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Content

Page

Introduction....................................................................................

Section A
5 Stages in PA System............................................................................................

Section B
5 Design Levels in PA System...............................................................................

Section C
5 Design Considerations in PA System................................................................ 17

Section D
5 Design Steps of a PA System............................................................................. 23

Section E
Advancement in the PA System Industry............................................................. 37

Section F
Component Selection Guide...............................................................................
Microphone Selection Guide...................................................................................
Power Amplifier Selection Guide...........................................................................
Line Supervisory Selection Guide.........................................................................
Loudspeaker Selection Guide................................................................................
Product References Table

45
46
47
48
50

- Design Level 1 & 2................................................................................................. 54


- Design Level 3........................................................................................................ 56
- Design Level 4........................................................................................................ 58
- Design Level 5........................................................................................................ 60

Section G
Design Template.....................................................................................................
Design Level 1...............................................................................................................
Design Level 2...............................................................................................................
Design Level 3...............................................................................................................
Design Level 4...............................................................................................................
Design Level 5...............................................................................................................
Estimating Equipment Rack Space Requirement...........................................

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66
68
70
74
78

Page

Section H
Installation Guide....................................................................................................................
Cable Specification................................................................................................................................
Conduit & Trunking Specification.....................................................................................................
Testing & Commissioning....................................................................................................................
Common Challenges Faced During Installation.........................................................................
Maintenance..............................................................................................................................................

79
80
80
81
86
88

Section I
PA System - Overall System Specifications...........................................................

89

Design Level 1 ....................................................................................................................................... 90


Mixer Amplifier PA System
Design Level 2 ....................................................................................................................................... 94
Programmable Preamplifier PA System
Design Level 3 ....................................................................................................................................... 99
Modular Mixer PA System
Design Level 4 ....................................................................................................................................... 105
Digital Matrix PA System
Design Level 5 ....................................................................................................................................... 111
Early Evacuation PA System

Glossary

...................................................................................................................................................... 119

Introduction
Over the recent years, Public Address System has been evolving to cater for the many new demands in
managing the audio signal paths. These new demands are mainly to facilitate the operators of different
types of buildings and complexes to perform more complex simultaneous broadcasting of different
paging, digital announcements and background music. Moreover the increase in demand of the Public
Address System to serve as a life-saving and emergency evacuation system has also spurred innovations in these systems.
The purpose of this book is to simplify the complexity of the Public Address System that is now
commonly used. It also attempts to explain the easy-way on how to design Public Address System from
basic applications to the more complex ones.
Section A 5 System Stages in PA system

Section F Component Selection Guide

This section will provide design engineers with an


overview of all the 5 system stages that are required to
specify a PA System.

This section will enable the design engineer to select the


required components from our range of products once
the design engineer has defined the specifications and
quantity of the required source and output equipment.

Section B 5 Design Levels in PA System

Section G System Schematic Examples

This section will define the 5 different design levels of PA


Systems: From a simple plug-and-play mixer-amplifier
system for small scale applications to the Early Evacuation
System (EES) for commercial and industrial applications.

This section consists of 5 different system schematic


examples for every of the 5 design levels explained in
Section B. These system schematics serves as an
example of how a typical Public Address System is
configured & illustrated in a schematic drawing.

Section C 5 Design Considerations in PA System

Section H Installation Guide

This section will provide a more in-depth look at the 5


system stages of a PA System. Design engineers will be
guided through all of the components and considerations that should be taken into account when designing
a PA System.

This section will identify and provide the design engineer


with information on various installation issues that must
be considered during the installation process. Issues
such as cable selection and testing procedures will be
discussed in this section.

Section D 5 Design Steps of a PA System

Section I PA System Overall Specification

This section will explain the procedures involved in


specifying a PA System. A step-by-step guide is
provided to the design engineer to aid in defining the
specifications and quantity of the required source and
output equipment.

This section will discuss the overall system specification


for typical applications, along with their benefits.

Section E Advancement in the PA System Industry


This section aims to provide the design engineer with an
overview of the PA System industry and its current trends.
With an understanding of the technologies available and
the general direction of the industry, a PA system can be
effectively designed to leverage on technology effectively
and not solely for the sake of being high tech.

With all the sections mentioned above, we hope that this manual provides a comprehensive guide
for design engineers in designing and specifying PA Systems. For further design assistance, please
visit our website at www.aexsystem.com or contact your nearest AEX System representative.

Safety and Evacuation Standards


The design and manufacturing of Public Address systems
should take into consideration various international standards
for building safety and evacuation. These standards are set
in place to ensure safety of building occupants. AEX products and systems are designed to ensure these buildings
achieve these standards by providing the functions and
safety features required. Below are some relevant standards
that AEX System can comply with:

AS 60849

Australian National Standards for Emergency voice Evacuation


System Equipment

BS EN 60849

British National Standard for Emergency Voice Evacuation


System

IEC 60849

International Electrical Community Standards for Emergency


Voice Evacuation System Equipment.

JGJ/T16-92

Peoples Republic of China National Standards for Commercial


building Electrical Design Standard

GB/T50314-2000

Peoples Republic of China National Standards for Intelligent


Building Design

DIN EN 60849

German National Standard for Emergency Warning System


equipment

SS CP 25

Singapore National Standard for Emergency Voice Evacuation


System Equipment

Section

A
5 Stages in PA System

5 Stages in PA System
Introduction to
Section A

Systemstage

The equipment in a typical PA System can always be categorized into 5 different stages.
The understanding of the purpose and function of each stage can provide the engineer
with a basis to start building a PA System.
The 5 stages of a PA System are:

Systemstage

Input Sources

Systemstage

Preamplifier & Signal Management

Systemstage

Power Amplifier

Systemstage

Control & Monitoring

Systemstage

Loudspeakers

The 5 System Stages outline the flow of data in a Public Address System from the Input
Sources, where information is received, to the Loudspeakers where information is
relayed to the listener.

Section

5 Stages in PA System

A
5 Stages in PA System

Systemstage

Input Sources

Systemstage

Preamplifier &
Signal Management

Emergency Microphone :
Emergency Handheld
Microphone
Mixer Amplifier

Paging Microphone :

Desktop
Microphone

Matrix Remote
Microphone

eMatrix

Programmable Preamplifier
Digital Matrix
Sound Management System

Remote Paging
Console

20-Zone Remote
Microphone

Modular Mixer System


Hand-Held
Microphone

Remote Paging Console


Communication Panel

Digital Source Player :

Fibre Optic Transceiver


Digital Source Player
Early Evacuation
Management System

BGM Sources :

Tuner

Cassette Desk

CD Player

STAGE 1: Input Sources

STAGE 2 : Preamplifier & Signal Management

There are 4 main types of input sources in a PA System:

At Stage 2, the audio signals are received and amplified from the input
sources to a level suitable for the power amplifiers. This stage also manages
the input signals depending on their different priority levels. The equipment
required varies according to the number of inputs and outputs as well as
whether simultaneous broadcast is required.

Emergency Microphone
Used during emergencies for manned evacuation (Highest Priority)
Paging Microphone
Used for general paging and announcement (2nd Highest Priority)
Digital Source Player
Used for the playback of a selection of prerecorded digital
messages upon trigger (3rd Highest Priority)
Background Music (BGM) Sources
Examples are Digital Source Player, CD Player, Cassette Player and
Radio Tuner (Lowest Priority)
In a PA System, the Priority Control of the above sources are very
important. Therefore all input sources should be identified and
ranked in order of priority. This is to ensure that only the most
important information (i.e. emergency evacuation) is broadcasted
through the system when required.
Fibre Optic Transciever
This unit caters for the designing and implementation of long
distance solutions.

The available types of equipment are:


Mixer Amplifier
This unit combines both the preamplifier & power amplifier in one package.
Priority management is achieved by muting the other inputs when the priority
input is in use.
Programmable Preamplifier
This unit is packaged with a fixed number of selectable inputs and outputs.
Input signals can be set at 3 different priority levels.
Modular Mixer
This unit is comprised of a range of function specific modules. Users are able
to create fully customized systems depending on their needs. There is no limit
on the number of inputs and outputs, but a normal system would comprise of
Emergency Paging, General Paging & BGM outputs. It manages the input
signals in 3 selectable choices: Top Priority, FIFO Priority and Cascade Priority.
eMatrix Sound Management System
This unit supports 20 inputs and 60 pure audio outputs. Users can configure
the system to route 8 inputs to 60 outputs simultaneously, providing a multichannel sound management system. The routing patterns can be easily
configured via a Graphic User Interface.
Digital Matrix- Sound Management System
This unit can route up to 32 input sources to any of its designated outputs
(max. 128 nos.) in any pattern, configured by the user. The ability to convert
audio signals into the digital domain enables multi-channel sound management & Simultaneous Broadcast of all inputs. The routing patterns and priority
level of each individual input can be configured via a Graphical User Interface.

Early Evacuation Management System


Built on the Matrix Sound Management platform, this unit is capable of
conducting fully automated concerted evacuation with User Programmable
Evacuation Patterns. The system is capable of delivering various simultaneous
messages to inform occupants what to do based on their location relative to
the emergency.

Section

Power
Amplifier

Systemstage

Control &
Monitoring

Systemstage

Loudspeaker

VOLUME

Mixer Amplifier

Amplifier Monitoring Unit

Spring Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker

Wall Mounted
Loudspeaker

Foreground Music
Loudspeaker

Foreground Music
Loudspeaker

Horn Loudspeaker

Bidirectional
Surface Mounted
Wall Loudspeaker

Aluminium Column
Loudspeaker

Wooden Column
Loudspeaker

Line Monitoring Unit


60W Audio Power Amplifier

Amplifier Supervisory Module


120W Audio Power Amplifier

Line Supervisory Unit

5 Stages in PA System

Systemstage

240W Audio Power Amplifier


Automatic Changeover Unit

Loudspeaker Line Selector


360W Audio Power Amplifier
Program Timer

4 X 60W Audio Power Amplifier

Audio Atteunator

Sound Reinforcement
Loudspeaker

Line Array
Loudspeaker

STAGE 3 : Power Amplifier

STAGE 4 : Control & Monitoring

STAGE 5 : Loudspeaker

During the power amplification stage, the preamplifier signal from stage 2 is amplified to a 100V line to
drive the loudspeakers. Public Address amplifiers
differ from the ordinary amplifier as they have one
additional input for the Priority signal to override
both Paging & BGM during emergencies. They can
also be powered by DC battery power in the event of
a power failure. Power amplifiers differ from each
other by output power capacity and type, such as:

To ensure the integrity of the PA System, control and


monitoring devices must be incorporated to monitor and
supervise the audio path from the microphone up to the
last loudspeaker.

Loudspeakers are used to transduce electrical


energy from the power amplifiers into sound
energy, reproducing the audio signal from the
input source to the listener. Various types of
loudspeakers are available for specific applications in a Public Address System such as:

Amplifier Monitoring Unit


This component provides visual & aural monitoring of
the amplifiers output at the equipment rack.

Mixer Amplifier
This unit combines both the preamplifier & power
amplifier in one package.

Line Monitoring Unit


This component uses DC method to monitor the
loudspeaker lines for common faults such as short and
open circuit.

Single Channel Power Amplifier


A dedicated amplifier unit with different output
power capacities e.g. 60W, 120W, 240W & 360W.

Amplifier Supervisory Module


This component monitors the operation of the power
amplifier for fault.

Multichannel Power Amplifier


An amplifier unit with multiple amplifier modules in a
single package i.e. 4 nos. of 60W modules, housed
in an amplifier unit.

Line Supervisory Unit


This component uses impedance measurement to
monitor the loudspeaker lines for common faults such
as shorts and open circuits as well as ground leak.

Spring Mounted Ceiling Loudspeakers


Wall Mounted Loudspeakers
Paging Horn Loudspeakers
Column Loudspeakers
Foreground Music Loudspeakers
Bidirectional Loudspeaker
Sound Reinforcement Loudspeaker
Weatherproof Loudspeakers
Line Array Loudspeakers

Automatic Changeover Unit


This component is used to switch over the operation of
a faulty amplifier to a standby unit when it receives a fault
report from the Amplifier Supervisory Module.
Loudspeaker Line Selector
This component is used for the purpose of zone On/Off
switching and selection between Paging and BGM for
dual amplifier configuration.
Program Timer
The component provides a number of user prescheduled dry contact triggers to other external
equipments.
Audio Attenuator
This component attenuates the sound level at the
installed area to the preference of the user.
7

PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

Section

B 5 Design Levels in PA System

5 Design Levels in PA System


Introduction to
Section B

This section simplifies the design of PA System into 5 different Design Levels. These
levels range from a basic Plug & Play design (Design Level 1) to a more complex
digital system which encompasses Early Emergency Evacuation System with long
distance audio transmission over fibre-optic as an option (Design Level 5). The understanding of these 5 Design Levels can provide the design engineer an easier task to
choose a particular design level to suit his project at hand.
The main differences of these 5 Design Levels is in the signal management of the preamplifier stage.
The System Features, Technical Features and Applications will be discussed for each
level. The system levels mainly differ at the Preamplifier and Signal Management Stage.

Section

5 Design Levels in PA System

B 5 Design Levels in PA System

Design Level 1 systems are inherently standalone, desktop Public Address systems. With its combination of preamplifier and power
amplifier, the system is easy to configure and use. Applications for this systems are limited to small setups such as restaurants, small
retail outlets and small offices.
Characteristics of a Design Level 1 system are as below;

Applications :
F & B Outlets
Health & Fitness Clubs

Number of
Input Sources

Preamplifier &
Signal Management

Power Amplifier

Control & Monitoring

Number of
Loudspeaker

Fixed

Analogue Signal
Management - Single
Audio Output

Fixed

Not Available

Limited

Retail Outlets

No Automated Evacuation
Capabilities

Personal Care Salons


Small Offices
(Any requirements of
a Basic PA System)

As shown in the table above, Design Level 1 systems have a fixed number of input sources as the preamp modules are built into the
equipment, thus it is not possible to add additional sources should they be required. Design Level 1 systems are based on analogue
technology with a single audio output and fixed amplification power rating. Having a fixed amplification power rating also limits the
number of loudspeakers that can be connected to the system.
Due to the small and simple nature of the system, Control & Monitoring equipment are limited or not required altogether. The example
below depicts a typical Design Level 1 system.

Input Sources

Preamplifier, Signal Management


& Power Amplifier

Control & Monitoring

Loudspeaker

Desktop Microphone

Mixer Amplifier

CD Player

System Features
Simplicity Of Use
The combination of preamplifier and power amplifier gives the system
Plug & Play functionality.
Minimal Integration of Equipments
The connection of a loudspeaker line & microphone makes the PA
System ready for use.
Desktop Application
An equipment rack is not necessary for system setup.

Technical Features

Applications
Small Offices

Microphone & Auxiliary inputs

10

Bass & Treble control

Health & Fitness Clubs

Master Volume

Retail Outlets

30, 60 & 120W Power Output

Personal Care Salons

(Any requirements of a Basic


PA System)

Schools
Place of Worship
Small & Medium Scale
Offices

Characteristics of a Design Level 2 system are shown below;


Number of
Input Sources

Preamplifier &
Signal Management

Power Amplifier

Control & Monitoring

Number of
Loudspeaker

Fixed

Analogue signal
management - Dual
simultaneous audio output

Variable

Available

Unlimited

Factories & Workshops

No automated evacuation
capabilities

As depicted above, the system still has a fixed number of input sources and is based on an analogue technology. Utilizing analogue
technology posses a limitation on the number of simultaneous outputs the system is capable of, Design Level 2 systems are usually
confined to 2 simultaneous audio outputs at once, catering for Background Music and Paging.
However with the preamplifier separated from the Power Amplifiers, this allows for a variable amplification power rating, where power
amplifiers can be added in accordance to the requirements. This feature thus allows the number of loudspeakers connected to the system
to be unlimited as amplifiers can always be added to accommodate additional loudspeakers. The example below depicts a typical Design
Level 2 system;
Input Sources

Preamplifier &
Signal Management

Power Amplifier

Control & Monitoring

Loudspeaker

B 5 Design Levels in PA System

Characteristics of a Design Level 2 system are shown below;

Applications :

Section

To compensate for the Design Level 1 systems fixed amplification power that is built as an all in one package, Design Level 2 systems are
based on a preamplifier unit separated from the power amplifiers. Design Level 2 systems are also capable of integrating with control and
monitoring equipment and are usually applied in small and medium scale offices, factories and schools among others.

Amplifier Monitoring Panel


Paging

Paging Microphone
Paging Console
Communication Panel

Paging

Line Selector

BGM

Programmable Preamplifier
BGM

Emergency Microphone

Power Amplifier

Amplifier Changeover Unit

Digital Source Player


Standby Power Amplifier

System Features

Technical Features

Multiple number of input with selectable input levels


The system is able to receive 3 groups consisting of 8 inputs total (6
inputs selectable between -2dBV or -62dBV and 2 fixed auxiliary
inputs)

Multiple inputs (Microphone / Auxiliary) (balanced) with muting


control

Uninterrupted BGM (2 Audio Output Channels)


The system can be configured in a dual amplifier configuration where
paging & BGM are operated by two different sets of amplifiers
independently. Thus, BGM will not be interrupted at areas where
paging is not intended.

Optional Chime/Siren Module

3 Priority Levels (Emergency, Paging & BGM)


Emergency paging will take priority over normal paging. Lead paging
will take priority over normal paging. Normal paging will take priority
over BGM.
Increased Amplification Power
Power amplification available: 60W, 120W, 240W, 360W & 480W per
amplifier. Multiple units can be used to configure a system that
requires higher amplification.

