacrifices and

also offered

were

prayers

four mountains

these

rivers,and of

[i

described

are

later Earth

worshipped

seen,

CHINA

OF

Earth

and

creatures,"2 and

goddess

RELIGION

and

four

The
four quarters of the
especiallysacred.
sky, the five elements, and a great variety of tutelary
two
oldest books, the
also worshipped. The
spiritswere
Shu
King and the Shi King, apparently do not refer to the
worship of the stars, but in the Book of Rites, the Li-Ki,
this is already prominent and
probably dates from the
rivers

were

earliest times.

The

2.

Worship of Ancestors.

It would

that

appear
in the

Thus

Book

of sacrifices offered
of the

dead,3

to

but

the

of

worship

Odes

the

we

of ancestors

have

in this

detailed

before

ancestors

book,

is

the

accounts
tatives
represen-

in the Shu

and

tive.
primi-

King,

worship described is usually that of ancestors


In the Book
of the Imperial House.
of Rites, the Li-Ki,
to the worship by private persons
reference is made
of their
The ancestral worship is obviously closely
ancestors.
own
with the patriarchaland conservative
of
nature
connected
Chinese
society. The Emperor was regarded as the father
of his people and his ancestors
worshipped, and the son
the ancestral

must

too

reverence

Thus
been

esteemed

3. The

The
been
the
1

both
as

in

his

father

own

private and

and

render

him

ence.
obedi-

public life filialpiety has

the first of all virtues.

Cultus.
sacrificial

system

simple. Sacrifices to
air, whilst those
open

Grube,

op.

early period to have


Heaven
were
naturally made in
to tutelary house
spiritswere

cit.,
pp. 34, 35.
e.g. Shi King, II. 6.
3

in this

seems

Shu

King, V.

(C.C.,IV. II.

1. 1

(8.B.E., III.

368-73).

p.

126).

made

indoors.

altar

the

be

to

Earth

to

and

in

grandiose
were

the

six

and

hen,

and

the

the

from

happiness

Elements

4.

We

in these

of

means

regarded

and

omens,

as

dreaded.

Astronomers

there
of

of

both

reflect

dead,

From

Odes

at

inscribed.

to

reward

and

offerer

the

are

least

the

tablets

references

they

gave

would

be

put

which

third

"

the

king

of

Historical

King,

II. 6. 6

eclipses

instead
name

the

date

although
the

and

and

to

seem

supreme.

impersonators
of

life

ancient

were

of

tion
predic-

wrong

But,

books,

interests

the

as

Documents

secular

century of our
era,
used, on which

honour.

of

the

in

were

in

accuracy

death.

to

been

e.g. Shi

to

superstition

secular

held
events

of

predominantly

have

such

if

Book

in

and

tion
divina-

to

Dreams

grain.

or

were

helped

the

society

ancestral

studied,

elements

such

were

Book

gain pleasure

many

were

that

eclipse they

China,

mobile.1
im-

and

solemn

to

oneiromantists

already

by knowing

books

tortoise-shell, seeds,

was

an

worshipped

person
sit

had

son

life.2

ancient

Astrology

for

and

sacrificed

was

eldest

the

believed

sacrifices

long

and

noblest,

to

sacrifice

in

sheep, pig, dog,

the

dead

became

it

used

horse,

had

ceremony

times

ox,

the

who

the

to

of Superstition.

find

by

whilst

the

sacrificed

of ancestors

spirits were

nourishment

as

ox,

boy

alone

animals

the

"

worship

by

was

later

in

believed

Earth

Rites

of

The

the

offering,

The

with

simple

ones

the

represented

was

Book

extreme.

of these
In

make

is

the

whilst

round,

was

Emperor

the

In

domestic

Heaven.

for

The

him

Heaven

to

square,

Earth.

for

prescribed

to

was

four-cornered.

Heaven

to

altar

The

153

RELIGION

ANCIENT

THE

i]

the

dead

of, the

person

is

154

THE

RELIGION

II.
It has

been

orthodox

usual

describe

Literati,and,
founder

China

of

it

[n

scholars

describe

to

Confucianism.1

as

School,

the

as

have

we

as

CHINA

CONFUCIANISM

"

for Western

religionof

instead

OF

in

seen,

no

or

The

Chinese

Teaching,

sense

the

of

the

Confucius

was

reformer.
a great religious
religionnor even
He was
would
have regarded
a conservative, and
essentially
as
impiety. Yet, in one sense, it
any religiousinnovation
is not inappropriate that this element
of Chinese
religion
should bear his name,
for his personalityhas had a decisive
influence in Chinese
thought, and the moral ideal which
he and his disciples
proclaimed, has given to Chinese ethics
a

new

their authoritative
To

and

classic form.

the Five

King were
simply Writing or Books.
(1)The

Analects

of Confucius

and

disciples.
(2) The Great
discipleof

added

Four

The

It is with

Shu.

Books

Shu

are

as

means

follows

of Confucius, a compilation of aphorisms


of conversations

Learning,

between

him

commonly

now

and

assigned

his

to

Confucius.

(3) The -Doctrine of the Mean


or
and Harmony
is assigned to
which
(4) The

Four

the

Works
the

of Mencius,

first and

the

the State

of Equilibrium
grandson of Confucius.

Confucius'

last of these

great
that

we

successor.

shall be

chieflyconcerned.

Confucius
of

Lu,

father
his
1

term

was

in what

died

when

early life
The

State

is

was

born

in 551

now

in the

he

of

one

Religion of

Confucianism

was

China

is familiar

and

B.C.

in the

little

principality

province of Shan-tung. His


it appears
that
a little child, and
When
I was
poverty.
young,'*
"

would

be

convenient.

more

accurate

but
description,

the

CONFUCIANISM

n]
Confucius

155
"

low,
discipleslater, my condition was
and
therefore
I acquired my
abilityin many
things, but
In his twenty-second year he
matters."1
mean
they were
became
He would
a teacher.
give his instruction to pupils
I do not
who
could only pay him small fees, but he said,
who is not eager to get knowledge
open
up the truth to one
is not
to explain himself.
who
anxious
nor
help anyone
When
I have
of a subject to anyone
presented one corner
told his

"

and

he

repeat

my

doubts."3
of

Court

his return

to

in

do

"

fifteen

ritual.

At

of

town

appointed
Minister

to

the

length in
and

was

Assistant

of Crime.

Its

Confucius

refused

years

himself

devoted

Confucius

great confusion, and

his admonitions, and

and

three, I

not

and
thirty he. stood firm
settled
had
opinions, whilst at forty he
When
to
thirty-four years of age he went
to study the ceremonies
in use
there.
Chow
to Lu, many
pupilsgathered around him, but

neighbouring territory.

for

other

"

At

lesson."2

was

the

had

"

reached

state

it learn

from

cannot

left it and

prince soon
returned

to

take

so

successful

grew

the
On
the

went

tired

to Lu

home

no

of

and

public office but


study of ancient
history, poetry
500 B.C. he was
made
chief magistrate
any

Superintendent
Tradition

asserts

that

of

Works

that

his

he

was

soon

and

then

appointment

of
an
manners.
brought about
amazing reformation
the characteristics
of the
Loyalty and good faith became
and
men
chastity and docility those of the women."4
The neighbouring princes began to fear lest Lu should
get
its prince, sent
too powerful, and, to distract
him
eighty
beautiful
and
dancing girls and a hundred
twenty-five
horses.
In consequence,
Confucius
was
neglected and
slighted and he left the state sorrowfully,journeying by
But
stages in the hope his Prince might recall him.
easy
"

no

came,

message

state

to
1

state

Ana., IX.
Ana., II.

6
4

and

for thirteen

years

meeting everywhere
(C.C., I. II. p. 82).
II. p. 10).
(op. cit.,

s
"

he travelled

disappointment

from
and

Ana., VII. 7. 8 (op. cit.,II. 61).


Quoted by Legge, op. cit.,1. p. 75.

THE

156

At

sorrow.

length,in

Tradition

literarylabours.
wrote
a preface to

of ancient

he

arises

there

of

of his interests

sense

pragmatic

his studies

wrote

himself

of death

drew

observance
its rites

part of

His

Odes, the History and

present

opinions.

It reflects rather

which

of discourse

themes

the maintenance

of the

To

his conservative

prime virtue,and he observed


ancestral worship but he would
of the spiritsof the dead which
While

spirits?

their
you
not

due

know

not
"

"

about

able to
While

death

you
"3

say

serve

do
His

men

not

of propriety."

strength,

did

"know

like

not

filialpiety

worship

to

the

scrupulous care

how

its

prizing
were

of

little of the

that

as

was

the

existence

presupposes.

can

you

life,how

serve
can

lay pi this world,


To give one's-self earnestlyto the duties
in the next.
to men,
and, while respectingspiritualbeings,to keep
?

interest

"

aloof from
of his

by

are

you

mind

with

the

"

far

Rules

Extraordinary things ; feats


disorder, and spiritualbeings," he

talk about.2

views

he desired

"

of

the

in

customs

worthy
trust-

Analects

The

religionin so
good deportment, and

ancient

frequent

to

seem

interested

moralist

part of the

conserve.

to

near

Analects, the

in the

us

and

religiousbook.

was

"

states

the

No

for

of the Master, which

account
no

come

preserved

teachings are

Memorabilia

is in

continued

expired.1

after he
His

has

time

his

intelligentmonarch
me
empire that will make
And
to die."
seven
days

in the

one

of

years

at this time

and

time
"

attendant,

is not

My

his master.

the

When

his

to

King,

able to

was

that

asserts

divination,

Autumn.

remarked

Shu

the

poetry and

and

Spring

[11

his

life in

he

CHINA

sixty-ninth year, he
spent the remaining five

and

Lu,

to

return

OF

RELIGION

the

Tien.

them

may

be called wisdom."4

It is characteristic

not
religiousindifference that he refers to Heaven
more
Shang-ti but by the impersonal
personal name
and
He
knowrecognises indeed Heaven's
power

Op. cit.,I. p.

Ana., XI.

11

88.

(op. cit.,II.

"

p.

Ana., VII. 17 and 20 typ.cit.,II. pp. 64, 65).


*
Ana., VL 20 (op.cit.,II. p. 55).
104).

CONFUCIANISM

ii]
"

ledge

He

"

"

he

can

such

"

i1

pray

is Heaven

There

references

are

ethical

ideal

His

againstHeaven

offends

who

157

has

that

"

to whom

none

ine,"2 but

knows

few.

very

of

is that

conservative,

courteous

just to inferiors,obedient to superiors and parents. The


he praises,has all the self-conscious
dignity
superior man
of the great-souledman
of Aristotle,a man
more
perhaps
to

be esteemed

he

anticipatesto

if there

practice for
a

rule

all

What

others."3

to

he

said,

When

"

kindness

do not
had

"

It is not

rule

of

Is not

"

Confucius

asked

was

about

this

maxim

recompense

kindness."4
understand

to

easy

Confucius

as

Recompense injury with justice,and


with

asked

when

reciprocitysuch
want
done to yourselfdo not do
said, Recompense injury with

life,he answered,
you

serve

may

that

notice

to

golden rule,for

which

word

one

Lao-tze

kindness."

the

extent

an

not

was

It is of interest

loved.

than

the

veneration

which

with

"

He threw
no
new
regarded. As Legge says,
world-wide
have
light on any of the questions which
a
interest.
He
impulse to religion. He had no
gave- no
5
have
owed
His popularity may
sympathy with progress
Secular in his interests
something even to these limitations
he was
in his influence.
conservative
Through him the
ancient treasures
of Chinese literature received a new
value,
and his lofty and self-respecting
character
seemed
an
bodiment
emof the golden age of China.
Over-preciseand prim
he appears,
when
as
standards, it is
judged by Western
clear that he was
able to win the affection of his followers,
is

"

and

to

As

we

would

their

devotion

have

seen,

obey

honoured

his

and

ordered

Ana., IIL

"

Ana.,

"

Ana., XIV.

XV.

of his fame

Confucius

died

prince who
temple to be

had
erected

(op. cit.,IL p. 23).


(op. cit.,IL p. 165).
36 (op. cit.,
n. p. 152).

was

due.

lamenting

instructions, but

the
a

13

some

after

his

that

no

death

slightedhim

prince
he

in his lifetime

in his memory.

Ana., XIV.

was

Such

37 (op. cU., II. p. 153).

23

Op. cit.,I.

p. 113.

fame

about

those

213
with

dealing

should

be

recompiled,
an

should

be

seventh

offered

century

honour,

and

Emperor
the

A. D.

year

was

there

an

the

books

ancient
and

ficed
sacri-

sacrifices

decreed

that

the

empire.

In

erected

in

were

the
his

performed in them
the Imperial College the
himself
did homage
to

were

At

solemnity.
in

[11

of Confucius

tomb
57 it

yet

have

to

throughout
separate temples

attended

Greatest

the

not

him

to

twice

Perfect

MENCIUS

In

of great

ceremonies

sought

visited

him.

to

ox

Han

The

founder

and

that

medicine,

burned.
Its

B.C.

B.C.,

CHINA

empire. The
the people in ignorance,
all existing books, except
divination, or agriculture,
about
dynasty succeeded

only local. China was


Emperor, desiring to keep

decreed,

"

OF

was

first

200

RELIGION

THE

158

state

and

later

teachers

Sage."
of

all

the

of

Confucianism
"

the Second
regarded as
ethics
give to Confucian
than
Confucius
strongly even
nature.
goodness of human

(371-288 B.C.),who

is

is

works
His
a
Inspired One."1
More
more
speculative form.
he emphasised
the
natural
From
the feelings proper
for the
to it, it is constituted
is good."
Benevolence, righteousness,
practice of what
infused
into
from
not
us
knowledge are
propriety, and
with
them."2
without.
We
Like
are
certainly furnished
his master, he accepted the current
worship of spiritsand
he
had
in religion.
of ancestors, but
less interest
even
Man's
prime duty is filial piety,not service to God nor love
the
to him.
did much
to increase
So, although Mencius
in which
the teachings of Confucius
esteem
were
regarded,
he did not
of them
a
religiousmessage,
attempt to make
and the desire to know
something of God or gods, which is
and
never
quite absent from any people, found in Taoism
the answer
could
Buddhism
which
Confucianism
not
give.
"

"

VL

title bestowed
1. 6

him

on

(C.C., II.

p.

in A.D.

278).

1330

(see Giles, op. tit.,p. 88).

TAOISM

in]

159

TAOISM

III."

religionof China an
complex of polytheism and polydaemonism, and
are
regarded as the most expert of magicians and
Taoism

Yet

contributes

Taoism

is, at the
Taoists

philosophy.

elaborate

the

to

time,

same

this

that

claim

ancient

an

its

priests

exorcists.

and

philosophy

abstruse
is to

be

ofChanges, Yi-King, and the Book of Rites


(Li-Ki),but, as these are appropriated by Confucianism,
they have as their distinctive books the writings ascribed
and Chuang-tze.
to Lao-tze
Of Lao-tze
know
little. His
we
was
personal name
Li-poh-yang,whilst Lao-tze is a title of respect given later
If this
by his followers.1 His birth is assigned to 604 B.C.
date is correct, he was
born fifty-three
before Confucius,
years
the
tradition
is therefore
and
improbable that
when
he visited the capitalin 517 B.C.,
him
Confucius
met
his proud air and his many
and
rebuked
was
by him for
is assigned a short, obscure
desires."
To him
book, the
Book
of the Too and Virtue.2
Tao-teh-king,the Canonical
found

in the Book

"

first clear

The

in the

fourth

and

Lao-tze, and

Central
It

references

this

in

Taoist

"

course," method,"
literature,it is used to

It

means

reference
the

sacred
*

the

Giles
second

of

the
"

either

to the

word,
Old

legend that

number),

so

regards it
century

Master

denote

but,
"

"

or

his mother

that, when

he

was

B.C.

compilation
(op. cit.,
p. 147).
a

so
"

moral

Sacred
it

way

ideal

Taoist

Books.
to

comes

of

Its
mean

In Confucian

heaven,

by

writers

too.

which

and

so

human

preserve

this

the
characteristically,

more

Old

concept of

norm."

or

the

If the latter,then there is a


for 81 years (i.e.
9 x 9, 9 being
born, his hair was
already white.
by a not too skilful forger,"possiblyin

carried
"

as

and

order,"

principleor the
should
be guided.

meaning
1

"

rational

conduct

in the

word

"

is the

teaching

"

the

be

to

seem

Confucius, their teacher.

not

already familiar
way,"
primary meaning is
was

him

to

writings of Chuang-tze, a philosopher of the


third centuries, who sought to induce the Chinese

found

to make

credible

and

Boy."
him

THE

160

too

them

is with

RELIGION

symbol

the eternal,immaterial, and


and

conserves

OF

[TIT

for the ineffable

first

principle,
omnipresent something, which

rules the universe

is subordinate.

CHINA

and

to which

Heaven

even

The

highest knowledge available for men


is to know
the tao, and the highest virtue is to live according
to it. As the tao does everything without
doing anything,
the wise man
and will not
will make
not -doing his norm
will suffer injustice
act
and
from
personal motive
any
is thus
meekly. Taoism
primarily a quietisticpanlogism,
and
of
belongs rather to the history of philosophy than
religion. It is not likelythat its doctrine of pure passivity
would
have
had
much
popular appeal, and its adherents
would
have
been
and
restricted to mystic thinkers
templative
conIt is clear that it has far more
recluses.
affinity
with

Buddhism

than

history, it

interacted

Buddhism,

from

an

with
with

ethical

Confucianism
Chinese
atheism

and, in its later

Buddhism

passed

into

the mystic and oracular


polytheism. Doubtless
of Taoist teaching produced in the people an

of mystery

and

and

power,

some

and,

like

profuse
obscurity
impression
a

of the recluses themselves

sought to find in the tao a potent force which, like the


base
of Europe's quest, could
turn
philosopher's stone
metal
into gold. And
gradually,as theosophy degenerated
illwith
into magic, Taoism
to be associated
came
an
of superstitions
and ritual.
assorted mass
fluenced
The
introduction
of Buddhism
into China
greatly inthe development of Taoism.
The Buddhism
was
Taoist
of the
school, and polytheistic,and
Mahayana
From
Buddhism, Taoism borrowed
polytheism grew apace
to make
thus enabled
the belief in transmigration,and was
of China
vivid and
the popular animism
more
pictorial.
deities
and
host
The traditional gods of China
of younger
a
into
introduced
the
Taoist
were
pantheon, but these
the help of
With
no
longer vague abstractions.
gods were
ancient
modern
folk-lore and
more
fiction,they became
them
made
the heroes
of fantastic legends, which
appear
.

BUDDHISM

iv]
real

and

marvellous

to

the

161

Of

people.

common

great

importance are the Genii,1 spiritsof earth and heaven,


is
number
Their
spiritshuman, divine, and devilish.
a
infinite. Eight of them, known
as the Eight Genii,2have
very largeplace in popular worship.
deified as the highest incarnation
Lao-tze
himself was
are
strange wonders
his is one
of the triad of images which,
of Buddhism,
the Three Precious Ones

of the too, and

recorded,

of him

in

"

"

imitation

and

of

the

place
of honour
in the Taoist temples. Of the other two
images
usually associated with his, one is of doubtful meaning,
but possibly represents Pan-ku, the Chinese
Demiurge3 ;
who
the other is of the Jewelled-Sovereign-Lord,4
seems
to be a vulgarisation
of Shang-ti.
Of the Taoist priests,
celibate and live,either
some
are
Most
alone, or with others in temples or monasteries.
of livelihood,
and carry on
their ordinary means
marry,
and
their priestlyrobes only when
wear
performing their
Their work is chieflythat of exorcism.
priestlyfunctions.
the head
At
of all the Taoist
priests,is the so-called
earth
Master of Heaven,"4 who, as the representative
on
is regarded as the chief
of the Jewelled-Sovereign-Lord,
have

"

exorcist of China.

IV.
The

the

in consequence
returned

brought
Two

two

with

Sections.

year

of

Sien.
Or

China

is

commonly
Emperor Ming-ti,

the
65, when
dream, sent messengers
A.D.

The

of the dream

nature

previous knowledge
dreamed
of a golden man
1

into

India

to

who

Buddhist
later with two
monks, who
years
them
Buddhist
images and the Siitra of Forty

BUDDHISM

of Buddhism

introduction

assigned to

"

of

Buddhism,

with

for

brighthalo
-

"

to indicate

seems

the

round

Emperor
his head,

Pah-sien.

abstraction.
possibly Great Beginning,"a personified
6
Tien-shi.
Yu-hoang-shang-ti.

162

RELIGION

THE

OF

CHINA

[iv

his brother

interpretedthis to be a vision of the Buddha


Sakyainuni, and it is possiblethat later traditions are to be
believed which
speak of much earlier attempts to introduce
into China.
Buddhism
This Sutra of the Forty Two Sections1
who
was
a Hinayana
document, which promised to the man
had left his parents and embraced
the religious
life,that if
and
he follows constantly the two hundred
fiftyprecepts,
in purity of conduct, and walks
according to the
perseveres

and

four
The

true

monks

two

Other

allowed

until

become

until the

the

of that

Diamond-Cutter,
Hsien

Fa

century

into

saint.2

Chinese.

little progress
Chinese
were

short

travelled

no

is famous

he

the

translator

of

the

of

Mahayana metaphysics,
Japan.3 At about this time,
that he might study there the

and

India

to

as

treatise

in China

admired

much

fourth

was
conspicuous success
arrival of Kumarajiva from India towards
he taught was
century. The Buddhism

and

Mahayanist,

book

India, but

monks, and

attained
end

from

the

become

should

translatingthis

later

came

Not

to

salvation, he

set about

monks
made.

was

of

vows

books.
and obtain some
Buddhist
more
religion,
He
brought back with him in A.D. 414, as a result of his
relics.
sacred
books
and
fifteen years' absence, many
Buddhism
became
popular in this century and
very
So
numbered
its devoted
converts.
an
Emperor among
Bodhidthat
Buddhism
become
important did Chinese
Buddhist

Patriarch

the

harma,

the sixth
Much

of

of him

century, and
as

Taoism

India, himself

and

to

came

marvels

many

Buddhism

are

are

China

in

related.

alike, and

close

as

the two
was
long
interaction,the strife between
bitter and, although the Imperial house
persecuted,
Taoism
and now
Buddhism, it failed to unite the two

their

was

and
now

religions.At
in such

was
1

This

Sutra

Chinese, pp.
2

Arhat.

For

beginning of

the

high

favour

is translated

in S.

that

the ninth

the

Beal, A

century, Buddhism

Emperor

Catena

received

of Buddhist

bone

Scripturesfrom

the

190-203.

Cp.

J. J. M.

translation

De

of the

Groot, Le Code
Sanscrit

du

en
Chine, p. 8.
Mahayana
II. pp. 111-44.
S.B.E., XLIX.

see
original,

BUDDHISM

iv]
of the
the

Buddha

Confucianists, and,

made
the

freed

that
"

from

his

at

its

Buddhism

than

famous

be

should

more

and

four

greatly angered

act

the

endeavour

Buddhism.

monks

images
a

This

death,

of

power

issued

Emperor

already

palace.

of Buddhist

ordination

new

the

restrict

to

court
a

his

into

163

In

was

835

A.D.

the

forbidden, and

was

altars.

Ten

years

edict, in which

extirpated, and
thousand

six

he

decreed
that

claimed

hundred

later

teries
monas-

destroyed,and their inmates, to the number


of both
of two
and
hundred
sixty-fivethousand
persons
had
been
to the world," and
compelled to return
sexes,
of temples and
shrines
than
had
more
forty thousand
had

been

"

likewise

been

demolished."1

Two

later,his successor,
the
Taoism, relaxed

years

adherent
of
an
although himself
has not recovered
stringency of the decree, but Buddhism
from
this
persecution. Theological study has waned.
Many of the Buddhist
Scriptureshave been destroyed, and
the propaganda of the faith,which
in Mahayana
Buddhism
is the most
has almost
sacred of obligations,
Yet
ceased.
has not
Buddhism
of
perished. Although the Buddhism

the Buddha

concerned

was

Mahayana

Buddhism

about

life to

the

has
come

with

this

seemed

to

which

life,and

speak

neither

the next,

not

with

Taoism

message
fucianism
Connor

could

supply ; whilst the secret sects of Buddhism,


ment,
though often cruelly persecuted by the Chinese Governstill exist and
witness
are
a
that, in spite of the
indifferentism
been

those

of Confucianism,

who

have

prized

ready to endure
sufferingand
deep religiouslife.2

Alone

in

the

China

too

spiritualand

death

in

the

there

have

have

been

interests

of

of pagan
claims
to have
a
religions,Buddhism
of world-wide
validity,but it lacks one essential

message
1

For

the

For

these sects,

Edict,

see
see

Giles,op. cit.,pp. 220, 221.


T. J. M. De Groot, The Religionof the Chinese, pp.

200-23

RELIGION

THE

164

OF

CHINA

[TV

which
springs from
positivereligion,an intolerance
convictions
too
deeply held to allow principles to be
And
it fails to relate the laityadequately
compromised.

of

apart from the Buddhism


system. In consequence,
Buddhism
be truer
of the monks, it would
that
to say
Buddhistic."1
became
became
Chinese, than that China

to its

"

And

it has

China

in

so

significance. It is a
trulybe called Buddhists,
in the general complex of

twofold

religionfor monks, who alone can


and
it is a pervasive influence
It will
Chinese religious
culture.
with

the

In
not

China

the

Hinayana
opposites, but as

as

Disburdenment2
his

second

used

are

preliminary
their

to

of the

ideal Buddhism

of

which

is meant

Bodhisattva

that

be

of others.

saviour

The

Sutra

of

importance, as
No

Sanskrit

and

the

have

so

Pali

the

translated

Dr.

for the
the

De

book

Grube,

Sanskrit

is called the

of

The

of Preceptsin

Pali text

Le Code

redeem

has
du

of the

same

Four

work

at

as

only

to

discovered,

It

It

The
men,

the slave, and

professesto

Buddha

to

has

an

been

is invaluable

which

Buddhism.4
not

himself, but

yet been

book

greatest
is ideallybased.

Bodhisattvas.
a

become

of the

of China

op. cit.,
p. 139 ; cp. p. 155.
PrdtimoksJia
(=Pali Pdtimokkha), see

of the Buddha,
*

Sakyamuni

Groot, in

of Chinese

monk

Book

monk

to

save

is obscure.3

of

greatest benevolence,

It bids the

is

originalhas

utterance

company

by
study

Net

him

merely

not

Buddhism

the

innumerable

enable

to

may

it the

origin of

been

he

Brahma's

on
or

and

monasteries

of

Words

solemnly promises to conform


three days later he receives
a
or
he has to promise to obey fiftySutra
The
text.
of
Mahayana

Two

commands

Net,

regarded

Mahayana are
The
complements.

ordination

behests.

Brahma's

monks.
the

in the

ordination, when

eight

and

first

to deal

be convenient

Sutra
but

to

enjoins
animals.

heal the sick, and

earlier,p. 130.

In China

it

Sections.

title translated

different subject matter.


