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Heat Transfer in Agro Processing

Dr.Ir. Supratomo

Heat and Cooling

• The most important unit operations in the food industry is related to heat transfer

• Very common if food industry drying, evaporating, cooling, freezing, frying

• For foods, care should be taken not to degrade the food product

Heat tranfer in agro processing 3

Steady and Unsteady State Heat Transfer

Steady state HT that temperature in an object may vary by location but it does not change with time.

Unsteady state HT that temperature is a fuction of both location and time.

Principles of Unsteady HT

that temperature is a fuction of both location and time. Principles of Unsteady HT Heat tranfer

Unsteady Heat Transfer

Unsteady Heat Transfer Heat tranfer in agro processing 5

Unsteady Heat Transfer

Since temperature is a function of two independent variables, time and location, the following partial defferent equation is the governing equation for a one dimensional case :

T

t

1

α

  ∂ T

2

x

=

2

 

α=

ρ c p

k

: coefficient of diffusivity

The solution of this governing equation involves the use of advanced mathematics. It is important to note that analytical solution of this equation is possible only for simplified geometrical shapes such as sphere, infinite slab or infinite cylinder.

The Biot Number

During unsteady-state heating period, the temperature of the solid will vary

with location and time. On immersing the solid in a fluid, the heat transfer from fluid to center of the solid will encounter two resistances :

- convective/external resistance (h) in the fluid surounding the solid

- conductive/internal resistance (k) inside the solid The ratio of these resistances is defined as Biot number (B i )

B i =

internal conduvtive resistance to HT

external convective resistance to HT

D is the length characterics

convective resistance to HT D is the length characterics D = ½ X D = 1/3

D = ½ X

resistance to HT D is the length characterics D = ½ X D = 1/3 r

D = 1/3 r

=

D

/

k

1/ h

=

hD

k

is the length characterics D = ½ X D = 1/3 r = D / k

D = ½ r

To calculate the temperature as a function of time and position in a solid.

1. Identify the geometry of the system. Determine if the solid can be considered as plate/slab, cylinder (if L=D > 10, the cylinder can be treated as an infinite cylinder), or sphere.

2. Determine if the surface temperature is constant. If not, calculate the Biot (B 0 ) number and decide the relative importance of internal and external resistance to heat transfer.

3. Select the appropriate equation.

4. Calculate the Fourier (F 0 ) number.

5. Find the temperature by applying the selected equation (if F 0 > 0.2, calculate the temperature either using only the first term of the series solution or using Gurney-Lurie/Heisler / Temperature-Time charts).

Lumped-capacity solution

A simple case of unsteady-state heat transfer arises from the heating or cooling of solid bodies made from good thermal conductors, for example a long cylinder, such as a meat sausage or a metal bar, being cooled in air. The rate at which heat is being transferred to the air from the surface of the cylinder is given by Newton’s Law of Cooling :

dQ

dt

=

hA(T -T )

s

a

dQ

=

hA(T -T )dt

s

a

But this loss of heat cools the cylinder in accordance with the internal heat equation:

dQ =

mc dT

p

Vc dT

p

=ρ

Vc dT

p

ρ

=−

hA T

(

s

T

a

)

dt

Vc

ρ

d Θ

p dt

= − Θ

hA

where :

Θ

t

d Θ

Θ

Θ

Θ

0

ln

hA

ρ Vc

p

hA

t

0

dt

=−

t

=−

Θ

Θ

0

t

=

T t

Vc

ρ

T

a

p

= e

Θ

0

T

o

T

a

hA

ρ Vc

p

t

B i = Biot number =

hD

k

F o

=

Fourier number

=

α t

l

2

Θ =

(

t

)

k F o = Fourier number = α t l 2 Θ = ( t )

T

 

T

(

t

)

T

t

a

T

a

 

T

o

T

a

= e

hA

ρ Vc

p

t

T − T t a − B F = e i o T − T
T
− T
t
a
− B F
= e
i
o
T
− T
o
a

Bi < 0.1 (internal resistance HT is negligible)

Bi < 0.1 (internal resistance HT is negligible) T − T T o − T a

T

T

T

o

T

a

= e

t

a

B F

i

o

t a − B F i o
t a − B F i o

Example

Calculate the temperature juice (density = 980 kg/m 3 ) in a steam-jacketed hemispherical kettle after 5 minute of heating. The radius of the kettle is 0.5 m. the convective heat transfer coefficient in the steam jacket is 5000 W/m 2o C. The inside surface temperature of the kettle is 90 o C. The initial temperature of tomato juice is 20 o C. Assume specific heat of tomato juice is 3.95 kJ/kg o C. (Book: page 342 example 4.24).

specific heat of tomato juice is 3.95 kJ/kg o C. (Book: page 342 example 4.24). Heat
Heat tranfer in agro processing
Heat tranfer in agro processing

13

0.1 < Bi < 40 (finite internal and external resistance HT)

Bi < 40 (finite internal and external resistance HT) ∂ t α x   ∂

t

α

x

 

T

1

2

 ∂ T

=

 

2

  ∂ ∂ T 1 2  ∂ T  =   2 

Solutions of the unsteady state heat transfer equation for uniform initial temperature and both resistances, surface and internal, significant (0.1<B i <40)

and both resistances, surface and internal, significant (0.1<B i <40) Heat tranfer in agro processing 15

Gurney-Lurie/Temperature – Time Chart Solution, (0.1<B i <40)

Gurney-Lurie/Temperature – Time Chart Solution, (0.1<B i <40) Heat tranfer in agro processing 16

Gurney-Lurie Chart Animation

Gurney-Lurie Chart Animation Heat tranfer in agro processing 17

Example

Estimate the time when the temperature at the geometric center of 6 cm diameter apple (density = 820 kg/m 3 ) held in a 2 o C water stream reaches 3 o C. The initial uniform temperature of the apple is 15 o C. The convective heat transfer coefficient in water surounding the apple is 50 W/m2 o C. The thermal properties of the apple are thermal conductivity is 0.355 W/m o C and specific heat of apple is 3.6 kJ/kg o C. (Book: page 351 example 4.26).

