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Phoenix House

Food Safety - May 3rd, 2016

Carol Anne & Emily

Introduction: (Carol Anne)

Introduce selves (remind group it is Carol Annes last presentation)
Introduce Becca to the group
Overview of presentation

Learning Objectives:
1. Audience will be able to identify 2 examples for how a foodborne illness can arise
2. Audience will be able to identify at least 2 food safety techniques that they can use
when handling food

Icebreaker: (Emily)
Fact or Fiction:
A foodborne illness occurs by eating food that has been contaminated by a
Pathogens are germs, such as bacteria, viruses and parasites that can cause illness
More than 250 pathogens and toxins are known to cause foodborne illness
1 in 12 Americans get sick from foodborne illness each year -Fiction
1in 6 Americans get sick from foodborne illness each year
128 thousand Americans are hospitalized each year from foodborne illness
1000 Americans die each year from foodborne illness -Fiction
3000 Americans are die annually from foodborne illness
Reducing foodborne illness by 10% would keep 1 million Americans from getting
sick each year -Fiction
Corrections: Reducing foodborne illness by 10% would keep 5 million Americans
from getting sick each year
A foodborne outbreak occurs when 1 or more people get the same illness after
eating the same food -Fiction
A foodborne outbreak occurs when 2 or more people
Some foods that have been linked to outbreaks include eggs, fish and shellfish,
meat, nuts, poultry, raw (unpasteurized) milk, and raw fruits and vegetables

Lesson Content
Foodborne illness (Carol Anne)

Illness is transmitted to people through food; commonly we hear about those

transmitted to us by foods contaminated with microorganisms
Types of Contamination

Biological: pathogens (bacteria, virus, parasites, fungi)

Chemical: cleaning and sanitizing agents, polishes

Physical: hair, fingernails, bandages, dirt, bugs, metal shavings, glass, etc.

A lot of different types of biological foodborne illness out there (>250). Most
common foodborne illnesses (relate to media - which ones we hear about)
Different symptoms depending on pathogen
GI tract first affected usually nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cramps
E. Coli
How does foodborne illness occur (FAT TOM)?
Food: Some microorganisms have simple nutrient requirements, some require a
complex diet with protein (meat, milk, eggs and fish - protein rich) Some plant foods
-cooked potatoes and legumes, raw seed sprouts, cut melons, cut leafy greens, and
cut tomatoes are also PHF.
Acidity: Measured by pH - acidity/alkalinity. Grow best if neutral/slightly acidic (6.67.5 is ideal)- why citrus fruits are a place bacteria may grow.
Time: Grow by cell division - need time to do this. If food/acidity/temperature are
ideal & bacteria have enough time, can grow rapidly. Danger zone temp (see
below) - no more than 2 hours
Temperature: Danger zone: 41-135 degrees; keep cold foods cold (below 41)
until its time to cook, keep hot food hot
Oxygen: If need oxygen aerobic. A few can grow without (canned foods Clostridium botulinum)
Moisture: Need water to grow. Moist foods (dairy, meats, fruits, veg) contain more
water. Less likely to grow in foods that dont contain much water (dry goods like
noodles, cereals)
Most common foodborne illness contributors:
Meats/Fish: microbes present in healthy animals (usually intestines) that are raised
for food. Meat/poultry can become contaminated during slaughter by contact with
small amounts of intestinal contents
Eggs: Salmonella common, can infect ovary of a hen - can contaminate egg even
before shell is formed.
Fruits/Veggies (cut melon is common): water used to grow/wash/chill produce can
be cause of contaminated
Raw Sprouts: conditions under which they are sprouted are ideal for growing
microbes (and then not usually cooke)
PHF (foods possibly dangerous once theyve been cooked): cooked potatoes, cooked
noodles, cooked rice
How to stay safe
Shopping (Emily)
Protecting against food poisoning begins in the store, not at home. To keep the
foods that you bring home and cook with safe, it is important to carefully select,
package and transport food from the grocery store to home
What are some ways contamination can happen while in the grocery store?
Cart organization:
Make perishable foods, such as frozen foods, meat, seafood and poultry, your last
grocery store stop to minimize time spent at room temperature