Mahayana en Chine.

by Rhys Davids,

in the

Dialogues

BUDDHISM

TV]
to

from

save

asked

how

mother

all

death
son

should

165

living beings. Confucius,


himself

conduct

bade

him

whose

when

father

or

"

sleep only on
straw, with a shield for a pillow,not to take public office,
under
the same
the murderer
to live with
not
sky, and, if
he meet
it be in the market
in the royal
or
him, whether
his weapon,
but to fighthim"
;l
court, not to turn away
but

had

here

the

been

monk

murdered,

is forbidden

to

take

revenge

on

any

of father or mother.2
though it be the murder
The monk
must
ignore all injuriesand insults he receives,
hide his own
and
virtues
lest they eclipsethose of others.3
He
be ready to save
others
must
even
though to do so he
he has
has to destroy the merit
Greatest
accumulated.
of all obligations is the obligation to preach to others
the way
of salvation, and, especially,
the doctrine
of this
So he is bound
Sutra.
to use
opportunity to preach
every
but he must
the commandments,
do so intelligently,
for
is a sin.4
And
monks
to preach an
are
ignorant sermon
bidden
to spread the knowledge of the Truth
by copying
and if they lack materials
for this,
out the commandments,
bidden
their own
to use
blood for ink, and
are
pieces of
their own
for pencils.5 The
bones
duties of hospitality
has nothing
are
extravagantly urged. If a Bodhisattva
is a stranger, he should
sell himself,
to give a monk, who
his sons, his daughters, cut off even
the flesh of his body,
the stranger'sneeds."6
and sell that, in order to meet
is the book
the principalinstrument
Such
which, as
of the great Buddhist
art of salvation," De Groot
describes
the most
as
important of the sacred books of the East."
In it, although the ways
of meditation
and
of penitence
are
recognised,it is the way of compassion that is chiefly
hist
enjoined, and preached with fanatical rigour. The Buddhave
monks
long since lost their missionary zeal, and

crime,

even

"

"

"

Li Ki, X, quoted
10th commandment.

18th

The

by

commandment.
26th

commandment.

De

Groot,

op.

cit.,
p.

91.

7th commandment.

The

44th

commandment.

RELIGION

THE

166

has

actual

the
well
use

far indeed

from

CHINA

[iv

the ideal.

Yet

it may

Groot

suggests, that the book has been


and
ameliorating the customs
mitigating

be,
"

been

OF

De

as

in

of
the

'?1

ethics that China


cruelty of China ; but it is not Buddhist
in that fight
has greatlyprized,but the service of the monks
against spectres,in which all aspects of religionare in China
utilised.
The

monasteries

In

this way
Buddhism

not

usually situated
only is quiet secured
are

woody heights.
the monks, but

on

for

with
such
the veneration
which
gains from
come
chiefly
heights are commonly regarded. The monks
have
from
the poorest classes, and
often those who
are
As the Chinese
been given to the monastery as children.
classics have, until recently,alone been
generally prized,
well he may
his Buddhist
know
Buddhist
a
monk, however
texts, does not win the prestigeof a scholar.

be
gods of Chinese Buddhism
may
classes
(1) Buddhas.
(2) Bodhisattvas.
Patriarchs.
(4) Tutelary Deities.2

divided

The

(3) Saints

"

Of

Buddhas

the
as

seated

on

Buddha

historic

the

lotus

is

flower, with

into four
and

generally represented

eyes

half closed

in

images of the standing Buddha, and of


also found.3
Buddha
The
the
entering Nirvana, are
celestial Buddha, Amitabha,4 is very popular, and members
Land
of the Pure
Sect, especially,hope by the recital of
meditation,

his

to

name

and

enter

at

death

the

Western

Paradise

over

reigns.5 Images of two other celestial Buddhas,


and
Vairochana
Of the Bodhisattvas,
Loshana, are also common.6
Kuan-yin is the most
important. She is the
Indo-Tibetan
Avalokitesvara, and, until the
beginning
which

he

Religion of the Chinese,


Buddhism
Cp. H. Hackmann,

The

is

usuallycalled

He

Chinese, 0-mi-to-fo.

Chinese, Pi-lu-fo and

in China

p. 188.
as

Religion,pp. 206-17.
(i.e.Sakyamuni).

Shih-chia-mu-ni
s

Lo-shih-fo.

See pp.

138.

of the

twelfth

is often

the

are

Ananda

China

and

chief of his

important
in

is
the

child in her
the

popular

of
disciples

are

the

most

represented as

was

As

Madonna.

of the

one

century,

depicted with

Christian

as

167

BUDDHISM

iv]

the

of Chinese

of

like the

The

Saints

The
most

is

she

Mercy,

deities.

historic Buddha.

She

man.1

much

arms,

Goddess

ant
import-

Kasyapa 2 who, in China, are regarded


disciples. Of the Patriarchs, the most

Bodhidharma,
sixth

century.

who

Patriarch

the
The

to

came

Tutelary GODS

include

heavenly Kings, the Rulers of the four points of


These
to heaven.
who
the compass,
guard the entrances
of Indian
are
origin,3but there are also tutelary deities
of Chinese
origin,who have been absorbed from the State
religionor from Taoism.
In some
temples, Kuan-yin has the place of honour
in the central hall.
More
usually there stands there either
his two
the figure of Sakyamuni
and
disciples,Ananda
and
Kasyapa, or still more
commonly, the so-called
the Three
Buddhist
Trinity,which is often explained as
the

four

"

Jewels

"

of

Buddhism

"

the

Buddha,

the

Doctrine,

Order, but which


possibly represents the
Another
Sakyamuni, Vairochana, and Loshana.4
the

trio is

Sakyamuni, Amitabha,

and

the Buddha

of

and

Buddhas
common

Healing.

It is somewhat

has not had a


surprisingthat Buddhism
greater influence on the religiouslife of China for, in its
better adapted to meet
the religious
Mahayana form, it seems
needs
of a great people than
either Confucianism
Taoism.
But
the Celestial People have
or
always been
of foreignteaching. As Mencius
said, I
contemptuous
heard
of men
have
using the doctrines of our great land
to change barbarians, but
I have never
yet heard of any
when
the Buddhist
And
being changed by barbarians."5
"

1
*
"

Giles,op. cit.,p. 176.


=Kassapa. See earlier,p. 132.
So Hackmann,
op. cit.,
p. 209.

They

"

m.

are

found

1. 4. 12

also in Lamaism.

(C.C., II. II.

p.

129).

THE

168

OF

RELIGION

CHINA

[iv

appeared in China they would have been regarded


barbarians
as
by the proud scholars of the Chinese classics.
favoured
addressed
to an Emperor who
Thus, in a memorial
Buddha
wrote
Buddhism, a great Confucianist
was
a
:
the language of China.
barbarian.
His language was
not
teachers

"

His

clothes
of

of

were

He

alien cut.

an

did

not

teach

the

to the customs
rulers,nor conform
which
down,1 and in a societywhere ancestor
they handed
the begetting of a son
the first of duties,
worship makes
the monasticism
of Buddhism
unattractive.
was
Besides,
And
be
drones
in the hive
?
why should the monks
thus
the Emperor, who
the extirpation of Buddhism,
ordered
who
does not
a
man
complains in his edict that
work
suffers bitter consequences
and
in cold
hunger.
But
these priestsand priestesses
food
of Buddha
consume
and
raiment
without
contributing to the production of

maxims

our

ancient

"

"

"

either."2
Yet

Buddhism

mind.
from

The

attracts

Buddha

bade

the

life to come,
that Buddhism

but
in

as

his

well

repels the Chinese


disciplesavert their gaze
as

it is in reference

China

has

made

to

the

its chief

life to

appeal.
The prevalence of ancestor
worship, and the belief in spirits,
show
how
interested in the dead,
greatly the Chinese were
and
its doctrine
with
of transmigration, its
Buddhism,
vivid presentationsof heavens
and hells,and its abundant
legends of the departed, was able to give to this interest
in the dead
attractive
dramatic
and
a
more
form, and
Buddhist
teaching claimed to provide the means
by which
the livingcould help the dead in their upward path. The
images and pictures,and the statelyritual of the temple
worship appealed to the imagination in a way the native
religioncould not do, and the Buddhist
gods and goddesses
in their power
and
their compassion, were
welcome
a
addition
to
the
Thus
prosaic pantheon of China.
come

Han

In the edict of

Wen-kung

in 810
A.D.

A.D.
(seeGiles,op. cit.tp. 213).
846, quoted in Giles,op. cit.,
p. 220.

POPULAR

THE

v]

Buddhism,

though

weakened

still forms
an
perished,and
complex of Chinese religion.

V.

by persecution, has
in
important element

RELIGION

POPULAR

THE

"

169

RELIGION

not

the

CHINA

OF

popular religionof China derives its gods from the


from
ancient
Chinese religion,
Taoism, and from Buddhism,
and adds to these many
apotheosised heroes and local gods,
whilst the number
of the gods may
at any time be increased.
Of the
legends are narrated, for, wherever
gods many
human
possible,there is assigned to the gods some
origin.
In the space
at our
disposal it is impossible to describe
suffice
the better known
even
gods and devils. It must
instead
to seek
some
unifying conception.
Groot's theory
has
to De
Reference
already been made
of China was
that the primaevalreligion
a dualistic animism.
this
Whether
theory correctly interprets the ancient
to explain the
popular religion
religionor not, it seems
of to-day, which
its
to have
basis the belief that
as
appears
of two
the universe
consists
souls, or breaths, called Yang
and Yin, the Yang representinglight,warmth, production,
which
from
all the good things
and life,also the heavens
with
the
Yin
emanate
darkness,
being associated
; and
The
into
Yang is subdivided
cold, death, and the earth.
called shen :
of good souls,or spirits,
indefinite number
an
evil spirits,
called kwei, spectres ;
the Yin into particles,
or
it is these
shen and^kwei
which
animate
being and
every
the
thing. The gods are the shen which animate
every
The

forces of nature.

benevolent
of shen

and

nature

in

the

an

and

kwei, his shen


his

infusion

shen

kwei

the

of these

returning

to

-.

Man

being

himself
the

souls ; death

the

Yang,

or

up

higher part

Thus

lower.

is made

"

birth

is their

both
of his

consists

departure,

heaven, the

kwei

to

170

RELIGION

THE

the

Yin,

and

are

any

who,

earth."1

or

OF

The

CHINA

spectres

[v

everywhere,

swarm

greatly feared.
They molest the traveller,cause
At times
whole
diseases, and inflict mysterious wounds.
populaces are terrified by them, and the magistrates have
then to allaythe panic by ordering sacrifices,
and arresting
or

At

anger.

dreaded.

Thus,
drive

to

them

feared

are

animals

as

and

Festival

also

let loose

tiger-demons are

belief in them

is, as

De

the kwei
Groot

spectres

efforts

are
are

unhealthy,

are

off the spectres

come.

dreaded.

much

is held to be supreme,

protectionfrom

so

the

their

Especially
bring drought, and,
wolves
Yang and Yin, wereto

of

constituted

are

sect,

of ill-omen

is held to ward

supposed

are

secret

strenuous

all words

one-eyed devils, which

As Heaven
that

of

months, which

summer

diseases

Year,
and

away,

in the

whom

New

the

at

great Midsummer

from

members

as

suspected of having
especially,are
seasons,

certain

avoided, and
a

or

are
religion,

new

made

innovators,

as

its

is necessary
be secured.
Thus the

may

worship

"

only

not

says,

main

the
"

a prinworship of Heaven,"2 but also


cipal
in
pillar the building of morality,"3 for the order of
is just,and Heaven
the universe
will not allow the good
the kwei to punish the wicked.
to be molested, and
uses
And
this belief in spiritshas been
restraint against
so
a
suicide,
oppressivecruelty,for,if the victim die, or commit
the oppressor.
his kwei might haunt
connected
j Of great importance is the system of geomancy
Wind
with the belief in Feng-shui. Feng-shui (or
and
Water
") denotes the occult influences of the atmosphere

inducement

to the

"

"

and

It is necessary
in placeswhere
the Yang

the

buried

earth.

and

that

1
1

who

may

dead

predominates

only professionalgeomancers
the
In consequence,
places are.
of the geomancers

the

can

prevent

the

over

decide

people

are

should
the

where
at

the

burial of the

The

Religionof the Chinese, pp. 3, 4.


2
Op. cit.,p.
Op. cit.,p. 19.

22.

be

Yin,
such

mercy

dead

POPULAR

THE

v]
for many

RELIGION

months, for only

if the

171

dead

their
descendants
auspicious place can
hope
prosperityby their aid,and yet to delay burial

for the

dead

unburied

have

spectres. Reactionaries
such

innovations
because

used

railways

as

such

become

may

most

to

is

an

obtain

perilous,
of

ferocious

this doctrine

to

oppose
cation,
telegraphic communi-

and

disturb

may

the

in

buried

are

the

Feng-shui

and

cause

disaster.
In

fight against the spectres, all possible weapons


As
are
employed.
light and fire belong to the Yang,
bonfires and lanterns are regarded as useful,and noise,too,
be employed
off these
to
scare
ghostly enemies.
may
And
the
of Chinese
help of all the three constituents
Thus
the
religion is utilised.
pagodas of Buddhism,
cases
originallydesigned for meditation, have in most
been
erected
for Feng-shui purposes
sites
and
occupy
of geomancers,
the
where, according to the calculation
Yang influences predominate so that they help to secure
prosperity for the surrounding neighbourhood. As the
Chinese
classics enable
their students
to be demon-proof,
the
no

the

faithful
need

and

learned

himself

excitement,

to

could

mandarin

fear

take

devils

of the

and,

at

old

school

times

of

had

public

in

leading part
combating their
influences.
Even
of these ancient works
a fragment of one
effective prophylactic against spectral disease,1
was
an
whilst Taoist priests have
found
in exorcism
their most
important function.
with
Connected
this belief in spirits,and
probably
its most
ancient Chinese
form, is the worship of ancestors.
Though properly belonging to the State religion,it has
been
Chinese
and
Buddhism,
incorporated into Taoism
and
the death
ceremonies
include
not
only the ancient
rites enjoined by the Li-Ki, but
customs
of
numerous
Buddhist
Taoist and
origin. Sacrifices are offered to the
dead,

and

paper-money,
1

See

De

slaves
Groot,

op.

and

servants, wives

cit.,pp. 49-61.

and

THE

172

concubines,

burnt

are

and

departed,

RELIGION

OF

for

provide

to

[v

the

families

well-to-do

many

CHINA

of the

welfare
have

their

own

ancestral

are
temples, where the soul-tablets of ancestors
To
preserved and
worshipped on
appropriate days.
and
of the conservatism
stability
ancestor-worship much
of Chinese
It is the religiouscounterpart
society is due.

of that
the

filial virtue

greatest of all

which

to

Chinese

virtues, and

the

thinkers

has

the foundation

seemed

of all the

rest.

Of

of Chinese

religionand of its
immediate
prospects, it is very difficult to speak. The fear
of spectres and the belief in Feng-shui seem
likelyto recede
before
the advance
of Western
knowledge, but ancestor
little sign of losing its ancient
influence.
worship shows
The

present conditions

the

abolition

Classics

the

as

of

revolution

in

1911,

Chinese

have

been

renewed

the

affect

to

the

regarded.

introduce

veneration
In

spite

in the so-called

Chinese

life, and

the

fucianism,
prestige of Conis being made
by the
a
phonetic script will
the

with
of

the

some

Three

which

the

Classics

indications

of

Religions,in China,
ascertain
far as
from
we
can
so
observers,
competent
Western
contact
with
scholarship and Christian thought
has
not
such
as
noteworthy
yet brought about
any
of a purified religion as
have
renaissance
observed
we
The
old religionsseem
for the time
in India.
incapable
of renewal, whilst
stitute,
Christianity,their only possible subis less attractive
it might be if China
knew
than
of it only through the teaching of Christian
missionaries,
and
not
and
through its experience of the militarism
in opposition, not
of Christendom,
which
are
arrogance
only to the spiritof the divine Master, but to the peaceable
of Confucianism,
and
the
ideals
doctrine
of
Buddhist
universal

interest

damaged
attempt that

in

official

into

have

Government

apparently

examinations

entrance

one

whilst

of

1905

and

unaggressive

love.

VI.

THE

RELIGION

THE

B."

CONTRIBUTION

"

OF

SHINTO

OF

RELIGION

THE

TO

JAPAN

OF

JAPAN

"

faith

THE

three

of

Japan
but

religions,

chiefly
Of

from

these

made

Japanese

to

the

in

writings

which,

Chinese

culture,

times.

The

two

of

Ancient
A

of Japan.
Period
tenth

The

Kojiki

tells

us

Empress
Temmu,

and

examined

Contributory

religions,"
Shinto

for
is not

in

or

Chronicles

or

of

ceremonies

the
the

in

"

to

is

have

recorded,
falsehoods

Confucianism

clumsy
is

system.
173

compiled

was

in

He

712.

A.D.

"

undertaken

was

issued
of the

pursuance

and

"

work

task

decree

Matters

his

his

that

desired

sources

of

Kojiki

Institutes

or

us

prehistoric

the

Nihongi

Ancient

ascertained,

Japanese
a

of

to

selected

Emperors

"

"

had

who

for

impulse

of

are

Shinto

back

era.

preface

Gemmiyo

the

of

the

digenous
init

described

worship

Yengishiki

completed

obedience

reverent

our

and

is

turn

to

under

writings

account

an

who
his

in

these

the

Records

or

Yasumaro,

by

or

gives
of

century

of

book,

contribution

is

and

myths

Matters,

later

Yengi,

the

oldest

the

which

written

although

reveal

alone

it is necessary

Shinto,

of

form

ancient

derived

elements

Shinto

understand

religion,

in

nor

Confucianism.

sources,1

To

religion,

one

of

and

Buddhism,

Japan.

in

not

composite

contributory

to

Records

expressed

in

Shinto,

to

has

is

by

plan
the

the

of the

reigning
Emperor

chronicles
the

and

phrase, but we
not
religion,
a

speak

of

"

three

the

words
and

erased,

cannot
nor

of

old

being

in

of

"

three

systems,"

174

the

RELIGION

THE

truth

determined

in

OF

order

to

JAPAN

[vi

transmit

latter

the

to

after-ages."1
The
Nihongi or Chronicles of Japan has no title page
that
it would
nor
preface, but from other sources
appear
it was
completed in A.D. 720. 2 In language and in style
it is more
of their
Chinese than the Kojiki,and, in imitation
Chinese
its authors
models
give dates which reach back to
nate
the seventh
century B.C.3 and often provide us with alterversions
of the same
event
or
myth.
mentary
The
books
reveal is rudithese ancient
religionwhich
Their
and incoherent.
early chapters are little
than the tedious record tff the birth and
more
copulation
in the
of deities with
of amazing length. Thus
names
Kojiki we read first of the five separate Heavenly Deities
wards
who
into being without
came
being procreatedand afterThen
follows the account
passed out of existence.4
of the even
divine generations,beginning with the EarthlyEternally-StandingDeity5 and ending with the Deity the
Male-Who-Invites
and
his younger
sister,the Deity the
commanded
Female
-Who -Invites.6
These
two
were
by
the Heavenly Deities to
make, consolidate,and give birth
to this driftingland, and
they were
given for their use a
So the two Deities,standing
Heavenly- Jewelled -Spear."7
the
the Floating Bridge of Heaven,
pushed down
upon
they
jewelled spear and stirred with it, whereupon when
"

"

had
the

stirred
spear

of the

the

the

up,

spear

brine

was

till it went

brine

that
and

piled up

curdle

dripped
became

-cur

down
an

die and

drew
end

the

from
island."8

Then

translation.
Kojiki,p. 9. Quotations are from B. H. Chamberlain's
Its authorship is assigned to Prince
the compiler
Toneri and
to Yasumaro,
the Kojiki. It has been translated by W. G. Aston.
1

of

Aston

remarks

that

these

dates

cannot

be

trusted

before

about

A.D.

600

(Nihongi,I.
*

born
6
*
7
8

Such
alone

p. xviii.).
to be the
seems

meaning

hid their persons


Kuni-no-toko-tachi-no-kami.
and

"

of the

"

phrase, These
(Kojiki,pp. 16, 16).

Deities

all deities

were

Izana-gi-no-kamiand Izana-mi-no-kami.
Probably a phallus(see W. G. Aston, Shinto, the Way of the Gods,
Kojiki,pp. 18, 19.

p.

87).

SHINTO

vr]
Male- Who

the

with
be

united.

afterwards

bade

-Invites

'

counsel, saying,

-Invites

cumambula
cir-

was

island.

an

-Who

Female

the

heavenly pillarthat they might


born, whom
they abandoned, and
"Hereupon the two Deities took

him

child

175

children

The

whom

to

have

we

now

this
good. It will be best to announce
in the august place of the Heavenly Deities.'
They do
tion
the Heavenly Deities discover
"by grand divinaso, and
when
that it was
because the woman
they
spoke first,
were
circlingthe pillar,that their offspringhad not been
the heavenly
Deities
the two
good. Once more
go round
pillar. This time it was the Male who spoke first,and they
birth

given

not

are

'

"

islands
and
later to many
deities,but
gave birth to many
birth
of their child the Fire-Burning-Swift-Maleat the

sickened
birth

Female

the

Deity,

and

-Who
"

died.

-Invites

The

total

Deities

jointly by the two


thirty-five."From

Invites

fresh

to

husband

In his

shed

The
to

Male -Who
the

see

him,

return

to

but,

in his

of the
him

of hell and

unscathed

and

his
from

three

from

the

tears

her

bade

down

went

-Who

created.1

were

-Invites, and
him

not

to

looked
she

sent

she

look
and

nether

the

to

at
saw

infernal

world

consented

to

her meanwhile,
the

corruption

deities to chase

are

very

herself

famous

the

Sun-Goddess,3

born

as

he

19-34.
"

the

born
from his august trousers," and
Road-Fork-Deity was
from
his
Deity-Master-of-the-Open-Mouth
(Kojiki,p. 40).
august hat
*
Ama-terasu-oho-mi-kami,
Heaven-Shining-Great-August-Deity."
2

of

pursued him, but he escaped


and she was
left to be the Great-Deity-of-Hades.
return, the Male -Who -Invites purified himself
this purification
born,2 of whom
gods were
many

Kojiki,pp.
Thus

deities

more

impatience, he
body. In her anger

out

On

but

and

Crying-Weeping-Female-Deity.
-Invites slew his son the Fire -Deity

-Invites

Female

given

the

Male -Who

his blood

and

Fernale-Who-

of the

whilst

born,

were

born

was

griefthe

from

and

deities

fourteen

was

body

burnt

of islands

number

Deities
the

herself

was

"

"

"

the

THE

176

his left eye

washed
his

right eye
august nose."

assumed

at
"

he had

up all the
him
asked

charged

but

and

he

why

Instead

of

Heaven

to

-Invites

rule

the

so

take

deities

but

Susa-

with

which

Male

-Invites

his

-Who

desired

he

said

to

go

Mother

deceased

Hades, Susa-no-wo

went

Sun-Goddess.

of the

leave

Night,"

first two

the
he

to

"

he dried

where

direct

going

gave

copiously that

When

behaved

his

Plain-of-

of the

The

wept

seas.

thus

to

-Who

the rule of the dominion


"

washed

washed

spheres assigned to them,

assume

rivers

he

the Dominion

Nether-Distant-Land

the

was.

the

he

as

"as

to

Sea-Plain.

the

[vi

born

Male

was

the Moon-God

once

been

the

three

Sun-Goddess

did not

no-wo

up

these

Susa-no-wo

JAPAN

Moon-God,1
Susa-no-wo,2 born

To

High-Heaven,
and

OF

the

and

The

dominion.

to

RELIGION

She,
"

and
herself
stood
suspecting his intentions, armed
and asked him why he came.
valiantlylike a mighty man
He denied
that his designs were
evil,and suggested that,
both produce children
of his honesty, they should
as
a test
by breaking off and crunching fragments of jewels and then
thus born, three
blowing them away.
Eight children were
"

females

to

the

jewels that

came

Sun-Goddess

from

of his intentions
delicate
behaved

as

the
he

females."3

badly

so

Tsuki-yomi-no kami,

Chamberlain

regards Susa

as

renders
the

name

hers

they

declared

born

were

that

from

five the

These

hair.

in that

God

the

to

he

had

of
doubtedly
un-

"

victory,for
owing to the sincerity
had, in begettingchildren, begotten
Elated
Susa-no-wo
by his success,

to

his sister that

Heavenly-Rock-Dwelling
night prevailed."

Goddess's

Susa-no-wo

hers, and

gained

five males

and

the

claimed

of

things

Goddess

The

and

in

she

retired

into
"

consequence

eight hundred

myriad

the

eternal

deities knew

"

Moon-Night-Possessor."
name
Impetuous Male (Kojiki,p. 43), but Aston
of a place,and interprets
it as Male
of Susa (Nihongi,I
his

p. 19.
3

base

So the
his

Kojiki,p.

claim

p. 37). The
of the noble

on

the

52.

With

more

fact

that

the

Kojiki traces back


houses
of Japan.

naturalness
children

to these

"

born

the
to

Nihongi
h'm

were

Princely Children

"

makes

Susa-no-wo

maleANihonyi,
the originof some

I.

177

SHIXTO

vi]

length the Deity-Thought-Includer got


Her
Augustness Heavenly- Alarming-Female to dance, in
indecent
garb, with resounding noise. The deities at this
moved
to laughter. The
were
curiosityof the Sun-Goddess
little
a
was
aroused, and she opened the door of the cave
to see
what was
happening. And the Heavenly- AlarmingFemale
told her that they were
rejoicingbecause there was
what

not

At

to do.

august than she, and two of the Deities


she looked
the Sun-Goddess
mirror, at which
a

Deity still more

showed
in

astonishment.

from

her

drove

forth.

and

inconsistent.

last he reached
of whom

mochi,
for

The

wedded

and

the

this

Deity
worshipped
sanctity.

In

the

land

is

he had

Idzurno,

shrine

At

Ohona-

is

to-day
only to

second

children,

many

who

Great-Name-Possessor

slew

he

Earth-God

the

was

fused
con-

its prey.

as

her

and

Susa-no-wo

of Yomi

intended

land where

important
at

beguiled

story of his after adventures

the nether

the

punished

the maiden

most

Deities

the

way

Deities then

The

cave.

him

dragon

God

In

the
Ise

dispossessOhonamochi
of
the Land
that her grandson Ninigi1 might reign over
Reed-Plains.
In the end
Ohonamochi
yielded to her
to earth with
a great retinue
behest, and Ninigi descended
God's daughter*
of attendants.
Here he married
a Mountain
One of his sons
the daughter of a Sea God, Her
married
The

Sun-Goddess

Augustness
appeared
wedded

as

determined

to

Luxuriant-Jewel-Princess
a

crocodile

eight

who,

fathoms

at

childbirth,
Her

long.

son

his mother's

was
sister,and their youngest son
His Augustness Divme-Yamato-Ihare-Prince,
better known
as
Jimmu, the founder of the Imperial Dynasty. When
decided to go East
forty-five
years old, the Emperor Jimmu
fair
and
a
Yamato, the central part of Japan,
conquer
is
which
land encircled
all sides by fair mountains,"
on
the Nihongi
the centre
of the world," and
this event
"

"

His full name

was

Heaven-Plenty-Earth-Plenty-Heaven's-Sun-Height-Prince

Rice-Ear-RuddyPlenty.
M

178

RELIGION

THE

ascribes

the

to

patriotismhas
Gods,

of the

have

the

and

Sun

of the

Shinto

had

is the

way

Kami

word

awful.