Heat tranfer in agro processing
Heat tranfer in agro processing

19

Bi > 40 (surface/external resistance HT is negligible)

Bi > 40 (surface/external resistance HT is negligible ) Heat tranfer in agro processing 20

Solutions of the unsteady state heat transfer equation with uniform initial temperature and constant surface temperature (negligible surface resistance, Bi > 40)

Heat tranfer in agro processing
Heat tranfer in agro processing

NOTE : If F O > 0.2, only the first term of the sum in equation can be used without appreciable error

21

Gurney-Lurie/Temperature – Time Chart Solution, (B i > 40)

Gurney-Lurie/Temperature – Time Chart Solution, (B i > 40) Heat tranfer in agro processing 22

Example

A steak 2 cm thick is put on a hot metallic plate. The surface of the steak in contact with the hot surface immediately attains a temperature of 120 o C and retains this temperature. Calculate the temperature 1.1 cm from the hot surface of the steak after 15 min, if the initial temperature of the meat is 5 o C and the thermal diffusivity of the meat is 1.4 x 10 -7 m 2 /s.

Given :

Steak :

L = 2 cm = 0.02 m

T o = 5 o C

/s. Given : Steak : L = 2 cm = 0.02 m T o = 5

Diffusivity = 1.4 x 10 -7 m 2 /s Deep from surface = 1.1 cm = 0.011 m

x = 0.02 – 0.011 = 0.009 m Hot plate :

T e = 120 o C

t = 15 min = 900 s

Cara penyelesaian I

Cara penyelesaian I Since F O > 0.2, only the first term of the sum in

Since F O > 0.2, only the first term of the sum in equation can be used without appreciable error.

only the first term of the sum in equation can be used without appreciable error. Heat
only the first term of the sum in equation can be used without appreciable error. Heat

Cara penyelesaian II Gurney-Lurie Chart

Cara penyelesaian II  Gurney-Lurie Chart Constant surface temperature or B i ≈ ∞ x/L =

Constant surface temperature or B i x/L = 0.009/0.02 =0.45

Temperature-Time Chart

1/B i = 0 and

i ≈ ∞ x/L = 0.009/0.02 =0.45 Temperature-Time Chart  1/B i = 0 and Heat

Example

Estimate the temperature at the geometric center of a food product contained in a 303 x 406 inch can exposed to boiling water at 100°C for 30 min. The product is assumed to heat and cool by conduction. The initial uniform temperature of the product is 35°C. The properties of the food are thermal conductivity k = 0.34 W/(m °C); specific heat c p = 3.5 kJ/(kg °C); and density ρ = 900 kg/m 3 . The convective heat transfer coefficient for the boiling water is estimated to be 2000 W/(m 2 °C). (Book: page 352 example 4.27).

The can dimension is 303 x 406 inch = 0.081 (D) x 0.11 (H) m

The can dimension is 303 x 406 inch = 0.081 (D) x 0.11 (H) m 

The solution is quite complicated Heisler Chart Solution

Heat tranfer in agro processing
Heat tranfer in agro processing

27

HOME WORK

1. Calculate the temperature of 200 litres of glucose syrup heated in an agitated jacketed vessel for 30 min if the initial temperature of the syrup is 30 o C, the temperature of the steam in the jacket is 120 o C, the density and the heat capacity of the syrup are 1230 kg/m 3 and 3.35 kJ/kg o C respectively, the overall heat transfer coefficient between the heating medium and the syrup is 200 W/m 2 o C, and the inside surface area of the vessel in contact with the syrup is 1.5 m 2 .

2. An orange initially at 21 o C and is placed in ice water at 0 o C. What would the center temperature be after 10 minutes if the Fourier number is 0.2 at 10 minutes ? The Biot number is 10.

3. A hot dog 1.5 cm in diameter and 16 cm in length with 5 o C initial temperature is immersed in boiling water. Calculate a) the temperature 3 mm under the surface after 2 min, b) the temperature at the center after 2 min, and c) the time necessary to reach 81 o C at the center. Assume that the thermal conductivity is 0.5W/m o C, the density is 1050 kg/m 3 , the heat capacity is 3.35 kJ/kg o C, and the heat transfer coefficient at the surface of the hot dog is 3000 W/m 2 o C.

Heat tranfer in agro processing 29
Gurney-Lurie chart for a flat plate 30

Gurney-Lurie chart for a flat plate

30

Heisler chart for determining the midplane temperature of a flat plate

Heisler chart for determining the midplane temperature of a flat plate

Heisler chart for determining the midplane temperature of a flat plate

Heisler chart for determining the midplane temperature of a flat plate

Gurney-Lurie chart for a long cylinder 33

Gurney-Lurie chart for a long cylinder

33

Heisler chart for determining the centerline temperature of a long cylinder.

Heisler chart for determining the centerline temperature of a long cylinder.

Heisler chart for determining the centerline temperature of a long cylinder.

Heisler chart for determining the centerline temperature of a long cylinder.

Gurney-Lurie chart for a sphere 36

Gurney-Lurie chart for a sphere

36

Heisler chart for determining the center temperature of a sphere.

Heisler chart for determining the center temperature of a sphere.

Heisler chart for determining the center temperature of a sphere.

Heisler chart for determining the center temperature of a sphere.