Line level output and 1 Rec output for External Recorder


Bass & Treble control
Dual mode power supply of either AC mains or DC battery supply

Applications
Schools
Places of Worship
Small & Medium scale Offices
Factories & Workshops

11

Section

5 Design Levels in PA System

B 5 Design Levels in PA System

Design Level 3 systems are based on a modular mixer Preamplifier & Signal Management. Unlike Design Level 2 systems, this allows
the system to have a variable number of input sources which can be increased or decreased to suit an application. With its flexibility in
being a modular system, Design Level 3 systems can be configured for multichannel input sources suiting applications such as hotels
and factories.

Applications :
Higher Learning
Institutions
Place of Worship
Office Buildings
Large Scale Factory

Characteristics of a Design Level 3 system are shown below;


Number of
Input Sources

Preamplifier &
Signal Management

Power Amplifier

Control & Monitoring

Number of
Loudspeaker

Variable based
on user
requirements

Analogue Signal
Management - Multiple Audio
input and output

Variable

Available

Unlimited

No automated evacuation
capabilities

Government Building
Supermarkets
Hotels
Public Transport
Stations
Shopping Mall
Museums

As depicted above, the system has a variable number of input sources. Similar to Design Level 2 systems, a Design Level 3 system is
based on an analogue technology. Due to its modularity, a system with multiple inputs and outputs can be configured.
Multiple audio inputs and outputs are suitable for applications that require different background music and even announcements to be
broadcasted to different zones. The system also allows for a variable amplification power rating, where power amplifiers can be added
in accordance to the requirements. However the Design Level 3 does not allow simultaneous paging of microphones.
The example below depicts a typical Design Level 3 system;
Input Sources

Preamplifier &
Signal Management

Power Amplifier

Control & Monitoring

Loudspeaker

Program Timer
Paging
VOLUME

Amplifier Monitoring Panel

Remote Paging Console

Paging

Line Selector

Paging Console
Communication Panel

BGM
Modular Mixer System

Emergency Microphone

Digital Source Player

Line Supervisory Unit

BGM

Power Amplifier

Automatic Changeover Unit

Digital Source Player


Digital Source Player

Standby Power Amplifier

System Features
Modular Architecture
Modularity provides the flexibility to configure the system to the needs
of the user without the extra cost of unused inputs or outputs. It also
allows for future expansion of additional inputs and outputs.
Configurable Into a Multi-Channel Preamplifier
This system provides the flexibility to add multiple input sources (more
than Design Level 2) which suit installations such as hotels and
factories.

Technical Features

Applications

Modular mixer enclosure houses different function specific modules.

Higher Learning Institutions

Hotels

Additional modules are to be housed in another enclosure linked to the


main mixer enclosure.

Place of Worship

Public Transport Stations

Office Buildings

Shopping Mall

Large Scale Factory

Museums

Bass & Treble control


Optional Chime/Siren Module
Dual mode power supply of either AC mains or DC battery supply
User programmable functions for priority settings and external device
interface

12

Government Building
Supermarkets

Intelligent High-Rise
Buildings
Exhibition &
Convention Centres
Hotels & Resorts

Number of
Input Sources

Preamplifier &
Signal Management

Power Amplifier

Control & Monitoring

Number of
Loudspeaker

Variable based
on user
requirements

Programmable Digital Signal Management Multiple audio input and output with
simultaneous paging capabilities.

Variable

Available with
multi-system interfacing

Unlimited

Limited automated evacuation capabilities.

As depicted above, a Design Level 4 system or more commonly referred to as a matrix system in the industry is based on a digital Preamplifier & Signal Management. The system works by converting all analogue input sources into the digital domain for management and routing
to their appropriate zones. This allows for simultaneous paging of multiple microphones at the same time to different zones.

Theme Parks

The system also allows integrating with other ELV systems such as Close Circuit Television (CCTV) systems, fire alarm panels and intrusion
alarm systems by providing control input as well as output trigger signals to externals systems.

Multi Campus
Universities

The example below depicts a typical Design Level 4 system;

Sport Complexes
Public Transportation
Airport
Ferry Terminal
Railway Station
MRT

Input Sources

Preamplifier &
Signal Management

Power Amplifier

Matrix Remote Microphone

Control &
Monitoring

Loudspeaker

B 5 Design Levels in PA System

Mixed Developments
(Shopping Mall, Hotel,
Office)

Section

Applications :

Design Level 4 systems are based on digital signal Preamplifier & Signal Management. This allows for multiple simultaneous audio paging
& broadcast, controlled by software configuration. Running in the digital domain also allows a host of programmable functions such
automated operation with time scheduling, self-diagnostics and multi-system interfacing. Multi-system interfacing is essential in most
modern facilities as it allows all the Extra Low Voltage (ELV) systems ie; security systems, fire alarm systems, CCTV systems, etc. In a
building to be integrated providing better value to building owners. Applications for Design Level 4 systems are mixed developments,
intelligent high-rise buildings, hotels and shopping malls.

Internet Connectivity Panel


VOLUME

Department Stores
Zone amplifiers

Amplifier Monitoring Panel

Matrix Remote Microphone


Zone amplifiers

Digital Matrix
Sound Management System
Matrix Remote Microphone

Integrated
Supervisory Unit

Zone amplifiers

(or)

Zone amplifiers

Analogue Handheld
Microphone

eMatrix

Zone amplifiers

Power Amplifier
Digital Source Player

Addressable Fire
Alarm System

Standby Power Amplifier

System Features
Simultaneous Paging & Broadcast
The system allows multiple inputs with a combination of paging, BGM &
digitally prerecorded messages to be simultaneously broadcasted to a
maximum of 128 zones. The audio routing patterns can be modified at
any time through the use of an intuitive GUI.
Remote Zone Paging Up to 1.2 km
The system has Remote Microphone functionality which performs
remote zone paging away from the equipment rack. Digital communication reduces microphone cabling by 80%, thus reducing cabling cost.

System Surveillance & Self Diagnosis


The system performs constant surveillance of the audio path, starting
from the paging console right up to the last loudspeaker, ensuring
continuous and uninterrupted operation. The system is also able to
carry out a self-diagnosis check at fixed intervals and report the results
in its event log.
Automated Operation with Time Scheduler
Automated prescheduled message and program playback to all zones
minimises the need for human intervention.

System Surveillance & Self Diagnosis


The system performs constant surveillance of the audio path, starting
from the paging console right up to the last loudspeaker, ensuring
continuous and uninterrupted operation. The system is also able to
carry out a self-diagnosis check at fixed intervals and report the results
in its event log.

Internet Connectivity Technology


The system can be monitored and configured via the Internet when the
system is connected to the Internet Connectivity Panel. The system is
also able to send emails to preprogrammed addresses for every reported
fault found during system surveillance and self diagnosis.

Windows Based GUI


A simple to use Windows based graphical user interface provides ease
of system configuration and monitoring with 2 levels of password
protection to prevent unauthorized access to the system.

Technical Features

Multi-System Interfacing
The system is able to interface with other building services such as fire
alarm, security, and management systems as well as a master clock to
ensure time synchronization.
Modular Architecture
Modularity provides the flexibility to configure the system to the needs
of the user without extra cost in unused inputs or outputs. It also allows
for future expansion of additional input sources, output zones, to
receive external triggers and provide control to other systems or
devices.
Windows Based GUI
A simple to use Windows based graphical user interface provides ease
of system configuration and monitoring with 2 levels of password
protection to prevent unauthorized access to the system.

Simultaneous multiple inputs & outputs


Remote paging function
Modular Architecture
Expandable loudspeaker zones
Internet connectivity

Applications
Mixed Development
(Shopping Mall, Hotel, Office)

Sport Complexes

Hotels & Resorts

Public Transportation
Airport
Ferry Terminal
Railway Station
MRT

Theme Parks

Department Stores

Intelligent High-Rise Buildings


Exhibition & Convention Centres

Multi Campus Universities

13

Section

5 Design Levels in PA System

B 5 Design Levels in PA System

Applications :
Mixed Development
(Shopping Mall, Hotel,
Office)
Intelligent High-Rise
Buildings
Multi Complex
Manufacturing
Facilities

Design Level 5 systems are able to conduct fully automated evacuation procedures. Often referred to as Early Evacuation Systems (EES)
matrix in the industry, these systems are capable of providing voice instructions informing building occupants what to do during an
emergency depending on where they are relative to the threat.
Applications for Design Level 5 systems are mixed developments, intelligent high-rise buildings, hotels, shopping malls and wide spread
facilities.
Characteristics of a Design Level 5 system are shown below;
Number of
Input Sources

Preamplifier &
Signal Management

Power Amplifier

Control & Monitoring

Number of
Loudspeaker

Variable based
on user
requirements

Programmable Digital Signal Management Multiple audio input and output with
simultaneous paging capabilities

Variable

Available

Unlimited

Exhibition &
Convention Centres
Hotels & Resorts
Theme Parks
Multi Campus
Universities

Fully automated concerted evacuation


capabilities

Under normal operating conditions the Design Level 5 system is very similar to a Design Level 4 in terms of its digital matrix capabilities.
Design Level 5 system also allows integration with other ELV systems such as Close Circuit Television (CCTV) systems, fire alarm panels
and intrusion alarm systems by providing input sensors as well as output trigger signals to externals systems. During an emergency, the
system will provide an automatic simultaneous voice assisted evacuation. These evacuation procedures are progressive in nature aimed
at managing the flow of human in the fire-escape.
The example below depicts a typical Design Level 5 system;
Input Sources

Preamplifier &
Signal Management

Control &
Monitoring

Power Amplifier

Loudspeaker

Matrix Remote Microphone


Internet Connectivity Panel
VOLUME

Amplifier Monitoring Panel

Matrix Remote Microphone


Zone amplifiers

Line Supervisory Unit


Matrix Remote Microphone

Zone amplifiers

Digital Matrix
Early Evacuation
Management System

Zone amplifiers

Analogue Handheld
Microphone

Zone amplifiers

DS 202

All Call Manual Line Selector


Zone amplifiers

DS 202
Emergency Panel

Power Amplifier

Addressable Fire
Alarm System

Automatic Changover Unit

Standby Power Amplifier

System Features

Technical Features

Phased Evacuation
In the event of an internal hazard such as a fire, gas leak or bio-hazard, the
system is capable of conducting a phased evacuation. The evacuation
message will start from the source zone, and progressively be broadcast
to adjacent zones until the whole building is evacuated.

Digital Audio Matrix

Time Scheduler

Remote Paging Function

Priority Mic Queuing

Optimum Evacuation
In the event of an external hazard such as bomb threat or collapse of an
adjacent building, the system is capable of evacuating building
occupants in an optimal manner to minimize evacuation time and
minimize casualties.
Automatic Simultaneous Voice Assisted Evacuation
This system achieves optimal evacuation by broadcasting multiple
simultaneous messages.
Manual Voice Assists Evacuation
The system displays the areas that have been automatically evacuated
and allows Firemen to conduct a manual evacuation of remaining areas
via microphone & line selector.

14

In Accordance of IEC 60849


(Sound Systems for Emergency Purposes)
The Early Evacuation System complies the hardware requirements of IEC
60849.

Control Input & Output for Interfacing


Expandable Loudspeaker Zones
Event-Logging Capability
Supports Dual-CPC redundancy

Applications
Mixed Development
(Shopping Mall, Hotel, Office)
Intelligent High-Rise Buildings
Multi Complex Manufacturing Facilities
Exhibition & Convention Centres
Hotels & Resorts
Theme Parks
Multi Campus Universities

Fixed number of inputs


and output

Fixed number of inputs


and output

Expandable based on
users requirement

Expandable based on
users requirement

Expandable based on
users requirement

Preamplifier
& Signal
Management

Unable to conduct
simultaneous paging
and BGM.

Supports a fixed number


of multiple inputs but
unable to conduct
simultaneous paging.

Supports expandable
inputs but limited to 2
outputs. Unable to
conduct simultaneous
paging.

Digitally managed with


easy integration with
BMS Systems.
Capable of simultaneous
paging and BGM
broadcast.

Similar to Design Level 4


but provides an advanced
preprogrammed
life-saving evacuation
plan during emergencies.

Power Amplifier

Limited and
unexpandable.

Expandable in
accordance to
requirement.

Similar to Design Level 2


but allows for limited
emergency override.

Each loudspeaker zone


powered by individual
amplifiers.

Similar to Design Level 4,


but with added real-time
amplifier diagnostic and
fault monitoring.

Control &
Monitoring

Limited interface with


control devices. No
monitoring equipment
available.

Capable of interfacing
with some control and
monitoring equipment.

Able to provide local


control and monitoring
of limited system
peripherals.

Conducts digital
self-diagnostics and
automatic response to
system faults.

System integrity is of
paramount importance,
system capable of dual
redundancy and also
reports diagnostic faults
via internet.

Loudspeaker

Typically cost effective


loudspeakers.

Typically cost effective


loudspeakers.

Loudspeakers capable
of a minimal level of
accepted clarity.

Better frequency
response loudspeakers
with bass supplements
for BGM.

Similar to Design Level 4


but with loudspeakers
placement designed to
meet Speech
Transmission Index (STi)
recommendations.

Automated
Evacuation

Not Available

Capable of manually
conducted ALL CALL
voice evacuation.

Capable of a single step


ALL CALL or manual
paging to individual
zones evacuation.

Capable of simultaneous
digitally recorded
paging.

Similar to Design Level


4, but can be digitally
programmed to a
specific evacuation plan
of a building.

B 5 Design Levels in PA System

Input Source

Section

Summary of Differences in the Design Levels & Applications

Applications
Hotels
3 Stars
4 Stars
5 Stars

Airports
Domestic/Small
International

Education Institution
Schools
Universities
Multi-campus Uni.

Hospitals
Small Scale
Large Multi-block

Sports Facilities
Indoor Stadium
Outdoor Stadium
Swimming Complex
Veledome

Apartments

Exhibition Centers

Military Facility/Camp

Shopping Complex

F&B Outlets

15

PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

Section

Introduction to
Section C

C 5 Design Considerations in PA System

5 Design Considerations in PA System


Having understood the 5 Design Levels, the design engineer should try to understand the
building operators requirement in a Public Address System. In trying to gauge the
operators requirement, there are basically 5 design considerations the design engineer
should address. A good understanding of these 5 design considerations will allow the
design engineer to configure a PA System which is custom-designed and application
specific to the building operator.
The 5 design considerations are:

Design
Consideration

Design
Consideration

Signal Management

Design
Consideration

System Monitoring & Integrity

Design
Consideration

Integration With Other Systems

Design
Consideration

Technology Involved

Design
Consideration

User Friendliness

17

5 Design Considerations in PA System


Section

Each of the 5 design considerations would consider equipment from certain


stages in a PA System. The line drawing below shows the 5 stages of a Design
Level 4 PA System along with some sample equipment as a reference.

C 5 Design Considerations in PA System

Systemstage Input Sources

Preamplifier &

Systemstage Signal Management

Systemstage

Power
Amplifier

Systemstage

Control &
Monitoring

Systemstage

VOLUME

Loudspeaker

PA Zone

Amplifier Monitoring Unit


(AM 10)

iX 151

PA Zone
iX 151

Integrated
Supervisory Unit
(LA 08)

4 X 60W Audio Power Amplifier


Tuner

iX 101

PA Zone

Cassette Desk
1

PA Zone

FT 811

DS 202

Standby Power Amplifier


PA Zone
+

PC
Battery Changer

Fire Alarm
Battery

PA Zone

PA Zone

Building Management /
Information System
PA Zone
Intercom System

Security System

Design
Consideration

Types of BGM players:


Digital Music Player

Signal Management

The PA Systems signal management complexity is determined by the


following information gathered by the design engineer from the
building owners and operators. This design consideration covers 4
main points (1.1 ~ 1.4) and affects equipment from Stage 1- Input
Source, Stage 2- Preamplifier & Signal Management, Stage 5Loudspeaker

CD Player
Cassette Deck Player
AM / FM Tuner
When to broadcast the Pre-Recorded Broadcast options:
Continuous broadcasting
Automatic routine broadcast during the day

1.1 Input Sources Information

Automatic routine broadcast for everyday

The input source information is needed to determine the PA


System audio input channels management. The information
needed is as follow:

Broadcast upon triggering of other systems or services

Types of input signal for the PA system:


Emergency paging
General paging
Pre-recorded message
Background music (BGM)
Paging station allocation for:
Emergency / Firemen paging
Control Room Operator paging
Security Officer paging
Receptionist paging
Manager paging
Others
18

MD Player

Automatic routine broadcast for certain special days

1.2 PA Zone Allocation Information


The zone allocation information is required to determine the
number of output zones to be controlled by the PA System.
Separate zones facilitate separate broadcast and control.
Zone separation can be performed based on the following
methods:
Evacuation plan zoning
Floor-by-floor zoning
Functional areas zoning

Outdoor zones
Floor-by-floor zoning defines zone by floor. They are divided
based on the following:
One zone per floor
Sub-zone for rooms on the same floor
Staircase as a separate zone

Functional area zoning defines zone by functional area.


Examples of different or special functional areas are as follow:
Back-of-house zone for hotels and resorts
Nurse quarters and patient zones for hospitals and medical
centers
Waiting lounges zone for airports and terminals
Anchor tenant zone for shopping complexes and departmental stores

- Fire Hazard
Early Evacuation for fire hazard and other building threats
- Bomb Threat
- Neighbouring Building on Fire
- Bomb Threat from Neighbouring Building

1.4 Amplifier Sizing/Calculation


There are significant differences in design philosophy between Design
Level 1, 2 & 3 and Design Level 4 & 5.
These differences affect amplifier allocation and calculation as well as
control and monitoring equipment.
The system limitations of Design Level 1, 2 & 3 mean that multiple zones
will share a single amplifier. Design Level 4 & 5 allow full utilisation of the
Matrix Systems capabilities by allowing each zone a dedicated
amplifier.
The following diagrams illustrate the considerations needed for amplifier
sizing in a Design Level 3 and a Design Level 4 environment:

Exhibition hall zone for convention centers


The design engineer may consider choosing one of the zoning
methods to apply into the project design or integrate all three
methods at the same time to apply to a project.

