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# Finite element discretization of

## Laplace and Poisson equations

Yashwanth Tummala
Tutor: Prof S.Mittal

2/12/2008

Outline
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## Finite Element Method for 1D

Introduction to Poissons and Laplaces Equations
Finite Element Method for 2D-Discretization etc
Weak formulation
Interpolation functions
Boundary Conditions
Assembly of element equations
Examples
Summary

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## Domain represented by simple domain/finite elements

Approximation functions constructed over elements
1D equation looks like: d a du + cu f = 0, 0<x<L
dx

dx

## Construct Finite Element Mesh

Derive the element equations
Assemble the equations
Impose the Boundary conditions
Find the solutions

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Introduction

## What are Poissons and Laplaces Equations?

(k u ) = f ( x, y ) in domain ,
In Cartesian coordinate system
r r
=i
+j
x
y
and the Poisson's Equation takes the form:

u u
k

k
= f ( x, y )

x x y y

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Introduction
Some examples:

## Heat Transfer-Conduction, Convection (Temp. distribution)

Electrostatics- Scalar potential
Magnetostatics- Magnetic potential
Fluid mechanics, Stress Distribution etc.

Problem Statement:
-Find the solution u(x,y) of the second order partial differential
equation namely the Poissons Equation
-Given k, f(x,y) and specified boundary conditions in a domain

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## Finite Element Discretization

Discretization/Mesh Generation:
2D geometric shapes- triangle, rectangle, quadrilateral etc.

General rules:
Elements should characterize governing equations
Number, shape, type, are as
required (accuracy)
modeled ( density of elements)

## Finite Element Discretization of Laplace and Poisson Equations

n\$
e

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Weak Form
For a typical element e, Finite element model over e,
u u
w
x k x y k x f dxdy = 0
e
We also have the following,
w

u w u
u
k
k
=
wk

x x x x x
x

u
u w u
k

wk

k
=
y
y y y y y

## From gradient (or divergence theorem) in component form:

x wk x dxdy = w k x n ds
x

u

u
=
wk
dxdy
w

y y
k y ny ds
e
e

## Finite Element Discretization of Laplace and Poisson Equations

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Weak Form
Where n\$ = n x \$i + n y \$j and n\$ = unit normal vector
Thus we get the weak form of Poisson's Equation:
w
x
e

u
u
u w u
k
k
wf
dxdy
w
n
k
n
+

x
y k
ds = 0
x y y

x
y

u
u
We say qn = n x k
+
n
y k

x
y

## Finite Element Model: u is approximated

u ( x, y ) u ( x, y ) = u ( x, y )
n

e
h

j =1

e
j

e
j

## u he ( x , y ) = value of u he at jth node ( x j , y j )

n = no. of nodes of the element.

## ej = Lagrange interpolation function/shape function.

Finite Element Discretization of Laplace and Poisson Equations

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{

## The weak form becomes:

e ej e ej

e
e
i
i

k
+
k
dxdy u j f i dxdy i qn ds = 0

x y y

j=1 e x
e
e

Or this ith equation can be rewritten as:
n

k u
e
ij

e
j

= fi e + Qie (i = 1,2,..., n )

j=1

## Unknowns : u1e ,ue2 ,....,une

In the matrix form the set of Equations is:

{K } {u }
e

nxn

e
j nx 1

{ }

= fe

nx 1

{ }

+ Qe

nx 1

## Finite Element Discretization of Laplace and Poisson Equations

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Interpolation Functions
For a triangular element:

## uhe ( x1, y1 ) = u1e = c1e + c2e x1 + c3e y1,

uhe ( x2 , y 2 ) = u2e = c1e + c2e x2 + c3e y 2 ,

or

or

{u} = {A}{c}
1
{c} = {A} {u}

## After a bit of math we get :

i = x j y k xk y j , i = y j y k , i = ( x j xk )
1
(1u1 + 2u2 + 3u3 ) ,... A=area of the triangle
2A
From the first Equation above we get:
1
ie =
ie + ie x + ie y , ( i = 1,2,3 )
2 Ae
Finite Element Discretization of Laplace and Poisson Equations
c1 =

10

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Interpolation Functions
We calculate K e and {f e } for linear triangular element.
The associated element coefficient matrix is:
ke
ie je + ie ej
K =
4 Ae
e
ij