Thus

Motoori,
"

The

says,
various
in the

the

has

ancient

first,

applied

infernal

deities

to

the Male

and

-Invites
As

Kami.

eighteenth century
the first place to the

Earth

who

are

mentioned

which reside
spirits
in the shrines where
they are worshipped. Moreover, not
only human
beings but birds,beasts, plants and trees, seas
serve
deand
which
mountains, and all other things whatever
to be dreaded
and revered
for the extraordinary and
which
they possess are called Kami.
pre-eminent powers
for surpassing nobleness, goodThey need not be eminent
ness,
serviceableness
alone.
or
Malignant and uncanny
beings are also called Kami, if only they are the objects
of general dread."3
Greatest
are
Many of the Kami
clearlyNature-Gods.
of
"

them

records, as well

called

are

applied in

of Heaven

-Who

of the

scholar
is

by
Deity," but
anything strange and

which

peaches with

we

"

translated

been

be

Kami

term

deities

the

In the translations

Kami.2

of the

great Shinto

the

from

Thus,

sanction.
religious
Japan is the home
dant
Emperor is of divine origin,a descen-

may

the

back

drove

[vi

Goddess.

utilised,Kami

the

B.C.1

667

year

JAPAN

OF

all is the

unrivalled

as

to their

Sun-Goddess,

the

Ruler

of

Heaven,

dignity." As we have seen, in the earliest


is not
records, although the chief of the Gods, her power
unlimited.
Thus, when
brother,
injured by her younger
instead
of avenging the insult she retired to a cave, from
the Gods
which
beguiled her and prevented her return by
force, and the punishment allotted to her brother was
determined
not
by her alone but by a council of the Gods.
In later times
she is often called, not
by her Japanese
title,Ama-terasu-oho-mi-kami, the Heaven-Shming-Greatin

Nihongi, I.

Shinto

the

Way
"

is

of the

p. 111.
Chinese

term

for which

the Japanese equivalent is Kami

Gods.

Quoted by W.

G. Aston, Shinto, the

Way of the Gods,

pp.

8, 9.

no

Michi,

179

SHINTO

vi]

equivalent,Tenshodaijin,
tion
and as this name
is less readilyunderstood, her solar funcIn popular thought she is
is,to an extent, obscured.
sect of
as
a
regarded more
Supreme Being, and a modern
Shinto
her
regards her as the Life-giver,sees in the sun
perfectemblem, and gives her exclusive worship.1
Of
the
Ohonamochi,
worshipped
great Earth-God,
siderable
especiallyat Idzumo, we have already spoken. Of conimportance is the Food-Goddess, Ukemochi, who
is generally identified with
Inari, the Rice-God, and who
in popular esteem
herself.2
next
to the Sun-Goddess
comes
and
The other nature
-gods include gods of the mountains
the rivers,of the rain, the thunder, the wind
and
the sea.
In the ancient
of the greater
writings apparently none
but
and
deified men,
heroes
gods were
later, national
were
especially the Mkados
worshipped. The
phallic
element
in early Shinto
became
later very
prominent.
it has
of 1868
almost
Happily, since the Restoration
entirelydisappeared.
It would
that ancestor-worship formed
no
part
appear
of ancient
Shinto
and
in Japan through Chinese
arose
influences.
The
divine
the origin of
beings from whom
houses
is traced
the noble
deified
not
nature -deities,
are
it
introduced
ancestor- worship was
ancestors, and when
Mikados.
at first the worship of dead
Dr. Harada
was
is
claims that much
of the modern
worship of ancestors
than
for the memory
of the dead
reverence
nothing more
and tendance
their spirits."3
upon
The ethics of Shinto are as rudimentary as its theology.
Its sacred books give no moral teaching, and this,to some
their merit and a proof that in the
Japanese, has seemed
The
needed.
golden age of old Japan no moral code was
argument is a strange one, for the myths do not reflect a
August -Deity,but by

its Chinese

"

1
1
"

Cp. T. Harada, The Faith of Japan, p. 36.


Cp. W. G. Aston, Shinto, the Way of the Gods, p.
Op. cit.,
p. 37.

162.

180

beautiful

and

defilement

feared

innocent

natural

by

to sexual

with

sin, contact
could

death,

be removed

by

the

and

grounds,

which

spring from certain causes


natural.
Impurity, whether

wounds
inflicting

or

moral

on

demned
con-

are

may

and

causes,

If offences

virtue.

ritual,not

on

[vi

JAPAN

OF

unconscious

it is

are

RELIGION

THE

due

to

ing
receiv-

or

lustration

or

ransom.

in the seventh

When,

century of the

era, Buddhism

became

In
firmlyestablished in Japan, Shinto inevitablydeclined.
the following century, an
of the two
made
amalgam was
the Sun-Goddess
religions,
being identified with Vairochana
and
others of the Kami
being regarded as avatars of other

Buddhist

The

deities.

Shinto

Ryobu Shinto, the


conspicuous advocate

Shingon
in

the

school

ennobled
the

seventeenth

greatlyunder

were

and

form, and

of the

of Shintd

revival
Shinto
a

how

book

by

was

the

as

greatly Shinto

governing
A

classes

of

reaction

Wa
was

influences.

also Confucian

influences.

Chinese

scholars

the

such

shows

century the

Its most

Daishi, the founder

this "mixed"

Japanese Analects2
and
by Buddhist

or

called

was

Parts.1

Two

Until

of Buddhism.

influential

the

Kobo

was

eighteenth century,

far its most

Rongo

of

formed

thus

sect

new

In

Japan

followed,

for

sought

to arouse
patrioticreasons
in the ancient
interest
ciples
literature of Japan, and their disMotoori
and Hirata
endeavoured
to give the movement
a
religiouscharacter and to bring about the revival
of a
Pure
Shinto
freed, as they believed, from alien
some

"

"

"

influences.3

about

brought
the

For

p.

The

Two

Parts

was

Restoration

of the
a

"

Shint5

the

descendant

power.
1

Pure

few

"

of 1868

Sun-Goddess,

years

denote

of the influences

one

when

the

Mikado,

to

effective

raised

was

after the Restoration, Pure

the two

mystic worlds

of Buddhism

which

"

Shint5

(Aston, op. cif.,

362).
2

Published

Motoori, 1730-1801

for Shinto

the

in 1669.

Buddhist

For
;

quotationsfrom

Hirata,

doctrine

it,see

1776-1843.
of the

practiceof ancestor-worship(Aston,

The

Aston, op. tit.,


pp. 367-72.
made
to claim
attempt was

immortality

op. cit.,pp.

of the

373, 4).

soul and

the

Chinese

181

BUDDHISM

vn]

too artificial
was
naturallypopular, but the movement
to retain its power
for long.
Shinto to-day exists in two forms.
As a popular religion,
it is one
others, and, like Japanese Buddhism
religionamong
and Christianity,
is controlled
of Religions.
by the Bureau
This popular Shinto has many
six number
sects, of which
was

more

than

there

have

ancient

million

been

indications

religion.

it does

for

stand

each.1

adherents

Barren

as

of
it

of

seems

years
for the

spiritualpower,

of nature, and

divinisation

vague

recent

enthusiasm

new

In

seems

pride and
monarchial
loyalty.2 In its State form, Shint5 has nearly
shrines which
controlled
fiftythousand
are
by a special
Government
Bureau.
This State Shinto has been officially
declared
"to
be not a religion,
but merely a deep veneration
of the Imperial ancestors
and festivities and rites in
of national heroes," but some
observers
complain
memory
to

that

be

to

many

this

fit

Mikadoism

tends

to

worship which gives a place to


rightlybe given to God.3

VII.

"

THE

CONTRIBUTION
RELIGION

The

History of Japanese

Buddhism
of the

one

the

modern

Mikado

that

BUDDHISM

OF
OF

Its
"

an

umbrellas, and
1

T. Harada,

See the enthusiastic

See

"

The

op.

number

only

can

THE

JAPAN

into

Japan

in

A.D.

Korea
kingdoms into which
king, desiringthe help of Japan,
Butsu,5 several
image of Shaka
a

Caesar

TO

three

divided.4

Emperor,

become

Buddhism.

introduced

was

national

of

expression

of volumes

of Sutras.

552

from
then

was

sent

to

the

flagsand
Separately

cit.,
p. 7.

article by Dr. T. Baty in the Hibbert Journal, April,1921.


the article," Emperor Worship in Japan," by A. Pietcrs, in The
national
InterReview of Missions, July, 1920.
South- Western

Kingdom

of Pekche.

i.e. Sakyamuni Buddha.

182

THE

he

JAPAN

OF

[vn

he lauded
the
in which
presented a memorial
diffusing abroad
religious worship, saying :

of

doctrine

is

it is hard
Duke

retribution

This

Imagine

content,

so

he used

man

that

for

joy

from
of

and

Thus

Every

it is with
prayer
"

Emperor,

to

the

ledge
know-

religiousmerit

without

days

listeningto

so

till

the treasure

is fulfilled and
heard

having

command

gave

former

and

measure

But

Even

attained

create

can

excellent.

comprehend.
not

This

and

bounds, and

so

appreciation of the highest wisdom.


to his heart's
in possession of treasures
he might satisfyall his wishes in proportion

them.

The

had

most

merit
'

full

doctrine.
'

doctrine

the

to

Confucius

and

without

to

on

hard

explain and

to

of Chow

lead

all doctrines

amongst

of it.

as

RELIGION

to

the envoys,
have
had
we

to

now

wonderful

doctrine.

of this wonderful
is wanting.'

nought

the end,

leaped
'

saying : Never
the opportunity
We

unable,

are

however, to decide for ourselves.' Accordingly he inquired


of his ministers, one
after another, saying :
The
tenance
coun'

of this Buddha

which

has

been

presented to us by
Frontier
State is of a severe
the Western
dignity,such as
have never
before.
at all seen
we
Ought it to be worshipped
One
of his ministers, a member
of the Soga
not ?
or
all the
family, urged that it should be worshipped, for
Western
Frontier Lands
without
exception do it worship."
'

"

Two

other

ministers, of whom

one

was

Mononobe

family,protested against this :


be feared
worship foreign Deities,it may
incur

the

wrath

of

our

National

Gods."1

the

head

"If
that
The

we
we

of the
were

to

should

Emperor

image to be given to the minister Soga, that he


might make the experiment of worshipping it. He received
of his house its temple. Soon
the image gladly,and made
a
pestilencebroke out and the ministers who had opposed
of Buddhism
obtained
the introduction
permission to have
the temple burned
into a canal.
and
the image thrown
The
and
loyal to the new
religion,
Soga family remained
ordered

the

"

Nihongi, H.

66-7.

BUDDHISM

vn]
in

589

A.D.

able

were

to

183

made

Four
possible its rapid advance.
placed on the throne the Empress Suiko
ardent
Buddhist.
She appointed as
an

Daishi,

who

all in

did

religionof Japan.
the

reverence

the

In

Three

in

"

from

received

were

China

learn

to

polity. In

these

countries."1

all

of the

Treasures

Korea

about

and

people

Buddhist

"

the

monks

Japanese

the

Buddhism

supreme

Buddhist

was

Shotoku

Regent

Buddha,

the

are

they

who

Tenno,

the

he bade

later

years

make

to

power

decree

Priesthood," for

faith

his

thus

and

rivals

their

overcome

sincerely
Law

objects of
and
images

students

sent

to

Chinese

and

doctrines

and

Japan was able speedilyto appropriate


the more
advanced
civilisation of China.
religion and
Yet
both
Japanese, for
religionand civilisation became
Chinese
subordinated
to
ideas of justice were
Japanese
the
for the Imperial House, and
reverence
gods of old
into
the
Buddhist
introduced
pantheon.
Japan were
Thus
the claims of patriotism were
and the culture of
met
the

this way

great world

The
of the

progress

of Buddhism

Emperor

Shomu

monasteries

Buddha,
the

to

which

fervour

which

took
of

many

the

erected

is said to

Buddhist
of

formation

its climax

reached

began to lead, as
conflictingsects and, as
these

politicalform.
monasteries

we

shall see,

the

religious
ness
bitter-

declined, sectarian

By
had

many

bronze

zeal

occasioned

reign

figure of
largestbronze figure

colossal

be still the

in the

established

(A.D.724-48), who

had

and

world.

in the

assimilated.2

the

sixteenth

become

century

armed

camps

this time
At
military commanders.
of politicalconfusion
and
spiritualdecay, Christianity
entered
Japan and won
great influence, but the Jesuit
missionaries
became
entangled in the conflicts of the age.
In the interests of national
minated,
exterunity, Christianitywas
and
all Japanese wrere
required to connect
and

their

1
*

abbots

Op. cit,,II. p.
Cp. the similar

ideas.

129.

assimilation

in recent

years

of Western

culture

and

Christian

RELIGION

THE

184

with

themselves

some

Buddhist

OF

JAPAN

temple.

[vn
But

Buddhism

rival.
of its hated
profitlong by the destruction
attracted
Increasingly the influential classes were
by
became
for the most
Confucian
teaching and Buddhism
part
In 1870, two
after the
the religionof the humble.
years
was
Restoration, Buddhism
separated from Shint5 and
Yet, in spite of all difficulties,
finally disestablished.
lives in a way
Buddhism
Shinto, except as a ritual of
Some
of its sects
show
not.
great
patriotism, does
educated
Japanese there are many
vitality,and among
who, though indifferent to the temple worship, still hope to
find in a repristinatedBuddhism
a
religion,Eastern and
needs
to that extent
native, and yet adequate to modern
and Western
learning.
did

not

The

Gods

their

and

Worship.

largelythose of the
Buddhism
from
it was
Chinese
which
ultimately derived.1
the most
Of the BUDDHAS
important are Shaka, Dainichi
and
the
Amida,
Japanese equivalents of Sakyamuni,
Vairochana
and
Amitabha.
Shaka, or Sakyamuni, is in
rather
than
popular thought often regarded as a celestial,
an
Dainichi, or Vairochana, is identified
earthly Buddha.
with
the Sun-Goddess
of Shintd
sects, is
and, in some
held to be the supreme
Buddha.
In the Pure Land
Sects,
in Japan are
which
it is Amida, or Amitabha,
very influential,
is regarded as the supreme
Of the
who
Buddha.2
BODHISATTVAS, in Japan as in China, the most
popular
is the Goddess
of Mercy, here called Kwannon,
and to her
temples are dedicated.
Closely associated with her
many
is Miroku, or Maitreya, who
is expected to be the next
Buddha
to appear
on
earth, and there are large statues
of him carved
in the rocks.
The
SAINTS
include not only
The

gods

of

See earlier

"

See pp. 138

on

Japanese

the

and

Buddhism

Mahayana
166.

in India

are

(pp. 136-8), and

in China

(pp.166, 7).

BUDDHISM

vn]

disciplesof the Buddha, of whom, as in China, Ananda


Kasyapa are regarded as the most important, but also
of
of Japan ; the founders
teachers
great Buddhist
sects
by their followers.
especiallyare thus honoured

the

and
the
the
As

185

is shown
of sixteen
to a group
reverence
Korea, much
Binzuru
is much
saints, of whom
worshipped as a healer
of diseases,1and there is also a largergroup
of five hundred
in

saints.
Fudo

Shoden, the
the
Ganesa, and Shinto deities such as Hachiman,
of War, and Izanagi and Izanami, the mythic creator

God

creatress

The

but
of

of

Japan.

Near

book-shrine,2 and
able
if the

scripturesit

Sects

The

for themselves

win

to

contains

twelve,

obsolete

the

number

Some

of

numerous

would

and

these

say

Many
But, when

The

accrue

we

sufferer

rubs
hich

body v.
Japanese, Rinzd
own

the

in

Japan,

as

made

sects

have

varieties

up

with

China,

in

more

became
modern

subdivisions,3
of Buddhism,
many
many

far

Single'sthe

of his

would

of the earlier sects

some

sides the

and

sects

been

the

are

varied

From

as

has

as

Buddhists
"

that

merit

read.

were

of the

number

is held to be

yet

the

of Buddhism,

correct

sects.

Chinese

originalsin design,
and grace typicalof the artistic genius
the temples there is often a rotatory
the devout, by turning this shrine, are

the charm

Japan.

their

resemble

temples

have

The

origin,like
gods of Hindu
Japanese counterparts of Siva

includes

pantheon

and

and

and

The

paths ascend,

abreast,

the calm
full-moon
gaze on
mountain's
crest."4

part

of Binzuru's

is diseased

or

image

which

corresponds to

the part

painful.

and

See

A.

K.

(Hackmann, op. cit.,p. 274).


Reischauer, Studies in Japanese Buddhism,

sub-sects.
"

T. Harada, The Faith ofJapan, p. 80,

for

list of

fiftysects

RELIGION

THE

186

Of the sects, five


Sect

of great

are

importance

The

or

founder

of the

Shingon,

Daishi,1

whose

name

The
Kobo

with

in connection

century, he had
had

to

North

Sect,

already

mentioned

At the close of the

China

was

eighth

to

Buddhism

was

yet little known,

as

in Japan, not only


He is honoured
great success.
great missionary preacher and teacher, but as a man

and
as

Word,

study Buddhism, and


On his
with the Shingon sect there.
began a series of missionary tours in

Japan he
Japan, where

return

have

we

to

gone

in contact

come

True

or

Shinto.

Ryobu

Word

Sect.

Word

True

True

the

its founder.

Shingon

(Zen), the Pure


Sect (Shin),and

Land

Pure

the Sect called after Nicheren

[vii

Meditation

(Shingon), the Sect of


Sect (Jodo), the True

Land

JAPAN

OF

had
a

of vast

education.

In

in which

his

agricultureand

for

much

he retired to

816

A.D.

the treatises

wrote

did

practicalgiftswho

system

there

and

monastery

is set forth.

development of the
pantheisticside of Mahayana thought, and is thus able to
combine
speculation and superstitionand to include in
of contemporary
Buddhism
of the elements
religion
many
in Japan.
The
scripturemost prized by this sect is the
Saddharma
Pundarika, the Lotus of the Good Law.2
Sakyamuni
is only one
manifestations
of the eternal
of many
The

system

Buddha

of ideas, and

material

with

counterparts
from

emanations

the

Vairochana

K5bo
A.D.

See

Daishi

is the

and

identified

is

is at

from

source

thus

become
posthumous

be

in this

even

absorbed

Buddha.
title of honour
"

their
Men

life their

in him

given

as

to

Japanese, Dainichi.

of the

are

illumination

the

And

Sun-

come

world.

774-836.

earlier,pp. 134-6.

centre

which

phenomenal
Vairochana
and, by
realise

the

with
the

once

in the

system gives,may

popular phrase,
from

who

is

Vairochana

of Shinto.

world

this

Daishi

Vairochana3

Goddess

thus

of Kobd

and

oneness

so,

in

phenomena
Kukai, who

lived

BUDDHISM

vn]

187

be controlled
depend on their correlate ideas, they can
by thought. In this way the pantheisticsystem provides
the basis for magic powers.
Shingon is the True Word,
the efficacious formula, and, by knowing the True
Word,
be achieved.
desired results can
Shingon priestsare thus
held
and
of occult powers,
to be masters
are
employed
of their desires,
to secure
for the living the attainment
and
the mitigation of the pains of hell. As
for the dead
is natural, the ritual of Shingon temples is ornate
and
the
elaborate.
The
is to-day third
in size among
sect
of Japan
sects
a
proof that it has not quite lost its
"

attractive

2. The

The

power.

Zen

or

Zen

School

of Meditation.

representativein Japan of the Buddhist


School
of Contemplation (dhyana) which
was
proclaimed
in China in the sixth century by the patriarchBodhidharma.
Its teachings seem
reach
after the
to have
Japan soon
is the

introduction

of Buddhism

the Zen

its

owes

originto

his

second

return

the

stress

it laid

first to
Rinzai

Zen,

the

from

use

Zen,

there

in which

more

there, but, as a distinct sect,


the sect after
Eisai,who founded
China

in

1191.

A.D.

meditation, the
of books, but soon,

school

on

was

founded

in

another

place is given

Because

of

objected

addition

to

school, the

at

this

Soto

the sacred

scriptures.
In its various forms, the Zen sect has to-day a largernumber
of temples than any
Its
other Buddhist
sect in Japan.1
teaching has as its aim the escape from the phenomenal
and
distinctions
of subject and
known,
object, knower
and
the realisation of the real and unchanging self which
lies behind
are

The

the

given by
sect

has

earlier times
? See

and
directions
elaborate
of sense,
this enlightenment may
be obtained.

world

which
had
and

to

great influence
army

the statistical table

officers of
given in

A. K.

among

the

to-day.

This

samurai

of

popularity,

Reisciiaaer,op. cit.,p. 157.

188

RELIGION

THE

which

OF

[vn

JAPAN

first

be due partly to
sight seems
strange, may
its readiness
have
to appropriate Confucian
ideals, which
been
long prized in military circles, and partly to its
and
self-control.
emphasis on self -discipline
at

The

3.

The

Jodo

or

Pure

Land

Pure

Sect.

Land

1175
in A.D.
formally founded
it enjoins
by Honen
Shonin, but the worship of Amida
existed long before this in Japan.
Thus
the Tendai
Sect,
introduced
from
China
into
Japan by Dengyo Daishi
early in the ninth century, included in its comprehensive
wards
afteramalgam of beliefs the Amida
doctrine, and this was
Genshin
and
elaborated
Tendai
monks,
by two
founded
Ryonin, the latter of whom
a
separate sect for
its propagation.1
Tendai
at
Honen
himself
studied
a
to one
of Genshin
's writings his first
monastery and owed
insight into the meaning of salvation by faith in Amida.
Amida, the Ruler of the Western
Paradise, is a mighty and

merciful

God

he would

made

had

to

and

salvation

until he

all who

put

if the

as

sprang

the

times

idea

of

merit

grace

alone.

Ryonin
a
day

lived from

A.D.

1072-1132.

the

Namu

Amida

Reischauer,
2

On

accumulated
him.2

in

trust

earned

sense

this

idea,

the

grace

name

by
taught

and

of

Amida,

necessity of good
it
sect
The
Jodo
prospered greatly, and from
gether
Pure
Land
the True
Sect, which
repudiates alto-

works.

that

vowed

of Amida's

in

thus

rejected
bestowed
by

yet he, too, laid much

by

was

had

their

recitation

Honen
was

had

Bodhisattva,

Buddha

salvation

so

worshipper.

that

save

spoken

merit, and

the

K.

become

merit

was

when

who,

not

enough
Ryonin

Sect

the

prayer
op.

stress

and

on

the

teaches

We

Butsu,

are

Hail

told
to

that

that

salvation

he would

Buddha.

earlier,p.

138.

cit.,p. 104).

originof

this school

of the

Mahayana,

see

recite

Amitabha

is

60,000

(See A.

BUDDHISM

vii]

The

4.

Shin

Shinran,1
first

at

True

or

Sect.

of the

Pure

True

Land

Sect,2 was

monk, but through hearing Horen

Tendai

Land

Pure

founder

the

189

preach

carried
Shinran
put his sole trust in Amida.
of salvation
the doctrine
out
to its logical extreme
by
faith alone.
Of noble birth,he married
a princessbelieving
that in this he was
of
obeying the behest of the Goddess
Mercy, who had appeared to him in a vision. His marriage
he

learnt

meant

and

decisive

with

of the
the

the tradition

world

and

wide

and

any

sense

Whether
do

we

we

not

nothing

to

; it is

with

and

work

it, we

Amida
have

their

out

because
as

people
forbad

He

him.

to

of merit,

sect

's sermons
from

far

his followers

has

ordained.

are

in

salvation.

own

sins

to

"

out

in this

came

our

but

gone

Shinran

householders.

are

saved

are

know
do

had
only those who
the religiouslife,and

from

seek

doctrine
"

great influence

learn
to

Buddhist

the

that

live

could

to

with

break

priestsmarry
writingshad

and

"

to

blotted

believe."3

We

out

have

Thus,

in

ordinary tasks, the believer hi Amida


of salvation, and men
of every
class,
might have the sense
the ignorant as
well as the learned, might win
by their
the glad confidence
that
faith in Amida
at death
they
the Paradise
would
of Amida.
Unlike
other phases
enter
of Buddhism,
this sect lays little stress on the impermanand vanity of life,
have contributed
and this too may
ence
its great success.
It is to-day the most
to
important
in
element
has
shown
Japanese Buddhism, and
great
modern
and
in
to
recent
conditions,
adaptability
years has
of the methods
of Christian propaganda.
adopted many
It is obvious
that the teaching of these Pure Land
Sects
affinities with
has many
Christianity. Professor Lloyd
advanced
the
owes
interesting theory that Amidaism
much
to Christian
influence,and laid great stress on the
the

midst

of life's

A.D.

A. K.

1173-1262.

1
'

Reischaucr,

The

Jodo

op. cif.,
p. 112.

Shin, commonly

called the Shin

sect.

190

RELIGION

THE

Nestorian

regard
"

mission

Shinran

to

are

that

he

when

he framed

"

"

the system

probabilities
doctrines
sect.1

Land

Pure

True

of the

the

Christian

with

acquainted

was

"

that

himself,believed

in

century, and

seventh

in the

China

to

[vn

JAPAN

OF

The Shin teaching is a


theory seems
unnecessary.
of the
school
natural
Paradise
development of the
the
in India
at about
Mahayana, which apparently arose
Christian
end of the first or the beginning of the second
century. Nor need we assign the rise of this school in
India to Christian influences for it can
be sufficiently
plained
exantecedents.2
and Hindu
by its Buddhist
Such

"

5. The

The

Nicheren

Sect.

Nicheren

sect

of
Its founder
and

arose

as

Nicheren3

was

the
but

he

abandoned

national

these

first he

studied

was

under

and

sects

throneme
de-

primacy in Buddhism.
of vigorous personality

Ms

man

At

uncompromising zeal.
Shingon sect ; later he

protest against the

from

Sakyamuni

"

of

follower

monks,

Tendai

fiercelyfor

strove

religiousunity. Japan at the time was


divided
between
allegianceto the Emperor at Kyoto and
to the sh5gun or regent at Kamakura,
whilst the supremacy
which
of Sakyamuni
the
was
imperilledby the devotion
Pure

and

Land

sects

Nicheren

sermons

Buddha

and

around

you.

bade

his

Emperor.

one

No

Look

mothers.

Aniida.

to

gave

the

one

have

Awake,

awake

with
above

heavens

men,
two

you

earliest

of his

countrymen

is born

man

at

"

In

and

fathers
:

chief

one

or

there

look
two

are

no

sky. Look at the earth at your feet : no


two kings can
rule a country."4 Thus he protestedagainst
the usurpation of the shogun in politicsand of Amida
in
religion.
two

suns

in the

In the formation
1
8

The

Creed

A.D.

1222-82.

of his system Nicheren

of Half Japan,

pp.

and

221-4
"

274.

A. K.

uses

as

his chief

See earlier,
pp.

137,

ReiscLauer, op. cit.t


p. 123.

8.

CONFUCIANISM

vin]

scripturethe Lotus
is given supremacy,
Buddha,

but

for himself

foretold

in the

the Good

but

that

he

twentieth
his

in

Law.

Shaka

(Sakyamuni)

proclaimed, not

is

eternal

the

as

claimed

confident

of

191

Buddha
the

was

of

minister

Sakyamuni,
and,
Scripture*vigorously the

denounced

authority,

He

heavens.

in the

of this Lotus

book

historic

the

as

he more
Nor was
tolerant of other sects.
worship of Amida.
and
The
K5bo
Shingon was
treachery to the country
Daishi
"the
prize liar of Japan." Men had no right to
give any allegianceto Dainichi (Vairochana). The Zen he
"

"

described

as

denounced

of

doctrine

its

"

of

method

spiritualpride.2 Naturally
and

his

whilst

To-day
the

has

sect

other

Nicheren

would

his

is

Nicheren

was

of

something
sects

exclusive

live in

and

and

conducive

as

career

"

to

stormy

his

one

fanaticism.

amity together,

intolerant.