1.3 Signal Management Information


Signal management information is required to determine the
intricacy of the PA System signal handling. This information will
also provide guidelines for the design engineer on deciding the
appropriate Design Level (please refer back to page 9 to 15 for
the Design Levels) for the project.

Input Sources

Preamplifier &
Signal
Management

Control &
Monitoring

Loudspeaker

Zone 1

Remote Paging
Console
CP 102

Power Amplifier

C 5 Design Considerations in PA System

Escape route / staircase zones

Early Evacuation management:


Early Evacuation for internal hazards

Section

Evacuation plan zoning defines zone by evacuation group. They


are based on the following:
Fire compartment zones for a large area, zones are defined
to enable optimal evacuation should the need arise.

20 nos.
CM 361 @ 3W

Paging
Line Selector

Modular Mixer System

BGM
Power Amplifier

Cassette Deck

Zone 2
20 nos.
CM 361 @ 3W

Line Supervisory Unit

Zone 3
25 nos.
CM 361 @ 3W
Zone 4
30 nos.
CM 361 @ 3W

Priority setting for all the paging stations:


Top priority for the Emergency microphone
Volume control overriding during emergency paging
Differentiating priority all microphones having different

In a level 3 environment a single 360W amplifier can be used to power


speakers in all zones.

priority levels
First in first serve priority
Microphone queuing
Paging management:

Input Sources

All zones BGM are automatically muted during paging

Preamplifier &
Signal
Management

BGM is allowed on zones that are not paged

Power Amplifier

Control &
Monitoring

Loudspeaker

Zone 1

More than 1 paging is allowed at the same time simultaneous

Zone 1
20 nos.
CM 361 @ 3W

Power Amplifier

paging

Zone 2
Zone 2

BGM management:
1 BGM across all zones
Different BGM for different zones
Automatic BGM switching at different time of the day
Automatic BGM level at different time of the day
Communication between PA systems:
Paging stations from first PA system can page the second
PA system
Paging stations from first PA system can select specific

Power Amplifier
Matrix Remote
Microphone

Cassette Deck

Zone 3
Digital Matrix
Sound
Management System

Power Amplifier
Zone 4

20 nos.
CM 361 @ 3W
Line S upervisory Unit

Zone 3
25 nos.
CM 361 @ 3W
Zone 4

Power Amplifier

30 nos.
CM 361 @ 3W

In a level 4 Matrix System environment, individual amplifiers are


required for each audio output zone.
It is important to keep these considerations in mind when conducting
amplifier allocation and calculation.

zones in the second PA system


Cross paging between 2 different PA system
Shared BGM for more than 1 PA system

19

5 Design Considerations in PA System


Section

2.5 Central Processing Card Backup

C 5 Design Considerations in PA System

Design
Consideration

System Monitoring
& Integrity

The most important purpose of a PA System is to handle emergency


broadcasts and paging in order to conduct an effective evacuation.
Hence it is imperative to ensure the integrity of the entire system via
system monitoring and automatic changeover to backups. This design
consideration covers 7 main points (2.1 ~ 2.7) and affects equipment
from Stage 1-Source, Stage 2-Preamplifier & Signal Management,
Stage 4-Control & Monitoring.

2.1 Microphone Cable Monitoring


As microphones & paging equipment are often located away from the
main equipment rack, it is important to frequently monitor their line
condition. The design engineer should choose one of two types of
microphones that allow for the microphone cable monitoring function:
Microprocessor-based microphones that indicate condition of its
data communication with the main communication panel in main
equipment rack.
Digital microphones that provides a self-diagnosis pilot tone
check on its line condition (used in conjunction with the Matrix
System).

2.2 Matrix Self-diagnostic Monitoring


The Matrix System is the most complex of all PA System levels, hence
its self-diagnosing feature is crucial to allowing the user to assess how
well the system is performing. The critical items that a Matrix System
should check in its self-diagnosis routine are:
Central Processing Card error
All matrix cards
Controller Area Network error
Extension Frame error
Audio path condition
DC supply (5Vdc and 24 Vdc) status
AC mains status
Memory Battery status

The Central Processing Card (CPC) serves as the brain of the


entire Matrix System. Hence an automatic changeover to a
standby CPC for any incidence of CPC failure is required to
ensure the integrity of a Matrix System. In order to achieve this, the
design engineer should consider a dual-CPC option for the Matrix
System where both master and slave CPC operate in the system
concurrently.

2.6 Power Supply Backup


Most building fires are caused by electrical short circuits, which
in turn cut power to the entire building. Hence, it is critical to
backup the AC power supply to the PA System with a DC battery
and automatic charger.

2.7 Methods of Monitoring


The design engineer should consider the various methods of
monitoring the overall PA System. There are a few methods to
monitor the PA System status:
Integrated monitoring the PA System status (especially the
power amplifier status) is fed back to the Building Management
System which is managed by security officers and Building
Maintenance officers at all time. The officers will be notified
of any fault in the PA System via the Building ManagementSystem
On-line monitoring used when the Matrix System
mainframe has a dedicated monitoring PC. The Matrix
System self-diagnosis results are directly fed into the
monitoring software
Off-line monitoring used when the Matrix System
mainframe does not have a dedicated monitoring PC. The
Matrix System self-diagnosis results are manually fed into
the monitoring software at fixed intervals.
Remote monitoring matrix self-diagnosis results are
transmitted via the Internet.

2.3 Power Amplifier Monitoring and Automatic Changeover


The power amplifier is one of the most critical pieces of equipment,
hence it is essential that it be monitored with a power amplifier monitoring panel, VU meter indicator and monitoring speaker. A visual and aural
alert should be triggered upon any detection of amplifier faults.
A seamless automatic changeover to standby amplifier mechanism
upon any amplifier fault is vital to ensure the integrity of the entire PA
System.

Design
Consideration

Integration with
other Systems

The advancement and convergence of technologies make it


crucial for todays building services to be integrated as well as
provide centralized control and monitoring solutions to the
building owner. The following 5 examples (3.1 ~ 3.5) are building
services a design engineer can consider to integrate with and
their applications:

2.4 Loudspeaker Line Monitoring


Loudspeaker lines travel the longest distance through a building and
are exposed to high risk of damage. They need to have dedicated
equipment to ensure their integrity. In certain countries, line monitoring has been made compulsory through their building codes of
practice, and more countries are beginning to adopt this practice.
There are two different ways of monitoring a loudspeaker line:
DC method
AC method
Please refer to Section F Line Supervisory Equipment Selection Guide
(page 48) for different application for loudspeaker line monitoring.

20

3.1 Fire Alarm System


This integration will provide fire alarm trigger signals to the PA
System and allow the PA System to automatically broadcast any
pre-recorded messages to the fire zones. Trigger signals from
the Fire Alarm System can also be treated as a pre-confirmation
signal to launch the full-fledge automated Early Evacuation
System (for projects under Design Level 5).

3.2 Building Management / Building Automation


System
This integration allows the PA System status, especially the
power amplifier status to be monitored by the Building Management / Building Automation System. This centralized monitoring
allows for a more cost-effective and systematic operation for the
building owner.

This integration provides security alarm trigger signals to the PA


System and allows the PA System to automatically broadcast
any pre-recorded messages to the intrusion zones.

3.5 Building Information System


This integration makes use of the building information systems
to provide the building occupants with aural information. This is
especially useful in airports and any public transport depots
where the arrival and departure of any planes, trains or buses
can be broadcast over the PA System using data of the existing
information system.

Design
Consideration

Technology
Involved

The design engineer will be required to consider the technology


involved in the design of a PA System. The use of current
technology is recommended to ensure that future support is
available in terms of system upgrades and maintenance. More
importantly, the design engineer should choose a technology
that is widely used and be aware of the trends and direction of
the PA System industry. Below are 3 examples (4.1 ~ 4.3) of
technological considerations:

4.1 Digital audio matrix management


Digital audio management allows multiple audio signals to be
managed digitally and without loss in signal quality. Hence
problems like audio interference and cross-talk can be totally
eliminated.

4.2 Fiber-Optic Audio Transmission


Fiber-optic transmission allows for long distance audio and
control signals transmission. This usually involves a transceiver
that converts the analogue audio to digital format and transmits
to another transceiver.
There is a common misconception that fiber optics are always
better regardless of the application, to the extend that systems
that requires inter-equipment fiber-optic cabling are preferred.
Fiber-optic transmission are usually applicable for connecting
local systems between buildings, for example university
campuses that are spread over a wide area and where cross
building paging is required. For high-rise applications, where all
equipment are housed in a common area, fiber-optics becomes
an unnecessary cost factor as its doesnt serve its purpose of
long distance transmission.

User Friendliness

The design engineer should consider the user friendliness of the


system design to facilitate project installation, operation and maintenance.
User friendliness can come from the following 4 areas (5.1 ~ 5.4):

5.1 Installation
This section refers to hardware installation. Easy to install hardware will
reduce unnecessary costs by minimising human error and installation
time. Below are a few examples of installation friendly features a
designer should consider:
A spring-mounted ceiling loudspeaker takes less installation time
than a screw-mounted ceiling loudspeaker.
Minimisation of remote microphone cabling decrease the
possibility of human installation error.
A Printed Circuit Board (PCB) backplane modular system that
eliminates all jumper cutting is always easier to install compared
to a hard-wired modular system.

5.2 Configuration
This section refers to the matrix software configuration. It is important
to have a user friendly Graphic User Interface (GUI) to simplify the
configuration steps. An intuitive configuration wizard will enable the
user to configure the system with minimal coaching.

5.3 Operation & Monitoring

5 Design Considerations in PA System

3.4 Security System

Design
Consideration

This integration allows any intercom calls to be broadcast via the


PA System loudspeakers. This is especially useful for factory
application where paging staff on the factory floors using a
centralized microphone is deemed impractical.

Section

3.3 Intercom System

The operation of the PA System equipment needs to be easy to


comprehend and simple to handle. Clear indications on the LED or
LCD display allow users to monitor and operate equipment with ease.

5.4 Maintenance
Design engineer should also consider future maintenance requirements
during the design stage. Here are a few basic pointers to follow:
Loudspeakers installed at a convenient height or location will
allow future service to be carried out with little difficulty.
Spring-mount ceiling loudspeakers are easier
compared to screw-mount ceiling loudspeakers.

to

service

Equipment with Internet connectivity will be able to prompt the


maintenance contractors on any system irregularities through
emails.
Equipment with Internet connectivity will also enable maintenance
contractors to be prepared when they come for equipment maintenance service. They can log on to the monitoring webpage of the
equipment via the Internet to check on any special component
replacement requirements before they proceed for the maintenance service.

4.3 Internet Connectivity & Encrypted Communication


Protection
Internet-enabled PA Systems make the monitoring of projects in
remote sites and different countries a cost-effective reality.
However when considering the use of the internet one must
always take into account communication protection. In todays
digital age requires data encryption to reduce the threat of
exposure to hackers. The design engineer should ensure proper
data encryption before transmitting or receiving over the
Internet.
15
21

PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

Section

D 5 Design Steps of a PA System

5 Design Steps of a PA System


Introduction to
Section D

Designstep

This section introduces a step-by-step thinking procedure when designing a PA


System. These are basically 5 steps in building a PA System design.
Applying the knowledge from Section C, the design engineer can logically follow each
of these 5 step in choosing one of the 5 design levels (Section B) and identify the
suitable equipment for each of the 5 stages of the PA System (Section A).

Designstep

Input Source Selection

Designstep

Zone Allocation and Loudspeaker Selection

Designstep

Signal Management Selection

Designstep

Power Amplifier Calculation & Backups

Designstep

Control & Monitoring Selection

Each step would involve identifying requirements and equipment for each stage of the
PA System (discussed in Section A).

23

5 Design Steps of a PA System


The line drawing below depicts a sample PA System, all the steps from step 1 to step 5 required to form the
system will be discussed within this section.

Designstep

Designstep

Designstep

D 5 Design Steps of a PA System

Line Supervisory Unit

10 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

20 nos. CM 361 @ 3W
Digital Matrix
Sound Management System
5 nos. FG 415 @ 23W

Analogue Handheld
Microphone
10 nos. FG 415 @ 23W

Power Amplifier

Digital Source Player

Automatic Changeover Unit


4 nos. RH 103 @ 30W

Addressable Fire
Alarm System

Matrix Remote Microphone

Designstep

Analogue Handheld
Microphone

Digital Source Player

Adressable Fire
Alarm System

Standby Power Amplifier

Input Source Selection


In this step, the design engineer needs to
determine the types and quantity of input signals
for the system. As mentioned in the previous
section, the input types can be subdivided into
the following:
Emergency Microphone: Used during emergencies
to conduct evacuation. This microphone is
usually placed in the Fire Command Center for
easy access to the Fire Department authorities.
Paging Stations:
Paging Station without zone selection control
this paging station is suitable for systems
where zone selection is unnecessary or the
paging station is situated near the PA equipment rack.
Paging Station with zone selection control
this paging station is commonly used for
remote paging; hence it is sometimes
referred to as a remote microphone. The
zone selection feature is built into the paging
station where all the zone selection buttons
are incorporated into the paging station. The
zone selection method can be numerical
entry or specific button assignment.

24

Designstep

Amplifier Monitoring Panel


Matrix Remote Microphone

Section

Designstep

Messaging equipment: Used to broadcast prerecorded messages in a system. The pre-recorded


messages can be controlled using a Program
Timer where messages are triggered to play at a
specific time or intervals. Some messaging
equipment can also be used as a background
music player.
Background Music Players: Equipment used to
provide background music to a building. Cassette
Deck Player, CD Player or AM/FM Tuner are
typical examples of background music players.
Information on the quantity and types of input
sources would differ from project to project and
would typically be provided by the building owner,
developer or consulting engineers.
When selecting the microphones try to keep in mind
certain selections will affect Step 3 - Signal Management
and vice versa, i.e. the Matrix Remote Microphone is
only compatible with the Matrix System.

Designstep

20 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

5 nos. FG 415 @ 23W

10 nos. FG 415 @ 23W

4 nos. RH 103 @ 30W

Floor by floor zoning.


Functional areas zoning. Example; back-of-house
zone for hotels and resorts, nurse quarters and patient
zones for hospitals and medical centers, waiting
lounge zones for airports and terminals, anchor tenant
zones for shopping complexes and departmental
stores, exhibition hall zone for convention centers, etc.

Based on the above considerations, the design


engineer will be able to select the suitable loudspeaker
with their respective power tapping. Please refer to
Section F Loudspeaker Selection Guide (page 50) for
loudspeaker selection. After the loudspeaker selection
process, the design engineer can then proceed to plot
the chosen loudspeaker onto the building floor plan
based on the required Sound Class.

Please note that for all the 3 zoning rules mentioned


above, it is advisable to allocate staircases and fire
escape stairwells as independent zones.
The design engineer will be required to consider the
architectural and acoustic requirements of the building
in order to propose the right type and quantity of
loudspeakers to be used. The considerations will consist of:
Sound classification required for the area (Please refer
to page 30 for the various sound classes and their
explanation.
Ceiling height.
Room Construction: For example with or without false
ceiling, room with or without acoustics / sound absorption material, etc.

Designstep

D 5 Design Steps of a PA System

Evacuation plan zoning.

Ambient or Environmental Noise Level: A table with the


Typical Noise Levels Of Common Area can be found in
the (page 31).

Section

10 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

Zone Allocation & Loudspeaker Selection


For zone allocation, the design engineer will need to
refer to building schematics such as floor plans and
elevation drawings to decide on the number of zones the
PA System should consist of. As discussed in the earlier
section, the ideal PA System zoning rules are as follows:

Signal Management Selection


For this step the design engineer will need to decide on the Design Level to be incorporated into
the project. The Design Level selection will be based on the system application, signal management complexity, number of audio input and output channels and number of control inputs and
outputs. As mentioned in the previous section, there are 5 Design Levels in a PA System.

Digital Matrix
Sound Management System

Mixer Amplifier PA System


Programmable Preamplifier PA System
Modular Mixer PA System
Digital Matrix PA System
Early Evacuation PA System
The design engineer shall choose one of the 5 Design Levels and implement it into the Signal Management Step of the PA System design.

25

5 Design Steps of a PA System

Section

Designstep

Power Amplifier Calculation & Backups

D 5 Design Steps of a PA System

After plotting the loudspeaker and designing the signal management section, the design
engineer can calculate the power amplifier sizing, this determines the amount of power amplifiers needed for the system. It is always good practice to allow 15% to 20% headroom for all the
power amplifiers used. This headroom is to allow for any loudspeaker line loss and future
loudspeaker addition purpose.

Power Amplifier

Standby Power Amplifier

All the power amplifiers shall be supported by a standby amplifier. Ideally, for every 5 duty
amplifiers one standby amplifier should be provided as a backup. The standby amplifier rating
shall follow the highest rating amplifier among the 5 duty amplifiers. Any faulty amplifier among
the five duty amplifiers should be switched to the standby amplifier. This can be accomplished
using the automatic amplifier changeover unit that switches both the input signal and 100V
output signal.
Amplifier sizing is greatly dependant on the number of speakers and the power tapping. Once
the speakers have been selected and plotted, the amplifier sizing can be calculated based on
the speaker quantity and power tapping.

7.5W

1.5W

Office

3W

Cafeteria

Common Area

Take the sample floor plan above. Assuming a functional area zoning, the following zones can
be identified;
Zone 1 - Office
Zone 2 - Common Area
Zone 3 - Cafeteria
Once the zones have been identified, depending on the design level selected (as discussed on
pg15) the amplifier sizing will be calculated. Both configurations will be discussed below
starting from the conventional method using line selectors and the matrix configuration ;
Conventional System Amplifier sizing
Step 1 : Identify the quantity and tapping of speakers in each zone and list them out as shown
below.