1
fe Ae
3
An example :

fi e =

a2 + b2
ke
2
[K e ] = 2ab
b
a 2

11

b 2
b2
0

a 2
1
f ab

0 , f e = e 1
6
2
a
1

{ }

## Finite Element Discretization of Laplace and Poisson Equations

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Interpolation Functions
For a rectangular element:
u he ( x , y ) = c 1e + c 2e x + c 3e y + c 4e xy
u h ( x ,y ) = c 1 + c 2 x + c 3 y + c 4 x y
u 1 = u h (0, 0 ) = c 1, u 2 = u h ( a , 0 ) = c 1 + c 2 a
u 3 = u h ( a , b ) = c 1 + c 2 a + c 3 b + c 4 a b , u 4 = u h (0, b ) = c 1 + c 3 b
T h u s w e g e t the interpo la tion fun ctio n s a s:

x
y
x
y
1e = 1 1 , e2 = 1 ,
a
b
a
b

x y
x
, e4 = 1
a b
a

i +1
x , y = ( 1) 1

3e =
1e

12

y
or

xi + x
yi + y
1

a
b

## Finite Element Discretization of Laplace and Poisson Equations

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Interpolation Functions
The element coefficient matrix for linear rectangular element:

2 a2 + b2

a 2 2b 2
k
K e = e
6ab a 2 + b 2

b 2 2a 2

2 a2 + b2

a 2 2b 2

a2 + b2

a2 + b2

b 2 2a 2

b 2 2a 2

2 a2 + b2

a 2 2b 2

b 2 2a 2

a2 + b2

2
2
a 2b

2
2
2 a +b

4 1 2 1

ke 1 4 1 2
e
K =
6 2 1 4 1

1
4

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## Assembly of Element Equations

Based on two principles:
Continuity of primary variables
Equilibrium or balance of secondary variables (like flux)

Inferences:
Continuity of u at nodes continuity along interelement
boundary.
At the interface, flux should be equal in magnitude and opposite
in sign.
Relation/Coefficients of the stiffness matrix are thus derived,
taking global and local node numbering into consideration.

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## Assembly of Element Equations

For better understanding: With two elements we have
u11 = U1, u21 = u12 = U2, u31 = u42 = U3, u22 = U4, u32 = U5 continuity of u

(q )

1
n 23

( )

= qn2

14

K

K
K

1
11
1
21
1
31

15

1
12

1
13

1
2
1
2
K22
K23
+ K11
+ K14
1
2
1
2
+ K41
+ K44
K32
K33
2
2
K21
K24
2
2
K31
K34

0
2
K12
2
K42
2
K22
2
K32

F
U
1

0 1
F1 + F 2
2
K13 U2 2 1

2
U3 = F31 + F42
K43

2

K23 U4 F22

2
K33 U5 F

## Finite Element Discretization of Laplace and Poisson Equations

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Boundary Conditions
The boundary integral is of the form: Q
When is it not necessary to compute???
Equilibrium of internal flux

e
i

q ne

e
i

( s )d s

## In general the integral over the boundary is:

Q ie =

i ( s )q n ( s )ds +

1 2

23

i ( s )q n ( s )ds +

i ( s )q n ( s )ds

3 1

e

## What is the contribution of side 2-3 to Q1

How many non-zero terms will they have?

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Example
2u
2u
u = f0 i.e
+
= f0
2
2
x
y

## Consider the problem

in a
square region. Using FEM find u(x,y), u=0 on the entire boundary,
f0 is uniformly distributed source.
2

u
u
=
=0
n
x

u
1 u u
=

=0
n
2 y x
u
u
=
= 0
n
y

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## Finite Element Discretization of Laplace and Poisson Equations

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Example
Solution by Linear Triangular Elements:
Symmetry along diagonal-model as shown
Mesh as 4 linear triangles - local and global nodes
Element 1 = Typical Element
We get the element coeff matrix and source vector:

b2
1
K 1 =
b2

2a b
0

b2

a2 + b2
a 2

a 2
a 2

{f }
1

1
f ab
1
= 0
6
1

w h e re a = b = A /2 = 0 .5
Thus w e have :
K 1 = K 2 = K 3 = K 4 ,

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{f } = { f } = { f } = { f }
1

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Example
So, finally :
1 1 0
1
K e = 1 2 1 ,
2

