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INTELLIGENT ROOM

Submitted by:
CHANDAN GIRI (1201230302)
RAHUL KUMAR (1201230287)
PRITAM KUMAR SINGH (1201230252)
NIRAJ TIWARI (1201230281)
GAURAV KUMAR (1201230307)

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS
&TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
SYNERGY INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
DHENKANAL-759001
AFFILIATED TO BIJU PATNAIK UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
2015

INTELLIGENT ROOM
1

PROJECT REPORT
SUBMITTED TO
SYNERGY INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING &TECHNOLOGY,
DHENKANAL
AN AFFILIATED COLLEGE OF BIJU PATNAIK UNIVERSITY
OF TECHNOLOGY,
ROURKELA

IN PRACTICAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS


FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
ELECTRONICS &TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
BY
CHANDAN GIRI (1201230302)
RAHUL KUAMR (1201230287)
PRITAM KUMAR SINGH (1201230252)
NIRAJ TIWARI (1201230281)
GAURAV KUMAR (1201230307)

Under the guidance of


Mr. ABHINNA DAS
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS &TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
SYNERGY INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
DHENKANAL
2015

Certificate
This

is to certify that the thesis entitled,

INTELLIGENT ROOM submitted by CHANDAN GIRI (1201230302),


RAHUL

KUMAR

(1201230252),NIRAJ

(1201230287),PRITAM
TIWARI

KUMAR

SINGH

(1201230281),GAUARAV

KUMAR(1201230307), in partial fulfillment of requirements for the award of


Bachelor Of Technology Degree in Electronics & Telecommunication
Engineering during 2012-2016 at Synergy Institute Of Engineering &
Technology, Dhenkanal is an authentic work carried out by them under my
supervision and guidance.
To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in the thesis has not been
submitted to any other University / Institute for the award of any Degree or
Diploma.

Mr. Abhinna Das


Dept. of Electronics and Telecomm. Engg.
S.I.E.T, Dhenkanal

CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL
The project report entitled INTELLIGENT ROOM submitted by
CHANDAN GIRI (1201230302),RAHUL KUMAR (1201230287), PRITAM
KUMAR SINGH (1201230252), NIRAJ TIWARI (1201230281),GAURAV
KUMAR (1201230307) to Synergy Institute Of Engineering & Technology,
Dhenkanal .An affiliated college of Biju Pattnaik University Of Technology,
Rourkela has been examined by us. It is found fit and approved for the award of
the degree of Bachelor of Technology.

Dr. M.K. HOTA (H.O.D)


Dept. of Electronics and Telecomm. Engg.
S.I.E.T, Dhenkanal

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We express our deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to our
supervisor Mr. Abhinna Das, for consistently providing us valuable
encouragement, helpful suggestion, moral support and affection. In spite of his
extremely busy schedules, he was always available to share with us his deep
insights, wide knowledge and extensive experience. His advices have value
lasting much beyond this project. We consider it a blessing to be associated with
him.
Our sincere thanks to Dr. Malaya Kumar Hota, Head of the Department,
Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, S.I.E.T, Dhenkanal, for
granting permission and provide support to use the facilities available in the
institute for this study.
We also express our thankfulness to the encouragement from faculty and
staff members of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering Department
for their continuous encouragement and suggestions.
Last, but not least, we thank all those who have directly or indirectly
assisted us for completion of this project.
NAME

REGD. NO.

CHANDAN GIRI

1201230302

RAHUL KUMAR

1201230287

PRITAM KUMAR SINGH

1201230252

NIRAJ TIWARI

1201230281

GAURAV KUMAR

1201230307

SIGNATURE

ABSTRACT

This Project Intelligent Room is a reliable circuit that takes over the task of controlling
the room lights as well us counting number of persons / visitors in the room very accurately.
When someone enters into the room then the power supply is ON for the room (light ,fan etc
can be auto ON) and when everyone who has entered the room leaves the room then the
power supply is OFF. This project also calculates and displays the density (i.e. number of
person present in the room) at any instance of time.
The intelligence of the room is governed by sensors and microcontrollers. When someone
enters the room the presence is sensed by the sensors i.e. present in the embedded system it
passes signal to the controller which updates the counter and provides supply to the room and
when person leaves the room then it is sensed by exit sensor and again the counter is updated
and when everyone leaves the room the controller cuts the power supply of the room.
In this way Intelligent room system controls the electrical and electronic appliances present
in the room automatically without any manual input and it also saves power.