Zone1, Office; 18 nos. Ceiling speakers @ 1.5W


(refer to
calculation)

Zone2, Common area; 6nos. Ceiling speakers @ 3W


Zone3, Cafeteria; 4nos. Foreground speaker @ 7.5W
Line Selector

Step 2 : Because the system is split by line selectors, a single amplifier is typically used to
power all the zones collectively. In this case total power required:
75W = (18ceiling speakers x 1.5W) + (6ceiling speakers x 3W)
+ (4Foreground speakers x 7.5W)
Adding a 20% headroom to allow for a power tapping increase or having additional loudspeakers will equal to a requirement for 90W, thus a suitable amplifier sizing would be one capable
of catering for a 100.8W load, for example a 120W Amplifier unit.

Zone1, Office; 18 nos. Ceiling speakers @ 1.5W


120 W Amplifier
Zone2, Common area; 6nos. Ceiling speakers @ 3W
Zone3, Cafeteria; 4nos. Foreground speaker @ 7.5W
Line Selector

26

Power Amplifier Calculation & Backups


Matrix System Amplifier Sizing

Step 1 : Identify the quantity and tapping of speakers in each zone and list them out as shown
below.

Zone1, Office; 18 nos. Ceiling speakers @ 1.5W

Zone2, Common area;

Zone3, Cafeteria;

6nos. Ceiling speakers @ 3W

4nos. Foreground speaker @ 7.5W

Step 2 : Because the system requires an individual amplifier for individual zones, the power
requirement of the individual zones will have to be calculated.
Zone 1
Zone 2
Zone 3

: 27W = (18 x 1.5W)


: 18W = (18 x 3W)
: 22.5W = (4 x 7.5W)

Adding 20% headroom to allow for a power tapping increase or having additional loudspeakers
will result in the following:
Zone 1
Zone 2
Zone 3

D 5 Design Steps of a PA System

The matrix amplifier sizing is calculated based on an amplifier per zone sizing without the use
of speaker line selectors.

Section

Designstep

: 27 + 20% = 32.4W
: 18 + 20% = 21.6W
: 22.5 + 20% =27W

With the calculated power requirements, appropriate amplifiers can be allocated to the
individual zones.

Zone1, Office; 18 nos. Ceiling speakers @ 1.5W


60 W Amplifier
Zone2, Common area;

6nos. Ceiling speakers @ 3W

60 W Amplifier
Zone3, Cafeteria;

4nos. Foreground speaker @ 7.5W

60 W Amplifier

Designstep

Control & Monitoring

Amplifier Monitoring Panel

After determining the power amplifiers needed, the design engineer will be required to
provide for the visual and aural monitoring of the power amplifiers. This consists of a VU
meter (visual monitoring) and built-in speaker (aural monitoring).

Line Selector Unit

Loudspeaker line monitoring is another important aspect of control & monitoring. There are
two methods of monitoring a loudspeaker line, the DC method and the AC method. The
difference between these two methods is illustrated in Section F Line Supervisory Equipment
Selection Guide (page 48). The DC method loudspeaker line monitoring is more suitable for
small scale projects where the loudspeaker quantity per zone is less, while the AC method is
more suitable for high speaker quantity zones. Both these loudspeaker line monitoring
devices are to be placed between the amplifiers and the first loudspeaker of the zone.

Amplifier Supervisory Selector

For Design Level 4 or 5, the design engineer must also monitor the Matrix System which can
be accomplished via its event log. This event log can be transmitted over the Internet when
the optional Internet Connectivity Panel is used.
Finally, the design engineer would have to calculate the total power consumption of the entire
PA System based on the quantity of equipment used and design a suitable battery backup
system complete with an automatic battery charger.

27

5 Design Steps of a PA System

Section

Designstep

Control & Monitoring

D 5 Design Steps of a PA System

There are 2 types of power requirement to be calculated for a PA System, namely the AC
Power Requirement and the DC Battery Supply which is used to provide the secondary
supply requirements.
AC Mains Power Requirements
It is important to determine the total system AC Mains power requirements to ensure that
adequate supply is rating are allocated.
The first step would be to identify all the equipments that require power supply from the AC
mains supply. Some equipments do not connect directly to the AC Mains but through a low
voltage DC Power Supply unit.
These information can be obtained from the equipments user manual or technical datasheet.

Technical Specifications

Frequency Response at Rated Output

PB 106

PB 112

PB 124

PB 136

20 Hz to 20 kHz

20 Hz to 20 kHz

20 Hz to 20 kHz

20 Hz to 20 kHz

Power Consumption at rated output

Optional Accessory

ASM 01B Amplifier Supervisory Module


The AEX SYSTEM ASM 10B Amplifier Supervisory Module is designed

Connection Diagram

for use with the PB 100 Series Audio Power Amplifiers.


The unit superimposes a 20 kHz pilot signal onto the audio signal at
the preamp stage. During normal operation, the module will
continuously monitor the presence of the pilot signal at the amplifiers
output.
Failure to detect the pilot signal will constitute as an internal fault
within the amplifier. Upon detection of a fault the module will provide
a dry contact closure which can be used to activate external devices
such as automatic changover unit, central monitoring systems or fault
display panels.

Equipment technical specs

In the example above the PB 106 60W Power Amplifier consumes 200VA. Using the formula
for Power (VA), the current required for a single unit of amplifier can be calculated.
The example below is calculated based on a 240 Vac application.

P = VI
200 = 240 x I
I = 200/240
I = 0.833 Amperes
Once all the AC current of a single unit have been calculated, this can easily be multiplied by
the total number of similar amplifiers.

Battery Backup Supply


The DC Power requirements would indicate the battery backup sizing for the system. Here it
is important to note the DC power rating that the PA System accepts. Having a single brand
of PA System helps to minimize the complication of having to provide various DC voltage to
suit the various equipments.

Technical Specifications

Frequency Response at Rated Output

PB 106

PB 112

PB 124

PB 136

20 Hz to 20 kHz

20 Hz to 20 kHz

20 Hz to 20 kHz

20 Hz to 20 kHz

Power Consumption at rated output


Power Requirement

ASM 01B Amplifier Supervisory Module


The AEX SYSTEM ASM 10B Amplifier Supervisory Module is designed

Optional Accessory
Connection Diagram

for use with the PB 100 Series Audio Power Amplifiers.


The unit superimposes a 20 kHz pilot signal onto the audio signal at
the preamp stage. During normal operation, the module will
continuously monitor the presence of the pilot signal at the amplifiers
output.
Failure to detect the pilot signal will constitute as an internal fault
within the amplifier. Upon detection of a fault the module will provide
a dry contact closure which can be used to activate external devices
such as automatic changover unit, central monitoring systems or fault
display panels.

Equipment technical specs

28

24 Vdc

Control & Monitoring


Once the equipment have been identified, determine the Power Requirement from the
technical datasheet. In the example above the PB 106 60W Power Amplifier receives 24Vdc
battery backup and has a power requirement of 200VA.

P = VI
200 = 24 x I
I = 200/24
I = 8.33 Amperes
For the total DC current, multiply the DC current requirement of a single unit with the total
number of identical units and add the current requirements for all the other equipment would
The Backup Batteries are usually specified in Ampere Hours (aH). For example if battery
backup is only required for a single 60W amplifier for an hour. The battery specification should
read;
24Vdc, 8.33AH Battery backup.
This ensures that the battery is capable of supplying 24Vdc at 8.33A for an hour.

D 5 Design Steps of a PA System

Using the formula for Power (VA), the current required for a single unit of amplifier can be
calculated as follows.

Section

Designstep

29

5 Design Steps of a PA System

Section

Classification of Sound

D 5 Design Steps of a PA System

It is important to classify sound to ensure that building owners are able to identify, distinguish and establish the quality of
sound in which to install into their building. While certain areas in a building might require good sound quality other areas
might just require a configuration capable of producing clear speech announcements.
The Classification of Sound provides a quantitative approach to defining sound quality and aid the design engineer in specifying suitable sound classes to suit the various areas in a project.
There are 4 classes of sound with each sound class consist of 4 main components, namely; Loudness, Sound Coverage,
Speech Intelligibility and Frequency Response.

CLASS A

CLASS B

CLASS C

CLASS D

+ 12 dB

+ 12 dB

+ 9 dB

+ 9 dB

Sound Coverage

< +/- 3 dB

< +/- 3 dB

3 dB ~ 6 dB

3 dB ~ 6 dB

RaSTI

0.60 ~ 0.74

0.60 ~ 0.74

0.45 ~ 0.59

0.45 ~ 0.59

20 Hz ~ 20 kHz

75 Hz ~ 18 kHz

85 Hz ~ 16 kHz

600 Hz ~ 10 kHz

Loudness

Freq Response

(minimally)

Class A Sound

Class A Sound provides music and speech reproduction of the highest quality. Countless research has shown that a top
quality sound is an integral part of customers' experience, with sound quality able to affect customers' perception of a
company's product and services.
Class A sound stresses on covering the whole frequency response curve sufficiently, usually utilizing subwoofers and high
quality tweeters to ensure crisp clear sound with a full enveloping bass response.
Class A sound applications: hotel main lobby, music halls, bars, restaurants, caf.

Class B Sound

Class B sound emphasizes on providing even coverage with good speech intelligibility. Class B sound configuration is still
able to re-produce an acceptable quality of background music, however less emphasis is placed on the low-end frequency
range.
Class B sound configurations are usually deployed in hotel corridors, shopping malls and transportation hubs.

Class C Sound

A Class C sound provides a balance between cost and sound quality. Providing adequate coverage with speech clarity and
sound pressure level appropriate for acceptable background music reproduction and clear announcements during emergencies.
Class C sound requires loudspeakers that are designed to reproduce the human voice spectrum and BGM. As there is less
emphasis placed on providing seamless coverage, there are cost saving benefits derived from deploying fewer speakers.
Class C sound configurations are usually deployed at areas along the path of human traffic such as stairwells, corridors,
washrooms and offices.

Class D Sound

Class D sound are suitable for areas where announcements are priority. Class D sound is not suitable for music reproduction.
Emphasis is instead placed on delivering a life saving announcement with sufficient speech clarity, intelligibility and loudness
to areas with high ambient noise.
Class D sound requires loudspeakers that are able to minimally reproduce the human voice frequency spectrum for only
announcement and evacuation. Placements of the loudspeakers minimally cover work areas such as back-of-house areas,
mechanical rooms and workshop.

30

1. Loudness

Typical Noise Level Of Common Areas


Airport
Washroom
Public Area
Retail & F&B Outlet
Arrival & Departure Hall

Typical Noise Level (dB)


50
55
60
70

55
65
70
80

60
60
65
55
70

65
65
75
60
80

Convention & Exhibition Centre


Registration Area
Reception Foyer
Exhibition Hall
Convention Hall (delegates at silence)
Convention Hall (delegates in conversation)

Home (Urban)
Bedroom
Living Room

Hospital

Audiometric Room
Operating Theatre, Single Bed Ward
Multi-bed Ward, Waiting Room
Corridor, Laboratory
Wash Room, Toilet, Kitchen
Staff Room, Recreation Room

Hotel & Resort

Guest Room, Suite


Ballroom, Banquet Hall
Corridor, Lobby
Kitchen, Laundry

Industrial
Warehouse, Garage
Workshop (Light Machineries)
Workshop (Heavy Machineries)

Learning Institution
Classroom, Lecture Theatre
Laboratory, Workshop
Corridor, Gymnasium, Cafeteria

Main Event Hall (Indoor Stadium)


Visitors seated at silence
Visitors excited

Main Event Area (Outdoor)


Visitors seated at silence
Visitors excited

D 5 Design Steps of a PA System

In order for a public address broadcast to be audible to the listener, the SPL at the listening level should minimally
be 6 dB higher than ambient noise. For example, in an office area where the total ambient noise (incl. human noise,
air conditioning, office equipment, etc.) is 50 dB, the public address system shall be able to produce an SPL of 56
dB at listening level. The requirement for the SPL difference between ambient & produced sound signal can be 10
dB in cases where better sound quality is required ie. Conference Room, Hotel Ballroom or Lecture Theatre. Below
is a list of typical noise level found in some common public areas. The list provides only an approximate guide to the
system designer while keeping in mind that the value may be different from actual due to human and environmental
factors.

Section

Acoustical Design Requirements

45
50

40 - 45
50 - 55
55
55 - 60
55 - 65
50 - 60

40
50
55
60

50
55
60
75

65 - 70
65 - 75
70 - 85

45 - 55
55 - 60
55 - 65

60 - 65
70 - 80

55 - 60
65 - 75

31

5 Design Steps of a PA System


Offices

Section

Boardroom, Large Conference Room


Small Conference Room, Executive Office
Open Plan Office Layout
Office with heavy use of typing / lettering /printer

D 5 Design Steps of a PA System

Public Buildings
Court Room
Assembly Hall
Library, Bank, Museum
Washroom, Toilet
Swimming Pool, Sports Arena
Garage, Car Park
Church

Shopping Mall
Walkway & Corridor
Retail & F&B Outlet
Car Park
Concourse Area

Stadium
Guest Entrance
Guest Foyer

Theme Park & Entertainment


Reception & Ticketing
Retail & F&B Outlet
Amusement Park

45 - 50
50 - 55
55
55 - 65

45
45
50
55
60
75
45

55
60
75
75

50
55
55
65
70

- 50

60
70
80
90

60 - 65
65 - 70

55 - 60
60 - 70
60 - 75

Transportation Depot
Off Peak Period (no incoming transport)
Off Peak Period (with incoming transport)
Peak Period (no incoming transport)
Peak Period (with incoming transport)

32

50
55
60
65

55
65
65
75

Section

Formulas for Sound Pressure Level (SPL) Calculation


Sound Pressure Level (SPL) Losses Over Distance

dB

-6

-9.5

-12

-14

-15.6

-16.9

10

11

12

13

14

15

-18

-19.1

-20

-22.3

-22.9

-23.5

-20.8 -21.6

dB drop over
= 20 log10 D
distance, D
90dB

1m

84dB

2m
(-6dB)

78dB

4m
(-12dB)

As shown in the illustration, if the loudspeaker is


capable of producing 90dB (1W at 1m),
meaning the SPL at the listener would be 90dB
standing 1m away from the speaker. As the
listener moves away from the loudspeaker unit,
the SPL would drop accordingly.

D 5 Design Steps of a PA System

As the listener moves away from the loudspeaker, the SPL will drop and the audio would be perceived as getting softer and softer.
Power to the loudspeakers must be increased to compensate for the SPL drop to maintain teh required 10dB above ambient noise
level. The table below indicates the SPL drop over distance and is derived from the formula:

Sound Pressure Level Increase with Power


For applications with high ambient noise or to ensure coverage to a further distance, the design engineer is to select a suitable
loudspeaker that is able to produce sufficient SPL to reach the listener. Coupling two loudspeakers of the same type could also
increase the SPL output by 3 dB.
Public Address speakers usually come with multiple power tapping of full power (100% Output), half power (50% output or -3 dB) and
quarter power (25% output or -6 dB).
The table below, indicates the SPL increase with power:

Speaker
at 1w

90dB

1m

Speaker
at 4W
96dB

1m

7.5

dB

+3

+6

+7.8

+8.8

10

11

12

13

+11

+11.8

78dB

4m

84dB

4m

+14 +14.8 +17

+18.8

dB increase over
= 10 log10 P
power, P

For a loudspeaker with a sensitivity of 90 dB @


1m/1W, the SPL at the listener standing 4m
away from the loudspeaker would be 78 dB (90
dB - 12 dB).
As shown in the table above, increasing the
power to the loudspeaker to 4W will increase the
SPL by 6 dB. Thus, the SPL produced by the
loudspeaker at the listener is now 84 dB (78 dB
+ 6 dB).

33

5 Design Steps of a PA System

Section

2. Sound Coverage
A good sound system design shall have an even coverage through out the intended listening area. Thus, ideally when the listener
walks in a same direction with the loudspeaker arrangement, away from the 1st loudspeaker towards the 2nd loudspeaker, the
difference in SPL shall not audible. As the human ear is difficult to perceive two different loudness if the difference in SPL is not more
than 3 dB, ideally, the design shall only have an SPL difference of 3 dB through out the intended listening area.

D 5 Design Steps of a PA System

To achieve this criteria, the effective coverage angle of the loudspeaker to be used must be known. The effective coverage angle
would be the angle where the SPL drops by 6 dB measured off-axis. With that, the next loudspeaker is placed where the coverage
area intersects at the listening plane. The resultant of two sources of equal loudness at the intersection will increase the SPL by 3 dB,
thus making the on-axis & off-axis SPL difference only 3 dB.

Loudspeaker Placement Guide

60

1.155 dL

65

1.274 dL

70

1.4

75

1.535 dL

3. Speech Intelligibility
Speech Intelligibility is an index of measure for the ability of the listener to hear the vowels & consonants correctly in order
to identify the words and sentence structure. A sound system with sufficient SPL need not necessary be intelligible to the
listener, as occasionally we do face the scenario that it may be loud but not understandable to the listener.
Factors that affect intelligibility include:

Sound System Bandwidth (Frequency Response)

The spectrum for speech is approximately 100 Hz 8 kHz and intelligibility is mostly concentrated in the 2 kHz and 4 kHz
band. Thus, the system must be able to minimally reproduce the above frequencies. Factors which affect the frequency
response of the system includes poor source (ie. microphone or digital message player) and loudspeaker quality, boundary
effect caused by loudspeaker placed near to walls and interaction between loudspeakers.

Loudness & Signal-To-Noise Ratio

Ensure a SNR of minimum 6 dBA or higher, preferably 10 dBA.

Loudspeaker Directivity

The use of loudspeakers with high directivity is important in highly reverberant areas to provide control of the coverage area,
avoiding excessive sound from reaching the walls and ceiling to minimise multiple reflection paths.

