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HISTORY

THE ENLIGHTENMENT
- was a way of thinking
- main assumptions:
- knowledge can be used to improve life
- people in all societies have natural rights and duties
- ideas must be tested and proved
- was made possible by scientific revolution
- began in Netherlands and Britain because greater freedom of press

THE DUTCH ENLIGHTENMENT


- Netherlands = publishing centre for enlightened works
- many Dutch thinkers; Herman Boerhaave, Christiaan Huygens
- People spread knowledge in the following ways:
- free public lectures
- reading groups
- improvement societies

ENLIGHTENED RULERS
Some absolute rulers agreed with enlightenment ideas wanted to make reform
e.g. religious freedom, state education, free speech

THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION


America = unhappy with British government
British give high taxes
Americans = no representation in government
1770 five Boston citizens killed
1773 protesters dump British tea in harbour
1775 war broke out
1776 declaration of independence
1783 war is won

THE ANGLO-DUTCH WAR


Dutch supporters of American Revolution = patriots
Reasons for being patriot:
- Some saw Am. Rev. as imitation of Dutch Revolt
- Some saw it as warning to Republics rulers to give people more say in government
- some were anti-Orangists and saw it as challenge to monarchy
- merchants wanted free trade with Am.
- poor people saw it as attack on rich
British expected Dutch to join war on their side Dutch promised to help England
then broke promise war broke out in 1780
The war ruined Dutch trade

PATRIOTS AND ORANGISTS


Patriots in Republic = unhappy with Government
Stadtholder William V acts too much like king
Patriots formed militia called Free Corps
Patriots started taking over town
William V = scared leaves The Hague
Williams wife Wilhelmina tries to go to Holland is stopped by Free Corps
Wilhelmina = insulted by this writes letter to her brother, who is king of Prussia
King of Prussia sends army to Holland patriots are defeated

THE BATAVIAN REPUBLIC


In 1795, William V was chased out by patriots with help of the French
The French then took over the Netherlands
Napoleon let brother Louis rule the Netherlands
Louis was a very good king Napoleon asked Louis to send army Louis refused
Louis was taken away from the Netherlands
William Vs son became the new king

FRENCH REVOLUTION
Society = 3 classes nobles, clergy, the rest
The rest = unhappy because bad standard of living and high taxes
Poor harvest price of bread went up
France supported American Revolution became even more poor
King Louis XVI was absolute ruler
King needed more money called Estates General
Third Estate (= ordinary people) demanded a constitution
other Estates refused Third Estate moved to tennis court and re-named itself
the National Assembly
14 July 1789 working people took over the Bastille prison and freed prisoners
National Assembly removed power from nobles and Church wrote Declaration
of the Rights of Men
French Revolution = very bloody

DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE REVOLUTIONS


French Revolution
= similarities
Disliked government

American Revolution
Batavian Revolution
= differences
Disliked government
Disliked government

Famine

No famine

No famine

Revolted against own


government

Revolted against British


oppressors

Revolted against own


government

High taxes

High taxes

High taxes

Very violent

Not very violent

Not very violent

End result:
Napoleon

End result:
Freedom from Britain

End result:
Batavian Republic

Inspired by American
Revolution

Inspired by Dutch
Republic (who got away
from Spain)
French were involved
(supported)
Inspiration from
enlightenment

Inspired by American
Revolution

French were involved


Inspiration from
enlightenment

French were involved


(supported)
Inspiration from
enlightenment

DATES FROM TIMELINE


American Revolution
French Revolution
Batavian Revolution
1770 Boston Massacre
1773 Boston Tea Party
1775 War between Britain and America
1776 Declaration of Independence
1783 British were beaten
1785 William V left The Hague
1787 King of Prussia sends army to the Netherlands
1788 Bad harvest in France
1789 French Revolution started
1793 King Louis XVI is killed
1795 Start of Batavian Revolution
1799 Napoleon gains absolute power
1783-1783 = Anglo-Dutch war
1793-1795 = Directoire
1806-1813 = Netherlands is part of France