Thus,

rightlystands for the primacy


Buddhism, it not only gives him a place

in

have

his

fiends

and

meditation

Buddhist

sect

although the
of Sakyamuni
he

retained

demons

sect

but, less than

shunned

other

sects, reveals

gracious tolerance.

VIII.

THE

"

CONTRIBUTION

OF

RELIGION

As

we

have

unreffective
with

China

to

be

that

morality.
Buddhistic.

were

had

ancient

ethical,and

Japan began
At

first the

Buddhism

TO

THE

JAPAN

too
religionof Japan was
it was
only after its contact
to

realise the

Chinese

dominant
was

the

need

religionof

of

scious
con-

influences
the

great

but
of salvation
an
only a message
attractive
pantheon of mighty and compassionate gods.
But Buddhist
morality was primarily for monks, and failed

world,

and

the

seen,

OF

CONFUCIANISM

Visishta-charita.
A.

not

(See S.B.E.,

Lloyd, op. cit.,pp. 293-6.

XXL

p.

364, and

A.

Lloyd, op. cit.,p. 303.)

192

THE

provide guidance

to

conduct

the

ethical

Confucianism.

on

Thus

success,

of Buddhism

"

foundation

"

the

of

Confucian

JAPAN

polity

of

Japan

in the

seventh

the

speaks

he
"

makes
"

"

and

its first

owed

of the nations

the

fidelity

justice.1

ideals, in being naturalised

transformed.

largely based

were

Buddhism

virtue

most

was

edict in which

very

cardinal

ordinary lay

and

Daishi,

Shotoku

Japanese

[vin

Buddhism

when

the ideal doctrine

as

propriety

State

ideals

to whom

century regent

conspicuous

for

OF

in the centuries

even

influential

"

RELIGION

To

Confucius

in

Japan,

were

of life

rule
supreme
of mutual
matter

the

was

reciprocityand virtue was


a
obligation.
In Japan the law of reciprocityseemed
inadequate to the
demands
of loyalty. The subject must
obey his sovereign
even
though his sovereign failed to do his duty, whilst to
because
he was
speak of deposing an emperor
unworthy
appeared not only disloyalbut blasphemous. Loyalty to
the crown
filial
took precedence over
all virtues ; even
piety had to yield to this. When, in the twelfth century,
the decay of the imperial power
led to a period of feudal
the samurai
Bushido
wars
or
knights elaborated the famous
idea of chivalry,and
Bushido, though influenced by the
teachings of the Zen sect, has its basis in Confucianism
but a Confucianism
no
longer pacificbut military. In
China
the popular stories speak of studious
youths and
model
who, even
sovereigns. In Japan they speak of men
when
unjustly condemned
by their feudal lords, are ready
to sacrifice in their masters'
service not only their comfort
"

"

but
or

if need

even

be their

child,and daughters are

their parents, sell even

that which

Thus, although Confucius


his
is not

man

have

the virtuous

Although
1

ideals

the

See T. Harada,

op.

virtue, or the virtue of wife


praisedwho, in order to maintain

own

ethical
cit.,
p.

62.

have

none

is extolled

been

and

rightto buy.2

his

The

transformed.

scholar

but

ideals

of
2

tablet

the devoted

Japanese

See G. W.

Knox,

shipped,
wor-

perfect

soldier.

Confucianism
op.

cit.,150-4.

CONFUCIANISM

vm]

193

until the
not
antagonistic,it was
that
their incompatibility was
period of the feudal
wars
The
were
acutely realised.
quietistic ethics of Buddhism
felt by many
State
to be treachery to the
of the samurai
and
histic,
Buddremained
the family, and, although the masses
its services
the samurai
and
more
more
employed
only at time of death, and began to find in Confucianism,
not
ing
only a congenial ethical ideal, but something approachin man
not
a
was
religion. The
Way1
only inherent
its
had
but in the universe, and
of virtue
the earthly Way
thus
of heaven, and
good conduct
counterpart in the Way
and

Buddhism

had

its sanction

In

about

temporal
and

the

the

is

secularist

desire

Confucianism,
and

speak

the

other

Michi,
For

ft

In

Tokyo

ideas

the

votes.

The

seventh

on

list.

of

of

some

there

of

necessity
will

science
some

World's

Christianity
Three

Saints,*

Christ.

Jesus

Too.

the

of

sects

Confucianism,

Japanese

"

on

Analects

of

No

hundred

the

of

best

Confucius

Mencim

Buddhist

next,

came

book

books,"

received

was

whilst

included

made

by

easily

the

the

New

in the

first

The

title of

see

daily

largest

T.

recent

Japanese

book.

(See

T. Harada,

op.

in

paper
number

Testament

of
came

forty. (T. Harada,

cit.,p. 13).

02).

ligion,
re-

with

combine

and

the

with

Western

that

Buddhism

and

system

9-13.

Writing*
the

of

account

the

1909,

the

of The

one

Japanese equivalent

brief

symposium

in

from

being Sakyamuni

op. cit.,pp.
a

as

imperial

as

compatible

yet

religion which

derived

of Confucius
two

and

it is believed

eclectic

the

on

of Confucianism

others, feeling

an

supreme

greatly prized,3 and

are

revival

which

whilst

concentrated

Oriental

once

outlook

involves

of

to

great influence,

still has

Classics

order

in

Mikado

the

to

now

abandoned

organisation

Confucianism

desire

at

clan

Restoration

Chinese

who

many

Harada,

their

spiritof loyalty is
The

which

and

power.

house.
are

unseen.2

self-effacement, the samurai

rare

privileges

bring

the

in

1868, with

their

thus

are

cit.,p. 171).

V
ISLAM

I." MUHAMMAD

ISLAM

AND

HIS

to-day the religionof


people, and, separated

is

million

differences

of

of sects, they

and

race
are

its

as

by

hundred

two

adherents

by

are

the bitter animosities

confession.

in their

one

than

more

and

culture

MISSION

"

There

is

God

no

tion
Messenger." The revelathat
Muhammad
brought supersedes, in their judgment,
have
all other religions.His words
behind
the
them
full authority of the Divine.
Everything in his life is of
and they look forward
to the time
when
all
significance,
will see
the world
in him
the one
perfect prophet of God.
In no
in Christianity,has the person
other religion,save
of the founder
such importance. It is clear then that our
be in the first place a study of the
study of Islam must
life and teaching of Muhammad.
but

1. The
The

is his

Muhammad

Allah, and

Arabia

of Muhammad's

barren

land

Time.

of Arabia

been

has

always

mystery, and of the Arabia of Muhammad's


only fragmentary knowledge. It is evident

worshipped very
nothing except
worship of Venus
1

The

For

these

pp.

1-10.

names
''

gods, but

many

name.1

the
as

of Gods

al-Uzza, the

survive

as

"

theophoroits

Of

names,

see

of most
some

most

time
that

of them

we

of

have

the Arabs
we

know

the
importance was
mighty. Tradition

of men
part of the proper names
J. Wellhausen, Iteste Arabischen
194

land

and

women.

Ueidentums,*

MUHAMMAD

i]
that

states

She

with

sacrificed to her in his earlier

Muhammad
Manat

196

Allat

and

goddesses of

chief

the

were

days.

daughters of Allah. It is
which
of gods some
the crowd
interestingto find among
the Quran asserts
were
worshipped in the time of Noah.1
feared
the jinns,spirits
Of very great importance were
more
affairs.
than
readily'in human
honoured, who meddled
Mecca,

and

they

were

called the

At

Mecca, where Muhammad


Kabah, a cube-shaped house,
black

stone.

born, stood the famous

was

at

of which

end

one

its wealth
Mecca
owed
its presence
for here came
pilgrimsin large numbers

and

To

importance,
whom
temple-taxes

In

levied.

were

Muhammad's

was

from

time,

possession of the temple, and so


their supreme
in Mecca.
It is probable that
dominant
tribal deity was
Allah, the God,2 and it has been suggested
that Hubal, whose
image stood in the Kabah, was identified
with
Allah.3
The
Quraish claimed to be of the family of
thus his people, they did
Allah, but, although they were
the Kabah
not
give him an exclusive worship, and near
were
images. The Quran describes the paganism
many
We have given
the period of ignorance."
of the time as
the

Quraish

tribe

in

was

"

"

them,"

says

Allah

study deeply, nor


thee, charged with

to

"

Muhammad,

have

we

sent

in which

books

no

anyone

them

to

to

before

warnings."4 Yet to this there seems


been
to have
one
exception. The Quran itself refers to
the maxims
and
of Luqman,
speaks of him uttering the
Join not other gods with God
for the joining
warning,
of gods with God is the great impiety."5
Yet in Arabia
there were
knowledge
peoples who had
of a Book."
There were
tribes wholly, or partly,Christian.
It does not appear
that their Christianitywas
conspicuously
so
noble, and
completely did Christianity disappear
that
before Islam
tell if the Scriptures
cannot
even
we
"

"

1
2

"

S., LXXI.

L'O.

Allah, a male
Wellhausen,
S., XXXIV.

deity,of

whom

op. eit.,p. 75.


1 J.

Allat

the

was

feminine

", XXXI.

counterpart.
12.

ISLAM

196

translated

ever

were

and

the monks

into

abilityfor study,

and

reflects the respect with


Christians

The
a

became

king

the

brought
much

the

until

Jewish

the

such

which

the Jews.

teaching

to

of Muhammad

Quran

In South

We

owed

shall
his

to

Arabia

persecuted
Abyssinia

Christian
end.

an

time

regarded.

was

the Jews

and

from

force

kingdom

with

some

knowledge

convert,
a

among

earlier part of the

the

and

Jewish

Christians

must

Yet

been

have

opposed by

were

vernacular.

their

there

nuns

[i

see

how

knowledge,

and Christianity.
slightas it was, of Judaism
In Mecca
in confusion.
was
itself,
Socially, Arabia
wealth
trades
were
brought some
security, and many
divided
were
practised. But the Arabs
up into many
central
no
tribes, and there was
authority. Homicide
was
lightlyregarded, and its punishment held to be simply
for private vengeance.
Some
matter
a
mitigations there

For

were.

four

in which

observed,
at Mecca,

as

condemned.
tribes

It

into

claimed

life was

place

We

have

to

the
the

year
branch

in Mecca,
with

Muhammad
he
he

life.

in

dominant

that

work
he

did

by

that

the hostile

religionwhich

of

true

was

weld

to

conflict with

did not

little certain

Mecca

belonged

when

appear

was

Judaism

Arab

and

prejudices

Early Life of Muhammad.

of Muhammad's
in

it would

truce

pilgrimage, blood-shedding was

all that

embody
and yet
Christianity,
and Arab
pride.

sacred

year

safe, and

This

to

2. The

of

the

Muhammad's

was

nation.

in

months

knowledge
It would

of the

whilst

at

was

Yathrib.
Some

say

born
father

Quraish tribe, which

six years of age. A commoner


died before his child was
born.
was

he

Muhammad's

his father's

powerful tribe
was
an
orphan.

that

appear
570.

A.D.

of the first forty years

mother

was

was
nected
con-

It is clear that
his father

died

tradition asserts
The

name

given

MUHAMMAD

i]
the

to

but

child, Muhammad,

was

rare

the
signifies

It

unknown.

not

197

Arabs,

the

among
Praised.

The

orphan

of influence
provided for by his grandfather,a man
Muhammad
and
was
eight years
dignity. He died when
mother
of age.
Muhammad's
was
already dead, and his
his guardian.
Abu
Talib, became
paternal uncle, Abu
duties
Talib
fulfilled the
faithfully,but he lacked the
wealth
and
prestigeof his father, and the family fortunes
that little attention
It would
was
began to wane.
appear
education, and that he did not, in
paid to Muhammad's
learn to read or write.
his childhood, even
Probably he
would
have
spent his time tending his uncle's sheep and

boy

was

When

camels.
to

twelve
his uncle

accompany

this

on

impressionableage,

saw

have

country, and

doctrines.

Tradition

marked

self-restraint and

When

he

was

from

the

tells

heard

that

honourable

conduct.

Quran

old,
caravan

setting out

was

Muhammad

that

little of Christian

youthful

twenty-five years

which

his

us

he offered to lead the

of his uncle

Khadijah,

must

allowed

was

journey to Syria, and so, at


something of a nominally

Christian

by

old, Muhammad

years

for
was

the

at

of

were

suggestion
rich

Syria.
very

years

widow,

It is clear

interested

in

Christianity,and quotes often Christian phrases, and it


from
has been
these visits to Syria
suggested that it was
of his knowledge was
derived.
On his return,
that much
Khadijah fell in love with him, and by a trick secured her
to her
father's consent
She
marriage with Muhammad.
had already been twice married
and, according to tradition,
was
now
a very
forty years of age. But the marriage was
gained not only wealth and
happy one, and Muhammad
the
position,but a sympathetic companion who became
confidant
of his hopes and fears.
She bore him one
two
or
sons1 and four daughters. Of the first fifteen years of his
married
appear

life,even
that

they

the
were
*

traditions
years

It is uncertain

of

say

little.

uneventful

which.

It

would

prosperity.

ISLAM

198

[i

nearly forty,he felt stirringwithin him new


of Allah,
impulses to proclaim himself as the messenger
to
abandon
the
call his countrymen
to
and
worship
him
all
alone.
He
of
other gods that they might worship
When

he

was

of Mount

Mecca

to leave

at this time

used

he

where

Hira,

and

go to

in company
alone, sometimes
that
he
seem
Khadrjah. It would
of his people. How
the needs
was
in their

if he

to be God's

was

and

final

the

first revealed

"

Created
Recite
Who

from

man

faithful

his

it that

the

to

had

with

Arabs,
?

come

Jesus

Had

?x What

At

to him.

thou, in the

Recite

times
some-

burdened

was

foot

length he saw in a
uttered the Surah, which
is
biographers and theologians

the

be the

to

with

Christians

prophet

angel Gabriel, and


generallyregarded by Muslim
vision

meditation,

of God

messenger

Moses

had

Jews

the

not

ignorance, no

in

spent days

at the

cave

thy

Lord

who

created

"

clots of blood.

For

thou.

of

name

thy
the

hath

Lord

is the

beneficent,

most

of the

use
taught
pen
which
that
he
knoweth
not.
man
taught
is most
insolent,
Nay verily,man
himself
Because
he seeth
possessed of riches.
is
the
Lord
the
of all."2
to
return
Verily
"

Hath

Muhammad

Henceforth
of God

and

made

3. Muhammad

The

felt himself

the

would

beginning of

his

of

hallucination

the

inadequate.
'
8

Tea.
S., XCVL,

originalform

the
"

Estimates

He

in H.

was

U.

Some

call.

of the divine

inspirationwas
The

that for

appear

be

the

messenger

name.

Messenger of God.

"intermission."3

of

in God's

utterances

to

W.

of this Surah

an
an

traditions

time

Muhammad

followed
are

by a period
obscure, but it
lost the certainty

have

supposed that his vision was


epileptic,but the explanation is
Oriental, and for him the natural

Stanton's

abbreviated
version, which
(The Teaching of the Quran, p. 18).

of the length of this

periodvary

from

six months

he

takes

to be

to three years.

MUHAMMAD

ij
and

the

that

he

supernatural did
liable

was

unnatural

that

first that

he

the

were

far apart.

seem

convulsions,

nervous

strained

experiences. It would
was
possessed of an
he

only gradually did


heard

not

intense, and

his

issue in ecstatic
at

to

199

to

come

that

seem

evil
that

And

this

his wife's trust

gained largelythrough

and

meditation

believe

God.

of

words

It appears
it was
not

should
he feared

a
jinn
spirit,

the

words

he

confidence

he

in him.

Interesting

story his first biographer tells us.


to sit
distress, told him
Khadijah, seeing Muhammad's
in this connection

is the

left knee

her

on

and

then

her

right,and she asked


whether
he still saw
the spirit,and
each
time
him
he
Then
she bade
him
sit on
her lap, and
Yes."
answered
unveiled
the spirit.
herself, and asked him again if he saw
And
No."
she said, Rejoice, and be
he answered
And
It is an
At length
of good cheer.
angel, and no devil."1
His utterances
renewed.
the revelations
were
were
given
in rhymed prose, and those of the earlier period are concise
first

on

"

"

"

and

tense.

public success, and, it may be,


was
public ministry. His first convert
attempted no
his wife Khadijah. Of her the Muslim
biographer,already
and held
Khadijah believed in Muhammad,
quoted, says,
his revelation to be true, and supported him in all his plans.
first he

At

met

with

no

"

the

first who

She

was

and

in the

revelation.

for whenever

he heard

believed
In

the

afterward

His

fourth

next

home

assured
that

converts

Khalif,3 and

to

the
were

same

Ibn

Khalif

word

"

as

Caliph.

grieved

was

comforted

him

her, she cheered


him

of her

talk of

men

faith
was

All, his cousin,

Zaid, a freed

translated by G. Weil, I. 11/5.


Ishaq in Ibn Hisham.
left behind," and
so
(Arabic, Khali/ah), one
used
the viceregent of God
it
is
of
II.
Adam
as
28)
Quran (S.,
1

messenger
him comfort

sent

belied, God

being contradicted,
through her ; when he returned
him, made
things easy for him,
in him, and represented to him
account."2

His

anything unpleasant,or

at

no

and

God

this way

and

of

God

on

"

man,
"

Op. cit.,I.

successor."
on

whom

earth.

In

116.
the

It is the

ISLAM

200

Muhammad

had

was

Abu

in

Mecca.

Bakr,

conversion

was

who

testified

owed

his friend

Muhammad,

gratitude he

adopted as his son.


wealthy merchant,

His

[i

later

His
held

convert

next

in

high

esteem

of the

greatest help to
of
the
great debt

to

for his

unfailinghelpfulness
Abu
at once
Bakr
began the work of proselytizing,
courage.
which
he
with
conducted
prudence and zeal.
He evidently knew
how
to adapt his message
to his men.
Where
needed, he gave it ; and later,
temporal help was
slaves
where
ill-treated through their allegianceto
were
them
he redeemed
from
Muhammad,
slavery. Uthman,
afterwards
mad's
a Khalif
was
won
through his love of Muhamto
betrothed
She had
been
daughter, Ruqaiyah.
for her
another, but Abu Bakr arranged with Muhammad
her to become
Uthman's
wife.
Others
professed to have
had visions which
made
them ready to receive Muhammad's
had
dissatisfied with
paganism ;
; some
grown
message
influenced
vivid revelations
others were
by Muhammad's
of a sensuous
heaven, and a fieryhell. It would
appear
that
that the new
formed
and
converts
secret
a
society,
first no
at
made
at
public propaganda.
attempt was
Muhammad's
teaching at this time is well represented by
the Surah, with which
tradition
he began his work,
asserts
after the period of hesitatingsilence.1
and

"

Arise

and
Lord

magnify Him
purify it

raiment

The

abomination-

And

bestow

"

for

"

"

thy

!
!

flee it !

favours

not

increase

mantle

thy

warn

Thy
Thy

And

in

enwrapped

Thou,

that

thou

mayest

receive

again

with

Lord

thou

when

S., LXXIV.

Muir

began his^publicwork
translation.

shall be

patiently.

trump on the trumpet,


shall be a distressful
That
day,
devoid
the
of ease."
A day, to
Infidels,

For

there

wait

would
in Mecca.

postpone this Surah


Quotations from

to the
the

time

Quran

when
are

Muhammad

from

RodwelPg

MUHAMMAD

i]

201
.

societybecame known
in Mecca.
Tradition
speaks of Muhammad
going to the
precinctsof the Kabah, and there summoning the people
At

length the

to

join

tumult

But,

in the

defend

inevitable

his

one

beliefs and
himself

action.1

such

any

as

God

no

first martyr

dramatic

have

should

Muhammad

found

was

follower

of Islam.

incident, it

after another
become

Allah."

but

ing
stepsons, in rush-

the

him, perished as

that,

changed his
the prophet

is

There

of Muhammad's

one

without

even

"

formula,

ensued, and

to

of the secret

existence

was

have

to

Muhammad,

of

challengedto justify
safe through the
was

been

himself

of his slave
protectionof his uncle, Abu Talib, but some
were
was
disciples
cruellypersecuted. Henceforth
secrecy
became
a powerful preacher. A
impossibleand Muhammad
tradition says,
When
he talked of the Day of Judgement,
"

his cheeks

blazed, and

fiery." Vehemently
Arabs

and
"

Say
God

He

eternal

alone

the

is

uncle

an

was

polytheism

ideas with

of the

the Godhead.

He

is not

like unto

none

had

who

manner

begetteth not, and


there

his

and

rose,

he denounced

is God

the

And
to

voice

their association of sexual

He

And

his

begotten

him."2

mocked

at

him

he

threatened

vengeance.
"

Let

the

His

wealth

hands

Burned

The
would

shall
I

that

hell.

his

shall he

day

Lahab

of Abu

and

be

come
were

gains
at

the

when

the

perish

dust, for

the

home

would

of

therein
; meet

"

say,

damsels

And

a
1

full

with

swelling breasts,

recompense.

their

peers

cup."*

See Mareoliouth, Mohammed,


p.
*
"8,,cxii.
sn cxi.

120.
"

transgressors is
nor
drink,
any

But, for the God-fearing is a blissful abode,


Enclosed
gardens and vineyards :
And

not.

unbeliever

cooling shall they taste


boilingwater and running sores
"

him

fieryflame."3

No

save

let himself

perish,and

shall avail

s., Lxxvni.

in age

ISLAM

202

[i

of his
length, with Muhammad's
approval, some
dom
persecuted followers fled for safety to the Christian Kingof Abyssinia, but after three months
they returned
that Mecca
the prophet's
because
of a rumour
was
now
on
At

It

side.
had

would

wavered

for

These
And

The

of

leaders
and

was

believed

"

What
This

revelation

from

him

to

came

words, and

his

male

names

Surah

the

now

God

female

partition !a
and

ye

and

progeny

unfair

an

mere

are

back

have

ye

indeed

were

These

expected."1

shall

be

may

promise,
gladly accepted this comhim in the worship of Allah, but
at his concession, and
that night

fresh

took

instead

females,

Quraish

uneasy

that

He

Gabriel.
reads

the

Muhammad

that

opposition to the worship


Kabah, and had said of them :

intercession

joined with

Muhammad
he

their

truly

tradition

his

the

exalted

the

are

in

time

goddesses of

of the three
"

from

appear

fathers

your

named

them

thus."

A later Surah
"

And

verilythey

revealed

we

in

thing

thee

to them

In
woe

that

not

we

case

we

in life and

of

to

LI. 11 (Muir, The

ban

Alluding

-S.,XVII.

in that

thee

to

invent

what
other

some

would

they

case

surely

friend.

settled

thee, thou

would

surely have

woe

hadst

wellnigh leaned

the

those

who

kindness

they

had

76 ff.

(op.cit.,
p. 172

Arab

thee

had

returned

received

uttered
al-Waqidi, these lines were
Life of Mohammad,
80-5).
pp.

to the

made

taste

of

in death."3
from

heard

Abyssinia of
According

caused

from

little.

Muhammad

as

wellnigh beguiled thee

; but

name

And, had

had

to this declension

thee, and

to

our

taken

have

refers thus

dislike

of female
progeny.
this incident

Margoliouth puts
f.).

after

v.

from

there
19

and

20

later" at the removal

and,
of S.,

of the

MUHAMMAD

i]

persecution was
there for safety.

still bitter,others

as

Umar,
became

his
a

reading

the

sister,Fatimah

in the

and

popular

and disappointdifficulty
ment,
tradition

opponents,

tells

us

he

covered
dis-

her

husband, listeningto
scripturereader fled,giving

The

Quran.

bitterest

and

roll to Fatimah.

sacred

her,

fled

of his followers

Muhammad's

of

one

of the

of

In this time

convert.

203

Umar

strugglewounded
filled him

to obtain

sought
her

with

it from

sword.

The

humbly he
asked to read it. His request was
granted and, on reading
A
follower
of the Prophet.
it, he desired to become
a
and
the cause
sturdy soldier,his accession
helped much
him next in importance to Abu
Muhammad
ranked
Bakr.
Muhammad's
appeared dangerously strong,
party now
and as Abu
Talib, though an unbeliever, refused to restrain
his
his nephew, the rest of the Quraish excommunicated
Tradition
has much
clan.
to say of the privationswhich
Muhammad
and his followers suffered, when
congregated
for safety in a ravine
Abu
Talib, and speaks
belonging to
sight of

her

if the

as

blood

ban

lasted

with

for two

wife, Khadijah, died


Talib, who, though

three

or

and

remorse,

years.

Muhammad's

and, shortly after, his uncle Abu


not
a
believer, had stood by him
;

loyally.
Muhammad

determined

at-Taif,but after

to

leave

He

Mecca.

went

first

days was stoned out of the town.


At this time
of disappointment, he was
cheered
by seeing
in a trance
thousands.
of jinns listeningto his message.
And
when
they heard it they said :
discourse.
Verily we have heard a marvellous
It guideth to the truth ; wherefore
in it ;
believed
we
will not henceforth
and we
join any being with our Lord.
He
And
be exalted !
the majesty of our
Lord
may
to

few

"

"

hath
"

the

taken

When

"

no

spouse,

the

servant

jinnsalmost
"

neither
of God

jostledhim
8., LXXIL

by

1. 2. 19.

He

hath

any

offspring."

call upon
their crowds."1

stood

Cp.

8.

up

XLVL

to

28

ff.

Him,

ISLAM

204

It would

appear

but

Mecca,

to

that

Muhammad

condition

on

strangers.1 At

to

[I

At

permitted

was

that

confined

he

last there

his proselytising

to him

came

to return

an

tunity
oppor-

men
pilgrimage he met some
from Yathrib, who
were
impressed by his teaching. They
could not promise Muhammad
safety in their city,for it
but
of civil war,
the following year
time
was
a
they
tribes that were
with representativesof the two
returned
at strife,and
they all took an oath to obey Muhammad
back
with
his teaching. Muhammad
sent
and
them
a
teacher, and awaited with anxiety the result of the mission.
seemed
The
been
to have
straitened,
prophet's means
but he proclaimed to his followers God's promise to provide

of

success.

"

for them.

We

ask

the

of thee

not

find thine

to

for thee, and

own

vision
pro-

happy issue shall


be to piety."2 It was
there
at this period of depression
carried
in a vision to the temple of
that Muhammad
was
conducted
thence
Jerusalem, and
by angels, prophets,
At length the month
and patriarchsto the throne of God.3
learnt
of pilgrimage again came
round, and Muhammad
of his cause
at Yathrib.
to his joy of the great success
of the Jews
It is possible that the presence
there, and
easier the
their expectation of a
Messiah, made
clamation
proGod's prophet, and their teachof Muhammad
ing
as
have familiarised the people
must
of the unity of God
"

with

will

we

Muhammad's

great advantage
an

at

Judaism, for

over

whilst

message
it

was

an

Islam

had

Arab

and

Muhammad
met
religion.About seventy converts
Mecca, and these neophytes took the pledge that
the

administered

addition.
force

Yathrib.
of

central

not

alien

been

by

provide

They
of
A

Mecca
1

Muhammad

long

So

before, but

promised

now

arms.

had

year

Surah

taunted

with

defend

to

significant

their

determined

now

his
justifies
Muhammad

decision.