Reverberation Time and Direct to Reverberant Levels

Sound reflections mask direct sound reaching the listener, thus affecting speech intelligibility in levels depending upon
reverberation time and the level of reverberant field.

34

dL

Effect of Reverberation Time

1.0s - 1.2s

Excellent to good intelligibility should be achieved

1.2s - 1.5s

Good intelligibility should be achieved though loudspeaker type and location become important.

> 1.5s

Careful design required (loudspeaker selection & spacing)

1.7s

Limit for good intelligibility in large spaces (distributed systems) eg. shopping malls, airport terminals.

> 1.7s

Directional loudspeaker required. (Churches, multipurpose auditoriums and highly reflective spaces).

> 2s

Very careful design required. High quality directional loudspeaker required. Intelligibility may have
limitations. (Concert halls, churches, treated sports halls / arenas).

> 2.5s

Intelligibility will have limitations. Highly directional loudspeaker required. (Large churches, sports
halls, arenas, atriums, enclosed railway stations and transportation terminals).

> 4s

Highly directional loudspeakers required and located as close to the listener as possible. (Very large
churches, cathedrals, mosques, large and untreated atria, aircraft hangars, untreated enclosed ice
sports arenas / stadiums).

Distance Between Listener & Loudspeaker

Reducing the distance between listener and loudspeaker reduces the sound energy that arrives at the unintended reflection
surfaces, causing less reflections and lower levels of reverberation.

D 5 Design Steps of a PA System

Results
Excellence intelligibility should be obtained.

Section

RT 60
< 1s

Volume, Size & Shape of Space

These are some useful guidelines on how to improve the intelligibility of a sound system :
Provide a line-of-sight between the loudspeaker & listener.
Minimise the distance between the loudspeaker(s) & listener.
Ensure adequate system bandwidth (at least 250 Hz ~ 10 kHz).
Avoid frequency response anomalies and correct unavoidable peaks with appropriate equalization.
Avoid mounting loudspeakers at corners.
Avoid long path delays (> 45 ms)
Use directional loudspeakers in reverberant spaces.
Ensure that speech SNR is at least 6 dB (preferably > 10 dB)
Ensure a conducive place for microphone placement, away from noise & reflection paths, mounted vibration-free.
Below is a list of objective measures techniques for speech intelligibility:

Articulation Index (AI)

One of the first assessment method developed to measure intelligibility in telephone communications, AI rates the effects of
noise on speech with range of 0 (no intelligibility) to 1 (100% intelligibility) by methods of calculation based on measurements
of the spectrum of the interfering noise and desired speech signal with the use of a real time spectrum analyzer.

Articulation Loss of Consonants (%Alcons)

This measurement technique, developed in the 1970s, is based on the calculation of the D/R (Direct to Reverberant) ratio. A
high D/R ratio represents good intelligibility. A %Alcons measurement begins with an impulse response, normally displayed
as a log-squared response or ETC (Energy Time Curve), and examines the ratio between early energy, late energy & noise.
A major limitation of this method is that it only uses the 2 kHz band where majority of loudspeaker systems directivity vary
with frequency, thus unable to determine the overall response of the system.

Direct to Reverberant Ratio (Early to Late Ratio)

The most common measure is C50 which takes as its ratio the total energy occurring within the first 50 ms to the total sound
energy of the impulse response. A well defined scale has not been developed but a value of around +4 dB C50 would be
recommended for good intelligibility in an auditorium or a similarly large acoustic space. Limitations of this method includes
the lack of a defined scale, frequency limitations and does not take account of background noise.

Speech Transmission Index (STI) & RASTI

STI was developed as a measurement method (in contrast of %Alcons developed primarily as a predictive technique) which
considers the source/room/listener as a transmission channel and measures the reduction in modulation depth of a special
test signal as it traverses the channel. STI takes account of both reverberation and noise effects when assessing intelligibility.
With the availability of signal processing equipments, it is possible to directly measure the modulation reduction from obtaining the impulse responses at various test signals and even amplitude modulation that occurs in natural speech, hence
compute the STI for speech or music.

35

5 Design Steps of a PA System


Frequency Response
Section

The frequency response of the system is the ability of the system to reproduce the entire audible frequency spectrum of 20
Hz to 20 kHz without any signal discolouration. A wider frequency response with good linearity would result in a better sounding system, important for foreground music applications such as music playback or vocal performances.

D 5 Design Steps of a PA System

The frequency response of the system depends on every equipment in the entire audio chain: the input sources, signal
management equipments, power amplifiers and loudspeakers. Other factors that affect the frequency response of the system
includes the program material, boundary effect caused by loudspeaker placed near to walls and interaction between
loudspeakers.
The spectrum for speech is approximately 100 Hz to 8 kHz and intelligibility is mostly concentrated in the 2 kHz to 4 kHz
band. Thus, the system must be able to minimally reproduce the above frequencies for speech intelligibility.
The frequency response of the loudspeakers selected for an application should also be taken into consideration. When
designing a system, the steps that should be followed are;
1.) Identify the application of the sound system for the area (Paging, BGM, FGM etc.)
2.) Check the Frequency Response requirements for the specific Sound Class (see Sound Classification).
3.) Select the loudspeaker that is able to achieve the desired Frequency Response.
For example if an area has been identified for a Class A sound which requires a Frequency Response of 20Hz to 20kHz, as
shown in the example below, solely using ceiling speakers would not provide an overall frequency response of 20Hz to
20kHz. In order to reinforce the lower frequencies, a subwoofer unit is to be specified into the design to complement the
ceiling speakers.

Ceiling loudspeaker

65Hz

20kHz

Ceiling speakers alone are


unable to cover the lower
end frequency response
required for a Class A
sound.
At best, evenly plotted
ceiling
speakers
are
capable of producing a
Class B sound requirements.

36

Subwoofer

20Hz

285Hz

Sub-woofers are designed


to supplement the ceiling
speakers and cover the
lower end frequencies
namely; 20Hz - 285Hz.

Overall System Response

20Hz

20kHz

Coupled together, both


types of speaker provide a
full frequency response
suitable for a Class A
sound application.

Section

Introduction to
Section E

This section aims to provide the design engineer with an overview of the PA System
industry and its current trends. With an understanding of the technologies available and
the general direction of the industry, a PA system can be effectively designed to
leverage on technology effectively and not solely for the sake of being high tech.

Advancement in the PA System Industry

Advancement in the PA System Industry

37

Advancement In The PA System Industry


The chart below aims to provide an overview of the Public address system design levels and the medium of transmissions that are
applicable to it. The chart depicts the 2 main Signal Management domain available which is the analogue or digital domain. This has
been discuss in detail in Section B and generally depending on the Design Level, it can be identified whether the signals are managed
using traditional analogue technology or digital technology.

Section

Medium of Transmission identifies the various methods of transmission of audio and data between the components of a system.
There are 3 main Medium of Transmission Categories which are Copper, Network Audio and Fibre Optics.

E
Signal Management

Advancement in the PA System Industry

Analogue

Digital

Medium of Transmission
Copper

Network Audio
TCP/IP

Proprietary
Networks

Fibre Optic
Multimode

Single
Mode

Analogue and Digital Systems via Copper Cable Transmission


Public Address systems using copper cables as its mode of transmission can be divided into 2 main categories namely,
systems running in the analogue domain and systems running in the digital domain. Systems running on copper cable are
widely used in most applications till today and will continue to serve the industry for the years to come as it is readily
available and easy to install.

Analogue Systems

These systems are based on an analogue signal management to conduct the priority switching and pre-amplification of all
the input sources. The Design Level 2 system below is an example of such a system.

analogue signal management


Paging

Paging Microphone
Paging Console
Communication Panel

Paging

BGM

Programmable Preamplifier
BGM

Emergency Microphone

Power Amplifier

As shown above, the system receives audio signals from the input sources and based on an analogue switching mechanism
routes the signal to the audio amplifiers. Analogue systems have a huge disadvantage when simultaneous audio output are
required to the various zones in a building as cabling tremendously increases and audio routing becomes more complicated.

Advantages

- Ease of operation for small to medium scale projects.


- Cost effective.

Limitations

- Limited simultaneous broadcast capability.

38

Digital Systems

Section

Similar to analogue systems, digital systems are connected via copper cables as well, however all the audio signals are converted into
the digital domain for signal management. The diagram below depicts a Design Level 4 digital system. As shown in the diagram the
digital signal manager is capable of routing various audio signals to different zones in the application simultaneously. This is accomplished with a digital audio matrix bus, allowing for simultaneous paging as well as differing background music to various zones.

Zone amplifiers
1000
0010
1010
1000

0101
1001
0101
0111
Zone amplifiers

Matrix Remote Microphone


Digital Matrix
Sound Management System

Integrated
Supervisory Unit

Zone amplifiers

Matrix Remote Microphone


Zone amplifiers

Analogue Handheld
Microphone

Zone amplifiers

Power Amplifier

Digital Source Player

Digital Source Player

Advancement in the PA System Industry

digital signal management

The digital matrix is suitable for projects such as office towers, stadiums, hotels, shopping malls and all forms of commercial projects
that requires a centralize system within a building that complies with building fire regulations and safety standard.

Advantages

- Capable of simultaneous broadcast allowing to cater to most commercial projects and high-rise buildings.
- Digital signal management allows for flexibility in configuring various applications
- Complies to building safety standards and regulations for safety and evacuation sound systems such as; EN 60849, IEC 60849,
CP 25, SANS 60849, etc.

Limitations

- Systems spread over a wide area requiring multiple simultaneous background music broadcast incurs a high cabling cost.

39

Advancement In The PA System Industry


Digital Systems via Network Audio Transmission

Section

Network Audio is a method of transporting audio and data in the digital domain from either one point to another point (Unicast) or
from one point to many points (Multicast). These systems are mainly connected to the network via CAT5e cable as its main physical
medium of transport. A Network system is particularly useful for applications where a large number of input sources are required to
be transmitted to multiple locations simultaneously.
Network PA Systems are divided into 2 main groups of systems based on the protocol they utilize.

As shown in the chart, systems either run on TCP/IP Protocol or proprietary Network Audio protocols.

Advancement in the PA System Industry

TCP/IP Protocol
TCP/IP is a standard protocol utilized by the Internet and Local Area Networks (LAN). A Network PA System running on
TCP/IP protocol would be able to route digital audio through a standard Ethernet-switched LAN accordingly. A typical
TCP/IP Network PA would generally consist of the following components;

Modem
Matrix Remote
Microphone

Modem

Network Power Amplifier

INTERNET

Zone1

Ethernet switch
Network Signal Manager
Network Power Amplifier
Zone2

Digital Source Player


Network Power Amplifier
Zone3
Digital Source Player

Source selector
& volume control panel
Ethernet switch

Network Microphone
@ remote location

PC Station
- PC Paging
- Configuration
& Monitoring

Office Workstation

Legend:
CAT5e Cable running TCP/IP Protocol
Copper cable with analogue signals

As shown in the diagram above, a Network PA System works by converting the analogue audio signals into the digital
domain and routing it to the individual amplifiers located throughout the project via the LAN. These routing is based on the
IP address assigned to the packets. Utilizing the TCP/IP packet protocol also allows the audio data signals to be routed via
the internet. In order to reuse the existing infrastructure of data network, Virtual LAN (VLAN) technology is recommended to
categorize appropriate collision domain in separating current data network from the newly attached audio network.
Once the digital audio signals are received by the network amplifiers, they are then converted back to analogue and amplified to cater for the 100V line analogue speakers attached to it. The system can also feature remote source selectors and
volume controls enabling the end user to change the music sources to the zones when needed.
While there are cost saving advantages for applications spread out over a wide area, however sharing the LAN resources
for transferring audio data for the PA System as well as data from the PC terminals on the LAN exposes the Network PA
System to lag due to network latency especially during peak usage.
These latencies and lags due to high network traffic are a huge disadvantage, especially during an emergency where critical
announcements are to be made. Also during an emergency, a network failure could prove more disastrous than a mere
failure to retrieve ones email.

Advantages
-

Cost effective solution for applications spread over a wide area.


Multiple audio broadcast solution
Flexible for re-configuring
Ease of monitoring online

Disadvantage
40

- Does not comply with any building safety regulations


- System integrity greatly depends on the LAN and the IT Server that it is connected to,
- Subjected to lag and network latency due to heavy network traffic, which may not be tolerable during emergencies

Proprietary Networks

Network Signal Manager


with Proprietary network
encoder module
Digital Source Player

Network Power Amplifier


Proprietary network
decoder

Proprietary network
decoder

Digital Source Player

Network Power Amplifier

Source selector
& volume control panel

Ethernet switch

Network Microphone
@ remote location

PC Station
- PC Paging
- Configuration
& Monitoring

Proprietary network
encoder

Legend:
CAT5e Cable running proprietary Protocol
Copper cable with analogue signals

Advancement in the PA System Industry

Ethernet switch

Matrix Remote Microphone

Example of some of the proprietary Audio Network protocols available in the market are Cobranet and EtherSound. Without running
TCP/IP protocol, these Audio Networks are unable to travel through routers and are therefore limited to use on a LAN.

Section

An alternative to the TCP/IP protocol are the proprietary network systems. These are systems that consist of a combination of software,
hardware and proprietary protocols for delivery of the digital audio packets. These systems are designed for better efficiency and lowlatency digital audio over a standard Ethernet network. These system usually require a dedicated LAN network separated from the data
and computer LAN infrastructure.

While being flexible and easy to deploy, Audio Networks often have very high hardware cost for the devices that encode and decode the
proprietary protocols. Also even with running a dedicated LAN for the PA system, audio networks are still prone to latency during
transmission which may cause a decrease in audio quality due to the lost of discarded data. Further delays are also introduce when
converting back and forth from analogue to digital over the LAN, for a live saving announcements where real-time announcements are
imperative, these delays can be unacceptable.

Advantages
-

Multiple non-emergency audio broadcast solution for decentralized solutions (ie: Audio Visual projects).
Flexible for re-configuring.
Ease of monitoring online.
Cost savings on laying copper cabling although minimal.

Disadvantage

- Limited by a networks distribution constrain, ie; CobraNet and most proprietary audio networks are limited to a maximum
length of 700m through 6 network switcher hops.
- High cost of procuring the proprietary network protocol encoder and decoders.
- The installation maybe be subjected to very costly proprietary cable requirements.
- Not comply with any building safety regulations.
- System integrity greatly depends on the LAN and the IT Server that it is connected to.
- Subjected to lag and network latency due to heavy network traffic.
- Not suitable for building PA system applications.

41

Advancement In The PA System Industry


Analogue and Digital Systems via Fibre-optic Transmission

Section

Fiber-optic transmission allows for long distance audio and control signals transmission. This usually involves a transceiver that
converts the analogue audio to digital format and transmits to another transceiver. There is a common misconception that fiber optics
are always better regardless of the application, to the extend that systems that requires inter-equipment fiber-optic cabling are
preferred. It is even possible to connect analogue systems via fibre-optics utilizing transceivers that accept analogue audio inputs.

Fiber-optic transmission are usually applicable for connecting local systems between buildings, Mixed Developments that are
spread over a wide area and where cross building paging is required.
For high-rise applications, where all equipment are housed in a common area, fiber-optics becomes an unnecessary cost factor as
its doesnt serve its purpose of long distance transmission. There are 2 main categories of fibre optics namely Multimode and Single
mode fibre-optics.
Multimode fiber is best designed for shorter transmission distances and is suited for use in LAN systems and connecting local
systems between buildings with a distance between 2-4km apart. Single-mode fiber is best designed for longer transmission
distances, making it suitable for long-distance integration of up to 20km.

Multimode
Fibre-optic
2 ~ 4km
1

Matrix Remote
Microphone

Digital Signal Manager

Multimode
Fibre-optic Transceiver

Multimode
Fibre-optic Transceiver

Digital Source Player

Digital Signal Manager

Matrix Remote
Microphone

Digital Source Player

Main Campus

Sub-campus

The example depicts a multi-campus university application, whereby a Multimode fibre-optic solution can be used to
integrate the campuses together for cross paging during an emergency.
Singlemode
Fibre-optic
up to 20km
1

Singlemode
Fibre-optic Transceiver
1

Matrix Remote
Microphone

Digital Signal Manager

Digital Signal Manager

Singlemode
Fibre-optic transceiver
Matrix Remote
Microphone

Digital Source Player

Sub-station 1

Main Terminal

Singlemode
Fibre-optic
up to 20km

Singlemode
Fibre-optic transceiver

Digital Signal Manager

Matrix Remote
Microphone

Sub-station 2
The example depicts a railway transport application. With the all the substation being a significant distance away from each
other, a Singlemode Fibre-optic solution would be able to integrate the systems together. This form of integration allows the
main terminal to provide paging and automatic messages to the sub-stations.

Advantages

- No loss at fibre-optic transmission over long distance.


- Solution for long distance system integration only.

Disadvantage

42

High cost of laying fibre-optic cable.


Some may require proprietary fibre-optic cable with special connectors that is costly.
For Multimode fibre-optic the furthers distances maybe limited to 4km before costly boosters are required.
Equipment and cable for Singlemode fibre-optic applications are very costly.
Not suitable for highrise building applications where equipments are to be centralized in a main control room.

PAGE INTENTIONALLY RIGHT BLANK

PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

Section

Introduction to
Section F

Component Selection Guide

Component Selection Guide


This section provides an easy overview of the various components required for each of
the design levels.
Having decided and designed the PA System in accordance to any one of the design
levels, the design engineer can refer to this section to start selecting the appropriate
equipment and components. The various equipments are listed in an overall guide at
the end of the section. This guide would serve to ensure that all components from
source equipment to output equipment are compatible with one another for each of the
design level.