CONTENTS
6

INDEX

PAGE NO.

chapter 1

9-12

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Project Definition
1.2 Project Overview
1.3 Project Objective

chapter 2
13-14

BLOCK DIAGRAM AND ITS DESCRIPTION


2.1Block Diagram Description:-

chapter 3
15-17

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
3.1. Circuit Description

chapter 4
18-34

LIST OF COMPONENTS
4.1. List of Components
4.2 Description of Components

chapter 5
36

PROJECT FLOW CHART

chapter 6
APPLICATION, ADVANTAGES &DISADVANTAGES

41

8.CONCLUSION

42

9. REFERENCES

43

LIST OF FIGURES
7

FIGURES

PAGE NO.

Figure 2.1 Block diagram of intelligent room

14

Figure 3.1 Circuit diagram of intelligent room

16

Figure 4.1 IR transmitter circuit

21

Figure 4.2 IR receiver circuit

22

Figure 4.3 LCD display

23

Figure 4.4 Different types of capacitors

26

Figure 4.5 Crystal oscillator

26

Figure 4.6 Diode

28

Figure 4.7(a) Typical LED

29

Figure 4.7(b) Circuit symbol

29

Figure 4.8 Different types of LED

30

Figure 4.9 White LED spectrum

30

Figure 4.10 A typical transformer

33

Figure 4.11 Block diagram of voltage regulator

34

Figure 5.1 Flow chart

36

Chapter :1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Project Definition:


Project title is INTELLIGENT ROOM using microcontroller.
Intelligent Room is a reliable circuit that takes over the task of counting number of
persons/ visitors in the room passing through a single door and also turns ON the room light
9

when there is at-least one person in the room and turns OFF when the room is empty. The
total number of persons inside the room is displayed on display. We can use any other
appliance like fan or anything else instead of the light.[4]
The objective of this project is to make a controller based model to count number of persons
visiting an auditorium, hall, room, offices, malls, sports venue, etc. The system counts both
the entering and exiting visitor of the auditorium or hall or other place, where it is placed.
Depending upon the interrupt from the sensors, the system identifies the entry and exit of the
visitor.
On the successful implementation of the system, it displays the number of visitor present in
the room. This system can be economically implemented in all the places where the visitors
have to be counted and controlled. . The main intention is to design a system wherein the
number of persons entering or leaving a room is displayed on a screen. When a person enters
the room, count would be increased, whereas on leaving, the count would decrease. IR
sensing mechanism is used to sense the presence of visitors and the whole counting operation
is done by a microcontroller.
In todays world, there is a continuous need for automatic appliances .With the increase in
standard of living, there is a sense of urgency for developing circuits that would ease the
complexity of life.
Also if at all one wants to know the number of people present in room so as not to have
congestion, this circuit proves to be helpful.

1.2 Project Overview:

10

This Project Intelligent Room is a reliable circuit that takes over the task of
controlling the room lights as well us counting number of persons / visitors in the room very
accurately.
When someone enters into the room then the power supply is ON for the room (light ,fan etc
can be auto ON) and when everyone who has entered the room leaves the room then the
power supply is OFF. This project also calculates and displays the density (i.e. number of
person present in the room) at any instance of time.
The intelligence of the room is governed by sensors and microcontrollers. When someone
enters the room the presence is sensed by the sensors i.e. present in the embedded system it
passes signal to the controller which updates the counter and provides supply to the room and
when person leaves the room then it is sensed by exit sensor and again the counter is updated
and when everyone leaves the room the controller cuts the power supply of the room.[6]
In this way Intelligent room system controls the electrical and electronic appliances present
in the room automatically without any manual input and it also saves power.
Why this?