132,

"

prophet
to

The

because

he

See S., XVII.

1.

Margoliouth,op. cit.,182.

8.t XX.

had

go

to

people
worked

MUHAMMAD

i]
"

signs,but

no

He

and

will

"

They

not

the God

this

had

pledge,
secretly until

there

away
with

their

"

Mercy."
life and

Him."

to

Chastisement

grievous

more

stole

Abu

and
believers

only

Yathrib

adherents

Muhammad
the

families, were

from

emissaries

Muhammad's

their

given

turneth

will ;

of the next."1
after the

weeks

three

or

of

He

whom

who

present

shall be the chastisement

Two

mislead

him

Himself

on

in

them

will

truly

giu'deto

believe

awaiteth

God

205

Bakr,

left.

For

while, Muhammad
delayed to leave, but at length the
Quraish grew
suspicious,and he had to flee hurriedly
from
the city of his birth, where
for thirteen
years he had
laboured

safety in
From

the

as
a

cityof

At

days,

the

and

fled to
date

he

sought

Yathrib.
their

Medina, al-Madlnah,

becomes

now

era,

the

City,

Prophet.2

Muhammad

4.

Bakr

migration (Hijrah}2 Muslims

Yathrib

the

Abu

of Allah.

and, after three

cave

this

and

prophet

Medina, A.D.

at

Muhammad

622-30, A.H.

1-8.

obscure
longer an
prophet, but a powerful chieftain,wieldingdespoticpower.
the
as
Justly do Muslims
regard Medina
birthplaceof
first took its characteristic
their religionfor here Islam
form
militant
as
a
organisation,relying for its success
less

Medina,

It is

to

to

erect

8., XIII.

The

the

no

sword.

deal in detail with


the

as

the events

of his power
religioushistory. One

place of worship

of these

story of Muhammad's

consolidation

than

on

unnecessary,
the

and

secular
was

impossible to
and

years,
raids

than

the word

on

was

which

belong rather
of his

may

be

to

first acts

regarded

as

-21. 29. 34.

Muhammadan

era

of

is

usuallyindicated
"

as

A.H.

anno

hegirae(hegirabeing

the precise moment


of the
Prophet's emigration,but from the beginning of the Arabian year in which the
Emigration took place,that is to say, from a point about six weeks earlier."
the

"

According

Wellhausen
p.

form

inaccurate

313).

to

the

makes

hijrah).

ordinary view
the

year

bedn

It dates

the
in

not

from

began on 16 July, A.D.


April (The Cambridge Medieval
year

622

"

but

History,II.

ISLAM

206

the

first

Mosque of Islam.
his private quarters.

he had
he had

of Abu

daughter
three

ten

he

had

of

found
of

many

and

his side the

to

influential.

Jews

Were

believingin

one

God, and

Muhammad

had

claimed

accept

him

lamented

the

in

who

hoped

Medina

be ?

But

Messiah, mocked

the Jews
at

his

win

to

numerous

were

"

People of
prophets whose

also

not

only

him

gave

the

Book,"

successor

refused

to

failures,and

and, as we shall see, Muhammad


fiercelyand, in the end, treated them

his successes,

denounced
with

their

as

his

been

had

as

hampered by
people of Medina,

the

with

to

soon

himself

who

they

she

regards, although

Hypocrites," as the Quran calls them,


nominal
allegiance. At first Muhammad

over

affianced

been

of age, but

years

Enthusiastic

many.

Muhammad

lukewarmness
"

only

was

became

welcome,

Mosque,
Soon
after Khadijah's death
he marries Ayishah, the little
whom

to

of this

end

one

first place in Muhammad's

the

rivals

At

; now

Bakr,

She

years.

gained
her

Saudah

married

[i

them

great severity.

The

Mecca

refugees from
earning a livelihood

in
naturally found difficulty
in a strange city. Muhammad
sought
to relieve their needs
by institutinga close brotherhood
between
them
and the
Helpers," the loyal believers of
him
it is
to their city. But
Medina, who had summoned
clear
that
the
from
Refugees suffered much
poverty.
The Jews refused to help them, and their positionbecame
of livelihood
remained
desperate. One means
robbery
Muhammad
small expeditions
sent out some
by violence.
to raid caravans,
but they failed to bring back any booty.
These
have
shocked
not
attempts at freebooting would
"

"

the

Arabs, for

months

of truce

in Arabia.

change
Abdallah
the raid

The

of

when

alone

had
such

failure of these

policy

attacked
was

far Muhammad

so

and
a

caravan

violence

was

the sacred
condemned

early expeditions led


of

company

in

observed

his followers

sacred

successful,for in the months

month.
of truce

to

under

Naturally
no

such

207

MUHAMMAD

i]
attack

would

be

expected,

and

considerable

this way
Muhammad
in

this
ordered
Whether
secured.
booty was
it.
outrage is not clear,1 but it is clear that he condoned
As usual, a revelation
ing
came.
They will ask thee concernis
in the Sacred
therein
Month.
war
Say : To war
in
is worse
of God
bad, but to turn aside from the cause
the sight of God."2
sufficient.
The
permissiongiven was
The booty was
;
divided, and the prisonersput to ransom
when
next
a raid was
organised,there was no lack of those
"

eager to engage in it.


Soon
after, a richly-ladencaravan

Syria under
was
likelyto
unusual

The

and
sent

that

the

but

their

from

Learning that Muhammad


in force, Abu
Sufyan hurried on by an
for help.
sent
to Mecca
a
messenger
out
their army,
a thousand
strong, but
Sufyan.

attack

route

Meccans

learnt

Abu

returning

was

caravan

was

Some

safe.

counselled

ment,
retire-

disregarded. The forces met


at Badr.
Muhammad
had
far fewer
him,
troops under
but they were
well disciplinedand
unified by common
devotion
to
their
Prophet, and, unlike the Meccans,
they had no scruple in killingtheir kinsmen, and at the
end of the day the Muslims
the victory. The victory
won
is recognised
a turning-pointin the historyof Islam, and
was
such
The
as
by Muslims.
Quran speaks of it as the Day
of Deliverance, and tells us of the thousand
angels whom
God sent
to help,3 for, as
the first Muslim
biographer
tells us, at other
battles angels have
strengthened men
without
themselves
but at Badr
they themselves
fighting,
advice

was

fought."4
Muhammad

Some
who
triumph.
to satirise him
were
assassinated, and against such
dared
none
soon
protest. But his prosperity was
Meccans
had
imperilled. The
sought to avoid
1

For

S., II. 214.

"

Ibn

returned

the Muslim

Ishaq

in Ibn

tradition

in

that he did, see


"
S., VIII. 9.

Ilisham, translated

by

Margoliouth,
G.

Weil, II.

dared
crimes
to

conflict

op. tit.,p. 243.

336.

be

ISLAM

208

[i

The
route.
by sending their next caravan
by another
the caravan,
Muslims, hearing of this, attacked
captured
the goods, and only spared the lives of their two
prisoners
Meccans
condition
that they accepted |Islam. The
on
either fightor starve.
that they must
saw
They chose the

former, and

force

Medina

under

at Uhud.

The

Muslim

and

of these

towards

some

series of
At

army

This

pillagethe camp.
and
attacked
the
life

be

threw

who

had

out

that

Muslims

he
to

disaster.
Medina.

did

revelations

and

it

in alliance with

brieflyto

the

Meccans

review

not

were

re-establish

battle

was

ious.
victor-

were

the
of

Muhammad's

rear.

of martyrs,

devotion

until

him

could

he

wounded, and a Quraish,


cried
resembled
Muhammad,
The

desperate valour and


At night time
they

next

this

the

front

who

When
was

from

was

Meccans

strong,

champions had been


fled. The Muslims
proceeded to
cavalry its chance
gave the Meccan

in

man

first the

slain Muhammad.

had

The

fresh

thousand

met

of their

several

Muhammad

killed

armies

two

the Muslims

in which

Muslims

themselves

rescued.

defeat

At

only preserved through

was

who

Sufyan. The
force was
only a

retreated.

advanced

men

Abu

singlecombats
length,when

killed,the Meccan

thousand

three

of

press

the Jews.

Muhammad's

in

explain

confidence

ally
Natur-

away

the

Muslims.1

of the

against Medina

in force

appeared

complete
escaping to

their attack.
to

the

from

succeeded

needed

the

them

saved

roused

cry

It is necessary
therefore
in
relations with the Jews

period.

At

Mecca,

Muhammad

referred

prophets, and spoke

of himself

When

to

he

first

came

Medina

often

to

the

Jewish

the last of the succession.

as

he tolerated

the

Jews

and

"

Let there be," he said,


sought recognitionfrom them.
no
compulsion in religion."2Like the Jews, his followers
"

turned

keep

to

the

Jerusalem

Day
1

in prayer,
of Atonement
as

See 8., III. 195-200.

and
a

he

time

bade
of

his followers

fasting,but

"", II.

257.

the

209

MUHAMMAD

i]

he

claims, and

his

rejected

Jews

he

religion,which
of the religionof Abraham
restoration
falsified.
had
They
perverted and
hostile to

miracles,
worked
he

The

them.

and

and

miracles

ordered

that

yet

prayer

substituted
A

Ramadan.

Jewish

of the

should

be

tribes2

another

tribe

refused, and

were

of

returned

Jews

and

when

property.

demanded

money

Medina.

They

they capitulated

when

besieged, and

wealthiest

their

still left in

of

month

the

all

length

ment
of Atone-

Day

fast of the

length they surrendered, seized


After the repulse at Uhud, Muhammad

had

towards

directed, not

at

from

At

Prophet had
he
quarrelled with the
at Medina, besieged them,

Badr

him

who

them.1

for the

Jews

of

prophets

was

the

this

demanded

by

fast, the

new

after

month

from

victorious

slain

Mecca, and

Jerusalem, but towards


he

been

founded,

and

of

them

reminded

he

increasingly

became

of their property.
lives, but robbed
to
refused
Another
had
Jewish
tribe, who
help their
allied themselves
in their time of need, now
co-religionist
Medina
with
the
on
Quraish, and Abu
Sufyan marched
The
with
of 10,000 men.
Muslims, however,
an
army
remained
the defensive,and he had to retire,as his army
on
was

had

their

granted

were

sufferingfrom
Abu

rendered

lack

of

forage.

Sufyan

The

Jews
He

assistance.

no

apparently
had

asked

the Sabbath
and
help, but it was
they could not
the Quraish departed, the Muslims
marched
fight. When
against the Jews, who asked that they might be allowed
to
at
last,
refused, and
emigrate, but permission was
through starvation, they had to capitulate. They asked
tribe with
whom
protection from a Medinese
they had
their

earlier

that

been

one

of that

chose

received.
doubtless

allied.

All that

tribe should

Sad, who
The

was

judgement
expected. The
! ", III. 180.

Muhammad
decide

their

smarting
he gave
men,
*

would

was

the

seven

or

Banu

was

mad
fate,and Muham-

under

Tbe

grant

wound

one

Muhammad

eight

Kainuka.

he had

hundred

ISLAM

210

number,

in

into

sold

husband

Muhammad

The

took

Jews

to

of Jews

Islam.

pretence of

and

distance

who

as

had

not

family

an

The

excuse.

tribute

as

pay

became

his bride

The

taking

stage

world.3

from

her,

marry

Medina,

with

town

not

adopted

with
the

even

policy which

remain

to

were

themselves

defended

their

was

into contact

come

in

pation
occu-

these

On

produce.

of Khaibar

marks,

Islam

who

in

he

The

Muhammad,

widow

is alluded

to in

by hastening on

to remarry

until

p. 362.

death,
husband,

to

and

some

Margoliouth

the

attacked

on

the

he

after her

ing
attack-

was

at Medina

Jews

; but

the

claims

the

sole pretext that

evidently
such

summoned
message

25. 26.
S., XXXIII.
the marriage, violated

months

lived

his

Muhammad
and

says,

whole

indeed

had

Meccans, he

flouted

the

to

menace

of to accept Islam, for the

incident

Mohammed,

his enemies, whilst

were

world-success,

knew

whom

man

of her

Muhammad

attacking

opposed his plans


were
people of Khaibar
-Muslims.
non
they were
for

of the

members

Dr.

as

became

the last six years

had

now

male

brothers.2

which

at

For

those

The

the bride of the murderer

"

her

plunder, but

killed,

faith.

Jews

half

coveted.

her father, and

not

of a
killed,yet Safiyah, the widow
be
tortured
had
to
just caused

were

Muhammad

as

yet

besieged the

Muhammad

vessels

on

been

"

one

the

Raihanah,

they were
promised protection all save the members
silver
believed to have hidden some
family,who were

terms

of

considerable

length Muhammad
precedent. The Jews

in

executed

just

could

Jewish

her

At

.bravely.

had

He

children

and

women

slaughtered,or enslaved, had been false


though under
great provocation. At

Muhammad

became

the

concubine.

renounce

thus

Muhammad,
Khaibar, at a

as

to

colony

relatives

male

and

she refused

as

killed

slavery ; and this butchery was


presence.1 One of the women,

Muhammad's
whose

be

to

were

[i

husband's

the

law

death.

looked
rulers

which

which

he

forbade

MUHAMMAD

i]

proclaimed

for Arabs

not

was

211

but

only,

for

of every

men

race.

Before
that

Islam

Mecca

triumph in Arabia, it was


be won.
Already Muhammad
when
with
the Quraish, and

could

should

the

years' truce
lesser pilgrimage

two

thousand

ten

with

their

had

agreement,

retired

completion of the ceremonies, the Muslims


the
they left, Muhammad
city, but, before
a
lovely widow,
marriage with Maimunah,
of

This

of his uncles.2

with

On

country.
had

the

ward

of

time

the

in accordance

the

to

made

had

Mecca

entered

its inhabitants

after

followers

he

round,

came

necessary

leave

to

arranged
who

visit increased

the

was

his

prestige
he soon
felt himself
and popularit}',and
strong enough to
He
take
Mecca.
found
a
pretext for breaking the truce
broken
out
had
between
in a quarrel which
two
tribes,
allied to him, the other with the Meccans.
of which
was
one
He

one

Mecca

towards

advanced

with

an

Abu

himself

Sufyan, realisingthat
embraced
Islam, and the

without

serious

men.

images
sanctity of the
the

the

near

Kabah

the

came

resistance
Muslims

thousand

useless,

was

Mecca

entered

resistance.

The

there

of ten

army

call

Meccans,

Kabah

preserved and,

was

to

demolished,

were

prayer.

who

from

the

its summit,

amnesty

generous

bidden

but

was

destroy all their


rewarded
idols.
His
was
magnanimity
by the devotion
had
of the
Meccans, who
so
long rejected his warnings
and
and
previously had
eight years
compelled him
flee for safety. Mecca
his followers
to
made
the
was
became
its most
soon
spiritual capital of Islam, and
given

to

zealous

to

adherent.

scholars

Some

mission

were

(e.g.T.

W.

hold

that

from

the first Muhammad

Arnold, Preaching of Islam,

p.

was

29

conscious

ff.),but

the

of

proof

world

for

this

incomplete.

seems
*

This

concubines.

was

his last

marriage.

His

harim

now

numbered

ten

wives

and

two

ISLAM

212

Settlement

5. The
The

Arab

tribes, and

Muhammad
he

had

onslaught. At first the


more
numerous
they were
end they were
victorious
positionwas now
there
A

missed.

son

concubine.

naturally

Muslims

and

born

was

Muhammad

rich

gained

old

and

mad's
Muham-

booty.

of prosperity

this time

at

joy he had so long


of Mary, his Coptic

the

man

to

their

meet

enemies, but in the

their

secure,

to

other

defeated, though

were

than

alarmed

Mecca

leave

to

the

to

came

630-2, A. H. 8-11.

A.D.

of Arabia,
of

success

[i

him

called

him

after

Ibrahim,

the

But
patriarchwhose religionhe was
claiming to restore.
the prophet's domestic
been
to have
soon
happiness seems
clouded.
The unfair favour shown
to Mary, a slave,excited
the jealousy of his wives, led by the j^oung and imperious
to his aid, and
Ayishah. Once again a revelation came
he

told that

was

that, if

he

better

"

of

His

repented

fasting,both

Ibrahim

sorrow,

and

would

known

to

and

men

virgins."1

complainings, and

of their

domestic

restored, but, to Muhammad's


sixteen
died, when
only about

thus

was

Lord

the

observant
wives

his wives

free to divorce

was

give him in exchange


believers, devout, penitent, obedient,

so,

wives,

peace
"

did

he, too,

great
months

old.2

Earlier, Muhammad
but
religions,
submitting to
non-Muslims

by
"

the

God
*
2

rule

and

pay
is

months

the

months

God

wherever

but

large numbers
embracing Islam, he

Arabs

in

were

forbad

authorised

and

Kabah,

if

and

lay

are

ye
wait

passed,

then

kill those

shall find them


for them

they shall convert,

obligatory alms,

Gracious,

8., LXVI.
Muir,

the

sacred

besiege them,

So

eleven

the

visit

with

of ambush
and

that

of other

toleration

counselled

version
con-

the sword.

gods

them,

his
to

When'

other

now

had

and

let them

who
and

join
seize

kind
every
observe
prayer,

with

go their

way,

for

Merciful."3

5.

cit.,p. 429.
According to
old (op.cit.,
p. 449).

op.

Margoliouth, the
"

S., IX.

5.

child

died

when

213

MUHAMMAD

i]
Jews

and

became

Christians

tolerated, but only if they

to be

were

tributarypeoples.

"

Make

have

war

been

and

who

given
forbid

of those

such

upon

believe

as

that

not

in

not

The
*

say,
their

Jews

say,
Messiah

The
mouths

old

God

In

the

'

do

Ezra
is

son

son

with

following year
Greater
Pilgrimage, and
one
(the Pilgrimage) was

then

of God,'
God.'

of

resemble

They

battle

is

be

and

Such

humbled.

the
the

of the

Christians

sayings

in

infidels

of
saying
How
are
they misguided!" *

the

them

in the

or

forbidden, and who


profess not the
until they pay tribute out of hand, and
"

the

whom

God,

God

which

Scriptures
last day,
His
and
Apostle have
profession of the truth,

to

Muhammad
henceforth

himself

made

make

the

the

Hajj
of the solemn
obligationsof a
Medina
returned
to
He
Muslim.
apparently in good
taken ill with fever,
later he was
health, but two months
So
and after some
days of illness,died in Ayishah's arms.
of sixty-three,the great Arab
at the age
passed away,
Muslims
the greatest
chief whom
as
everywhere revere
of the one
and the founder
of men
perfectreligion.
mad's.
MuhamNo life has been so variously characterised
as
for long made
Christian
of Islam
The
menace
writers ready to believe the worst
about
him, and to judge
who
endured
him not only harshly but unjustly. This man,
of his mission, was
of hardship in the interests
ten
years
could
not
not
mere
a
impostor. An entirely false man
of a great religion. Carlyle
the
have
founder
become
it seems
Yet
was
impossible to reconcile
right there.
the Muhammad
of history the ideal figureof some
with
of
his admirers.
Thus, in his brilliant apologiafor the prophet,
All speaks of his life as
consecrated, first
Syed Ameer
and
last,to the service of God and of humanity. Is there
another
be compared
to
to
his, with all its trials and
temptations ? Is there another which has stood the fire
of the
? "2
unscathed
But
out
the
come
world, and
to

"

8., IX. 29. 30.

The

Spiritof Islam,

p. 110.

ISLAM

214

character

he

Muslim

early

whatever,
of

meaning
modern

of

conventions

cool

standards,

place

in

is

religion,

he

as

He

thus

saint, the

It

is

with

fear

will

the

is
e.g.

wife

with

an
4

"

not

really

Zaid.

oracle

Goldziher,

the

(S.,

then

equitably,
the

adopted

XXXIII.

Vorlesungen

of

no

has

said,

not

wish

became
in

him

light

which

in

way

the

only
"

character

marry

up

Ibn

Ishaq

(op. cit., II.

actuated

to

Ameer

only."

one

who

concubines
was

to

to-day.

did

sees

wives
argues

341

altruistic

(op. cit., p.

four
AH

by

p.

if

that

190).

they
this

polygamy.

sacred
son

of

authorised

are

prohibition
of

his

sacrifice

believers

made

or

of

man.

matter-of-fact

Muhammad

that

show

and

that

ages

perfect

married

to

act

violation

the
of

the

or

undergoing

was

later

his

founder
world

prophet

and

scholars

saint

was

of

compare

attempt

S., IV.

in

command

He

piety

to

be

to

Muhammad

"

and

they

himself

the

women

All's

Thus

is

instructive

Ameer

motives,

feel

the

Islamic

of

greatest

thaumaturge,

the

mentions

the

and

men,

the

as

in

His

Alexander
of

that,

his

and

tribes.

with

force

active

an

regarded."4
It

prince.

of

in

his

By

man.

fervour,

masters

theirs

into

judged

was,

severed

ranks

supreme

than

still

is

not

He

the

kindly

of

moral

lapses

history

religious

nation

secure.

greater

one

did

be

to

is

among

influence

But,

made

history

Napoleon

"

he

his

by

the

occasional

and

humane

obvious

cultivated,

against

of

ing
explain-

the

to

offences
and

in

the

by

by

or

repugnant
few

given

reached

only

Muhammad

genius,

wisdom,

is
a

that

not

tradition,

country,3
the

incommunicable

is

early

from

his

vengeance,

Arab

and

Quran,'2'

Apart

man.

savage

in

the

is

prophet

biographers,1

away

by

the

assigns

[i

months
a

"

of

truce

which

marriage

1-3

and

37).

iiber

den

Islam,

p.

21.

and
he

his

felt

marriage
it

necessary

with

Zainab,
to

justify

II."

FOUNDATIONS

THE

Muhammad

WHEN

Muslims

were

their

Prophet

they

even

when

or

for

the

of

the

of

thus

in

and

familiar

most

Quran,

the

Muslims
It

the

is

that

Islamic

from

analogy

first

the

Quran

an

and

based

his

For

of

it

all

the

of

the

the

of
Quran

in

men."
the

215

Faith

and

we

to
are

branches,

see

the

angel

compiled
tells
of

search
told
white

of
next

us

Quran

Zaid,

Differences
of Islam,

book.

the

was

ordered

Prophet,

palm

on

from

.number

battle,

together,
"

memory

place

in

by

for

Tradition

the

at

and

used

Quran

know.

not

killed

amanuensis

compilation

the

do

Islam

other

any

receive

the

alarmed

been

bring

and

bones,

How

we

Khalif,

had

who

been

Allah.1

to

himself
to

of

Recitation,"

applied

professed

form

present

"

Muhammad

he

book

sacred

or

never

which

from

or

reciters
had

were

consensus

of

arguments

the

Lesson,"

is

which

Gabriel,
its

"

word

word

for

name

the

this

revelations

in

or

Quran.

The
is

the

by

the

to

foundations

three

traditions

varied,

made

was

state.

theologians.

authoritative

The

appeal

in

life,

private

by

sometimes

find

to

military

great

life, but,

to

of

of

acts

failed

supplemented

these

completed

were

guide

they

of

needs

these

and

words

minute

the

be

as

meaning,

Believers,

1.

for

to

and,

Prophet

orthodoxy

compiled,

was

complex

had

ambiguous

of

and

the

in

incomplete.

was

comprehensive

directions

new

Quran

The

had

ISLAM

system

that

sure

Quran

the

unambiguous

his

died

Pious

it

OF

out

that

who
the
he

stones,

reading

section.

ISLAM

216

the

crept in, and

the work

to revise

recension

This

all other
of the

third
with

copies were

help of

the

the

know

the

three

authoritative

one

Whatever

destroyed.

be assumed

present Quran,

it may
of the

substantiallythose

appointed Zaid
prominent Quraish.

Khalif, Uthman,

made

was

[ii

in which

circumstances

be

that

The

Prophet.

text, and
the

origin

its words

are

is
difficulty

his words

to

uttered.

were

The
compiled into Surahs*
compilers
the Surahs
of seeking to arrange
of the Quran, instead
them
their
in accordance
with
chronologically,arrange
of the Surahs
are
clearlycomposite, it is
length. As some
than
scholars to do more
impossible for modern
suggest
This seems
their correct order.
to be, roughly, the reverse
of the traditional, for the terse, short, chapters belong
usually to the early part of his prophetic career, whilst the
detailed
more
likely*to
longer and more
chapters are
of his old age.
reflect the legislative
utterances
All sections
of Islam
recognise the authority of the
His

speeches

Quran

are

found

have

: none

it in itself sufficient.

The, Traditions.

2.

The

Quran does

not

provide

State

which

ruled

required by
-over
by men

and

the

spheres.

was

secular

enough
And

to

the

Men

the

was

still treasured

revealed
prophet, which
(sunnah2), and the pious would

of

the

in

order
1

homily
2

"

originof

The

XXIV.

Sunnah

is

the

"A

Surah
is often

and

which
taken

is often
we

to

in its technical

hadlth,

"

tradition."

have
mean

used
sent

sense,

In

with

private believer.
the

meet

traditions

down
sacred

(See Goldziher,

the

the

and

tradition,but
"

full

(hadlth)

his

is still uncertain.

word

spiritual

ordinary conduct
undertake
long journeys
traditions
of the Prophet,

authentic

discourse, and

or

custom,"

stated

learn

to

the

did not

Quran

as

militant,

its instructions

were

of the

Church

in both

supreme

Nor

such
legislation,

activities of the

compilation

Islam.

of

needs

were

all the

cover

thus

who

detailed

Quran

verb

"

it
sent

evidently means
down,"

e.g.

S.,

sanctioned."
Sunnah
"

itself is used

; the form
Vorlesungenliber den
custom

to denote

in which

it is

Islam, p. 41.)

FOUNDATIONS

n]
there

for

of

Khalif

he

remarked

have

looked

he

second

the

Umar,

as

Qurdns

his

not

divinelyinspired,

was

Thus

validity.

permanent
is said to

said

and

did

217

belief that

deepening

all that

only, but
and

the

was

ISLAM

OF

the

toward

black

stone

at

Mecca,

only a

stone

and

canst

If I had
have

not

in

so, but

done

importance

Khalif

first four

of the

Prophet
of the

As

s.

that
do

; canst

art

harm.

no

I do it."1

Prophet

Next

is the Sunnah

natural, there

was

thou

thee, I would

kissed

of that

account

Sunnah

the

to

benefit

no

the

on

I know

God,

By

grant

that

known

not

"

much

was

At length2 six
diversityin regard to these traditions.
books, compiled by theologians of third century (A.H.),
were
(Sunriis)as the
accepted by the Traditionalists
"

six

books."

correct

of Opinion (Ijmd).