45
35

Microphone Selection Guide

Priority Activation
(via Pin 5 at
Output Terminal)

Remote Zone
Selection /
Nos. of Zones

Built-In Chime /
Type of Chime

Section

F
Component Selection Guide

Sensitivity

Signal Type

(with recommended
cable size)

ME 1

- 72 dB

Unbalanced

20 m

Yes

No

No

MH 1a

- 76 dB

Unbalanced

20 m

No

No

No

MH 2a

- 73 dB

Unbalanced

20 m

No

No

No

MP 1

- 55 dB

Balanced

80 m

Yes

No

No

MC 1

- 50 dB

Balanced

80 m

Yes

No

Yes / 4-tone Ascending


& Decending
On / Off Switch

MC 2

0 dB

Balanced

1.2 km

Yes

No

Yes / 4-tone Ascending


& Decending
On / Off Switch

Yes / 4-tone Ascending


On / Off Switch

MR 102

0 dB

Balanced

1.2 km

Yes

Yes / 20

MS 201

0 dB

Balanced

1.2 km

Yes

Yes / 10

MS 202

46

Max Cable
Distance

0 dB

Balanced

1.2 km

Yes

Yes / 20

Yes / 4-types
(4-tone / 2-tone /
Gong / Siren)
On / Off Switch

Yes / 4-types
(4-tone / 2-tone /
Gong / Siren)
On / Off Switch

MS 204

0 dB

Balanced

1.2 km

Yes

Yes / 40

Yes / 4-types
(4-tone / 2-tone /
Gong / Siren)
On / Off Switch

MS 210

0 dB

Balanced

1.2 km

Yes

Yes / 100

Yes / 4-types
(4-tone / 2-tone /
Gong / Siren)
On / Off Switch

Power Amplifier Selection Guide


(1) Power (W) required
rated at 100V line

1 ~ 24W

25 ~ 48W

49 ~ 96W

96 ~ 192W

193 ~ 288W

289 ~ 384W

(2) Line Impedence ()

10k ~ 417

416 ~ 208

207 ~ 104

103 ~ 52

51 ~ 35

34 ~ 26

Model

Section

MA 103

MA 106
MA 112

Component Selection Guide

PB 106
PB 112
PB 124
PB 136

PA 406
PA 412
PA 224
PA 148

Priority Input
(for Emergency
Overriding)
Yes

No

Automatic Changeover
(to Stanby
Amplifier)
Yes

No

Fault Detection Method


ASM 01
(Amplifier
Not Applicable Supervisory
Unit)

LA 08
(Integrated
Supervisory
Unit)

AC 08
(Amplifier
Changeover
Unit)

Model
MA 103
MA 106
MA 112

PB 106
PB 112
PB 124
PB 136

PA 406
PA 412
PA 224
PA 148

47

Line Super visory Selection Guide

Section

F
Component Selection Guide

DM 10
Line Monitoring Unit

SL 04
Line Supervisory Unit

SL 08
Line Supervisory Unit

LA 08
Integrated Supervisory
Unit

10 Zones

4 Zones

8 Zones

8 Zones

DC Monitoring

Impedance
Measurement

Impedance
Measurement

Impedance
Measurement

Requires a DC Filter Capacitor at


Every Loudspeaker

Yes

No

No

No

Requires an End of Line Resistor at


Every Zone

Yes

No

No

No

High

Low

Low

Low

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Nos. of Zones Monitored per Unit


Method of Monitoring

The capacitor functions as a DC filter to block


the DC monitoring signal to the line matching
transformer of the loudspeaker unit

The end-of-line resistor is part of the voltage


divider circuit required by the DC monitoring
method to monitor the loudspeaker lines

Possibility of Installation Errors


Installation
errors
identified
includes
loudspeaker installation that by-passes the
DC filter capacitor, not placing the resistor at
the end of the lines or none at all, difficulty of
tracing the loudspeaker which does not have
a DC filter capacitor and not observing a
single trunk line wiring topology for DC
monitoring method

Ability to Detect Faults at Branched


Loudspeaker Lines
Loudspeaker Lines Fault monitoring of the
entire loudspeaker circuit is important that all
areas covered by the PA system is ready for
emergency broadcast

Ability ot Detect Faults Beyond


Audio Attenuator
Fault detection beyond the audio attenuator is
imperative for a fail-safe system that ensures
that the integrity of the loudspeaker lines at all
times

Provides Individual Signal for


every Type of Fault to Central
Monitoring System
Modular Architecture

Modular Architecture enables the user to


change only the faulty modules without affecting the others

Reduces Installation Time

Shorter Installation Time enables the installer to


reduce errors due to fatigue and more time to
ensure the integrity of the system

Built-In Power Supply

A built-in power supply does not require an


additional power supply unit for operation

Built-In Amplifier Changeover

Both Line Supervisory and Amplifier


Changeover is integrated into a single unit to
reduce interconnection and cabling.
48

DC Monitoring
Power Amplifier
Pre
Amplifier
DM 10
Line Monitoring Unit

However this conventional method has


numerous limitations as listed below;

Ceiling Loudspeaker

2.) Requires
installed.

an

End-of-line

resistor

3.) Does not allow branching of the


speaker lines. As such the wiring process
would have to be carefully monitored to
ensure that no wiring branch-off are
created.
End-of-line
Resistor

4.) Does not allow monitoring beyond


audio attenuators.

Impedance Measurement

Power Amplifier

Component Selection Guide

DC Blocking
Capacitor

1.) DC blocking capacitors are required to


be installed on every individual speaker.
Failure to do so would result in the
speaker being damaged.

Section

The DC Method of monitoring is a


conventional and cost effective method of
monitoring the speaker line using a DC
voltage referencing technique.

Power Amplifier
Pre
Amplifier

Pre
Amplifier

SL 04 / SL 08
Line Supervisory
unit

LA 08
Integrated
Supervisory
Unit

Audio
Attenuator

The impedance method of monitoring the speaker lines are technologically superior to the DC Method. The
impedance method allows for branching of the speakers and does not require DC blocking capacitors or the
End-of-Line resistor to be installed. The units are also capable of monitoring beyond audio attenuators.
As for the Integrated Supervisory Unit, it goes beyond line monitoring and incorporates amplifier monitoring and
changeover facilities. This provides a total monitoring solution that is easily configured and setup.

49

Loudspeaker Selection Guide


Ambient Noise Ceiling Height From Coverage Area
(dB)
Floor (m)
per Loudspeaker

Applications

30~45

Ceiling Loudspeaker

46~60

61~75

Loudspeaker
Spacing

2.5~3.0 3.0~3.5

Areas with low ceiling and


low ambient noise
(Office Area, Washroom, Corridor)

Section

Screw Mounted Ceiling


Loudspeaker

CE 531M

Screw Mounted Ceiling


Loudspeaker with Mesh

CE 532

Component Selection Guide

Spring Mounted Ceiling


Loudspeaker

CE 532M

Spring Mounted Ceiling


Loudspeaker with Mesh

CE 561

Screw Mounted Ceiling


Loudspeaker

CE 561M

Screw Mounted Ceiling


Loudspeaker with Mesh

4 m2 ~ 11 m2

2 m ~ 3.4 m

4 m2 ~ 8 m2

2 m ~ 2.8 m

4 m2 ~ 11 m2

2 m ~ 3.4 m

4m ~8m

2 m ~ 2.8 m

4 m2 ~ 11 m2

2 m ~ 3.4 m

4m ~8m

2 m ~ 2.8 m

4 m2 ~ 11 m2

2 m ~ 3.4 m

4m ~8m

2 m ~ 2.8 m

4 m2 ~ 11 m2

2 m ~ 3.4 m

3W

4 m2 ~ 8 m2

2 m ~ 2.8 m

6W

8 m2 ~ 11 m2

2.8 m ~ 3.4 m

4 m2 ~ 11 m2

2 m ~ 3.4 m

4 m2 ~ 8 m2

2 m ~ 2.8 m

1.5W
3W
1.5W
3W
1.5W

Spring Mounted Ceiling


Loudspeaker

1.5W
3W

Spring Mounted Ceiling


Loudspeaker with Mesh

1.5W
3W

1.5W
3W

Splashproof Ceiling
Loudspeaker

CS 562E

Splashproof Ceiling
Loudspeaker with Enclosure

CS 562M

Splashproof Ceiling
Loudspeaker with Mesh

CS 562ME

Splashproof Ceiling
Loudspeaker with Mesh
and Enclosure

CM 361

8 m ~ 11 m

2.8 m ~ 3.4 m

4 m2 ~ 11 m2

2 m ~ 3.4 m

4 m2 ~ 8 m2

2 m ~ 2.8 m

4 m2 ~ 11 m2

2 m ~ 3.4 m

4m ~8m

2 m ~ 2.8 m

8 m2 ~ 11 m2

2.8 m ~ 3.4 m

4 m2 ~ 11 m2

2 m ~ 3.4 m

4 m2 ~ 8 m2

2 m ~ 2.8 m

6W

8 m2 ~ 11 m2

2.8 m ~ 3.4 m

1.5W

4 m2 ~ 11 m2

2 m ~ 3.4 m

3W

4 m2 ~ 8 m2

2 m ~ 2.8 m

6W

8 m ~ 11 m

2.8 m ~ 3.4 m

1.5W

4 m2 ~ 11 m2

2 m ~ 3.4 m

3W

4m ~8m

2 m ~ 2.8 m

6W

8 m2 ~ 11 m2

2.8 m ~ 3.4 m

1.5W

4 m2 ~ 11 m2

2 m ~ 3.4 m

3W

4 m2 ~ 8 m2

2 m ~ 2.8 m

6W

8 m ~ 11 m

2.8 m ~ 3.4 m

1.5W

4 m2 ~ 11 m2

2 m ~ 3.4 m

1.5W
3W

1.5W
3W

3W

4m ~8m

2 m ~ 2.8 m

6W

8 m2 ~ 11 m2

2.8 m ~ 3.4 m

1.5W

4 m2 ~ 11 m2

2 m ~ 3.4 m

135mm Metal Grille Spring


Mounted Ceiling Loudspeaker

50

2.8 m ~ 3.4 m

105mm Metal Grille Spring


Mounted Ceiling Loudspeaker

CM 461

8 m ~ 11 m

6W
CS 562

1.5W

6W
CE 562M

3W

6W
CE 562

Not Recommended For Distance > 4.5m

CE 531

3W

4m ~8m

2 m ~ 2.8 m

6W

8 m2 ~ 11 m2

2.8 m ~ 3.4 m

Ambient Noise Ceiling Height From Coverage Area


(dB)
Floor (m)
per Loudspeaker

Applications

30~45

CM 611

4 m2 ~ 8 m2

2 m ~ 2.8 m

10W

8 m ~ 31 m

2.8 m ~ 5.6 m

2.5W

4 m2 ~ 31 m2

2 m ~ 5.6 m

5W

4 m2 ~ 8 m2

2 m ~ 2.8 m

10W

8 m ~ 31 m

2.8 m ~ 5.6 m

30~45

46~60

61~75

Loudspeaker
Spacing

Ambient Noise Ceiling Height From Coverage Area


(dB)
per Loudspeaker
Floor (m)
2.5~4.0 4.0~5.5 5.5~7.5

Areas with high ceiling


Areas
which
requires
better speech & music
clarity (Conference & Meeting
2.5W

4 m2 ~ 48 m2

2 m ~ 6.9 m

5W

18 m ~ 31 m

4.2 m ~ 5.6 m

10W

31 m2 ~ 48 m2

5.6 m ~ 6.9 m

Coverage Area
per Loudspeaker

Loudspeaker
Spacing

4 m2 ~ 12 m2

2 m ~ 3.5 m

4 m2 ~ 12 m2

2 m ~ 3.5 m

Ambient Noise
(dB)

Applications

30~45

46~60

61~75

Distance from
Listener (m)
1.0~2.0 2.0~3.0

Surface Mounted Wall


Loudspeaker

Not Recommended For Distance > 4.5m

Areas where no ceiling board is


available for ceiling loudspeaker
mounting.(Staircases & Corridors)
1W
WM 561
2W
4W
6W
WM 562

Wooden Wall Mounted


Loudspeaker

1W
2W
4W
6W

WM 662

Wooden Wall Mounted


Loudspeaker

1W
2W
4W
6W

WM 862

Surface Mounted Wall


Loudspeaker

1W
2W

4m ~8m

2 m ~ 2.8 m

8 m2 ~ 12 m2

2.8 m ~ 3.5 m

4 m2 ~ 12 m2

2 m ~ 3.5 m

4 m ~ 12 m

2 m ~ 3.5 m

4 m2 ~ 8 m2

2 m ~ 2.8 m

8 m ~ 12 m

2.8 m ~ 3.5 m

4 m ~ 12 m

2 m ~ 3.5 m

4 m2 ~ 12 m2

2 m ~ 3.5 m

4m ~8m

2 m ~ 2.8 m

8 m2 ~ 12 m2

2.8 m ~ 3.5 m

4 m2 ~ 12 m2

2 m ~ 3.5 m

4 m ~ 12 m

2 m ~ 3.5 m

4W

4 m2 ~ 8 m2

2 m ~ 2.8 m

6W

8 m ~ 12 m
Coverage Area
per Loudspeaker

2.8 m ~ 3.5 m
Loudspeaker
Spacing

1.5W

21 m2 ~ 300 m2

4.6 m ~ 17.3 m

2.5W

21 m2 ~ 41 m2

4.6 m ~ 6.4 m

5W

49 m ~ 133 m

10W
5W

147 m ~ 300 m
21 m2 ~ 300 m2

12.1 m ~ 17.3 m

7.5W

21 m2 ~ 133 m2

4.6 m ~ 11.5 m

10W

147 m ~ 300 m

12.1 m ~ 17.3 m

15W

21 m2 ~ 41 m2

4.6 m ~ 6.4 m

Open areas where subjected to


heat & moisture.

Ambient Noise
(dB)

Applications

30~50

51~70

71~90

Distance from
Listener (m)
3~5

Component Selection Guide

(Lobby, Foyer, Reception)

Room, Ballroom)

Paging
Horn Loudspeaker

Section

2 m ~ 5.6 m

5W

Applications

Wall
Mounted Loudspeaker

2.5~3.0 3.0~4.5 4.5~5.5

4 m2 ~ 31 m2

265mm Metal Grille Spring


Mounted Ceiling Loudspeaker

CX 811
265mm Metal Grille Spring
Mounted Coaxial Ceiling
Loudspeaker

61~75

2.5W

200mm Metal Grille Spring


Mounted Ceiling Loudspeaker

CM 811

46~60

Loudspeaker
Spacing

5.5~10 10.5~15

(car park, assembly ground, field, outdoor


theme park)

RH 061

10W Aluminium Paging Horn


Loudspeaker

RH 085

15W Aluminium Paging Horn


Loudspeaker

RH 103

30W Aluminium Paging Horn


Loudspeaker

7 m ~ 11.5 m
4.6 m ~ 17.3 m

5W

21 m ~ 300 m

4.6 m ~ 17.3 m

7.5W

21 m2 ~ 300 m2

4.6 m ~ 17.3 m

15W

21 m ~ 41 m

4.6 m ~ 6.4 m

30W

49 m2 ~ 133 m2

7 m ~ 11.5 m

51

Loudspeaker Selection Guide


Ambient Noise
(dB)

Applications

30~45

Aluminium Column
Loudspeaker

46~60

61~75

Distance from
Listener (m)
3~5

Coverage Area
per Loudspeaker

Loudspeaker
Spacing

5.5~10 10.5~15

Areas which require sound


projection
(Conference Room, Large Hall,
Warehouse)

Section

Walled areas with elevated


ambient noise
(Canteen, Assembly Hall)

VA 450

VA 415
VA 430

15W Aluminium Column


Loudspeaker

Component Selection Guide

VA 430

30W Aluminium Column


Loudspeaker

VA 415

VA 450

50W Aluminium Column


Loudspeaker

3.8W

21 m2 ~ 300 m2

4.6 m ~ 17.3 m

7.8W

21 m ~ 300 m

4.6 m ~ 17.3 m

15W

21 m2 ~ 41 m2

4.6 m ~ 6.4 m

7.5W

21 m2 ~ 300 m2

4.6 m ~ 17.3 m

15W

21 m ~ 41 m

4.6 m ~ 6.4 m

30W

49 m2 ~ 133 m2

7 m ~ 11.5 m

12.5W

21 m2 ~ 300 m2

4.6 m ~ 17.3 m

25W

21 m2 ~ 133 m2

4.6 m ~ 11.5 m

50W

147 m2 ~ 300 m2

12.1 m ~ 17.3 m

Ambient Noise
(dB)

Applications

30~45

Wooden Column
Loudspeaker

46~60

61~75

Distance from
Listener (m)
3~5

Coverage Area
per Loudspeaker

Loudspeaker
Spacing

5.5~10 10.5~15

Areas which require sound


projection
(Conference Room, Large Hall,
Warehouse)

Walled areas with elevated


ambient noise
VW 650

(Canteen, Assembly Hall)

VW 515

VW 530

15W Wooden Column


Loudspeaker

VW 515
VW 530

30W Wooden Column


Loudspeaker

VW 650

50W Wooden Column


Loudspeaker

3.8W

21 m2 ~ 300 m2

4.6 m ~ 17.3 m

7.5W

21 m ~ 300 m

4.6 m ~ 17.3 m

15W

21 m2 ~ 41 m2

4.6 m ~ 6.4 m

7.5W

21 m2 ~ 300 m2

4.6 m ~ 17.3 m

15W

21 m2 ~ 41 m2

4.6 m ~ 6.4 m

30W

49 m ~ 133 m

7 m ~ 11.5 m

12.5W

21 m2 ~ 300 m2

4.6 m ~ 17.3 m

12.5W

LR 126

21 m ~ 41 m

4.6 m ~ 6.4 m

25W

49 m2 ~ 133 m2

7 m ~ 11.5 m

50W

147 m2 ~ 300 m2

12.1 m ~ 17.3 m

Ambient Noise
(dB)

