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Globalisation

Introduction
Globalisation is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and
governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and
aided by information technology. Globalisation arises from the interchange of world views,
products, ideas and mutual sharing and other aspects of culture.

Origin of globalisation
Globalisation is not new, though. For thousands of years, people and later corporations have
been buying from and selling to each other in lands at great distances, such as through the
famed Silk route across central Asia that connected China and Europe during the Middle Ages.
Likewise, for centuries, people and corporations have invested in enterprises in other countries.
In fact, many of the features of the current wave of globalization are similar to those prevailing
before the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. But policy and technological developments
of the past few decades have spurred increases in cross-border trade, investment, and
migration so large that many observers believe the world has entered a qualitatively new phase
in its economic development.

Modes of globalisation
Financial globalization

Interconnection of the worlds financial systems e.g. stock markets


More of a connection between large cities than of nations.

Economic Globalization

A worldwide economic system that permits easy movement of goods, production, capital,
and resources.

Technological Globalization

Connection between nations through technology such as television, radio, telephones,


internet, etc.was traditionally available only to the rich but is now far more available to
the poor.
Much less infrastructure is needed now.

Political Globalization

countries are attempting to adopt similar political policies and styles of government in
order to facilitate other forms of globalization.

Cultural Globalization

Merging or watering down of the worlds cultures e.g. food, entertainment, language,
etc.

Heavily criticized as destructive of local culture.

Ecological Globalization

seeing the Earth as a single ecosystem rather than a collection of separate ecological
systems because so many problems are global in nature.

Sociological Globalization

A growing belief that we are all global citizens and should all be held to the same
standards and have the same rights.

Impacts of globalization
Positive impacts:
Increased Competition
One of the most visible effects is the improved quality of products due to global competition.
Domestic companies are compelled to improve their standards and foreign companies are
compelled to live up with their reputation. This creates competition in the market and a 'survival
of the fittest' situation.
Employment
With globalization, companies have forayed into the developing countries and hence generated
employment for them. It has given an opportunity to invest in the emerging markets and tap the
talent which is available there. In developing countries, there is often a lack of capital which
hinders the growth of domestic companies and hence, employment. In such cases, due to
global nature of the businesses, people of developing countries too can obtain gainful
employment opportunities.
Investment and Capital Flows
A lot of companies have directly invested in developing countries like Brazil and India by starting
production units.
Foreign Trade
We cant forget about the impact of foreign trade on an economy. Previously, people had to
resort to unfair means and destruction of kingdoms and countries to get what they wanted.
Today, people who operate in uncivilized ways have to face the WTO and other world
organizations that have been established with a view to control and regulate trade activities of
the countries.
Spread of Technical Know-How
While it is generally assumed that all the innovations happen in the Western world, the knowhow also comes into developing countries due to globalization. Without it, the knowledge of new
inventions and medicines would remain cooped up in the countries that came up with them and
no one else would benefit. The spread of know-how can also be expanded to include economic
and political knowledge, which too has spread far and wide.

Spread of Culture
Not all good practices were born in one civilization. The world that we live in today is a result of
several cultures coming together. People of one culture, if receptive, tend to see the flaws in
their culture and pick up values that are more correct or in tune with the times. Cooking styles,
languages, customs, movies, musical styles, and other art forms have spread all due to
globalization.
Spread of Education
One of the most powerful effects of globalization is the spread of education. If one is interested,
he/she can even get a specialization in subjects not indigenous to his country and then spread
that knowledge to the home country
Legal and Ethical Effects
Gone are those days where the limited jurisdiction became a hindrance in the prosecution of
criminals. These days, due to international courts of justice, criminals can no longer seek
asylum in a foreign country and are thus brought to justice. There is also an understanding
between security agencies and police of two or more different countries who come together to
curb global terrorism.

Negative impacts:
Employment Disparity
In order to cut down costs, many firms in developed nations have outsourced their
manufacturing and white-collar jobs to Third-World countries where the cost of labor is low. This
has caused a lot of resentment among the people of developed countries, and companies have
been accused of taking their jobs away.
Cultural Deterioration
Fast food chains are spreading fast in the developing world. People are consuming more junk
food which has an adverse impact on their health. Apart from it, there is something else that
globalization has been criticized for, and it is the accusation that it has opened floodgates for
restaurants and eateries which are insensitive to the religious beliefs of the host nation. While
the rich are getting richer, the poor are struggling for a square meal. Ideally, globalization should
have resulted in creation of wealth and prosperity, but corporate greed and corrupt government
has ensured that money is not distributed equally
Rise in Health Risks
Globalization bought people from various countries together, and this is perhaps the reason that
a virus(AIDS) from a jungle was transported to almost every country in the world. Environmental
degradation is an issue which has been debated ferociously in various international meetings,
and it has to be accepted that globalization is one of the most important factors that has
aggravated the situation.

Conclusion

In conclusion, globalisation is a serious issue that affects many nations. Researchers should
analyze these impacts carefully so as to prevent the negative impacts. It is essential to note that
the force behind globalisation cannot be stopped. it is therefore essential to note that all nations
create forms of globalisation that are environmentally and socially sustainable. These forms
should be more beneficial to all humanity and reduce costs. indirect impacts of globalisation on
health operate through the national economy, e.g., effects of trade liberalisation, and the
financial flows on resources for health expenditures. Direct affecting of globalisation on health is
on health systems, as well as, policies of multilateral trade signings and agreements.