Place these products in plastic wrap or bags before placing into your cart, to prevent
juices from leaking
Study- 85% of stores supply meat bags to customers but only 20% of customers use
Keep these foods separate from other foods in the cart, where they cannot drip or
leak onto your other items
Food packages for holes, tears and openings
Frozen foods for signs of thawing -> ice build-up
Check safety seals on lids. A loose lid indicates that the vacuum has been lost and
the product potentially has been contaminated
Avoid cans that are deeply dented, rusted or bulging
Deep dents and bulges are a sign of botulism
Sharp dents may damage seem and allow bacteria to enter
Pay attention to dates:
Sell-By date indicates how long the product can remain on sale at the store. Avoid
purchasing past the sell-by date
Best if Used By (or Before) date is recommended for flavor and quality, but is not
a purchase or safety date
Use-By date is the date of last recommended usage for the product while at peak
quality. When shopping, make sure you are able to use the product by this date
***How long can use after dates -cooperative ext.
Expiration date/do not use after x date

Dispose on this date

Use by date/Best if used by

For best quality - consume by this

date.use your senses (sight, smell,
taste) to guide you.

Sell by date

Stores cannot sell after this date.

Depends on the food. Ok to consume:
Milk - up to 5 days
Cheese & Yogurt- about 2 weeks
Eggs - about 4 weeks
Juice - about 3 weeks

At the register:
Have meat, seafood, poultry and eggs placed into a separate shopping bag
Pack frozen and refrigerated food separate from room temperature foods. This will
help keep cold foods chilled until you get home
The goal is to get groceries home and store them right away. If you will be out
longer than 30 minutes, bring a cooler and chill packs to keep with perishable food

Temp of refrigerated food can go up 8-10 degrees Fahrenheit on a typical trip home
from the store
Perishable food items must be refrigerated within 2 hours, and only 1 hour if it is
over 90 F outside
Why this strategy is important
Cross-contamination can happen right in the grocery cart or shopping bags
Foods can be time-temperature abused, when they go into your refrigerator already
harvesting a dangerous amount of microbial growth

Wash (Emily)
Washing hands
Only 24-52% of people wash their hands prior to food handling. This present risk of
spreading germs to food. Where are germs hiding? (door handles, cell phones,
Hands should be washed prior to food preparation, and when switching from raw to
ready to eat foods (ie. raw meat to vegetables)
Hands should be washed in warm, soapy water. Lather with soap for 20 seconds, or
2 happy birthday songs
Washing surfaces
Use hot, soapy water with a clean paper towel or cloth to wipe up kitchen spills.
Kitchen cloths should be washed often on the hot cycle in the washer machine
Washing produce
E. coli and salmonella are the 2 most talked about contaminants of fresh produce,
other sources of contamination happen through the produces transfer of being
touched by pickers, transported to super markets, and exposure to employees and
customers in the grocery store
Produce should be washed under cold water to minimize exposure to potential
You can use a vegetable brush for produce with thick skins where microbes may be
embedded deeper
Produce with peels that you cut through, such as melons, should also be washed.
The knife begins at the melons potentially contaminated surface and can carry the
microbes into the inner flesh if not washed prior to preparing
Produce with difficult to reach areas such as broccoli, cauliflower, and leafy greens
should be soaked for 1-2 minutes
Fragile produce such as raspberries can be cleaned in a colander and spray with
cold water
Wash cooking equipment
Always begin with clean cooking equipment and wash when changing from raw to
cooked foods
Why this strategy is important
Making sure hands, cooking equipment, and produce itself is clean, minimizes
potential consumption of contaminants.
Produce itself can become contaminated in the growing process, as well as the
multiple hands it progresses through transfer to market

Having unsanitary surfaces in the home, or failing to properly clean equipment

between uses with different types of produce creates the risk for crosscontamination
Activity (part 1):
Provide scenario on worksheet - have the group work together to identify how/where
foodborne illness could/did arise.