Applications
Line Array
Loudspeaker

30~45

46~60

61~75

Distance from
Listener (m)
3~5

Coverage Area
per Loudspeaker

Loudspeaker
Spacing

5.5~10 10.5~15

Areas which require sound


projection
(Conference Room, Large Hall,
Warehouse)

Walled areas with elevated


ambient noise
(Canteen, Assembly Hall)

LR 063

LR 063

30W Passive Line Array

LR 126

60W Passive Line Array

52

7.5W

21 m2 ~ 300 m2

4.6 m ~ 17.3 m

15W

21 m2 ~ 41 m2

4.6 m ~ 6.4 m

30W

49 m ~ 133 m

7 m ~ 11.5 m

15W

21 m2 ~ 300 m2

4.6 m ~ 17.3 m

30W

21 m2 ~ 133 m2

4.6 m ~ 11.5 m

60W

147 m ~ 300 m

12.1 m ~ 17.3 m

Ambient Noise
(dB)

Applications

30~45

2-Way Foreground
Loudspeaker

46~60

61~75

Distance from
Listener (m)

3~5

5.5~10 10.5~15

Coverage Area
per Loudspeaker

Loudspeaker
Spacing

Areas which require high


speech & music clarity.
(meeting room, foyer, lounge)

2-Way Foreground
Loudspeker

2-Way Foreground
Loudspeker

4.6 m ~ 17.3 m

7.5W

21 m ~ 300 m

4.6 m ~ 17.3 m

15W

21 m2 ~ 41 m2

4.6 m ~ 6.4 m

7.5W

21 m2 ~ 300 m2

4.6 m ~ 17.3 m

15W

21 m ~ 41 m

4.6 m ~ 6.4 m

30W

49 m2 ~ 133 m2

7 m ~ 11.5 m

Ambient Noise
(dB)

Applications

30~50

Sound Reinforcement
Loudspeaker

51~70

71~90

Distance from
Listener (m)

3~5

5.5~10 10.5~15

Coverage Area
per Loudspeaker

Loudspeaker
Spacing

Areas which require high SPL,


accurate sound projection and
clarity for speech & music
application.
(Ballroom, Assembly Hall, Entertainment
Outlets, Places of Worship)

F8

2-Way Full Range


SR Loudspeaker

F 10

2-Way Full Range


SR Loudspeaker

F 12

2-Way Full Range


SR Loudspeaker

12.5W

21 m2 ~ 300 m2

4.6 m ~ 17.3 m

12.5W

21 m2 ~ 41 m2

4.6 m ~ 6.4 m

25W

49 m ~ 133 m

7 m ~ 11.5 m

50W

147 m2 ~ 300 m2

12.1 m ~ 17.3 m

12.5W

21 m2 ~ 300 m2

4.6 m ~ 17.3 m

25W

21 m ~ 133 m

4.6 m ~ 11.5 m

50W

147 m2 ~ 300 m2

12.1 m ~ 17.3 m

25W

21 m2 ~ 300 m2

4.6 m ~ 17.3 m

50W

21 m ~ 300 m

4.6 m ~ 17.3 m

75W

21 m ~ 133 m

2
2

Component Selection Guide

21 m2 ~ 300 m2

FG 530

3.8W

Section

FG 415

4.6 m ~ 11.5 m

53

Product References Table Systemstage

Input Sources

&

Preamplifier &
Systemstage Signal Management

Systemstage

Power Amplifiers

MC 1
Chime
Microphone

Section

MH 1a
Hand-held Microphone

MP 1
Paging
Microphone

Component Selection Guide

MH 2a
Hand-held Microphone

MA 103
MA 106
MA 112

MC 2
Desktop
Microphone

Mixer Amplifier

ME 1
Emergency Microphone

MC 1
Chime
Microphone

MC 2
Desktop
Microphone

MP 1
Paging
Microphone

PB 106
MS 201
10-Zone Remote
Paging Console

MS 202
20-Zone Remote
Paging Console

PB 112
PB 124

XP 138
Programmable Amplifier

PB 136
MS 204
40-Zone Remote
Paging Console

MS 210
100-Zone Remote
Paging Console

XP 138CM
Chime Module

PB Series
Audio Power Amplifier

MR 102
20-Zone Remote Microphone
MX 102
20-Zone Remote Microphone
Extension Unit

PA 406
PA 412
PA 224
PA 148

CP 102
Communication Panel
CP 102EM
Communication Panel
Extension Module

DS 201
Single-Channel Digital Player

DS 201R
Single-Channel Digital Recorder

DS 202
Dual-Channel Digital Player

54
24

DS 202R
Dual-Channel Digital Recorder

PA Series
4 X 60W Audio Power Amplifier

Systemstage

Contol & Monitoring

CE 561
Screw Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker

CE 562
Spring Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker

AT 30
30 W Audio
Attenuator

CE 561M
Screw Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker
with Mesh

CE 562M
Spring Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker
with Mesh

CM 361
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker

AT 120
120 W Audio
Attenuator

CM 461
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker

CM 461E
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Back Enclosure

CM 611
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker

CM 611E
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Back Enclosure

CM 811
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker

CM 811E
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Back Enclosure

CS 562
Splashproof Ceiling
Loudspeaker

CS 562M
Splashproof
Ceiling Loudspeaker
with Mesh

CS 562E
Splashproof Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Enclosure

CX 811
Metal Grille 2-Way
Coaxial Ceiling
Loudspeaker

CX 811E
Metal Grille 2-Way
Coaxial Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Back Enclosure

LS 10A
Speaker Line Selector With All Call Function

LS 10
Speaker Line Selector
AT 05
5 W Audio
Attenuator
AT 75
75 W Audio
Attenuator

AT 30
30 W Audio
Attenuator
AT 120
120 W Audio
Attenuator

SA 05
Automatic Changeover Unit

CS 562ME
Splashproof Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Mesh and Enclosure
WB 661
Bidirectional Wall
Mount Loudspeaker
WM 562
Wooden Wall Mount
Loudspeaker

WM 561W
ABS Wall Mount
Loudspeaker (White)

WM 561B
ABS Wall Mount
Loudspeaker (Black)

WM 662
Wooden Wall Mount
Loudspeaker

WM 862
Wooden Wall Mount
Loudspeaker

Component Selection Guide

CE 532M
Spring Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker
with Mesh

CE 531M
Screw Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker
with Mesh

Section

CE 532
Spring Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker

LS 10
Speaker Line Selector

AT 75
75 W Audio
Attenuator

Loudspeaker

CE 531
Screw Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker

LS 10A
Speaker Line Selector With All Call Function

AT 05
5 W Audio
Attenuator

Systemstage

ASM 01B
Amplifier Supervisory Module

AM 10
Amplifier Monitoring Unit

PT 085
8-Channel Program Timer

VA 415
VA 430
VA 450
VA Series
Aluminium Column Loudspeaker

PT 165
16-Channel Program Timer

DM 10
Line Monitoring Unit

VW 515
VW 530
VW 650
VW Series
Wooden Loudspeaker Column

LR 063
LR 126
LR Series
Line Array Loudspeaker

RH 061
10W Aluminium Paging
Horn Loudspeaker

RH 085
15W Aluminium Paging
Horn Loudspeaker

RH 103
30W Aluminium Paging
Horn Loudspeaker

FG 415
2 way Foreground
Loudspeaker

FG 530W
2 way Foreground
Loudspeaker (White)

FG 530B
2 way Foreground
Loudspeaker (Black)

F 8 / F 8W
2 way Full Range
SR Loudspeaker

F 10 / F 10W
2 way Full Range
SR Loudspeaker

LA 08
Line Supervisory Unit

SL 08
8-Zone Line Supervisory Unit

SL 04
4-Zone Line Supervisory Unit

SU 650
Subwoofer System

F 12 / F 12W
2 way Full Range
SR Loudspeaker

F 12s
2 way Full Range
Stage Monitor

Recommended
Spring-Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker
CE 532 / CE 532M
CE 562 / CE 562M
CM Series
CX 811 / CX 811E

55

Product References Table Systemstage

Input Sources

Preamplifier &
Systemstage Signal Management

Systemstage

Power Amplifiers

ME 1
Emergency Microphone

Section

MC 1
Chime Microphone

F
Component Selection Guide

MP 1
Paging Microphone

MC 2
Desktop Microphone

MS 201
10-Zone Remote Paging Console

MS 202
20-Zone Remote Paging Console

MS 204
40-Zone Remote Paging Console

MS 210
100-Zone Remote Paging Console
MR 102
20-Zone Remote Microphone
MX 102
20-Zone Remote Microphone
Extension Unit

CP 102
Communication Panel

XM 10A
Modular Mixer Enclosure
XM 92A
Power Supply Module 240Vac
XM 11A
Single Space Blank Panel
XM 12A
Double Space Blak Panel
XM 31A
ME 1 Receptacle
Module

XM 51A
Source Selector
Module

XM 32A
Microphone
Preamplifier Module
(-60 dBV)

XM 52A
Parallel Source
Selector Module

XM 33A
Microphone
Preamplifier Module
(0 dBV)

XM 61A
Emergency Tone
Generator Module

PB 106

XM 62A
Chime Generator
Module

PB 124

XM 34A
Mono Preamplifier
Module
XM 35A
Stereo Combining
Preamplifier Module

PB 136
XM 71A
Line Amplifier
Module

PA 406
PA 412
FT 810T
Single Channel Fibre
Optic Transmitter

FT 810R
Single Channel Fibre
Optic Receiver

FT 811T
Single Channel Fibre Optic
Transmitter (with RS 485)

FT 811R
Single Channel Fibre Optic
Receiver (with RS 485)

FT 820T
2 Channel Fibre Optic
Transmitter

FT 820R
2 Channel Fibre Optic
Receiver

FT 821T
2 Channel Fibre Optic
Transmitter (with RS 485)

FT 821R
2 Channel Fibre Optic
Receiver (with RS 485)

FT 840T
4 Channel Fibre Optic
Transmitter

FT 840R
4 Channel Fibre Optic
Receiver

FT 841T
4 Channel Fibre Optic
Transmitter (with RS 485)

FT 841R
4 Channel Fibre Optic
Receiver (with RS 485)

DS 201
Single-Channel Digital Player

DS 201R
Single-Channel Digital Recorder

56
24

DS 202R
Dual-Channel Digital Recorder

PB Series
Audio Power Amplifier

XM 41A
Extension Module

CP 102EM
Communication Panel
Extension Module

DS 202
Dual-Channel Digital Player

PB 112

PA 224
PA 148
PA Series
4 X 60W Audio Power Amplifier

Systemstage

Systemstage

Contol & Monitoring

Loudspeaker

CE 532M
Spring Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker
with Mesh

CE 561
Screw Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker

CE 562
Spring Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker

CE 561M
Screw Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker
with Mesh

CE 562M
Spring Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker
with Mesh

CM 361
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker

AM 10
Amplifier Monitoring Unit

CM 461
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker

CM 461E
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Back Enclosure

CM 611
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker

LS 10A
Speaker Line Selector With All Call Function

CM 611E
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Back Enclosure

CM 811
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker

CM 811E
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Back Enclosure

CS 562
Splashproof Ceiling
Loudspeaker

CS 562M
Splashproof
Ceiling Loudspeaker
with Mesh

CS 562E
Splashproof Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Enclosure

CX 811
Metal Grille 2-Way
Coaxial Ceiling
Loudspeaker

CX 811E
Metal Grille 2-Way
Coaxial Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Back Enclosure

SA 05
Automatic Changeover Unit

ASM 01B
Amplifier Supervisory Module

LS 10
Speaker Line Selector

PT 085
8-Channel Program Timer

PT 165
16-Channel Program Timer

DM 10
Line Monitoring Unit

CS 562ME
Splashproof Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Mesh and Enclosure

WB 661
Bidirectional Wall
Mount Loudspeaker

WM 562
Wooden Wall Mount
Loudspeaker

WM 561W
ABS Wall Mount
Loudspeaker (White)

WM 561B
ABS Wall Mount
Loudspeaker (Black)

WM 662
Wooden Wall Mount
Loudspeaker

WM 862
Wooden Wall Mount
Loudspeaker

Component Selection Guide

CE 531M
Screw Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker
with Mesh

CE 532
Spring Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker

Section

CE 531
Screw Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker

LA 08
Line Supervisory Unit

SL 08
8-Zone Line Supervisory Unit

VA 415
VA 430
VA 450
VA Series
Aluminium Column Loudspeaker

SL 04
4-Zone Line Supervisory Unit

AT 05
5 W Audio Attenuator

VW 515
VW 530
VW 650
VW Series
Wooden Loudspeaker Column

LR Series
Line Array Loudspeaker

RH 061
10W Aluminium Paging
Horn Loudspeaker

RH 085
15W Aluminium Paging
Horn Loudspeaker

RH 103
30W Aluminium Paging
Horn Loudspeaker

FG 415
2 way Foreground
Loudspeaker

FG 530W
2 way Foreground
Loudspeaker (White)

FG 530B
2 way Foreground
Loudspeaker (Black)

F 8 / F 8W
2 way Full Range
SR Loudspeaker

F 10 / F 10W
2 way Full Range
SR Loudspeaker

AT 30
30 W Audio Attenuator
SU 650
Subwoofer System
AT 75
75 W Audio Attenuator

AT 120
120 W Audio Attenuator

LR 063
LR 126

F 12 / F 12W
2 way Full Range
SR Loudspeaker

F 12s
2 way Full Range
Stage Monitor

Recommended
Spring-Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker
CE 532 / CE 532M
CE 562 / CE 562M
CM Series
CX 811 / CX 811E

57

Product References Table Systemstage

Input
Sources

Systemstage

Section

iX 101
PA Matrix Main Frame
with Single CPC

Component Selection Guide

iX 194
Analogue Handheld
Microphone

iX 151
Emergency Microphone

iX 103
PA Matrix Extension
Frame

DS 201R
Single-Channel Digital Recorder

DS 202
Dual-Channel Digital Player

iX 153
PA Matrix Remote Control
Sensor Panel (RCSP)
iX 154
PA Matrix Remote
Multipurpose Relay
Panel (RMRP)

iX 155
PA Matrix Internet
Connectivity Panel
(ICP)

eX 801
Single CPC Main Frame

eX 803
Extension Frame

eX 863
40-Zone Emergency
Microphone

eX 865
10-Zone Remote Microphone
eX 866
20-Zone Remote Microphone

eX 868
120-Zone Remote
Microphone

iX 193
Blank Facial

iX 121
PA Matrix Central
Processing Card I
(CPC I)
iX 182
240 Vac Power
Supply

iX 111
PA Matrix Control
Manager
iX 112
Matrix Control
Manager with Internet
Connectivity Features

Power
Amplifiers

iX 122
PA Matrix Central
Processing Card 2
(CPC II)
iX 123
Extension Card

iX 132
Audio Input
Card (AIC)

FT 810T
Single Channel Fibre
Optic Transmitter

FT 810R
Single Channel Fibre
Optic Receiver

PB 112

FT 811T
Single Channel Fibre
Optic Transmitter
(with RS 485)

FT 811R
Single Channel Fibre
Optic Receiver
(with RS 485)

PB 136

FT 820T
2 Channel Fibre Optic
Transmitter

FT 820R
2 Channel Fibre
Optic Receiver

PB 124

PB Series
Audio Power Amplifier

PA 406
PA 412

FT 840T
4 Channel Fibre Optic
Transmitter

FT 840R
4 Channel Fibre Optic
Receiver

FT 841R
FT 841T
4 Channel Fibre Optic
4 Channel Fibre Optic
Transmitter (with RS 485) Receiver (with RS 485)
eX 842
Control Output
Card
eX 881
Power Supply
Inlet Card

eX 831
Auxiliary Input
Card

eX 833
Internal BGM
Source and
Message Card

eX 832
Auxiliary Input
and
Message Card

eX 834
Microphone
Input Card

eX 841
Control Input
Card
eX 811
Control Manager

Systemstage

PB 106

eX 824
Extension Frame
Extension Card

eX 867
40-Zone Remote Microphone

58

iX 136
PA Matrix Audio
Output Card (AOC)

eX 823
Main Frame
Extension Card

eX 862
20-Zone Emergency
Microphone

eX 864
120-Zone Emergency
Microphone

iX 143
PA Matrix
Multipurpose
Relay Card (MRC)

FT 821R
FT 821T
2 Channel Fibre Optic
2 Channel Fibre Optic
Transmitter (with RS 485) Receiver (with RS 485)

DS 202R
Dual-Channel Digital Recorder

eX 861
10-Zone Emergency
Microphone

iX 133
PA Matrix Remote
Microphone Input
Card (RIC)

iX 142
PA Matrix Control
Sensor Card (CSC)
iX 102
PA Matrix Main Frame
with Dual CPC

DS 201
Single-Channel Digital Player

Preamplifier &
Signal Management

eX 821B
Central
Processing
Card

PA 224
PA 148

PA Series
4 X 60W Audio Power Amplifier

Systemstage

Systemstage

Control Monitoring

SA 05
Automatic Changeover Unit

LS 10
Speaker Line Selector

PT 085
8-Channel Program Timer

CE 531M
Screw Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker
with Mesh

CE 532M
Spring Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker
with Mesh

CE 561
Screw Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker

CE 562
Spring Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker

CE 561M
Screw Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker
with Mesh

CE 562M
Spring Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker
with Mesh

CM 361
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker

CM 461
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker

CM 461E
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Back Enclosure

CM 611
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker

CM 611E
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Back Enclosure

CM 811
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker

CM 811E
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Back Enclosure

CS 562
Splashproof Ceiling
Loudspeaker

CS 562M
Splashproof
Ceiling Loudspeaker
with Mesh

CS 562E
Splashproof Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Enclosure