3. Consensus
The

orthodox

tradition
shall

never

lay
assigns to

opinion was
the
Prophet,

it

At

in the

felt that
all be

were

the

those

mistaken.

had

to

be

people

consensus

had

Later

of

known

the

meaning.
very
from

laws

derived

My

Companions

who

technical
gained a more
of the Prophet had
become
often contradictory,and
yet

traditions

"

first

of the

views

and

consensus,

words

in error."

was

not

the

consensus,

traditions

and

as

ijmd,

on

Muhammad

sought

could

Muhammad

and

stress

be unanimous

of

ijmd,

much

word
The

numerous,

the

for the

Quran
istration
admin-

of the

Different schools
growing Islamic state.
jurisprudence arose, which sought to bring order out
Their
chaos.
Only four of these schools survive.

of
of

founders, who
A.H.,

are

date

from

the

second

called the four Imams.3

and

Their

third

centuries

systems differ only

E. Sell,The Faith of Islam, p. 20.


In the 7th century. (A. H. Goldziher, op. cit.,
p. 42.)
ollowingare the four schools of jurisprudence( fiqh).
sfcTheJf
in Turkey, Central
(1) The School of Abu
Hanifah, which is dominant
Asia,
Xorth
and
India.
in the Straits Settlements, the
(2) The School of al-Shafil,which is dominant
1

the
Indian Archipelago,

Malabar

Coast, and

Lower

Egypt.

ISLAM

218

in

detail,

and

their

agree,

which

ijmd,

all

regarded

agreement

forms

are

is

of

consensus

opinion,
orthodox

all

for

authority

they

Where

orthodox.

as

infallible

an

[n

Muslims.

4.

Inference

Many

as

could
and

by Analogy

not

the

cover

orthodox,

legitimate

as

learned

the
have

able

were

in

enjoined

similar

particular

recognised
it

By

(qiyds).

would
in

decision

his

by

case,

of

majority

Muhammad

what

life,

public

was

analogy

deduce

to

By

ally
natur-

some

instance.

Ijmd

and

systems

of

qiyds

consult

As

law

the

"

have

And

issued

be

to

the

as

four

in

their

guided
of

the
the

assigned

are

are

the

cannot

scholars

by

people

my

Muslims

have

Muhammad

to

of

of

they

used

be

to

now

majority

great

of

compilation

themselves,

learned

The

the

judgements

schools.

words,

in

and

the

books

authoritative

various

used

were

jurisprudence,

interpretation.

by

of

method

they

and

private

of argument

method

one

the

"

of

Prophet,

early required.

were

only

the

detail

every

casuists

expert

of

traditions

the

were

(Qiyds).

of

prophets

Israel."1

(3)
Lower

The

whose

and

School

School

fatwa.

Malik

of

Ahmad

adherents

Every orthodox
general, guided
1

of

ibn

Anas,

which

is dominant

in

Islamic

Africa,

outside

Egypt.

(4)

in

The

Goldziher,
In

Muslim

op.

are

ibn

found

Muslim

by

its

is

expected

and

to

belong

to

than

the

others,

Arabia.

Eastern

of

one

these

schools

and

to

be,

enactments.

cit., p.
lands

Central

influential

is less

which

Hanbal,
in

70.

official

The

muftis

scholar
are

is

called

provided

by

mufti

the

and

State.

his

decision

THE*

III."

PRACTICAL

AND

FAITH

ISLAM

OF

of

creed

THE

is

Muhammad
its

around

faith

is

is

in

up

but

short

the

been

has

articles

Scriptures, Prophets,

Angels,

but

simple,

theology

six

and

Allah,

and

of

body

great

God

no

messenger,"

his

is summed

God,

There

explanation

which

evolved,

"

Islam,

DUTIES

Muslim

of

and

Judgement,

Decrees.

God.

1.

We
of

Allah.

used

Allah

alone

well

its

"

prefix,

Merciful."

the

Allah,

belong

and
to

of
These

to

are

be

Allah

Quran,
ascribed

sought
by

are

given by

later

in

the

discuss,

Al

Ildh,

U.

W.

the

the

codify,

or

God.

Ilah

Old

The

he

"

the

the

out

applies
as

to

ness
richGod.

ninety-nine

beautiful

names"

were

unwilling,

Muslims

to

properly

more

Muhammad's

corresponds

Testament,

bring

names

of these

of

thought

which
to

has

one

Compassionate,

traditionalists

third

Quran.

the

the

God

to

nature

less than

in

alone,

but

Muhammad's
as

he

unconditioned

Surah

every

word

reigns

of

Allah,

is

divine

found

first, to

at

of

Muhammad

but

number,

and

as

the

God

longer

no

The

progeny.
that

spoke

must

men

almighty,

name

feelings

names

or

merciful,

the

in

man.

the

is

Exalted

find

we

activities

is

In

and

emphasise
God

yet he

and

God,
consort

Muhammad

vividness

was

to

rival.1

power,

what

having

as

served

without

in

with

of him

speak

as

seen

have

teaching
Hebrew

Eloah,

the

about

Mighty

one.
1

of

See

these

H.

names,

see

Stanton,

Hughes,

The

Teaching of the Quran, p.


Dictionary of Islam, pp. 141,
219

33.
2.

For

complete

list

ISLAM

220

God,
and

felt that

they

as

discussion

such

early history of

The

irreverent.

[in

unprofitable

was

Muslim

heresies

is

in confutation
of
that it was
appear
their
orthodox
had at length to overcome

obscure, but it would

them, that

the

reluctance

to

they
they

that

of the

existence

different views

said

others

the

to

as

were

Some

Seven

thus

were

and

there

God.

about

ledge,
assigned to God : Life, Power, KnowWill, Hearing, Seeing, and Speech. All were

attributes

agreed

doctrine

their

state

as

first four

are

eternal, and

are

eternal

but

of their existence.

mode

to the

attributes,but

of the

of

essence

distinct from

His

God

essence,

Free Thinkers,1 denied


Mutazilites, who were
of
that the attributes were
eternal,for only to the essence
whilst

God

the

last three

eternitybe assigned. In regard to the


still sharper divisions.
attributes, there were
that
God
declared
orthodox
really speaks and
can

is His

Quran

eternal

and

originatedwords

God

the

and

Quran

difference

not

was

of view

The

word.

was

Mutazilites

Thus

the

that

the
this.

denied

sounds, but did not Himself speak,


eternal, but created, and this

serious

enough

angels

is

to

long

cause

strife

bloodshed.

and

2. The

Angels.
of

Greatest

all the

through

messenger,

whom

In the

his revelations.

Gabriel

Muhammad

Quran he

(Jibrdil),God's
received

is called the

many

of

holy spirit.

With
him
strengthened Jesus.2
Muslim
thought commonly associates Izrdil,who receives
in whose
at death, Israfil,
the souls of men
charge is the
Trumpet of Doom, and Michael (Mikdl], whose task it is
what
In the
to provide living things with
they need.
read
that
the angels are
the messengers
of
Quran, we
it was,

He

Modern

denotes
"

Indian

Ali,claim

Ameer

"

read, who

we

those

", II. 81.

reformers

to be

who

of Muslim

faith

representatives
to-day of
separatethemselves,"

and

practice,such

these Mutazilites.

as

Sir

The word

Syed
itself

ARTICLES

in]

OF

FAITH

221

giftedwith two, three, or four pairsof wings.1


in a day of fifty
They are described as ascending to Him
thousand
help
years.2 They fight against devils, and
believers to overcome
their enemies.
They bear up the
for
throne
intercede
of God, they chant
His praises,and
believers,imploring for them
forgiveness and that they
be kept from the pains of hell.3
may
Prominent
also are
the jinns (genii). These are spirits,
Muhammad
have
some
bad, some
good. As we
seen,
of them
believed in him.4
Unbelieving
taught that some
is called in the
Satan
jinns will be punished in hell.
is spoken of
he
Quran, Shaitan, or Iblis.5 Sometimes
a
as
mand
jinn, or as one of the angels,who disobeyed the comof Allah that he should
instead
and
worship Adam
and
man
tempted him, so that God in judgement made
Allah, and

the

are

devil enemies.

his work

3. The
In

The

devil

has

under

him

devils who

do

of evil.

Scriptures.
the

Quran

Scripture is The
in distinction
the
from
word, Quran,
Writing (al-kitdb)
which means
a recitation,
or reading. The
Writing (al-kitdb)
most
frequently denotes the Quran itself,but is also used
in reference
to other
scriptures,and especiallyto the Law
of Moses, the Psalms
the Evangel (Injil)
of David, and
of Jesus.
It is clear that Muhammad
was
greatly
very
indebted
to the Old
Testament, and he is able also to use
familiar phrases from
the New
ledge
Testament, but his knowof the Bible was
inaccurate, and apparently derived
from hearsay. Thus
he confuses
Mary (Miriam),the sister
of Aaron, with Mary, the mother
of Jesus,6 and only in one
1

s., xxxv.

S., XL.

7.

Shaitan

is

Greek

the

i.

diabdos.

word

common

*
"

modification

of the
"

s., LXX.

3.

S.-,LXXII.
Hebrew

S., XIX.

for

14.

Satan, whilst
29. 30.

Iblis

comes

from

the

ISLAM

222

he

make

place

does

When

the

proof
they

of Muhammad's
"

People

verbal

of

Book

[in
from

quotation

refused

to

in their

see

Bible.1

the

Scriptures
because

them

claims, he denounced

"

in
Scriptures with their tongues
in
order that the people might believe
that
things were
their Scriptureswhich
The
not.2
were
early commentators
preted
take this in its natural
meaning, that the Jews misintertheir scriptures,or falselyclaimed
to find things
in them
view
of later
which
were
missing. The common
orthodoxy is that the written text of the Bible has been
wilfullycorrupted, and in this way its discrepancieswith
the Quran can
be explained.
All previous Scriptures3 are
abrogated by the Quran.
This is a revelation given in Arabic
and imparted by Allah

tortured

the

Muhammad.

to

hold

that

of it

were

Muslims
is the

the

by

the

Book

final revelation

The

the

as

in Arabic

Muhammad.

to

of miraculous

Muslims

and

Portions

uncreated.

perfection.

of all sects

are

It

prepared

of its teaching.
infallibility

Prophets.

Muslims
some

Allah

Muslims

orthodox

seen,

is eternal, and

down

regard

have

we

Quran

sent

to defend

4.

As

say

believe

that

hundred

two

there
thousand.

been

have

In the

prophets

many

Quran

two

words

recipients of God's revelation.


Rasul, Apostle or Messenger, and Nabi (^Hebrew
Nabi],
mad
It is by the first of these that MuhamProphet, or Utterer.
used

are

denote

to

the

is called in the

Allah,

and

creed

Muhammad

of Islam,

"

There

is

no

God

but

Rasul, His

Messenger, or
Quran mentions
Apostle." The
twenty-eight prophets
be
of whom
several, possibly twenty-five,may
by name,
1

Psalm

In

Muhammad

to

in

S., XXI.

the

Law

z
105.
S., III. 72.
Moses, the Psalms of David, and the Injllof Jesus,
taught by Allah to Adam, S., II. 35, and of scriptures

of

speaks of words
and
also to Abraham
Aaron.
down
from heaven
104.
as

given
sent

37. 29

addition

is his

Later

tradition

gives the

number

of books

OF

ARTICLES

in]
identified

with

Bible

223

FAITH

To

characters.

of

the

most

the

heads

Quran

assigns specialtitles. These are


of the prophets,and Muslims
in them
see
respective dispensations who, at the
will

be allowed

these

Adam,

last

to intercede

for their followers.

the

of

chosen

God

exalted
of their

judgement,
They are

prophet

the

Noah,

the

them

six

(nabi)of God ; Abraham, the friend of God ; Moses, the one


who spoke with God
of God
; Muhammad,
; Jesus, the spirit
the messenger
(Rasul)of God.
Of Jesus, Muhammad
speaks in high praise.1 He is
called

sometimes

by

his

personal name
(Messiah). He

by Ms title Masih
Messenger (Rasul}of God,
of

God,

in

this

the Word

world

and

from

Not

only

and

the
did

to

crucified.
hints

God
what

at

Jesus

did

before

He

heal the

He

His

next.

spoke

to

blind

and

has

not

His

common

will

all the

to

up

become

die, but

death,

Him, and

Him

the

as

miraculous,

was

Mother.

His

vindicate

leprous,and raise the


apocryphal miracles,
Allah

did

not

suffer

that the Jews

likeness

Himself, and a Surah


Muslim
belief,that

return

people

sometimes

of

birth

are

took

God, the Prophet


of Truth, the Illustrious

assigned to Him
making birds from clay.
It was
be crucified.
only His

as

Him

the

described

is

Servant

the

the Word

God,

cradle

dead, but there


such

of

Isa

again

of the

on

Book

earth, and,
shall believe

He will be a witness
Day of Resurrection
the
against them.3
Although Jesus is to Muhammad
greatest of the prophets who preceded him, He is the servant
of God, and
His Son.
Not
not
unnaturally, Muhammad
thought that the Trinity the Christians worshipped was
of God
the Father, God
the ,Son, and
the Virgin Mary,
on

and

he

men

take

makes
Him

See

It is not

Jesus
and

Surahs
especially

"Isa."

It

rhyme

with

"

in the

S., IV.

clear

His
HI.

protest
mother
IV. and

to
as

God

that

He

two

Gods

beside

bade

never

God.4

XIX.

why Muhammad
changed the originalname
is possiblethat the change was
merely due to his
Musa
(Moses). (Stanton,op. cit.,
p. 47.)
"
AS. V.
156, 157, butcp. S., III. 48.

"Yeshu"
desire

116.

to

into

make

it

ISLAM

224

It

is Muhammad

in the
"

Quran,

herald."

who, according

is the

He

[in

final
"

is

He

prophet.

his

is

"

"

warner

apostle that

an

Ahmad."2

be
to

shall

He
and

announce

been

has

disobey
coming was
to

whose

announce

shall

name

mankind

large

at

threaten."3

It is

interestingto
Prophets of whom

the

after me,
"to
sent

come

and

To

is to incur the fires of hell. His


his message
into the world
foretold by Jesus, who had come
"

teaching

own

Muslims."1

first of

the

to

Jesus

that

notice

only

of

one

Muhammad

is recorded.

sin

no

is the

forgiveness of his sins. In


of the early Surahs
he is reproved for slightinga blind
one
and
man
courting the wealthy.4 At one time, as we have
is thus
he nearly lapsed into idolatry. Muhammad
seen,
depicted in the Quran as a powerful, but faulty,prophet.
in
Later tradition speaks of him
a
as
saint, and, whereas
himself

is bidden

Quran

the

to

Muhammad

words

names

assigned to

divine,is yet

not

him

than

more

"

prophets, and

place

him

in

the

becomes

miracles, he

no

of all the

greatest thaumaturge
"

for

pray

the

lordly

category which,

if

humanj

Judgement.

5.

We

have

already

heaven

sensuous

began

and

that

seen

the

his mission.

it

with

was

threat

of

At

death

the

fieryhell

promise
that

mad
Muham-

takes

Allah

of

souls

to

Himself.

be
Only for the believing dead
may
prayer
uttered.
the Day of Judgement,
Unexpectedly shall come
the graves
when
shall be opened and all will be summoned
frheir deeds
before the Judgement
of Allah, when
Throne
shall be manifest.
Those
balances
whose
are
heavy shall
to
balances
are
rejoice,those whose
light shall go down
the pit.5
'

s., xxxix.

5., LXI.

Muhammad
with
8

"

14.

6. Ahmad,
a bye-form of Muhammad,
means
had heard of Christ's promise of the Paraclete

"

and

praised." Probably
confused

"

periclytos," praised."

S., XXXIV.

27.

"

S., LXXX.

S., CI.

5.

the

word

OF

ARTICLES

in]
Each

his book

will have

man

225

FAITH

shall

blessed

; the

of deeds

in the left.1
right hand, and the damned
In the Quran Muhammad
speaks of a path (Sirat). Along
and the gods whom
this path to hell go sinners and demons
Tradition
this Sir at the name
makes
they have adored.2
of the Bridge,
sharper than the edge of a sword, finer
will
than
Muslims
Some
hell."3
a
hair, suspended over
be saved, others will fall into hell,as will all unbelievers.
The orthodox
believe that
only unbelievers will remain
in hell for ever.
ing
to which, accordThe gloriousstation
shall be exalted, is taken
to the
Quran, Muhammad
his work
of intercession.
to mean
Already he intercedes
for all who
for men,
and
at the Last Day he will intercede
believe in him.
Tradition
teaching
amplifiesMuhammad's
the bliss of the blessed and
the torture
of the damned,
on
and
told that, whereas
hell has seven
divisions,
we
are

hold

it in

the

"

"

"

heaven
than

has
His

6. The

mercy

is

greater

justice.

doctrine

Muslims

men

for God's

more,

Decrees.

No

by

division

one

of Islam
this

than
summoned

are

choose, and

of

yet all the


"

"

decree."5

God

All

will

freely discussed
decrees.
In the Quran
if they were
free to
as

been

God's

believe

to

of Allah.4

decree

has

more

events

of life

things

were

mislead

are

referred
after

created

the

fixed

He

pleaseth, and
whom
He pleaseth He will place upon
the straightpath."6
The
Free-thinking Mutazilites
asserted, in spite of this,
man's
freedom.
The orthodox
hold in theory a mediating
view which
will some
small scope, but in
gives to human
Islam has so emphasised God's absolute
practiceorthodox
1

S., LXIX.

Cp.

but

The
its

the

whom

to

19. 25.

teachingof

well-known

meaning

cit.,p. 54.)
5
S., LIV.,

49.

word

is the

XXXVII.
--S.,
(see p. 81).

later Zoroastrianisin

same,

Kismet
viz.

(qismat)is
"

not

used

23.

in this

apportionment." (See H.
"

S., VL

39.

sense

V. W.

in the

Quran
Stanton, op.

ISLAM

226

sovereignty
fatalism

and

that

has

become

left for

is

room

no

[in
human

characteristic

the

freedom,
of Muslim

note

piety.

The

Practical

of Islam.

Duties

Corresponding to the faith (imdn) of Islam is its practical


mands
religion(din). Its five principalacts, being based on comof the Quran, are
obligatory on all. They are as
follows

"

1. The

which

Recital

Confessionof

in its shorter form


Muhammad

duty

is not
was

believers

by

reads,

"

Faith

There

is

(theKalimah),
God

no

but

Allah,

(or apostle)." This


mad
explicitly
enjoined in the Quran, but, as Muhamof Allah,
to
commanded
magnify the name

and

so

the

of
is

bound

are

of the

means

His

messenger

likewise

to

which

Kalimah,

their

confess

is

faith, and

do

of

combination

Quran.
at five stated periods.
2. The Recital of set Prayers (Salat),
Prayers are to be preceded by ablutions or, if water cannot
be obtained, by scouring with sand.
They may be uttered
if uttered in a mosque,
in private,but are more
meritorious
clauses

two

and

when

of the

praying

the

Muslim

should

turn

toward

the

Kabah.
fast which
a
Thirty Days' Fast at Ramadan,
involves complete abstinence
from sunrise to sunset.1
used
for almsgiving.
4. Almsgiving.
Two
words
are
One
(Zakdt) (literally
"purification"),denotes alms which
Such
are
obligatory for all but the poorest Muslims.
almsgiving is an integralpart of religionand, as its name
(sadaqah,
denotes, is of purifying effect. The other word
free-will
offerings,
literally "righteousness") denotes
3. The

such
5.

by

as

those

The

every

made

at the end

Pilgrimage (Hajj) to
able-bodied
1

In India

Muslim
Ramadan

of the feast of Ramadan.

Mecca.
at least
becomes

This
once.

Ramazan.

should

be made

DUTIES

PRACTICAL

in]

In

enjoined,

but

pilgrimage
of
after

feast

extra

he

chose

the

of

religion

is

it

him

on

themselves

to

Islam

something

to

owes

Judaism

Allah

and

and

his

Arab

to

in

the

The

method

of

duty

summed

but

of

jihad

the

peaceful

part

to

cling

firmly

and

are

confident,

all

others

for,

faith

as

through

he

in

but

God

him,

his

See

S.,

has

IX.

for

the

God,

God's

prophet,

will
the

most

Muslims

devout

religion
given

of

are

unbelievers.

way

as

it

in

prophet

all

seen,

much

very

against

Muhammad
that

was,

and

given

now

"

have

we

the

who

submitted

elements

war,

propaganda,
the

to

As

two

word

Those

have

as

has

the

in

"

paganism,

religious

of

saying

up

they

Muhammad

jihad,1

the

rich

the

relatives.

"

and

by

alms

prophet.

Christianity,

belief

the

original

for

Muslims,

are

of

submission.

Islam,

"

believe

of

support

obedience

lesser

the

parents

sacrifices

of

Muhammad

describe

to

giving

obviously

not

making

to

the

offering

and

prayers,

The

obedience

the

Quran

the

husband

her

to

in

Mecca

duties,

seven

are

implied

to

wife

there

addition,

227

supersede

final

tion.
revela-

IV."
The

understand

look

left
a

factions.

and

ISLAM

at

his

At

died,

and

directed.
were

the
Umar

wealth

death

He
and

of

was

no

been

succeeded

by

Through Umar's
captured, Persia
and

no

successor.

of

the

friend, and
years

Umar

energy,

of Islam

power

up

there
into

initiative,Abu

Two

wife.

and

breaking

one

his closest

it is necessary
Islam.
Muhammad

sect

successor,

Islam

Umar's

had

his favourite

nominated

the claims

nominated

length, at

Muhammad,

Ayishah,

origin of this
early history of

the

had

Khalif.

made

the

little at

son,

no

danger

of

OF

Shiahs.

To
to

SECTS

THE

as

party

Bakr

early
the

was

Damascus

was

converts

of

father

later, Abu
Abu

was

Bakr

Bakr

and

had
salem
Jeru-

Egypt conquered, and


thus
immensely increased.
When
he died, some
urged

and

of

the husband
and
All,a cousin of Muhammad,
of Fatimah,
his daughter.
made
Instead, Uthman
was
Khalif.1
Although one of the Companions of Muhammad,
and a
to Medina
at the time
of the Migration,
Refugee
he belonged to the Umayyad
family, and his election represented
the triumph of the old aristocracy of Mecca, which
had
for long opposed Muhammad,
Muslims
and
become
with
the devout
only under
saw
compulsion ; and soon
who
had
shared
Muhammad's
indignation men
sufferings
dismissed
from
office to make
to
for Umayyads,
room
whom
Islam
owed
broke
out, and
nothing. Insurrections
at length in A.H.
assassinated
at Medina.
was
35, Uthman
"

"

In the confusion

which

his

his

election,but

ensued, the followers

reign
1

In

was

A.H.

troubled.
23.

of AH

The

secured

killingof

SECTS

THE

iv]

229

to many
scandalous,
Prophet seemed
All was
and
by
suspected of complicity in the murder
ensued.
At first All
he had
which
profited. Civil war
of Syria, Muawiya,1
victorious, but the Governor
was
an
Umayyad, took the field against him with a strong
For
long All resisted, but at length foolishly
army.
his claims to the
announced
that he was
ready to submit
This
action
Khalif ate to arbitration.
estranged against
him the fanatics of Islam, who
were
supporting him, not on
personal grounds, but in protest against the degeneracy
of Islam
for which
they had held Uthman
responsible.
All should
seek to establish
In their indignation that
his claims
by argument, instead of by the test of battle,
the Judgement of God, they deserted
seemed
which
to them
to them
his army,
and, as all Islam seemed
corrupt, they
called Kharijites,or
the first sect and are
Goersbecame
in a bloody battle,but in A.H.
All defeated
them
out."
40
Thus
of this sect.
died the fourth of the
killed by one
was
the
whom
Khalifs
the
orthodox, glossing over
story of
four rightlyguided Khalifs."
strife and bloodshed, call the

of the

Companion

"

"

All's

succeeded

Hasan,

son,

Umayyad
poisoned in

of the

to

of

to

one

by

of three

and

Husain
the

his infant

of the

descendants

little
made

One

him.

abandon

to

he

and

son

permanent

by

out

son

were

they

Prophet,

himself

were

the breach

the

killed.
between

time

of

people

of

at Karbala

followers

were

it

Hasan

little company
met

was

left,but
and

His

refused

slain,till only
cared

none
was

year

founder
.

later,at

with

men.
one

the

urged by

set

next

Khalif

as

years

was

thousand

the

became

fortyfollowers,and

and

hundred
force

He

Khalif.

become

in

well

as

Twelve

49.

A.H.

misrule, his brother, Husain,


Kufa

who

Muawiya,
dynasty, a king

resigned his claims


was

him, but

to

long before

Their

slay
his

tragic death

the orthodox

and

his

followers.

Thus, within
1

He

was

son

fiftyyears
of Abu

of the

Sufyan, Muhammad's

Prophet's death, Islam


inveterate

enemy.

ISLAM

230

[iv

parties: the Traditionalists (the


Sunnis), the Separators (Kharijites),and the Followers
Of the Kharijites,it is not necessary
to
(Shiahs) of AH.
cratic,
demoThey represent the simpler, and more
say much.
spiritof early Islam which held that any man, even
an
Ethiopian slave," had the right to be elected Khalif.
They are the Puritans of Islam, and were
bitterlyopposed
the
old
to
relaxation
of the
sternness.
simplicity and
Repressed, time after time, by force,they have risen again
in rebellion.
To
them, Jews and Christians, as "Peoples
divided

was

three

into

"

of

As

is

of whom
in

importance
After

and

in

up

still survive

false

not

again into

in East

parts of North
death

tragic

between

peace

divided

but

Muslims.

sects,

many

Africa, especially

Africa.1

Of far greater

the Shiahs.

are

the

tolerated,

have

Ibadites

the

Zanzibar,

the

Unable
for

be

Book," may
natural, they

of

Shiahs
win

to

Muhammad's

and

the

the

descendants,

Sunnis

Khalifate

of

became

united

possible.
im-

Islam

of the

descendant

selves
Prophet, the Shiahs busied themwith the religious
implicatesof their loyalty to All.
Orthodox
Islam
in him
a
sees
rightly guided Khalif,
but the Shiahs ascribe him far higher honour, and many
of
them
and
claim
regard the first three Khalifs as usurpers
a

Muhammad

that

had

first. All is the


Imam

who

intended

first Imam,

Ali to succeed

and

in every

him

age

from

the

since there

is

is the

spiritualhead of Islam.2
Naturally
this religious
belief was
utilised by revolutionaries
and the
ful
earlyhistoryof the Shiahs is largelythe historyof unsuccessrevolts.
The
Khalif
of the orthodox
his
might owe
of the Shiahs
had an
position to election,but the Imam
inherent
qualificationfor his office. In him dwelt that
an

In

North

Goldziher,
*

Imam

op.

"

they

of the

to denote

correspondsto

one

are

more

often called the Abadites.

four

who

On

this sect,

see

208.

leader."

means

the founders
used

Africa

cit.,207.

It is used by
accepted schools

is at

the Khalif

once

Pope

and

of the Sunnis.

the
of

Sunnis,

as

we

have

seen,

to denote

jurisprudence. By the Shiahs it is


of the Shiahs
Emperor, and thus Imam

SECTS

THE

iv]

light of
He

God

which

is

sinless,and
earth, can demand
said

that

Shiahs

cannot

is this

that

the

the

as

between

the

base

their

Sunnis

of God

vicar

It has

obedience.

difference

Muhammad

with

united

and,

err,

absolute

chief

the

been

had

231

been

often

the

and

Sunnis

on

religiouslife

on

Prophet as well as on the Quran,


whilst
the
Shiahs
This, as
recognise the Quran alone.
Goldziher
Shiahs
shows, is a misunderstanding. The
also recognise tradition, though not
the tradition
of the
the

of the

Traditions

Sunnis.