Separate (Carol Anne)

Review where and when to separate
Cutting boards/food prep areas
What is Cross contamination?
the process by which microorganisms are unintentionally transferred from one
substance or object to another, usually with harmful effect
Why this strategy is important?
Not cooking contaminated foods: i.e. If not cooking fruit/veg contaminated by
meat,has the potential for foodborne illness.
Cook (Carol Anne)
Remember the danger zone? Keep hot foods hot, cold foods cold. Dont pull cold
food out of fridge until ready to cook.
Proper temperatures when cooking:
Thermometer is the only reliable way to tell (digital, or be sure to calibrate)
Temperatures for reference:


Ground Meat & Beef, Pork, Veal, Lamb

Meat Mixtures Turkey, Chicken
Fresh Beef, Veal, Steaks, roasts, chops
Chicken & Turkey, whole

Pork and Ham

Eggs & Egg


Temperature (F)

160 None
165 None
145 3 minutes
165 None

Poultry breasts, roasts

165 None

Poultry thighs, legs, wings

165 None

Duck & Goose

165 None

Stuffing (cooked alone or in


165 None

Fresh pork

145 3 minutes

Fresh ham (raw)

145 3 minutes

Precooked ham (to reheat)

140 None


Cook until yolk and white None

are firm

Leftovers &

Egg dishes

160 None


165 None


165 None

Fin Fish

145 or cook until flesh is None

opaque and separates
easily with a fork.

Shrimp, lobster, and crabs

Cook until flesh is pearly None

and opaque.

Clams, oysters, and mussels


Cook until shells open None

during cooking.
Cook until flesh is milky None
white or opaque and firm.

Other ways to tell meat is done without temp:

Finger Test:
Raw meat: pinch the flesh of your hand below your thumb, while your hand is
Med-rare meat: touch your middle finger lightly to your thumb and pinch it.
Medium: touch your ring finger to your thumb.
Well-done meat: touch your pinkie and thumb together.
Works well with poultry: if juices run clear, likely done. If still pinkish or red in color,
needs more time to cook
Translucent to opaque - cooks within a few minutes
Why this strategy is important?
Cooking to temperature is one of the last steps to prevent foodborne illness.
Can kill harmful bacteria

Refrigerate, Store and Reuse (Emily)

Danger zone- temperature range at which foodborne bacteria can grow most rapidly
(41 F- 135 F)
Number of bacteria can double in just 20 minutes within this temperature range
Perishable food should not be left out at this temperature for longer than 2 hours, or
1 hour when it is 90 F and above
Safe methods for thawing
Place frozen items in the refrigerator the day prior (usually takes ~24 hours)
Place frozen food in watertight plastic bag and thaw under cold running water
Or can be done in the microwave, make sure rotate it
Needs to be used immediately
Never thaw on kitchen counter, outdoors, or in hot water

(You can cook frozen foods but it will take ~50% longer than if it were fully thawed.
It can be effective to directly cook frozen vegetables)
Storing leftovers
Goal is to cool food quickly to minimize its time in the danger zone
Divide large amounts of foods into smaller, shallow containers
Cut large items, such as roasts and ham, into smaller portions
Leftover can be kept for 3-4 days in refrigerator, or 3-4 months in freezer
Reheat to safe temp- Goal 165 F
Use oven, microwave, or sauce-pan
Rotate in microwave if doesnt have a turning plate- to ensure cooks evenly
Why this strategy is important
Cooking in larger quantities is a great way have ready-prepared meals on hand.
Failing to properly thaw, reheat and cool items however can leave them in the
temperature danger zone for longer than two hours, posing risk for excess microbial
Activity (part 2): Provide scenario on worksheet - have the group work together to
identify how/where foodborne illness could/did arise.
Evaluation Tool
Food Safety Bingo (Carol Anne)
Call to Action: Use these tips to correct sources of food contamination
* Pass out handout
* Carol Anne wrap up with personal evaluation