This system can be used as an automated switch to increase energy efficiency. The
system can be used at the entrance of a room to control the lights and other
appliances.

For e.g. When the number of people in the room is zero, the circuit can automatically
switch off the power thus preventing energy wastage.

Moreover, we wanted to learn about electronics and circuits. So we took up this


project.

1.3 Project Objective:

11

This project is not limited to a specific application or a specific operating


environment, but it can be easily implemented wherever such an application is needed. This
circuit uses a microcontroller which ensures the flexibility of the circuit, due to which this
circuit can easily be integrated or assembled with other modules or circuits where ever
required. All the components required are readily available in the market and the circuit is
easy to build. The significant feature of this project is that it detects the entry and exit of
visitors from a single door itself.
The aim of this project is to count the objects (persons) entering and leaving the room
and also switch the room light accordingly. If we consider an office or a conference hall or
any other room, we need to turn on the lights whenever anybody enters the room. This is true
even in the day time at some places like conference halls or offices where a good brightness
levels are desired. Also, the lights should be turned off by the last person leaving the room.
The problem is, when the first person is entering a room, he should search for switch board
and then for the right set of switches among hundreds of switches corresponding to lights
fans, etc of the conference hall. This is a daunting task. While leaving the hall, we cannot
guarantee that the last person turns off the lights. Even if he attempts to do it, he again faces
the problem the first person had faced. We should not expect them to do that work going
through the switching rigmaroles.
To avoid this problem, we have made a circuit which automatically switches
ON/OFF the room light depending on the number of people in the room. This circuit keeps
track of number of visitors. If the number of visitors is greater than zero, then it turns ON all
the lights. Else, it turns OFF all the lights automatically. It does not require any manual
intervention.

12

CHAPTER :- 2
BLOCK DIAGRAM AND
ITS DESCRIPTION

13

Fig2.1

Block diagram of intelligent

room

Intelligent Room Circuit Principle:


The circuit works on the principle of IR sensing. Two sets of IR sensors consisting of an IR
LED and photo transistor are placed at two ends. Output from each sensor is fed to the
microcontroller. In normal operation, IR light from the LED would fall on the photo transistor
and the latter would conduct. The output from the sensor would be a logic low signal in this
case. In case of any interruption (due to any person crossing the path), the photo transistor
would cease to conduct or conduct less and the output from the sensor would be a logic high
signal. The transition from low to high, for each sensor pair is detected by the microcontroller
and accordingly the count would be increased or decreased.

14

CHAPTER: - 3
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

Circuit Diagram of Intelligent Room:

15

Fig 3.1 circuit diagram of


intelligent room
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION:There are two main parts of the circuits.
Transmission Circuit (Infrared LEDs)
Receiver Circuit (Sensors)
Sensor pairs at two ports pins P1.0 and P1.1 respectively. The lcd display is interfaced to
the microcontroller at ports P0 and P2.
Another important aspect of the design involves designing the oscillator circuit and the reset
circuit. The oscillator circuit is designed by selecting a 12MHz quartz crystal and two
ceramic capacitors-each 15pF. The reset circuit is designed by selecting a resistor of 10K and
an electrolyte capacitor of 10uF to ensure a reset pulse width of 100ms and reset pin voltage
drop of 1.2V.
The sensor circuit is designed by selecting appropriate value of resistors for both the LED
and the phototransistor. Since here the source voltage is 5V and IR LED forward voltage
16

