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Fan Power, Energy, and Temperature

http://pontyak.com/fans/fanpowerandenergy.html

Table of Contents
Nomenclature
Fan Power Output
Fan Power Input
Fan Mechanical (Total) Efficiency
Fan Air Temperature Rise
Fan Motor Temperature Rise
Fan Blade Temperature Rise
Fan Friction Temperature Rise
Fan Heat Gain
Fan Static Efficiency
Fan Energy Consumption
Pressure Losses in Fan and Duct Systems

Nomenclature
2547 = Conversion factor for Btu/h to hp
Cp = Specific heat of air, Btu/lb-oF
D = Duct diameter, in
Ef = Fan energy consumption, kWh
f = Friction factor, dimensionless
gc = Gravitational constant, 32.2 lbmft/lbf-s2
K = Loss coefficient of fitting, dimensionless
L = Length of straight duct, ft
ma= Mass flow rate, lb/h
Ps = Fan static pressure, in. wg or Pa
Pt = Fan total pressure, in. wg or Pa
Pv = Velocity pressure, in. wg
Q = Volume flow rate, cfm or m3/s
qf = Fan heat gain, Btu/h
V = Average velocity of air in duct, ft/s
Wf = Fan power output, hp or Watt
hf = Specific enthalpy change across the fan, Btu/lb
Pf = Friction loss, in. wg
Pk = Total pressure loss in fitting, in. wg
Pt = Fan total pressure rise, in. wg or Pa
tb = Blade temperature rise, oF
tf = Temperature rise across the fan, oF
tff = Fan friction temperature rise, oF
tm = Motor temperature rise, oF
f = Fan total efficiency, decimal
m = Motor efficiency, decimal

s = Fan static efficiency, decimal


= Air density, lb/ft3
= Time of operation, h

Fan Power Output


Fan power output is the power delivered to the air by the fan. It is a function of the fan air volume flow rate and the fan total
pressure.
In IP units,
Wf(hp) = QPt/(6350f)
In SI units,
Wf(W) = QPt/f

Fan Power Input


Fan power input is the power supplied to the shaft of the fan.

Fan Mechanical (Total) Efficiency


This is the ratio of the fan power output to the fan power input.

Fan Air Temperature Rise


From the energy equation,
Wf(Btu/h) = mahf
When there is no moisture transfer,
Wf(Btu/h) = maCptf
Or,
Wf(hp) = (60Q/2547)Cptf
Hence,
(60Q/2547)Cptf = QPt/(6350f)
Or,
tf (oF) = Pt/(150Cpf)
For air at Standard Conditions,
tf (oF) = Pt/(150 0.075 0.244 f)
Or,
tf (oF) = 0.364Pt/f
This relationship for tf applies when the fan motor is outside the airstream. If the motor is within the airstream, as in a direct
drive fan, then f is replaced by (f m).

Fan Motor Temperature Rise


The motor temperature rise is given by:
tm (oF) = tf (1-m)

Fan Blade Temperature Rise


The fan blade temperature rise is given by:
tb (oF) = tfm(1-f)

Fan Friction Temperature Rise


The fan friction temperature rise is given by:
tff (oF) = tfmf

Fan Heat Gain


The fan heat gain is given by:
qf(Btu/h) = 60QCptf

Fan Static Efficiency


The fan static efficiency is given by:
s = (fPs)/Pt

Fan Energy Consumption


Energy consumption (kWh) = (Fan power output time, h)/Motor Efficiency
Ef(kWh) = [QPt/(6350fm)] 0.746
Or,
Ef(kWh) = QPt/(8512fm)
Note that 0.746 is the number of kW in an hp.

Pressure Losses in Fan and Duct Systems


In a duct network, the fan total pressure comprises:

Pressure losses across equipment, and

Friction losses in the straight ducts and fittings in the air distribution system.

Friction loss in straight duct is given by the Darcy-Weisbach Equation:


Pf (in. wg) = 6fLV2/(Dgc)
Pressure loss in fittings is given by the equation:
Pk (in. wg) = KPv