The

real difference

this

lies in

the

that

Shiahs

his descendants,
to All and
religionon devotion
and
traditions
of the
justifytheir loyalty by their own
The sufferings
of All and Husain
teaching of Muhammad.1
the
commemorated
festival
of
at
are
by the Shiahs
and
Muharram2
when
for ten days sermons
symbols recall
the tragedy of Karbala, which
is
to them
to the devout
the supreme
martyrdom of history. Confidentlythey look
base

their

for

the

the

last of the

of

appearance

Imams,

lacked.

others
about

the

the

will win

who

Naturally
of this

nature

the

there

Guided

One,"
the

public success

has

been

controversy

this has

and

Imam,

"

the

Madhi,

caused

much

division.

The

most

Imams,
who

important

or,

dominant

are

of

descendants

end

has
as

been

down

the Madhi.

tenens, and

to

the

was

taken

from

men,

Imam,
hidden

This

Persia.

in
AH

son,3 the twelfth


then

called,the

it is often

as

of the Shiahs

sect

So the

Shah

till God

of the twelve

is that

sect

of the

Imamites,

sect

traces

the

eleventh
from

up

but

Imam.
earth

will

of Persia

direct

and

return

is

His

mere

since
at

the

locum

is

pleased to restore the


true Imam4
and, until the constitution was
given to Persia,
the Shah
was
guided in his rule by the doctors of religion.5
Next
in importance is the sect of the Ismdllians.
Its
1

Op. cit.,pp.

So

madan

reigns only

240

and

called because

241.

it takes
3

year.

P. B, Macdonald,

op,

placein Muharram,
in Baghdad in

Born

cit.,
p. 38,

the
A.D.

first month

of the Muham

872.
6

Mujtahids

ISLAM

232

founder1

himself

He

that

men

he

of his

Africa

of All
Fatimid

the

ruled

and

Ismailians
at

still found

are

rate, in Syria and

any

as

such,
North

in

eleventh
of

force

arms.

times
their

They recognise as

Agha Khan, who claims descent


Prophet's daughter, through the

the

and,

by

from

the

head

son
grand-

India, and, till recent

Persia.

He

movement

in the

arose

views

things

conquered Egypt
importance also

Of

which

in

the

founded

later

Ismailian

furthered

all

Madhi

centuries.3

Assassins4

hidden,

historyfor

and

Fatimah,

for two

of the

century, and

and

exile,but
be the

to

and

his views.

to

in Muslim

himself

represented

became

converts

in

Imams,

seven

Imam, and
seventh,

dynasty,2 which

there

Order

is the

win

died

flee,and

proclaimed

descendant

only

missionaries,who

out

great influence

had

began

hidden

this, the

of

they might

to

been

had

the

helper

sent

himself

had

the

as

Imam.
all

there

the last became

of which

to

that

taught

[iv

Fatimah,
of

leaders

the

Assassins.

Wahhabls.

The

Wahhabi

The

reproduce
primitive
Wahhab
his

of

sect

the

in

is of interest

world

modern

Islam.

the

him

to

ibn

by

contrary

the

and

luxury

attempt

to

to

simplicity of

stern

shocked

was

Their

contemporaries.
seemed

sincere

founder, Muhammad

The

(A.D. 1691-1787)
alike

as

Abd

al

degeneracy
their

the

superstitions
of
message

to return
to the Quran and the
Prophet. They needed
of the Companions of the Prophet and to ignore
Traditions
that
of the four founders
of the
all later teaching, even
Eager
systems of jurisprudence,recognised as orthodox.
the worship
to emphasise the unity of God, he attacked

the

of the tombs
1

Abdullah

of Muhammad

ibn Maimun
2

Assassin

hemp,

with

is the
which

and

(died A.D.
A.D.

English form

"

of

Hasshdshm,

the members

of Muslim

or

occultist who

874), a Persian

909.

it is believed

(See E.B.E., II. 138-141.)

of AH

A.D.

salem.
lived in Jeru-

969-1171.

drinkers

of the

saints.

sect

of Hashish, an extract of
at times drugged.
were

God

alone

worshipped.1 Naturally he met with


the
he obtained
protection of a Chief,
Saud, a stern man, ready to use the sword
be

must

opposition, but
Muhammad
in the

ibn
of

cause

233

SECTS

THE

iv]

confident

truth, and

that

married

in battle would

This

Chief

daughter
WahhabI
dynasty.

the

founder

No

since

to certain

go straightto heaven.
and
became
of the reformer

died

who

those

of the

ated,
worship of saints or relics is tolerand
rosaries
and
luxury are prohibited. As
every
tobacco
and
coffee were
used
not
by the Prophet and his
The
forbidden.
jihad, or
Companions, these, too, are
believers
on
religiouswar, they held to be incumbent
everywhere. These fierce fanatics met with great success,
and
in A.D.
1803
and Medina,
they captured both Mecca
and removed
their worship all that they held to be
from
the accretions
of later superstition. After nine years they
armies,
were
expelled from the sacred cities by Turkish
and the fourth WahhabI
ruler was
captured and afterwards
has
executed
at
Constantinople. Their politicalpower
been

The

restricted

WahhabI

by Sayyed
made
a

movement

Ahmad2

of

Mecca, became

at

sacred

the

war,

against the

war

and

killed

was

continued

movement

found

follower

in many

itself appears
Arabia
in
and

in

to

days has had


and
rigorous brotherhood
inspiration.
1

Hence
A.D.

the

members

1786-1831.

menace

to

in

make

On

India, and in

Sikhs.
an

He

pilgrimage

on

his return

proclaimed

1826

little

won

ambush

in

progress

and

he

in

success

1831, but

the

Wahhabls

are

its effect

on

of as-Sanusi

Islam, and
owes

the

much

great
to

its

of his sect call themselves


There

in India,
especially
when

when

India

The WahhabI
movement
parts of India.
at present to be uninfluential,both
in
India, but its repristinationof the spirit

of sterner

who,

of this sect.

in

into

introduced

was

Oudh,

of converts

number

parts of Arabia.

1871,
British'rule,
in

is

in Our

his

very
Indian

Muwahhids, Unitarians.
of the WahhabI
ment,
moveinterestingaccount
Musulmdns, by W. W. Hunter, first published?^

judgement

the movement

in India

was

stilla serious

ISLAM

234

Some

Modern

Developments.

Shiah

The

belief in

times

to

much

interest

and

the

The

Bab

In

[iv

rise of two

the

in

and

has

the

Baha

in recent

led

which

movements

Europe

have

aroused

Movement

of

Persia,

of India.

Movement

Ahmadrya

Imam

hidden

Movements.

Baha

AH

Mirza

Persian, announced
himself as the intermediary of the hidden
twelfth Imam,1
and called himself the Bab, or Gate, as through him
it was
1844

possiblefor

Muhammad,

to receive

men

communications

Six years later he was


thirty years of age. Before
Imam

from

executed, when

his death

called

the hidden

not

than

more

he nominated

his

as

Dawn

of

recognised by the Babis as


Eternity. The lad was
spiritualhead, but, owing to his youth, his elder
of affairs.
the
conduct
brother, Baha-ullah, had

their

successor

lad

attempt of

of

cruelties

with

In

manifest,"
had

the

Bab

his

position,and

of

Azel

was

the

sect, who

that

come

and

he

Shah

As

this

was

the twelfth Imam,

the

escaped

Adrianople.

to

"

He

was

whom

God

claimed

strife between

letters to

who

the

allegiance,not as the
of the Bab, but as the greater One whom
to foretell. Many
of the Babis accepted

fierce and

in A.H.

An

terrible

these

Azel

murderous.

the followers

and

exiled

was

Baha
Cyprus, where he has only a few followers.
became
the head
of his movement.
to Acre, which
teaching is universalistic in type. It is not a mere
of Islam, but a new
and he sent
world-religion,
exile in Acre

half-

led to

Azel

and

banished

he

the

endured

Baha

eventually

were

announced

succession

mere

of

life of the

the

on

Subh-i-Azel,

great fortitude.

Baha

1866

shall

many

but

Baghdad,

he

Babis

some

execution

to

whom

nations

was
exactly a
expected to show

1260, it
was

the

and

millennium
himself

as

rulers
from

was

sent

His
reform
from

of

his

Europe

the appearance

the Madhi,

to

of

and

Asia, in

several

thousand

At

death

his

One

son,

had

been

there

that

that

henceforth

more

ambitious

The

Ahmadlya

has

about

1892.

A.D.

his

successor.

that

the Revelation

son,

Abbas

Efendi,

yet incomplete, and


be its channel, and
again the
as

was

achieved

greater success.

Movement.
movement

founder, Mirza

of

Islam, the

to be at

ideas

shall

who

are

the

once

final avatar

the

incompatible

Mahdi

the claim

originto

of

Mahdi

towards

Christianity,and,

also added

that

looks for

Ahmad1
of

Messiah

its

owes

Ghulam

of his life he

Islam

to

was

in

died

Another

in Baha.

claimant

Admadiya

It is obvious

dispute
All,claimed

Revelation
he

its

end

Muhammad

the

Baha

there.

was

completed

charity. A Syrian
gathered a community of

and

persons

235

universal

in America

Mirza

claimed

The

he extols

which

settled

convert

DEVELOPMENTS

MODERN

SOME

iv]

the

of Hinduism.
here

combined.

slay unbelievers

with

the

Christianityspeaks of the Prince of Peace.


this difficulty
Ahmad
solved
by declaring that the prophecies
Mahdi
which
the
as
a warrior
are
speak of
forged.
He
belief that Jesus did not
really
accepted the Muslim
whilst

sword,

die

the

on

Jesus

was

three

days

of the

cross,

but

taken

up

Jesus

whereas
into

marvellous

tradition

Heaven, Ahmad
from

revived
"

Muslim

Ointment

his

taught that after


and
by the aid

swoon,

of Jesus

that

asserts

"

recovered

ently
suffici-

preach in Afghanistan and Kashmir, and was


in Srinagar, in Kashmir.2
buried
Having thus disposed
for himself
that
he was
of Jesus
the
Christ, he claimed
Messiah
and towards
the end of his life,
claimed
superiority
the Messiah
for himself in that he was
of Muhammad,
as
to

Jesus

the

was

Messiah

of Moses.

interfered, he
miracle

Born

He

of

in

sought to
predictingthe

Punjab, 1838,

identifies his tomb

died

with

prove

death

Until
his

the

Government

Messiahship by

of his enemies.

To

the

prove

1908.

the tomb

of Yus

Asaf,

an

obscure

Muslim

saint.

ISLAM

236

himself

the

he

the

was

promised
he

death

but

much

Din,

member
which

England,
Mosque
by

at

so,

by
in

His

name,

(Muhammad).
p.

of

by

there

1917

Kamal-ud-

propaganda

denounced

Review,

Islam

is

as

claimed
pro-

Muslim

whom

man

in

Muhammadan

circumstance,
of

has

mission

Islamic

The

follower

have

death

skilful

under

prosper

the

magazine,
irony

India

on

Samaj.

Muslim

with

carries

monthly

England

began

At

unbeliever

an

apostate.

an

Ahmad

and

curious

in

associations

and

In

associated

now

Woking,

successor's

sect,

formed

to

bitterness.

this

is

of

means

and

of

of

fluent

who

continued

his

and

Christ
and

followers

manner

society

since

division

the

that

claimed

Muhammad,

to

of

in

the

1908

successor,

number

much

and

controversialist,

eager

LXI

according

An

gathered

in

been

see

send.1

Surah

quoted

who,

organised

society,

his

he

Ahmad
to

writer,

his

MadhI,

[iv

224.

however,

was

For

not

Muhammad's

but

Ahmad,
own

Ghulain

misunderstanding

Ahmad,

the
of

servant

Christ's

word

V."

THE

ASCETICISM

in
of

type

celibacy,
"

There

war."

God

than

is the

doomed

was

the
that

to

brought

Instead

of

the

Muslims

and

men,

in

was,

they

their

complete
passive

trust

in

His

Goldziher,
pp.

op.

the
sin.

duties

The

faith
in

by

God,

hand.

cit.,pp.

they

145, 146, and


237

for

the

of

era,
sense

ascetics

monks

how

their

lives.

satisfaction

for

set

seasons,

blessedness

them

to

passed

into

whole

to

among

early

found

the

enabled

139-200.

the

prescribed

asceticism

that

painful

rigour

emphasised

which
So

the

poverty,
began

Christian

to

Islam,

prayers

they

of

Egypt,

Muslim

the

and

stories

reference

of

the

to

hell

of

terror

and

earnest

of

century

attracted

were

extra

in

first

its

enriched

of

it is clear

and

piety.

sought

simplicity
The

war,

of

Khalifs

two

the

of Islam,

frequent

practical

prayers

Sufiism,

of

with

luxurious.

the

of

their

by

the

and

seriousness

much

and

lived

Muslims

Syria, Persia,

of

treasures

had

realisation

show

in

the

first

the

from

sacred

the

rewards

earthly

world,

the

of

degeneracy

there

the

of

victories

with

the

vivid

In

denial

wealthy

lament
such

the

the

world

flee

men

jihad,

to

earlier
The

bade

he

the

was

forefront

the

to

who

became

It

come.

dearer

is

body

of world-denial.
and

"The

bodies.

Muhammad's

in

Yet,

element

an

of

sacred

is the

their

strength

judgement,

The

plunder.

his

life."

is married

monkery

mortify

to

after

was

to

wrath

not

weakling."1

there

teaching,

of

looks

Our

denounced

he

that

us

Sunnah

our

Islam.

in

were

who

"

that

monkery

no

tells

mad's
Muham-

from

alien

was

tradition

asserted

Muslims

Muslim

and

ISLAM

IN

form

extreme

any

piety,

and

is

ELEMENT

ASCETIC

subject

be

of

entirely

mysticism,

of Asceticism

and

ISLAM

238

scholars

and

hold

that

the

[v
owed

movement

much

its

in

Neoto
only to Christianity,but
As ascetics
Platonism, and possibly also to Buddhism.
the Muslims
wool (suf),
wore
copied the
garments of coarse
Christian
hermits
in this, and
by the end of the second
Sufis.
as
century A.H. began to be known
Some
of the early ascetics were
of stern and
clearlymen
uncompromising nature, who sought no joy in life,so that

development,

it

said of

was

not

from

the

more

emotional

of their
natural

when

one

world."1

he

But

died,
the

form, and

"

that

sadness

began

movement

sought

men

take

to

themselves

rid

to

separationfrom God by ecstasies


expression in the figuresof love

it is clear that

removed

was

find their

which
and

For

wine.

the old fear of hell had

largelygone.
0 God," says Rabia, a woman
-saint, if I worship Thee
in hope
in fear of hell,burn me
in hell ; if I worship Thee
of Paradise, exclude
from
Paradise
me
; but if I worship
Thee
Thine
for Thine
not
own
sake, withhold
everlasting
of self
beauty."2 The desire to reach the annihilation
led the mystics to expressionswhich seemed
to the orthodox
blasphemous. Thus one of the first Sufi martyrs declared,
many
"

"

"

the Truth.

am

love

is I ;

we

are

thou

seest

me

thou

thou

seest

me."3

Sufis the

two

Him, and

when

Unity

'

God
but God,' as
no
merely is there
professionof Faith declares,but there
the

Between

soul

and

God,

"

here

Have
Vain

And

thus

al

R.

al

"

E.

and

Sufi

Fudayl, see

no

'

place, and

'

and

are

but

When
Him

seest

points out,

to

that

"

means

not

Muhammadan

the
is

the

nothing

but

God.

says,
'

Thou

'

phantasies

unreal."4

mystics, like

D. B. Macdonald,

A. Nicholson, The

Jami

as

thou

whom

body.

one

Browne

Divine

He

love, and

dwellingin

Professor

of the

whom

souls

seest

As

Doctrine

He

am

of the

some

Muslim

Mystics of Islam,

Theology,p.

mystics

of the

176.

p. 115.

Hallaj, who taught in Baghdad and was


cruellyput
G. Browne, The LiteraryHistoryof Persia, I. 439.

to death

in A.H.

309.

THE

v]

their faith.
"

'

As

am

neither

am

not

the
I
'

sea

East

place

is in the

'Tis

neither

body

Beloved.'

"l

by

not

was

thought,

recognise myself.

Moslem.
Gabr, nor
Jew, nor
of the land,
of the West, nor

mint,

nor

of

into

alliance

the

Beloved,

circlingheavens.'

Some

Sufi doctrines

Sufis

that

only

of self.

and

of the

nor

is in the Traceless,
trace
Placeless, my
soul, for I belong to the soul of my
nor

emotion

abandonment

the

says

My

It

of

doctrines

nor

nor

of nature's

not

am

Christian,

of the

poet

for I do not

is to be done, O Moslems,

What

the

to

Persian

famous

another

239

indifferent

became

Church,

Christian

ELEMENT

ASCETIC

sought

pursued

also the

formulated

were

reach

to

and

of

way

brought

orthodoxy by al-Ghazali,2 the greatest


of Islamic theologians. But it is a Suflism with a difference,
for al-Ghazali
guards himself against Pantheism, and,
in seeking the spirit
does not despise
ualisation of religion,
lover of God
be
its legalobligations. The
must
not
true
will be diligentin
disobedient
commands.
He
to God's
the Quran and
the
worship and good works, will honour
with
Prophet, yet his real joy is found in his communion
Such

with

for it is God

love has in it

in his

he

element

an

rapture speak

to

seeks
of

God

as

and

not

heaven.

even

fear,and yet the lover may


intimate
to an
friend, and

that all
perfect peace of heart because he knows
things are ordained by God.
The
Prophet's saying, There is no monkery in Islam,"

have

"

to

seems

have

remained

religion,for

although

there

is

the

eleventh

the

early ascetics

tradition

certain

century of

of them

many

no

lived

retained

their

Died

For

A.D.

and

era,

alone,

married
the

1111.

the traditions,see

E.R.E., IL

their

p. 103.

of

few

state.

Divdni

Shamsi

of his

early

existence

it would

with

or

from

first centuries

speaks

proof of

our

R. A. Nicholson, Selected Poems


Jalaluddln, its author, was
a Sunni.
"

for the

true

asteries,3
mon-

before

appear

that

friends,
In

the

Tabriz,

and

next

p.

125-

ISLAM

240

century

the

various

Dervish1

and

wield

Their

system

abandon

These

their

movements
to

owe

leader2

of

ceremonies

of

initiation

enthusiasm

of

initiates

of

the

saints

saints

of

austerities
of

success

Islam

these

orders

of

order

are,

is

who

and

which

to

the

to

the

The

spectacular
The

living

great

is

message

of

power
and

devotion

eager

Prophet's

the

stories

prayers.

powers.

witness

the

and

legendary

perform

can

The

severe,

ecstatic

by

supernatural

adherents

faith

by

sustained

members

obedience.

rule,

they

livelihood.

their

and

military

and

is

of

aim,

as

those

are

exhibit

its

the

past,

and

over

tenacity

the

praised

most

in

do

nor

means

revivalist

are

the

ordinary

world.

Islamic

the

celibates,

necessarily

not

influential

very
in

to-day

power

are

became

of

formation

the

by

which

orders

members

always

extended

was

immense

an

[v

still

able

inspire.

to

Darwlsh,

"

man,"

poor
2

name,

The

is

founder
or'

the

Persian

of
more

word

"

for

"

mendicant

in

India

the

Arabic

word

fwfir

used.
the
modest

order
title

is

called
of

successor

shaikh.

(Khalif).

Its

present

head

may

bear

that

BIBLIOGRAPHY

SUGGESTIONS

FOR

FURTHER

READING1

GENERAL
THE

best

of the
Of

for

sources

East

Hasting's

and

handbooks

general
Religions

in

the

A^useful

selection

geschichtliches

of

Much

anthologies.
Missionary

and

Message

in

given

material

the

be

to

1908.

in

found

Non-Christian

to

Religionsattractive

many

is

of

History

Tubingen,

includes

Relation

Ethics.

bibliography).

good

is

Bertholet,

series

valuable
in

(with

The

Books

Studies

Geden,

Moore,

and

by

and

of Religion

texts

edited

Sacred

the

are

mentioned

1920

East

the

of

1913,

illustrative

Lesebuch,

Wisdom

The

be

may

East,

1913

vols.,

Religions,

the

English

Encyclopaedia

there

of

in

study

our

The

Religions,

1910.
HINDUISM
A
Primer

Farquhar,
Movements

in

Christian,

and
Heart

(Temple
Saints,

The

Redemption,

the

Crown

Cave,

Brahma

relation

of

of Hinduism,

of

the

Psalms

Hindu

to

1913.

Hindu

Redemption,

translation

of

ligious
Re-

Modern

Knowledge,

Macnicol,

1905.

For

1919.

his

and

1908,

and

1912,

1915.

Barnett,

Classics),

Farquhar,

India,

1919.

of India,

Hinduism2,

of

and

1907,

Bhagavadgltd
the

Marathd

Christian

Hogg,

thought,
Karma

and

1909.

Madras,

The

Hopkins,

detailed

in

study.

Bibliography
Q

of

Literature2,

literature

The

Books

The

Religions

Sanskrit

donell's

is

vast

so

divisions
The
is

place
as

far

A
of
as

India,

1905.

Boston,

Farquhar.

1895.
An

Outline

Mac-

of

short
selection
trary.
arbimust
inevitably appear
B for more
preliminary reading ; in divisions
publication is only given for books
published abroad.
to
possible restricted
English books.
that

are

for

241

BIBLIOGRAPHY

242

Religious Literature
serious
study).

of India,

the

and

the Value

Leipzig,
of the Veda,

1914.

New

CHAPTER

I.

York,

1915, J. Estlin

theism
Pan-

Theosophie,
The

Religion

Theistic

the

for

element,

Carpenter,

Theism

in

1921.
The

"

1897.

Rigveda, translated
by
1897.
Macdonell, Vedic

and

1896

Kaegi,

The

Rigveda,

translated

1886.

Deussen,

"

the

of

Hymns

Mythology, Strassburg,
Boston,
by Arrowsmith,
II.

For

1908.

Griffiths,2 vols., Benares,

CHAPTER

Indische

of Life,or Speyer,
chapters I" III, Bloomfield,

Theism,

India,

Philosophy, Urquhart,
Die

For

Macnicol, Indian
Medieval

of Indian

sketch

?:%For a general

(indispensable

1920

des

Philosophic

Upanishad's*, Leipzig,1906.

Veda

bis

auf

die

burg,
Atharvaveda, Strass1899.
The
Atharvaveda, translated
by Griffiths,Benares,
Oriental
2 vols,. 1897, or
Series, 2 vols.,
by Whitney, Harvard
For the Brahmanas,
1905.
Satapatha Brdhmana, S.B.E., XII.,
XLIV.
XXVI.,
XLIIL,
XLL,
CHAPTER

III.

"

Bloomfield

Upanishads,

The

translated

S.B.E., I. and XV.


Deussen, The
Eng. trans., by Geden, 1906.
und
des
die Anfdnge
Upanishaden

by Max
Miiller,
Philosophy of the Upanishads,
Die
Lehre
der
Oldenberg,
Buddhismus.
Gottingen,

1915.
IV.

CHAPTER

Hopkins,

"

Mahabharata

Great

The

Epic of India, New

York,

into
condensed
Ramayana
English verse,
by Dutt, Everyman's Library. Garbe, Die
Keith, The
Bhagavadglta, Leipzig, 1905.
Sdmkhya
System,
1901.

The

Calcutta,

1918.

CHAPTER

V.

and

the

Carpenter, Theism
Das

System

in Medieval

India, 1921.

des

Vedanta*, Leipzig,1906 (Eng.


the
mentary
ComVeddntasutras, with
trans., Chicago, 1912).
XXXVIII
of Sankaracharya,
and
S.B.E., XXXIV
;
of Bamanuja,
the Commentary
with
S.B.E., XL VIII. Bhandarkar, Vaishnavism, Saivism, and Minor
Religious Systems,
Nallasvami
Studies
in
1913.
Saiva Siddhdnta,
Pillai,
Strassburg,
Der
Saiva
1911.
Madras,
Schomerus,
Siddhdnta, Leipzig,
1900.
1912.
The
of Tulsi
Pope, Tiruvdsagam,
Ramayana
Allahabad.
Martin, The Gods of
Das, translated
by Growse,
Krishna
H.
South
Indian
1911.
India,
Sastri,
Images, Madras,
ceremonial
side
The
1916
of Hinduism
is
illustrated).
(fully
"

The

described

in

Mrs.

Sinclair

Stevenson's

The

Rites

of

the Twice

Born, 1920.
CHAPTER

VI.

"

full

bibliography

is

given

in

Farquhar's

243

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Religious Movements

Modern

For

Lectures

Prakdsh

Eng. trans.,

Essays,

Arya-Samaj,

and

contain

1884,

Brahma
are

published by

Co., of Madras,

by

Max

Miiller's

chapters

Minerva

the

Lahore,
the

on

published

modern

Hindus,

of

founders

the

Speeches
Natesan

Messrs.

Press, Madras.

have

Satydrtha
; Lajpat
Biographical

1908

Vivekananda's

Svami

worth

Sarasvati's

Prasad,

1915.

useful

Arya Samajes.

and

books
be

by Durga

Sen's

well

are

book.
text-

books

Chandra

Christ

Arya Samaj, Dayananda

the

The

Oriental

The

Rai's

Keshab

consulted.

be

Mozoomdar's

and
For

study.
Rai,

possible,

indispensable

the

Rammohan

Samaj,

Brahma

the

if

should,

in India,

expensiv
interesting and inmany
and their catalogue should

consulted.

ZOROASTRIANISM
A

Moulton, The Treasure


of the Magi, 1917, and The Teaching
Gathds
be studied
1916.
The
should
of Zarathushtra, Bombay,
in Moulton's
translation, Early Zoroastrianism, pp. 344-90.

Dhalla,
textual

Zoroastrian

Theology,

exposition by

Geiger

and

York,

New

Western-educated

Grundriss

Pars!

full and

High-priest.

Philologie, StrassVol.
Awestaliteratur,
Geldner,
burg, 1896-1904,
II., contains
West, Pahlavi
Literature, and Jackson, Die iranische
Religion.
For eschatology, Soderblom,
La
Vie Future
d'apres de Mazde1901.
Paris,
isme,
Kuhn,

CHAPTER,

Iran, New

I.

Jackson,

"

York,

CHAPTER

II."

XXIII.

1899.

der

1914,

Zoroaster,

Moulton,

1912,

Prophet

Ancient

of

Early Zoroastrianism,

1913.

Yashts,
S.B.E., IV. ; the
XXIV.,
texts, S.B.E., V.,XVHL,
; the Pahlavi
VII.
Ardd
The
Viraf (an interesting apocalypse

III.

statement

The

Vendiddd,

The

S.B.E.,
XL
XXXVII.,
"), Eng. trans., by Haug
CHAPTER

iranischen

"

A.

S.

N.

"

and

Wadia,

of Zoroastrianism

West,
The
from

Bombay,

1872.

Message of Zoroaster,
point.
standa Theosophic

BIBLIOGRAPHY

244

III."

BUDDHISM

its History and


Davids, Buddhism,
Literature, New
York, 1896.
Poussin, The Way to Nirvana, 1917, a luminous
Bouddhisme
doctrine, and
exposition of early Buddhist
HackOpinions sur I'Histoire de la Dogmatique, Paris, 1909.
Buddhism
a
as
Religion, its Historical Development and
mann,
its Present
in Translations*,
Conditions, 1910.
Warren, Buddhism

Rhys

1906,

invaluable

an

volume

of

translations.

The

of the East
S.B.E., X., or, in the "Wisdom
Dhammapada,
Series," The Buddha's
Way of Virtue,Eng. trans., by Wagiswara
and

Saunders.

