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Fan Power, Energy, and Temperature


Table of Contents
Fan Power Output
Fan Power Input
Fan Mechanical (Total) Efficiency
Fan Air Temperature Rise
Fan Motor Temperature Rise
Fan Blade Temperature Rise
Fan Friction Temperature Rise
Fan Heat Gain
Fan Static Efficiency
Fan Energy Consumption
Pressure Losses in Fan and Duct Systems

2547 = Conversion factor for Btu/h to hp
Cp = Specific heat of air, Btu/lb-oF
D = Duct diameter, in
Ef = Fan energy consumption, kWh
f = Friction factor, dimensionless
gc = Gravitational constant, 32.2 lbmft/lbf-s2
K = Loss coefficient of fitting, dimensionless
L = Length of straight duct, ft
ma= Mass flow rate, lb/h
Ps = Fan static pressure, in. wg or Pa
Pt = Fan total pressure, in. wg or Pa
Pv = Velocity pressure, in. wg
Q = Volume flow rate, cfm or m3/s
qf = Fan heat gain, Btu/h
V = Average velocity of air in duct, ft/s
Wf = Fan power output, hp or Watt
hf = Specific enthalpy change across the fan, Btu/lb
Pf = Friction loss, in. wg
Pk = Total pressure loss in fitting, in. wg
Pt = Fan total pressure rise, in. wg or Pa
tb = Blade temperature rise, oF
tf = Temperature rise across the fan, oF
tff = Fan friction temperature rise, oF
tm = Motor temperature rise, oF
f = Fan total efficiency, decimal
m = Motor efficiency, decimal

s = Fan static efficiency, decimal

= Air density, lb/ft3
= Time of operation, h

Fan Power Output

Fan power output is the power delivered to the air by the fan. It is a function of the fan air volume flow rate and the fan total
In IP units,
Wf(hp) = QPt/(6350f)
In SI units,
Wf(W) = QPt/f

Fan Power Input

Fan power input is the power supplied to the shaft of the fan.

Fan Mechanical (Total) Efficiency

This is the ratio of the fan power output to the fan power input.

Fan Air Temperature Rise

From the energy equation,
Wf(Btu/h) = mahf
When there is no moisture transfer,
Wf(Btu/h) = maCptf
Wf(hp) = (60Q/2547)Cptf
(60Q/2547)Cptf = QPt/(6350f)
tf (oF) = Pt/(150Cpf)
For air at Standard Conditions,
tf (oF) = Pt/(150 0.075 0.244 f)
tf (oF) = 0.364Pt/f
This relationship for tf applies when the fan motor is outside the airstream. If the motor is within the airstream, as in a direct
drive fan, then f is replaced by (f m).

Fan Motor Temperature Rise

The motor temperature rise is given by:
tm (oF) = tf (1-m)

Fan Blade Temperature Rise

The fan blade temperature rise is given by:
tb (oF) = tfm(1-f)

Fan Friction Temperature Rise

The fan friction temperature rise is given by:
tff (oF) = tfmf

Fan Heat Gain

The fan heat gain is given by:
qf(Btu/h) = 60QCptf

Fan Static Efficiency

The fan static efficiency is given by:
s = (fPs)/Pt

Fan Energy Consumption

Energy consumption (kWh) = (Fan power output time, h)/Motor Efficiency
Ef(kWh) = [QPt/(6350fm)] 0.746
Ef(kWh) = QPt/(8512fm)
Note that 0.746 is the number of kW in an hp.

Pressure Losses in Fan and Duct Systems

In a duct network, the fan total pressure comprises:

Pressure losses across equipment, and

Friction losses in the straight ducts and fittings in the air distribution system.

Friction loss in straight duct is given by the Darcy-Weisbach Equation:

Pf (in. wg) = 6fLV2/(Dgc)
Pressure loss in fittings is given by the equation:
Pk (in. wg) = KPv