0 1 1

{f }
e

1
f0
=
1
24
1

## The assembled system of equations look like:1

1

1
1 0

2 0
0

1
4

2
1
0
0

2
4

1
0

2
1

2
0

1
0

4
1

0 U1

0 U2
0 U3

0 U4
1 U 5

1 U 6

f 3
= 0 +
24 1

Q1
1

2
3
Q
Q
Q
+
+
2
3
1
1
3
4
Q 3 + Q 2 + Q1

Q 23

2
3
4
Q1 + Q 3 + Q 2

4
Q
3

F ro m the b o u n d a ry co n d itio n s w e g e t;
U4 = U5 = U6 = 0

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## Finite Element Discretization of Laplace and Poisson Equations

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Example
By boundary condition and balancing of internal Flux :
Q1 = Q11 = 0, Q2 = Q21 + Q32 + Q13 = 0

## Q3 = Q31 + Q22 + Q14 = 0

The above set of equations can be written as:
1
1
1

f11
K 11
U1
K 12
K 13

1

1
2
3
1
2
1
2
3
K
K
+
K
+
K
K
+
K
U
=
f
+
f
+
f
22
33
11
23
32
1
21
2 2 3
1
1
2
1
2
4
1
2
4
K 31
+ K 23
+ K 22
+ K 11
K 32
K 33

U 3 f3 + f2 + f1
Us in g numerical values for K ije and f11(with f0 = 1), We get :

0.5

0.5
0.0

20

0.5
2.0
1.0

0.0 U1
1
1

1.0 U 2 =
3
24
3
2.0 U 3

## Finite Element Discretization of Laplace and Poisson Equations

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Example
Solution by Linear Rectangular Elements:
4

1
1
K e =
6 2

1
Observe that

1 2 1
1

2
4 1 2
f
a
1
, f1 = 0
1 4 1
4 1

1
2 1 4
U3 = U6 = U7 = U8 = U9 = 0

u=0

{ }

u
=0
x

u=0

## Boundary conditions on secondary variables are:

Q11 = 0, Q12 + Q12 = 0, Q14 + Q13 = 0
Balancing at global node 5 gives:

u
=0
y

Q13 + Q 24 + Q 32 + Q14 = 0
By taking f0 = 1, a=0.5, we can solve for Ui

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## Finite Element Discretization of Laplace and Poisson Equations

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Conduction
Conduction in 1D is given by: x k Tx = f ( x , y )
Conduction in 2D is given by: x k Tx y k Ty = f ( x , y )

u(x,y)= T = Temperature
qn = negative of heat flux
k x , k y = thermal conductivities along x and y
f = internal heat generation
Consider heat transfer in two-dimensional plane.
Find Temperature distribution in the plane.
x

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## Finite Element Discretization of Laplace and Poisson Equations

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Convection
For a convection boundary:
E q u a tio n fo r e n e rg y tra n fs fe r:
T
T
kx
nx + ky
n y + (T T ) = q n
x
y
= c o n v e c tiv e c o n d u c ta n c e , T = A m b ie n t te m p e ra tu re
q n = s p e c ifie d h e a t flu x
T h e W e a k F o rm :

w T
w T
k
k
+
x x x y y y w f
e
F in ite E le m e n t M o d e l:
n

T = T je ej ( x , y

d x d y

q n (T T ) d s = 0

j= 1

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## Finite Element Discretization of Laplace and Poisson Equations

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Conduction/Convection
So, we finally get :

(K
n

j =1

e
ij

+ H

e
ij

Fie =

e
ij

e
j

=Fi e + Pi e , w h e re ,

f ei d x d y +

d x d y

q ne ei d s = f i e + Q ie

e
e

24

)T

e
e

ei j
ei j
+ ky
k x

x
y
y

e
ij

ei ej d s , P i e =

ei T d s

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Summary

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## Finite Element Model for 1D problems

Poissons and Laplaces Equations (Model Equation)
Finite Element Discretization
Weak Form
Finite Element Model and Algebraic equations
Interpolation Functions for Triangular elements
Interpolation Functions for Rectangular elements
Examples For the Interpolation/Shape functions

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Summary

## Associated Element Coefficient Matrix

Boundary Conditions and Integrals
Assembly of element Equations and the principles
Example with a square domain and triangular
elements
Example with a square domain and rectangular
elements
Application of FEM to Conduction, Conduction &
Convection etc.

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## Finite Element Discretization of Laplace and Poisson Equations

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References
http://en.wikipedia.org
An Introduction to the Finite Element Method- 3rd
Edition by J.N.REDDY
The Finite Element Method- 4th Edition
by Zienkiewicz

- THANK YOU

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