drop is about 1.2V, the value of resistor (at on current of 5mA) is calculated to be about 760
Ohms. The phototransistor used here is Silicon NPN transistor QSC112 with maximum
collector of 4mA. Since here we are using the phototransistor in switching mode, the required
collector resistor should be greater than 1.25K (Vcc/Ic = 5/4). Here we choose a 5K resistor.
How to Operate Intelligent Room Circuit?
When the system is powered, the compiler initially initializes the stack pointer and all other
variables. It then scans the input ports (PortP1.0 first). In the meantime, when there is no
interruption between the IR LED and the phototransistor of the first sensor pair, the output of
the phototransistor is always at low voltage. In other words port P1.0 is at logic low level.
Now when a transition takes place, i.e. a logic high level is received at port P1.0, the compiler
sees this as an interruption to sense the passage of a person or an object between the IR LED
and the phototransistor. As per the program, the count value is increased and this value is
displayed on the 2-Digit Counter. Now the compiler starts scanning the other input pin-P1.1.
Similar to the first sensor pair, for this sensor pair also the phototransistor conducts in
absence of any interruption and P1.1 is at logic low level. In case of an interruption, the pin
P1.1 goes high and this interruption is perceived by decreasing the value of count.[4]
The program ensures that the scanning of both the port pins is done at certain delays so as to
avoid confusion of reading. For instance port P1.0 is scanned for two or three interruptions so
as to ensure the count value is above 1 or 2.

17

CHAPTER: - 4
LIST OF COMPONENTS

4.1 Circuit Components:


18

Here is the list of components and their corresponding values used in this circuit.

R1, R3 760 Ohms

R2, R4 3K

R5 10K

C1 10uF, electrolyte

C2, C3 15pF

X1 12MHz crystal

U1 AT89S52

U4 LCD display

D1, D2 IR LED

Q1, Q2 IR Phototransistor

4.2 DESCRIPTION OF COMPONENTS


Microcontroller AT89S52:The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with
8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using
Atmels high density non volatile memory technology and is compatible with the Industrystandard 80C51instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to
be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional non-volatile memory pro- grammar. By
combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip,
the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and costeffective solution to many embedded control applications.[7]
FEATURES:1. 8 KB Reprogrammable flash.
2. 32 Programmable I/O lines.
3. 16 bit Timer/Counter3.
19

4. 8 Interrupt sources.
5. Power range: 4V 5.5V
6. Endurance: 1000 Writes / Erase cycles
7. Fully static operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
8. Three level program memory lock
9. Power off flag
10. Full duplex UART serial channel
11. Low power idle and power down modes
12. Interrupt recovery from power down modes
13. 256 KB internal RAM
14. Dual data pointer

INFRARED
Infrared (IR) light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength between 0.7 and 300
micrometers, which equates to a frequency range between approximately 1 and 430 THz. IR
wavelengths are longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of terahertz radiation
microwaves Bright sunlight provides an irradiance of just over 1 kilowatt per square meter at
sea level. Of this energy, 527 watts is infrared radiation, 445 watts is visible light, and 32
watts is ultraviolet radiation.
Simple IR transmitter circuit:This is an IR transmitting circuit which can be used in many projects. This IR
transmitter sends 40 kHz (frequency can be adjusted using R2) carrier under computer
control (computer can turn the IR transmission on and off). IR carriers at around 40
kHz carrier frequencies are widely used in TV remote controlling and ICs for receiving
these signals are quite easily available.

The circuit can be controlled using any TTL or RS-232C level control signal which makes the
interfacing very simple. The circuit can be used for example for using computer to generate
IR remote control signals or experimental IR data transmission.

20

Fig 4.1 IR transmitter circuit


The circuit works so that when the input (LEFT/RIGHT CONTROL) pin is in logic high state
(+4..15V) the transmitter is on and when it is in logic low state (+1V..-15V) the transmitter is
off.

21

IR receiver interface circuit

The circuit below to receiving the IR signals and controlling the IR glasses.