I.-IV.

CHAPTERS

Buddha

Oldenberg,

"

Sein

Leben,

Sein

Gemeinde6, Stuttgart, 1914 (Eng. trans,


by Hoey,
Die Lehre
der Upanishaden und
first edition), and
1882, from
des
1915.
die Anfdnge
Buddhismus,
Kern, Manual
Gottingen,
Rhys Davids, Buddhist
of Indian Buddhism, Strassburg, 1896.
Some
Points
in the History of
Lectures
on
India, 1903, and
Indian
Lectures, 1881, ; Buddhist
Buddhism, Hibbert
Suttas,
the
trans,
Buddha, Eng.
S.B.E., XL, Dialogues of
by Rhys
Davids, 3 vols., 1899-1921.
Vinaya Texts, S.B.E., XIIL,
XX.
XVII.
The
Psalms
lated
and
of the Early Buddhists, transviz.
The
Psalms
by Mrs. Rhys Davids,
of the Sisters,
Lehre, Sein

of the Brethren, 1913.


Sayings (from the Samyutta Nikdya),
1 909, The

Mrs.

Psalms

Rhys

Davids,
V.

CHAPTER

V.

"

1908, Asokas, 1920.

Part

Book

of the

I., Eng.

Kindred
trans

by

1917.
A.

Smith,

Francis

and

Japanese

CHAPTER

VI.

For

and

The

Early

Thomas,

History of India2,
Tales, 1916,

Jataka

Barnett's
The
Path
Mahayana,
of
The
Lotus
Light (i.e.Santideva's
Bodhicharydvatdra), 1909.
Law
S.B.E., XXI.
Pundarlka),
(Saddharma
of the True
Chinese
XLIX.
See
later
Buddhist
on
Mahayana Texts, S.B.E.,
a

useful

selection.

The

the

Buddhism.
"

The

Mahdvamsa

or

Great

Chronicle

of Ceylon.

Primitive
by Geiger, 1912.
Copleston, Buddhism,
in Magadha
and in Ceylon2, 1908.
and Present
Bigandet, The
the
Buddha
the
Burmese*, 2 vols.,
of
Life or Legend of Gaudama,
Buddhism
1895.
1911.
WaddeU,
of Tibet or Ldmaism,

Eng.

trans,

245

BIBLIOGRAPHY

IV."

JAPAN

AND

CHINA

OF

RELIGIONS

THE

Religion of the Chinese,

The

Groot,

De

Giles, Confucianism
Religions of China,

and

its Rivals, 1915.

Giles, The

1913.

New

York,
Soothill, The

1910.
Three

Sayings of Confucius

and

Series."
Wisdom
of the East
Sayings of Lao-Tze, in the
The
York,
Knox,
Development of Religion in Japan, New
"

The

The

Harada,

1907.

Shinto,

the Ancient

Grube,

Religion

Book

und

II.

I. and

Chapters

York,
of Japan, New
1910.
Religion of Japan,
Faith

Kultus

der

S.B.E.

The

Aston,

1914.

Chinesen,

contains

Leipzig, 1910,
Legge's translation

Documents, Parts of the Book of Odes,


and
the Classic of Filial Piety (Vol. III.),the Book
of Changes,
Vol. XVI., and
XXVIII.
the Book
and
of Rites, Vols. XXVII.
is his great edition
of the Chinese
Still more
valuable
Classics,
with
The
and
Analects
notes.
Soothill,
copious prolegomena
translation.
Ross, The
of Confucius, is also a fully annotated
Original Religion of the Chinese, 1909, is a useful introduction.

of the

CHAPTER
and

of Historical

III.

The

Legge,

"

Giles, Chuang

XL.

IV.

CHAPTER

of Taoism, S.B.E., XXXIX.

Tze, 1889.
Cods

Groot, Le

du

en
Mahdydna
Chine,
Chinese
Fo-sho-hing-tsan-king (a
XIX.
Asvaghosha's Life of Buddha), S.B.E.
New
Testament
of Higher Buddhism,
1910, a
"

1893.

Amsterdam,
translation

De

Texts

of

The

Richard,
versions
of The
translation, with introduction, of the Chinese
Awakening
of Faith and The Essence
of the Lotus Law.
Beal,
A Catena
The
of Buddhist
Scripturesfrom the Chinese, 1871.
The

of the

extent

Buddhist

Canon

in China

Nanjio's Catalogue of the Chinese


For
pictures
Tripitaka, 1883.
Northern
TJie Gods
Buddhism,
of
CHAPTER
Vols.

De

"

I.-VI., Leyden,
for its account

valuable

VI.

Groot,

Translation
of

The

1892-1910,
of

"

the

of

Buddhist

in

Bunyiu

the Buddhist

gods, Getty,

1914.

Religious System of China,


finely illustrated,especially

popular practices and

Kojiki or Records
Transactions
by Chamberlain,

CHAPTER
trans,

V.

is indicated

superstitions.

of Ancient
Matters, Eng.
of the Asiatic Society of

BIBLIOGRAPHY

246

Japan, supplement to Vol. X., 1883.


Nihongi Chronicles of
the
Earliest
Times
A.D.
to
697, Eng: trans,
from
Japan
by
and
Aston,
I., Transactions
Supplement
Proceedings of the
Aston, Shinto, the Way
Japan Society,London, 2 vols., 1896.
the
1905.
Gods,
of
VTI.

CHAPTEB

York,

New

"

1917.

Amida

Studies

Reischauer,
The

Lloyd,

Buddha

Creed

in

Japanese Buddhism,
of Half Japan, 1911.

Urkunden
VerZuftucht.
zum
stdndnis
des japanischen SukJidvati
1910.
Buddhismus,
Leipzig,
Abbot, Eng. trans., by
Soyen Shaku, Sermons
of a Buddhist
For
the
Suzuki, Chicago, 1906.
Mahay an a Scriptures, see
XXI.
XLIX.
and
again, S.B,E.,

Haas,

unsere

V."

ISLAM
A

Hurgronje, Mohammedanism,

New

York,

1916,

Margoliouth,
(Home
University Library, N.D.).
1913, or Margoliouth, Mohammed
Sell, Life of Muhammad,
the Rise
and
Stanton, The
of Islam3, N.D.
Teaching of the
or

Mohammedanism

Quran,
Vital
but

1919.

relation

On

Muslim

of

to

Christian

ideas, The

of Christianity and

Forces

the short
Islam, 1915, and
in Gwatkin,
The
Knowledge of God2,

suggestive treatment

1908.

uber

Vorlesungen

Goldziher,

(Eng. trans., not


Press). Hughes, A

den

Mohammed

seen,

Islam,
and

Heidelberg,

1910

Yale

Univ.
Islam,
The
Houtsma,

Dictionary of Islam, 1885.


Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I., A-D, 1913.
I.

CHAPTER

"

Reste

Wellhausen,

Berlin, 1897 ; Muhammed


translation of Waqidi.

Arabischen

Heidentums,

in Medina,

Berlin, 1882, an abridged


revised
Life of Mohammed*,
Mahomet
and
Bevan,
Islam, in the
edit., by Weir, 1912.
Medieval
Vol.
II., 1913.
History,
All,
Cambridge
Syed Ameer
should
be
with
the
first
The
Islam,
1902,
compared
Spirit of
Muslim
Mohammed

translated

biography
Ibn

by

given

as

Ishdk

Weil,

The

in

bearbeitet
2

of Islam-,

Spread
Muslim
missionary
The

Muir,

Das
von

Leben

Molwmmeds

Abd-el-Mdlik

T.
vols., Stuttgart, 1864.
attactive
1913, gives an

zeal.

nach

Ibn
W.

Hisham

Arnold,

picture

of

BIBLIOGRAPHY

For

the

Theology,

Macdonald,

chapters,

later

and

Jurisprudence,

The

Religious

The

Faith

and

Attitude

Islam3,

of

Studien,
Veneration
New

Testament

has

CHAPTER
for

Study

of

Movement,

the

Bdbl

Our

Hadith

the

1902).

Young,

portant
im-

1871,
Materials

Browne,

for

Ahmadlya

The

Walter,

1918.

the

and

Musulmdns,

movement.

Religion,

and

Hadith

The

Lady

Indian

ment
Develop-

Early

the

on

by

Sell,

1909.

Muhammedanische
of

excursus

V.

The

Nicholson,

Mystics

"

concise

and

Divdni

Shamsi

fascinating

of

(for

Persia,

(in

of al-Ghazzdll,

the

"

Wisdom

1909,

I.,
A
of

and

The

1902.

Treatise
the

East

Alchemy

Islam,

of

Selected

Jalaluddln),

Vol.

Lawdih,

Kazvini,
Field

sketch

Tabriz

History

Muhammad
1914.

The

1903

1918.

CHAPTER

Literary

Chicago,

growth

translated

been

Wahhabi

the

the

an

Hunter,

IV.
"

the

(for

Saints

the

Islam,

Goldziher,

1914.

Halle,
of

in

Muslim

of
Theory,

Margoliouth,

1907.

1890

Development

Constitutional

Life

of Mohammedanism,
II.

247

1914,

Whinfield

Series

Browne,

1898.

on

the

from

Poems

and

Sufism
"),

by
The

of Happiness,

Mirza

Jdml,

sions
Confes1910.

INDEX

Abbas

Abu

209,

212,

200,

205

Bakr,

Abu

Lahab,

Abu

Sufyan,
Talib,

Abu

Adi

Agha

Khan,

Agni,

16

232

f., 23,

Ahmad

Vairya,

Man

104

98,

228-32

199,

Allah,

195"E.,

Allat,

195

219f.

Sun

See

174.

Amida,

Atesh

Behrdm,

86

Atesh

Dddgdh,

86

Adardn,

166,

Amitayus,

138.

See

Analects,

154-7,

Ananda,

102,

184,

188

ff.

14, 25

27-37

ff., 166
137

Bab,

234
f

234

47

ff., 134,

207,

Badr,

167,

209
234

Baha-ullah,

Worship,

Ancestral

Tablets,
76

ff., 220

212

Badarayana,

193
109

f., 28

145

Babis,

Amitabha

185
Ancestor

86

Amitabha

See

138,

Angels,

21

Ayiahafa. 206,

184.

152,

171,

Barnett,

180

Baty,

153

Beal,

f.
249

127,

ff.

178

77

Aviclii

(Ameshaspaiid)

76

Amitabha,

99,

140

133,

Atar,
Atesh

144

Amesha-Spenta

80,

Avalokita(Avalokitesvara),

69

Ameretat,

f.

232

174,

Atisa,

f., 220

213

All,

f.,

72,

95,

Atman,

Goddess.

68

71
77

Atharvaveda,

Ama-terasu,

Ameer

70,

Asura,

Kalama,

Alara

69,

67,

Aston,

87

67-82,

79

ah,

15, 60
27,

Assassins,

ff.

68

Ahuras,
Aka

31

ff.

Asoka,

80

Mazdah,

Ahura

Ashi,

f.

235
70

Ahriman,

Ahuna

All,

237

Movement,

Ahmadiya

Arnold,

211

Asha,

218

Hanbal,

Ahraman,

43

Asceticism,

27

25,

236

224,
ibn

ff.

Arjuna,

Artabhaga,
Arya-Samaj,

ff.

19

Ahmad,

59

57,

19

16,

14
83

Ardashir,

201

Samaj,

Adityas,

105,

Arahat,

f.

126

Aranyakas,

ff., 229

197,

Brahma

Aditi,

f.,

ff., 212

194

Arabia,

228

201
207

140

Anuradhapura,

223

ff.

91

Nikdya,

Anguttara

91

Pitaka,

Abhidhamma

Abraham,

78

71,

Mainyu,

Angra

235

Efendi,

43,
181

162

137

f., 228

136,

INDEX

250

Benares, 56, 95, 105 f.


96
Bhaddakachcha,
Bhagavadglta, 14, 41-6,
Bhakti, 44 f., 63, 138
60
Bhandarkar,
39 f.
Bharata,
107
Bimbisara,
97,
Bo-tree,
99, 140

Bodhicharydvatara,

Dagaba,

Dainichi, 184. See Vairochana.


145 f.
Lama,

135

Dalai

Dakhma.

137

162, 167, 187


Bodhisattva, 133-7, 146, 165
59, 83, 86
Bombay,
Brahma,
37, 40 f., 50
Brahman,
27-38, 93
See

ff.

Bridge

Samaj, 55-9
Separation,

118

Brihas-

72,

81,

225

Buddha,
113;

Origination,

24
;

Life

143

Classes'
Mission, 60
23, 28
Deva, 2, 67, 71, 83
112
Devadatta,
Dhalla, 66, 76, 86, 88
89, 91, 124 f.
Dhammapada,

Depressed

Digha

Nikaya,

Docetic

91

heresy, 134
of the Mean,

Doctrine

1 54

Druj, 67, 71, 75, 79


Durga,

53

Eight Genii,
Eisai,

Bundahishn,
65, 82
142 f.
Burma,
192
Bushido,

161.

See

Pah-sien.

187

Ervad,

86

Hsien, 162
Farquhar, 21, 40, 46, 59,

63

Fatimah,

203

Fa

Cambodia,
Caste,

144

25

Ceylon, 40, 90,

140

ff.

101
Channa,
Christ, 58 f., 62, 99, 193, 213,
220, 223-6
Christianity, 55, 61, 172, 183,
189 f., 195 f.,237
113
Chunda,
147
Confucius,
ff.,154-8, 193
Confucianism,
147, 154-8, 191-3
132 f.
Councils, Buddhist,
Cow, 27, 61

Daeva,

99,

f.

Din, 22 6
Dlnkart, 70

of, 95Teaching of, 114-28;


of, 134 f.
Mahay an a, Doctrine
166 f., 186, 190
Buddhas,
138, 146, 166, 184
120, 128, 141,
Buddhaghosa,
30,

59

Darmesteter,
65,
39
Dasaratha,
Dastur, 86
Davids, Mrs. Rhys, 117, 125
Davids, Prof. Rhys, 93 ff.
Sarasvati, 60 ff.
Dayananda
of
209
Atonement,
Day
Decrees, 225

Deussen,

of

Brihaspati, 16,

of Silence.

Towers

Dependant

25 f.,28, 31 f.,34, 60,


Brahman,
99
933.,
f., 107, 109, 111 f.
Brdhmanas,
13, 25-9, 30 f., 93
Brahma

See

77

Bodhidharma,

Brahmanaspati.
pati.

142

140,

21, 67, 71, 75, 80

sister

Fatimah,

of Umar,

daughter
228, 232

Fatimids, 232
Feng-shui, 170
Fire Temples,
Five

ff.
86

Fires, 32

Five

King, 148
95
Ford-makers,
Frashaoshtra, 68
Fravashi,

al-Fudayl,
185
Fudo,
Fuhrer, 95

78

238

of

mad,
Muham-

INDEX

Gabriel, 198 f.,215, 220


Garbe, 42
23
Garutman,
Qathas, 65-74, 84 f.
96.
See Buddha.
Gautama,

Gelugpa,

Great

Learning,

Groot,
Grube,

Ise, 177

Islam, 61, 83, 139, 195-240


Ismailians, 231
Israfil, 220
Izana-gi, 174-6, 185

De,

Hallaj,

f.

Jackson,

f., 169

ff.

f., 185

Janaka,
Jataka,

91, 94, 97, 102

Jesus.

See

32, 34

Jimmu,

238

Jinns,

Jodo,

f., 121

Christ.

177
221

195, 203,
See

188.

Pure

Land

Sect.

67, 76

179, 185, 193


Harada,
229
Hasan,
69
Haurvatat,
Heaven,
73, 97, 201,

Kabah,

225.

See

Hegira. See Hijrah.


Hijrah, 205
141-4.
133,
Hinayana,

f.

See

of.

39

Kali, 53, 61
226
Kalimah,
Kama,

Hell, 72, 137, 201, 225, 237

Buddha,
Teaching
Hirata, 180
Honen
Shonin, 188
151
Hou-chi,
151
Hou-tu,

195,201,211

Kaikeyi,

Tien.

also

239
68

Jews, 196, 204, 208 ff.


Jihad, 212, 227, 233

40

Hanuman,
Haoma,

66, 75

Jalaluddln,

ff.

185

174-6,

Izrail, 220

Jamaspa,

162

149,

148

Izana-mi.
167

154

166
Hackmann,
Hadlth, 216
Ha//, 213, 226

al

Isa, 223.

173

al-Ghazali, 239
Giles, 149 f., 158 f., 163,
Golden
24
Germ,
216
ff.
Goldziher,
See Buddha.
96.
Gotama,

16 f., 20 f.,23, 25
See Christ.

Indra,

145

Gemmiyo,

251

23

178
Kami,
See Karma.
90.
Kamma,
236
Kamal-ud-Dln,
101
97,
Kanthaka,

Kapilavatthu,
Karbala,

95

229, 231

Karma,

13, 31-4, 45, 50, 58, 60,

90, 122

ff., 127

Kassapa

(Kasyapa),

132,

167,

185

Ibadites, 230
Iblis, 221
Ibn
199, 207
Hisham,
199,207,214
Ibnlshaq,
Ibrahim,

212.

Idzumo,

177,

Ijmd,
Imam,

217
217

Imamites,
Iman,

Inari,
Indian

See

Kausalya,
Keshab

179

Khshathra,

f., 230

ff., 234

Kismet,

229

226
179

Reformer,

60

ff., 240
f.

69, 72

225

KoboDaishi.

231

Sen, 57-9, 61

197-203

18
Khaibar,
I Khallf, 199, 228

Kharijites,

f.

Social

Chandra

Khadljah,

Abraham.

39

Koiiki, 173ff.
97
Kondanna,
Krishna, 41-6,

180, 186, 191

51, 54,

62
.

INDEX

262

Kshatriya, 25, 32,


Kuan-yin,

166

93

f.

See

f.

Matarisvan,
Avalo-

Maya,

kita.

Mazdah
162

Kumarajiva,

40
Lakshmi,
Lama,
Lamaism,
Lao-tze, 157, 159,

Kuan-yin.

145

ff.

161

Legge, 148, 157


Light of Asia, 89
LiKi,

148, 152f.,

Lloyd,

189ff.

Lotus

Lu,

161

Miroku,

184.

All Muhammad,

Mirza

Ghulam

Mobed,
Good

the

Law,

134

ff.,

154-6

86

Moggallana, 107,
Mongolia, 145

f.

74

Magians,

Maya, 97
Mahapajapati, 1J.1

Maha

Mahinda,
Maimunah,

231
.

60

Sankara,
15

225

Nagasena,
184

Nallasvami

Natarajan,
91

Nikdya,

Nats,

Malik-ibn-Anas,

128

Manikka

See
90.
Nibbdna,
190
f.
Nicheren,
Nicholson, 238 f.

145

Vasagar,
101

53

Nihongi, 173
Ninigi, 177

f.

Margoliouth,

201

ff.,210

16, 18
the

223 ; the
Muhammad's

Mother

60

143

New

195

Manchuria,
Mani, 83

91, 121
Pillai, 53

Nepal, 95, 144 f.


Dispensation,

88

135

Nagarjuna,

36

Malabar!

Mary,

of, 196-213
224

ff

Mutazilites, 220,

144.

211

Maitreyi,
Majjhima

Maruts,

Life

Islam,

Miiller, Max,
142,

140

Maitreya, 146,

Mara,

229

181-91

162-9,

Manat,

Mula

133-8,

Mahayana,

59

in

Muharram,
Muir, 200

39, 41

Mahdbharata,

180

Muhammad,
Place

109

ff.,74, 95

65

Muawiya,

167

Madonna,

f.

19-23

Mozoomdar,

135

Madhyamaka,

235

f.

76

Moulton,

Macnicol, 51
Madhi, 231 f., 235

234

Ahmad,

Moses, 223
Motoori, 178,

195

Maitreya

See

Mirza

Mitra, 16,

191

Luqman,

Ming-ti,

Mithra,

171

166

of

186,

Ahura

Mecca, 195 ff.


205 ff
Medina,
154, 158, 167, 193
Mencius,
Metta, 125
Michael, 220
Mihintale, 140

39

Loshana,

See

Ahura.

Mazdah.

41
Kurukshetra,
See
184.
Kwannon,
Kwei, 169 f.

Lakshmana,

23

36, 46

of Jesus,

sister of Moses,

concubine,

221,
221

212

59
Nirvana,

ff.

115
94,
98,
90,
Nirvana,
123-8, 133, 137
Nivedita, Sister, 62
Noah,
195, 223
Noble
Eightfold Path, 104

f.,

INDEX
Noble

Truths,

Northern

ff., 1 1 7-28

104

Buddhism.

See

Mahayana.
Ohonamochi,
"

of Jesus,"

Oldenberg,

37,

112, 117, 119,

90,

106,

109,

126, 128

Rdmdyana,

Rai,
60

Ravana,

40

52

See

226.

Redemption,

55

Ramadan
f
.

30,

34-8,

44

"E.,106, 115 f., 124-7


Reform
55-61,
Movements,

ff.,

47

145
Padma-Sambhava,
See Dagaba.
Pagoda.

Paradise

49

39-41,

Ranade,

f.

f.

Ramanuja,

Rammohan

235

53
Oman,
70
Ormazd,

Pah-sien,
Pali, 89 f.
Paraclete,

Ramadan,
209, 226
Ramakrishna,
55, 59, 61

Ramazan,

177

Ointment

263

Reischauer,
Renovation,

161

Parsis, 83-8

Pataliputra,

14-25

51

200
Ruqaiyah,
Ryobu-Shinto,

132

Pdtimokkha,
130
Pavarana,
Pieters, 181

f.

81 f.

Rigveda, 13,
f.

189

185, 187,

19
Rudra,
Rukmini,

224

Scriptures, 137

88,

141, 143

f.

180, 186

90, 130, 164

Pongyi,
Pope, 53

Sadharan

121

94,

fi, 127,

134,

136

Siddhanta,
Saivism, 52 f.
Sakti, 53

Sakyamuni,

Prajapati, 24,
Prarthana

27

Samaj,

Prdtimoksha,

59

f.
See

164.

mokkha.
Pdti-

Prophets (in Quran),


of

Sisters, 91, 111,

the

Purdnas,

46, 50, 54

Pure

Sect, 166, 184, 188


24, 28 f.

Land

16

Sankara,

Quarish,

Quran,

f.

195

f., 215

Rabia, 238
51, 62
Radha,
Rahula,
96, 109
210
Raihanah,
Rama,

137
233
72

Saoshyants,

107,

109

221

Satydrth Prakdsh,
195

Rajanya,

140

43-6, 53, 94

Sariputta,

218

25

39-41,

52

f., 221

f.

91

ff.

47

Santideva,
as-Sanusi,

Satan,

Qiyds,

Buddha.

125
Sama,
Samaveda,
14, 25
192 f.
Samurai,

Sankhya,

126

Purusha,
Pushan,

See

96.

Sanghamitta,

222-4

59

53

Samyutta Nikdya,
Sandilya, 29

Prithivi, 18
Psalms

Samaj,

210

Saiva

143

Poussin,

Brahma

Safiyah,

60

Savitar, 15 f., 18
Sects, 50-3, 163, 185-91,
233
Sayyed Ahmad,
Sell, 217

Shahpuhr,
Shaka,

96.

Shang-ti,

83
See
150

Shen, 169
Shiahs, 228-32

Buddha.

ff.

228-36

INDEX

254
Shi

King,

148-153

Shin, 189.

See

Shingon,

186

True

Land.

f.

Shinran, 189
Shinto, 173-80
185
Shoden,
173
Shomu,

King,
Shwedagon,

Temmu,
Tendai,

192

148-52

96.

Buddha.

Sirat, 225
Sita, 39 f., 52
Siva, 18f., 40,

Skambha,

Soga,
Soma,

52

f.,60, 185

Traditions,

Tripitaka.

Lord.

Southern

Buddhism.

See

Bhaga-

True

Tsong

and

Autumn,
72, 77

Srinivasa

lyengar,
Srirangam, 49
Srong Tsan
Gampo,
223,

Subh-i-Azel,
Suddhodana,

Pure

Kapa,

148

13
144

225

234
97

See

Western

dise.
Para-

Vairochana,
Vaishnavism,

Vaisya,
Goddess,

161

Sutta

184

217
18

Susa-no-wo,
Sutra

175-8,

216

Surya, 16,
SQtra

Tipitaka.
Sect, 186, 189 f.

Land
145

Uddaka,
98, 104
208 f.
Uhud,
179
Ukemochi,
40
Uma,
203, 217, 228
Umar,
13
f., 30-8,
Upanishads,
47 ff.,56 f., 94
Ushas, 16, 27
Uthman,
200, 228
194
al-Uzza,

183

Sukhavati.

Sunnah,
Sunnis,

See

Karma.

43,

f.

SuikoTenno,

Sun

See

See

Hmayana
Spooner, 95

Sudra, 25
Sufis, 238

216

Transmigration.

16f., 67

Stanton,

90-2

of Silence, 81, 86

Towers

f.

Sraosha,

gdthd,

ff.
91

Tibet, 144 ff.


Tien, 150 f.

Tipitaka,

Song of the
vadgitd.

Spring

55, 61

Tissa, 140

29

182

188

Therd-therl

(Siddhartha),

Buddha.

See

96.

173

Theosophy,

140

Siddhattha
See

Tantric

Tathagata,

Daishi, 183,

Shotoku
Shu

63
Rabindranath,
138 f., 145
Buddhism,
Tao, 159, 161, 193
159
ff.
Taoism,
Tara, 136, 144, 146

Tagore,
Pure

176

ff.

Brahma's

of
of

Net, 164 ff.


Sections,
Forty -Two

f.

Pitaka,

91

Suttavibhanga,

90

Tagore, Dvarkanath,
Tagore, Debendranath,

25

Valmiki, 39
16 f., 19 ff.,22 f.
Varuna,
Vata, 18
Vayu, 16, 18, 25
Veda, 14
46, 48 f.
Vedanta,
Veddntasutras, 47, 56
Vendlddd,
65, 75-81, 85
Vesali, 90, 132
Vinaya Pitaka, 90 f., 129 f.
Vishnu, 16, 19, 40 f.

Vishtaspa,

56
67

f.

166, 184, 186, 191


43, 51 f., 58

Vivekananda,

58
62

255

INDEX

Vohu

106

Yasa,

69

Manah,

Vritra,

16

Yaska,

dell,

73

65,

Yasnaa,
Wad

72-82

65,

Yashts,

17

f.

145

Yasodhara,
Wahhabis,

96

f.

232
f.

121

205
173

Yengishiki,
74

Paradise,

138,

148

King,

Yi

Western

166.
71

Yima,
188

ff.

Yin,

Wilson,

169f.

85

Woking,

236

Women,

50,

f.,

110

Yoga,

38,

Zaid,

199,

Yadavas,

Yajnavalkhya,

23,

33,

71

169

ff.

f.

See

(Zaratust).

Zoroaster.

ff.

186f.

Zen,

25

Life

Zoroaster,
of,

177

Yamato,

Yang,

34

31,
14,

16,

215
214

Zarathushtra

41

Yajurveda,

f.

44

214

Zainab,

Yama,

ft.

76

65,

Yazatas,
f.,

194

Wellhausen,
West,

Medina.

See

196.

Yathrib,

Warren,

hero,

75

68-73

of,

65-8
;

ing
Teach-

Legendary

Printed
The

in

Press,

Mayflower

William

Britain

Great

Brendon

"

at

Plymouth.
Son,

Ltd.