Fig 4.2 IR receiver circuit

LCD DISPLAY
Liquid crystal display (LCD) has material which combines the properties of both
liquid and crystals. They have a temperature range within which the molecules are
almost as mobile as they would be in a liquid, but are grouped together in an order
form similar to a crystal.
22

Fig. 4.3 LCD DISPLAY


More microcontroller devices are using 'smart LCD' displays to output visual
information. The following discussion covers the connection of a Hitachi LCD
display to a PIC microcontroller. LCD displays designed around Hitachi's LCD
HD44780 module, are inexpensive, easy to use, and it is even possible to produce a
readout using the 8 x 80 pixels of the display. Hitachi LCD displays have a standard
ASCII set of characters plus Japanese, Greek and mathematical symbols.
For an 8-bit data bus, the display requires a +5V supply plus 11 I/O lines. For a 4-bit
data bus it only requires the supply lines plus seven extra lines. When the LCD
display is not enabled, data lines are tri-state which means they are in a state of high
impedance (as though they are disconnected) and this means they do not interfere
with the operation of the microcontroller when the display is not being addressed.
The LCD also requires 3 "control" lines from the microcontroller
Enable (E)

This line allows access to the display through R/W and RS lines. When this
line is low, the LCD is disabled and ignores signals from R/W and RS. When
(E) line is high, the LCD checks the state of the two control lines and responds
accordingly.

Read/Write

This line determines the direction of data between the LCD and

(R/W)

microcontroller. When it is low, data is written to the LCD. When it is high,


data is read from the LCD.

Register

select With the help of this line, the LCD interprets the type of data on data lines.

(RS)

When it is low, an instruction is being written to the LCD. When it is high, a


character is being written to the LCD.

The LCD controller needs 40 to 120 microseconds (us) for writing and reading. Other
operations can take up to 5 mS. during that time, the microcontroller cannot access the
LCD, and so a program needs to know when the LCD is busy. We can solve this in
two ways.
23

One way is to check the BUSY bit found on data line D7. This is not the best method
because LCD's can get stuck, and program will then stay forever in a loop checking
the BUSY bit. The other way is to introduce a delay in the program. The delay has to
be long enough for the LCD to finish the operation in process.
Instructions for writing to and reading from an LCD memory shown in the previous

table. At the beginning we mentioned that we needed 11 I/O lines to communicate


with an LCD. However, we can communicate with an LCD through a 8-bit data bus.
The wiring for connection via a 8-bit data bus is shown in the diagram below. In this
example we use an LCD display with 2x16 characters, labelled LM16X212 by
Japanese maker SHARP.
Pin No.

Name

Description

Pin no. 1

VSS

Power supply
(GND)

Pin no. 2

VCC

Power supply (+5V)

Pin no. 3

VEE

Contrast adjust

Pin no. 4

RS

0 = Instruction
input
1 = Data input

Pin no. 5

R/W

0 = Write to LCD
module
1 = Read from LCD
module

Pin no. 6

EN

Enable signal

Pin no. 7

D0

Data bus line 0


(LSB)

Pin no. 8

D1

Data bus line 1

Pin no. 9

D2

Data bus line 2

Pin no. 10

D3

Data bus line 3

Pin no. 11

D4

Data bus line 4

Pin no. 12

D5

Data bus line 5

Pin no. 13

D6

Data bus line 6

Pin no. 14

D7

Data bus line 7


(MSB)

24

CAPACITORS
A capacitor or condenser is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors
separated by a dielectric. When a voltage potential difference exists between the conductors,
an electric field is present in the dielectric. This field stores energy and produces a
mechanical force between the plates. The effect is greatest between wide, flat, parallel,
narrowly separated conductors.
An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance, which is
measured in farads. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential
difference between them. In practice, the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount
of leakage current. The conductors and leads introduce an equivalent series resistance and the
dielectric has an electric field strength limit resulting in a breakdown voltage.

Fig4.4 Different types of capacitors


The properties of capacitors in a circuit may determine the resonant frequency and
quality factor of a resonant circuit, power dissipation and operating frequency in a digital
logic circuit, energy capacity in a high-power system, and many other important aspects.
25

CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR

Fig 4.5 Crystal oscillator


A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a
vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise
frequency. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time (as in quartz
wristwatches), to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits, and to stabilize
frequencies for radio transmitters and receivers. The most common type of piezoelectric
resonator used is the quartz crystal, so oscillator circuits incorporating them became known
as crystal oscillators, but other piezoelectric materials including polycrystalline ceramics are
used in similar circuits.
Quartz crystals are manufactured for frequencies from a few tens of kilohertz to tens of
megahertz. More than two billion crystals are manufactured annually. Most are used for
consumer devices such as wristwatches, clocks, radios, computers, and cell phones. Quartz
crystals are also found inside test and measurement equipment, such as counters, signal
generators, and oscilloscopes.

OPERATION
A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a
regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions.
Almost any object made of an elastic material could be used like a crystal, with appropriate
transducers, since all objects have natural resonant frequencies of vibration. For example,
steel is very elastic and has a high speed of sound. It was often used in mechanical filters
26

before quartz. The resonant frequency depends on size, shape, elasticity, and the speed of
sound in the material. High-frequency crystals are typically cut in the shape of a simple,
rectangular plate. Low-frequency crystals, such as those used in digital watches, are typically
cut in the shape of a tuning fork. For applications not needing very precise timing, a low-cost
ceramic resonator is often used in place of a quartz crystal.
When a crystal of quartz is properly cut and mounted, it can be made to distort in an electric
field by applying a voltage to an electrode near or on the crystal. This property is known as
electrostriction or inverse piezoelectricity. When the field is removed, the quartz will generate
an electric field as it returns to its previous shape, and this can generate a voltage. The result
is that a quartz crystal behaves like a circuit composed of an inductor, capacitor and resistor,
with a precise resonant frequency.
Quartz has the further advantage that its elastic constants and its size change in such a way
that the frequency dependence on temperature can be very low. The specific characteristics
will depend on the mode of vibration and the angle at which the quartz is cut (relative to its
crystallographic axes). Therefore, the resonant frequency of the plate, which depends on its
size, will not change much, either. This means that a quartz clock, filter or oscillator will
remain accurate. For critical applications the quartz oscillator is mounted in a temperaturecontrolled container, called a crystal oven, and can also be mounted on shock absorbers to
prevent perturbation by external mechanical vibrations.

IN4007 RECTIFIER DIODE


Diodes are used to convert AC into DC these are used as half wave rectifier or full wave
rectifier. Three points must he kept in mind while using any type of diode.
1. Maximum forward current capacity
2. Maximum reverse voltage capacity
3. Maximum forward voltage capacity

27

Fig 4.6 Diode


The number and voltage capacity of some of the important diodes available in the market are
as follows:

Diodes of number IN4001, IN4002, IN4003, IN4004, IN4005, IN4006 and IN4007
have maximum reverse bias voltage capacity of 50V and maximum forward current
capacity of 1 Amp.

Diode of same capacities can be used in place of one another. Besides this diode of

more capacity can be used in place of diode of low capacity but diode of low capacity can not
be used in place of diode of high capacity. For example, in place of IN4002; IN4001 or
IN4007 can be used but IN4001 or IN4002 cannot be used in place of IN4007.The diode
BY125made by company BEL is equivalent of diode from IN4001 to IN4003. BY 126 is
equivalent to diodes IN4004 to 4006 and BY 127 is equivalent to diode IN4007.

LED
LEDs are semiconductor devices. Like transistors, and other diodes, LEDs are made
out of silicon. What makes an LED give off light are the small amounts of chemical
impurities that are added to the silicon, such as gallium, arsenide, indium, and nitride.
When current passes through the LED, it emits photons as a byproduct. Normal light
bulbs produce light by heating a metal filament until it is white hot. LEDs produce photons
directly and not via heat, they are far more efficient than incandescent bulbs.

28

Fig 4.7(a): Typical LED

Fig 4.7(b): circuit symbol

Not long ago LEDs were only bright enough to be used as indicators on dashboards or
electronic equipment. But recent advances have made LEDs bright enough to rival traditional
lighting technologies. Modern LEDs can replace incandescent bulbs in almost any
application.
Types of LEDS
LEDs are produced in an array of shapes and sizes. The 5 mm cylindrical package is
the most common, estimated at 80% of world production. The colour of the plastic lens is
often the same as the actual colour of light emitted, but not always. For instance, purple
plastic is often used for infrared LEDs, and most blue devices have clear housings. There are
also LEDs in extremely tiny packages, such as those found on blinkers and on cell phone
keypads. The main types of LEDs are miniature, high power devices and custom designs such
as alphanumeric or multi-colour.

Fig 4.8 Different types of LEDS


White LEDS
Light Emitting Diodes (LED) have recently become available that are white and
bright, so bright that they seriously compete with incandescent lamps in lighting applications.
They are still pretty expensive as compared to a GLOW lamp but draw much less current and
project a fairly well focused beam.
The diode in the photo came with a neat little reflector that tends to sharpen the beam
a little but doesn't seem to add much to the overall intensity.
29

When run within their ratings, they are more reliable than lamps as well. Red LEDs
are now being used in automotive and truck tail lights and in red traffic signal lights. You will
be able to detect them because they look like an array of point sources and they go on and off
instantly as compared to conventional incandescent lamps.

Fig 4.9 White led spectrum


EDs are monochromatic (one colour) devices. The colour is determined by the band
gap of the semiconductor used to make them. Red, green, yellow and blue LEDs are fairly
common. White light contains all colours and cannot be directly created by a single LED. The
most common form of "white" LED really isn't white. It is a Gallium Nitride blue LED
coated with a phosphor that, when excited by the blue LED light, emits a broad range
spectrum that in addition to the blue emission, makes a fairly white light.
There is a claim that these white LED's have a limited life. After 1000 hours or so of
operation, they tend to yellow and dim to some extent. Running the LEDs at more than their
rated current will certainly accelerate this process.
There are two primary ways of producing high intensity white-light using LEDS.
One is to use individual LEDS that emit three primary coloursred, green, and blueand
then mix all the colours to form white light. The other is to use a phosphor material to convert
monochromatic light from a blue or UV LED to broad-spectrum white light, much in the
same way a fluorescent light bulb works. Due to metamerism, it is possible to have quite
different spectra that appear white.
Advantages of using LEDs

Efficiency:

30

LEDs produce more light per watt than incandescent bulbs; this is useful in
battery powered or energy-saving devices.

Size:
LEDs can be very small (smaller than 2 mm2) and are easily populated onto
printed circuit boards.

On/Off time:
LEDs light up very quickly. A typical red indicator LED will achieve full
brightness in microseconds. LEDs used in communications devices can have
even faster response times.

Cycling:
LEDs are ideal for use in applications that are subject to frequent on-off
cycling, unlike fluorescent lamps that burn out more quickly when cycled
frequently, or HID lamps that require a long time before restarting.

Cool light:
In contrast to most light sources, LEDs radiate very little heat in the form of
IR that can cause damage to sensitive objects or fabrics. Wasted energy is
dispersed as heat through the base of the LED.

Lifetime:
LEDs can have a relatively long useful life. One report estimates 35,000 to
50,000 hours of useful life, though time to complete failure may be longer.

No Toxicity:
LEDs do not contain mercury, unlike fluorescent lamps.

Disadvantages of using LEDs

High price:
LEDs are currently more expensive, price per lumen, on an initial capital cost
basis, than most conventional lighting technologies.

Temperature dependence:
LED performance largely depends on the ambient temperature of the operating
environment. Over-driving the LED in high ambient temperatures may result
in overheating of the LED package, eventually leading to device failure.

Voltage sensitivity:
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LEDs must be supplied with the voltage above the threshold and a current
below the rating. This can involve series resistors or current-regulated power
supplies.

Area light source:


LEDs do not approximate a point source of light, but rather a lambertian
distribution. So LEDs are difficult to use in applications requiring a spherical
light field. LEDs are not capable of providing divergence below a few degrees.
This is contrasted with lasers, which can produce beams with divergences of
0.2 degrees or less.

Blue Hazard:
There is increasing concern that blue LEDs and cool-white LEDs are now
capable of exceeding safe limits of the so-called blue-light hazard as defined
in eye safety.

TRANSFORMER
Transformers convert AC electricity from one voltage to another with a little loss of
power. Step-up transformers increase voltage, step-down transformers reduce voltage. Most
power supplies use a step-down transformer to reduce the dangerously high voltage to a safer
low voltage.

Fig4.10 A TYPICAL TRANSFORMER


The input coil is called the primary and the output coil is called the secondary. There
is no electrical connection between the two coils; instead they are linked by an alternating
magnetic field created in the soft-iron core of the transformer. The two lines in the middle of
the circuit symbol represent the core. Transformers waste very little power so the power out
is (almost) equal to the power in. Note that as voltage is stepped down and current is stepped
up.
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The ratio of the number of turns on each coil, called the turns ratio, determines the
ratio of the voltages. A step-down transformer has a large number of turns on its primary
(input) coil which is connected to the high voltage mains supply, and a small number of turns
on its secondary (output) coil to give a low output voltage.
TURNS RATIO = (Vp / Vs) = ( Np / Ns )
Where,
Vp = primary (input) voltage.
Vs = secondary (output) voltage
Np = number of turns on primary coil
Ns = number of turns on secondary coil
Ip = primary (input) current
Is = secondary (output) current.

VOLTAGE REGULATOR 7805


Features
Output Current up to 1A
Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24V
Thermal Overload Protection
Short Circuit Protection
Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection
Description
The LM78XX/LM78XXA series of three-terminal positive regulators are available in
the TO-220/D-PAK package and with several fixed output voltages, making them useful in a
Wide range of applications. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shutdown
and safe operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat
sinking is provided, they can deliver over 1A output Current. Although designed primarily as
fixed voltage regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain
adjustable voltages and currents.

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Internal Block Diagram

FIG 4.11 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF VOLTAGE REGULATOR

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CHAPTER: - 5
PROJECT FLOW
CHART

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Fig 5.1 Flow chart

If the sensor 1 is interrupted first then the microcontroller will look for the sensor 2,
and if it is interrupted then the microcontroller will increment the count and switch on
the relay, if it is first time interrupted.

If the sensor 2 is interrupted first then the microcontroller will look for the sensor 1,
and if it is interrupted then the microcontroller will decrement the count.

When the last person leaves the room then counter goes to 0 and that time the relay
will turn off, and light will be turned off.

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CHAPTER:6
APPLICATION,ADVANT
AGES
AND
DISADVANTAGES

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Applications of Intelligent Room Circuit:


1. This circuit can be used domestically to get an indication of number of persons
entering a party
2. It can be used at official meetings.
3. It can be used at homes and other places to keep a check on the number of persons
entering a secured place.
4. It can also be used as home automation system to ensure energy saving by switching
on the loads and fans only when needed.

Advantages:1. Low cost


2. Easy to use
3. Implement in single door

Limitations of this Circuit:


1. It is a theoretical circuit and may require few changes in practical implementation.
2. It is a low range circuit and cannot be implemented at large areas.
3. With frequent change in the count value, after a certain time the output may look
confusing.
4. It is used only when one single person cuts the rays of the sensor hence it cannot be
used when two person cross simultaneously.
5. this system will not differentiate between a person and any other obstacle interrupting
the sensors.

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CONCLUSION
We just took up this project as we were interested in electronics and wanted to learn about it.
Through this project, we learnt a lot about the functioning and use of different electronic
components and their applications in real life. We were able to correlate what we studied in
our course to real life.
Also this is very simple and effective idea which can be used in many places like hostel and
hotel rooms to save energy.
Thanks to our faculty for guiding us in this project.

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REFERENCES

1. Programming in ANSI C: E BALAGURUSAMY


2. The 8051microcontroller and embedded systems: MUHAMMAD ALI MAZIDI
3. The 8051 microcontroller: KENNETH J. AYALA
4. Intelligent room light and density control using IR sensors(International journal of
advanced technology & engineering research 2014)
5. Automatic detection of human and energy saving based on microcontroller (International
journal-2012)
6. www.datasheets4u.com
7. www.8051.com
8. www.Efy.Com

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