CX 811
Metal Grille 2-Way
Coaxial Ceiling
Loudspeaker

CX 811E
Metal Grille 2-Way
Coaxial Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Back Enclosure

CS 562ME
Splashproof Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Mesh and Enclosure
WB 661
Bidirectional Wall
Mount Loudspeaker

PT 165
16-Channel Program Timer

WM 562
Wooden Wall Mount
Loudspeaker

WM 561W
ABS Wall Mount
Loudspeaker (White)

WM 561B
ABS Wall Mount
Loudspeaker (Black)

WM 662
Wooden Wall Mount
Loudspeaker

WM 862
Wooden Wall Mount
Loudspeaker

Component Selection Guide

LS 10A
Speaker Line Selector With All Call Function

CE 532
Spring Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker

AM 10
Amplifier Monitoring Unit

CE 531
Screw Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker

Section

ASM 01B
Amplifier Supervisory Module

Loudspeaker

DM 10
Line Monitoring Unit

LA 08
Line Supervisory Unit

LR 063
LR 126

SL 08
8-Zone Line Supervisory Unit
VA Series
Aluminium Column Loudspeaker

SL 04
4-Zone Line Supervisory Unit
AT 05
5 W Audio Attenuator

VW Series
Wooden Loudspeaker Column

RH 061
10W Aluminium Paging
Horn Loudspeaker

RH 085
15W Aluminium Paging
Horn Loudspeaker

RH 103
30W Aluminium Paging
Horn Loudspeaker

FG 415
2 way Foreground
Loudspeaker

FG 530W
2 way Foreground
Loudspeaker (White)

FG 530B
2 way Foreground
Loudspeaker (Black)

F 8 / F 8W
2 way Full Range
SR Loudspeaker

F 10 / F 10W
2 way Full Range
SR Loudspeaker

AT 30
30 W Audio Attenuator
SU 65
Subwoofer System
AT 75
75 W Audio Attenuator

AT 120
120 W Audio Attenuator

LR Series
Line Array Loudspeaker

F 12 / F 12W
2 way Full Range
SR Loudspeaker

Recommended
Spring-Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker
F 12s
2 way Full Range
Stage Monitor

CE 532 / CE 532M
CE 562 / CE 562M
CM Series
CX 811 / CX 811E

59

Product References Table Systemstage

Input
Sources

Systemstage

Preamplifier &
Signal Management

Section

iX 101
PA Matrix Main Frame
with Single CPC

iX 102
PA Matrix Main Frame
with Dual CPC

Component Selection Guide

iX 103
PA Matrix Extension
Frame
iX 121E
EES Matrix Central
Processing Card I (CPC I)
iX 122
PA Matrix Central Processing
Card 2 (CPC II)
iX 194
Analogue Handheld
Microphone

iX 123
Extension Card

iX 132
Audio Input Card (AIC)

iX 151
Emergency Microphone

iX 133
PA Matrix Remote
Microphone Input Card (RIC)
iX 136
PA Matrix Audio Output
Card (AOC)

DS 201
Single-Channel Digital Player

DS 201R
Single-Channel Digital Recorder

iX 142
PA Matrix Control Sensor
Card (CSC)
iX 143
PA Matrix Multipurpose
Relay Card (MRC)
iX 193
Blank Facial

DS 202R
Dual-Channel Digital Recorder

iX 112E
EES Matrix
Control Manager
with Internet
Connectivity
Features

iX 182
240 Vac Power
Supply

iX 153
PA Matrix Remote Control
Sensor Panel (RCSP)

iX 154
PA Matrix Remote Multipurpose
Relay Panel (RMRP)

60

PB 112
PB 124

PB 136

iX 156E
Manual Mode Zone Selection
Panel (With All Call Function)
PB Series
Audio Power Amplifier
iX 157E
Manual Mode Zone
Selection Panel

PA 406
PA 412
PA 224

iX 158E
Emergency Alert Panel

iX 159E
Mimic Panel Interface

FT 810R
Single Channel Fibre Optic Receiver

(with RS 485)

(with RS 485)

FT 820T
2 Channel Fibre Optic Transmitter

FT 820R
2 Channel Fibre Optic Receiver

FT 821T
2 Channel Fibre Optic Transmitter

FT 821R
2 Channel Fibre Optic Receiver

FT 840T
4 Channel Fibre Optic Transmitter

FT 840R
4 Channel Fibre Optic Receiver

FT 841T
4 Channel Fibre Optic Transmitter

FT 841R
4 Channel Fibre Optic Receiver

(with RS 485)

PB 106

iX 155
PA Matrix Internet Connectivity
Panel (ICP)

FT 811T
FT 811R
Single Channel Fibre Optic Transmitter Single Channel Fibre Optic Receiver

(with RS 485)

Power
Amplifiers

iX 111E
EES Matrix
Control Manager

DS 202
Dual-Channel Digital Player
FT 810T
Single Channel Fibre Optic Transmitter

Systemstage

(with RS 485)

(with RS 485)

PA 148

PA Series
4 X 60W Audio Power Amplifier

Systemstage

Systemstage

Contol & Monitoring

SA 05
Automatic Changeover Unit

LS 10
Speaker Line Selector

PT 085
8-Channel Program Timer

CE 531M
Screw Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker
with Mesh

CE 532M
Spring Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker
with Mesh

CE 561
Screw Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker

CE 562
Spring Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker

CE 561M
Screw Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker
with Mesh

CE 562M
Spring Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker
with Mesh

CM 361
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker

CM 461
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker

CM 461E
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Back Enclosure

CM 611
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker

CM 611E
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Back Enclosure

CM 811
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker

CM 811E
Metal Grille Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Back Enclosure

CS 562
Splashproof Ceiling
Loudspeaker

CS 562M
Splashproof
Ceiling Loudspeaker
with Mesh

CS 562E
Splashproof Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Enclosure

CX 811
Metal Grille 2-Way
Coaxial Ceiling
Loudspeaker

CX 811E
Metal Grille 2-Way
Coaxial Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Back Enclosure

CS 562ME
Splashproof Ceiling
Loudspeaker with
Mesh and Enclosure
WB 661
Bidirectional Wall
Mount Loudspeaker

WM 561W
ABS Wall Mount
Loudspeaker (White)

WM 561B
ABS Wall Mount
Loudspeaker (Black)

WM 562
Wooden Wall Mount
Loudspeaker

WM 662
Wooden Wall Mount
Loudspeaker

WM 862
Wooden Wall Mount
Loudspeaker

PT 165
16-Channel Program Timer

Component Selection Guide

LS 10A
Speaker Line Selector With All Call Function

CE 532
Spring Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker

AM 10
Amplifier Monitoring Unit

CE 531
Screw Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker

Section

ASM 01B
Amplifier Supervisory Module

Loudspeaker

DM 10
Line Monitoring Unit

LA 08
Line Supervisory Unit

SL 08
8-Zone Line Supervisory Unit

VA 415
VA 430
VA 450
VA Series
Aluminium Column Loudspeaker

SL 04
4-Zone Line Supervisory Unit

AT 05
5 W Audio Attenuator

VW 515
VW 530
VW 650
VW Series
Wooden Loudspeaker Column

LR Series
Line Array Loudspeaker

RH 061
10W Aluminium Paging
Horn Loudspeaker

RH 085
15W Aluminium Paging
Horn Loudspeaker

RH 103
30W Aluminium Paging
Horn Loudspeaker

FG 415
2 way Foreground
Loudspeaker

FG 530W
2 way Foreground
Loudspeaker (White)

FG 530B
2 way Foreground
Loudspeaker (Black)

AT 30
30 W Audio Attenuator
SU 650
Subwoofer System

F 8 / F 8W
2 way Full Range
SR Loudspeaker

F 12 / F 12W
2 way Full Range
SR Loudspeaker

F 10 / F 10W
2 way Full Range
SR Loudspeaker

Recommended
Spring-Mounted
Ceiling Loudspeaker

AT 75
75 W Audio Attenuator

AT 120
120 W Audio Attenuator

LR 063
LR 126

F 12s
2 way Full Range
Stage Monitor

CE 532 / CE 532M
CE 562 / CE 562M
CM Series
CX 811 / CX 811E

61

PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

Section

G Design Template

Design Template
Introduction to
Section G

In specifying a PA System design, a properly documented schematic will help to reduce


the ambiguity of the design. This section shows the design engineer basic ways on how
to document the schematic from design levels 1-5.
These design templates together with the various schematic symbols used are also
available in the CD provided with this book.

63

Design Template -

Section

G Design Template - Design Level 1

Mic1

Handheld Mic (MH 1a)

Aux1
Digital Source Player (DS 201)

EQUIPMENT RACK LAYOUT:

Digital Source Player


1

Line Selector

10
ALL CALL

REMOTE OVERRIDE

SPEAKER LINE SELECTOR

LS 10A

ON

MIC 1

MIC 2

MIC 3

AUX 1

AUX 2

AUX 3

BASS

TREBLE

20

50

80

100%

CLIP

MASTER

Mixer Amplifier

POWER

10

10

10

10

10

10

-10

-10

10

120W MIXER AMPLIFIER MA 112

FUSE
2A
F

US E

POWER

O
AC

SHORT

BATT IN
F

POWER SUPPLY UNIT PS 05

64

Mic2

US E

FUSE
6A

OFF

ON

Regulated Power Supply

120W Mixer Amplifier


(MA 112)

OF
F

Desktop Paging Mic (MP 1)

Section

3 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

2 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

2 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

2 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

3 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

3 nos. CM 361 @ 3W
LEGEND:
3 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

Ceiling Speaker

Emergency Mic
With Push Button

Coaxial Ceiling

Handheld Mic

OFF

1 no. Regulated 24 Vdc Power Supply


(PS 05)

Paging Console

Horn Speaker

Radio Tuner

AM/FM

Cassette Deck
DISC

50

70

100

25

141

VOLUME

V%
1

CHANNEL SELECT

10

Amp. Monitoring
Emergency Panel

NOTES:

Amp. Changeover

All loudspeakers c/w 100 V / 70 V audio line matching transformer


All ceiling loudspeaker shall be spring mounted

Regulated Power
Supply

All audio cable shall be two core screened cables


All loudspeaker cable shall be minimally 18 AWG twisted pair in
uPVC conduit

FGM Speaker

CD Player
Digital Source

AMPLIFIER MONITORING UNIT AM 10

Box Speaker

G Design Template - Design Level 1

Speaker Line Selector with ALL CALL (LS 10A)

10 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

Column Speaker
Power Amplifier
Multichannel
Power Amplifier
Audio Attenuator

SYSTEM :
MIXER AMPLIFIER PA SYSTEM
PROJECT :

Designed By
Date
Drawing No

AEX-DWG-0105-DL1-1

Page No

1 of 1

65

Design Template -

50

70

100

25

141

VOLUME

V%
1

10

CHANNEL SELECT

AMPLIFIER MONITORING UNIT AM 10

1 no. Amplifier Monitoring Unit


(Monitors up to 10 amplifiers only)
(AM 10)
Priority

Section

480W Power Amplifier


(PA 148)

G Design Template - Design Level 2

1A
Emergency Handheld Mic, ME 1

Signal from
fire alarm system

Programmable Preamplifier
XP 138

Paging Console
Remote Paging Mic (MS 204)
@ Reception Counter
Communication Panel
& Extendsion Module
(CP 102 & CP 102EM)

1B

480W Power Amplifier


(PA 148)

Digital Source Player


(DS 201)
3A

TAPE

Cassette Deck
(By Others)

DISC

3B

CD Player
(By Others)

480W Power Amplifier


(PA 148)

480W Power Amplifier


(PA 148) STANDBY
4 nos. 25A Power Supply Unit
(PS 30)

EQUIPMENT RACK LAYOUT:

Cassette Deck
CD Player

Digital Source Player


Programmable Preamplifier
POWER

PRIORITY

CHIME SIGNAL

LED 1

LED 2

LED 3

LED 4

EXT 1

ERROR

CHIME GAIN

PC 1

PC 2

PC 3

PC 4

EXT 2

Paging Console Communication Panel

COMMUNICATION PANEL CP 102

10

10

10

10

ALL CALL
REMOTE OVERRIDE

SPEAKER LINE SELECTOR

LS 10A

Line Selector

REMOTE OVERRIDE

SPEAKER LINE SELECTOR

LS 10A

REMOTE OVERRIDE

SPEAKER LINE SELECTOR

LS 10A

REMOTE OVERRIDE

SPEAKER LINE SELECTOR

LS 10A

Regulated Power Supply


FUSE
2A
F

US E

POWER

O
AC

SHORT

OFF

BATT IN
FU

ON

S E

FUSE
6A

POWER SUPPLY UNIT PS 05

Amplifier Supervisory Unit


50

70

100

25

141

VOLUME

V%
1

10

Amplifier Monitoring Unit

CHANNEL SELECT

AMPLIFIER MONITORING UNIT AM 10

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

Duty Power Amplifier

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PRIORITY

PROTECT

Duty Amplifier / Standby Power Amplifier

Power Supply Unit

66
46

Program

2A

1 no. Regulated 24 Vdc Power Supply


(PS 05)

1 nos. Amplifier Changeover Unit


(AC 08)

9 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

L1A

Section

1 nos. CM 361 @ 3W
2 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

L2 - L2A

5 nos. CM 361 @ 3W
5 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

L3 - L3A

5 nos. CM 361 @ 3W
5 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

L4 - L4A

4 nos. CM 361 @ 3W
5 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

L5

18 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

L6

5 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

L25

5 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

L26

5 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

L32
L34
L36

LEGEND:

5 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

Paging Console

Ceiling Speaker

5 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

Emergency Mic
With Push Button

Coaxial Ceiling

5 nos. CM 361 @ 3W
OFF

Handheld Mic

Horn Speaker

Radio Tuner

AM/FM

Cassette Deck
DISC

50

70

100

25

141

VOLUME

V%
1

CHANNEL SELECT

10

Amp. Monitoring
Emergency Panel

NOTES:

Amp. Changeover

All loudspeakers c/w 100 V / 70 V audio line matching transformer


All ceiling loudspeaker shall be spring mounted

Regulated Power
Supply

All audio cable shall be two core screened cables


All loudspeaker cable shall be minimally 18 AWG twisted pair in
uPVC conduit

FGM Speaker

CD Player
Digital Source

AMPLIFIER MONITORING UNIT AM 10

Box Speaker

G Design Template - Design Level 2

1 no. Speaker Line Selector with ALL CALL (LS 10A) + 3 nos Speaker Line Selector (LS 10)

L1

Column Speaker
Power Amplifier
Multichannel
Power Amplifier
Audio Attenuator

SYSTEM :
PROGRAMMABLE PREAMPLIFIER PA SYSTEM
PROJECT :

Designed By
Date
Drawing No

AEX-DWG-0105-DL2-1

Page No

1 of 1

67

Design Template -

50

70

100

25

141

VOLUME

V%
1

10

CHANNEL SELECT

AMPLIFIER MONITORING UNIT AM 10

1 no. Amplifier Monitoring Unit


(Monitors up to 10 amplifiers only)
(AM 10)

XM 10A Modular Mixer Enclosure (c/w Power Supply Unit )

Section

Emergency Handheld
Paging Microphone
(ME 1)

Priority
ME 1
Receptacle
Panel
(XM 31A)

Microphone
Pre-Amp
(XM 32A)

Line Output
Emergency
Module
Tone Generator
(XM 71A)
(XM 61A)

G Design Template - Design Level 3

Program
20 Zone Remote
Paging Microphone
(MS 202)

Paging Console
Communication
Panel
(CP 102)

Isolated
Microphone
Pre-Amp
(XM 33A)

2 x 240W Power Amplifier


(PA 224)

Line Output
Module
(XM 71A)

Digital Source Player


(DS 201)
DISC

Source Selector
Module
(XM 51A)

CD Player
(By Others)

Stereo Combining
Pre-Amplfier Module
(XM 35A)
2 x 240W Power Amplifier
(PA 224)

AM/FM

Tuner
(By Others)

1 no. Regulated 24Vdc Power Supply

4 nos. 25A Power Supply Unit


(PS 30)

(PS 05)

2 x 240W Power Amplifier


(PA 224)

2 x 240W Power Amplifier


(PA 224)
STANDBY w. ASM 01B
1 no. Integrated Supervisory Unit
(LA 08)

EQUIPMENT RACK LAYOUT:

50

70

100

25

141

Amplifier Monitoring Unit

VOLUME

V%
1

10

CHANNEL SELECT

AMPLIFIER MONITORING UNIT AM 10

XM 92A

XM 31A

XM 32A

MIC IN
FUSE

FUSE

BATT IN
DC 1.5A

OUTPUT
DC 1.5A

XM 71A

XM 61A

IN USE

XM 51A

PUSH TO
TALK

GAIN
LEVEL

100

ALARM
LEVEL

BASS

100

SOURCE
SELECTOR

XM 12A

XM 71A
TREBLE

IN USE

MUTING

Modular Mixer

4
5

10

XM 33A

IN USE

BASS

MIC

POWER

XM 35A

TREBLE

ALARM

10

POWER

10

10

10

PRIORITY

CHIME SIGNAL

LED 1

LED 2

LED 3

LED 4

EXT 1

ERROR

CHIME GAIN

PC 1

PC 2

PC 3

PC 4

EXT 2

Paging Console Communication Panel


Line Selector

COMMUNICATION PANEL CP 102

10

ALL CALL
REMOTE OVERRIDE

SPEAKER LINE SELECTOR

LS 10A

CD Player
Tuner

Digital Source Player


FUSE
2A
F

U SE

POWER

O
AC

SHORT

BATT IN
F

POWER SUPPLY UNIT PS 05

US
E

OFF

ON

Regulated Power Supply

FUSE
6A

Integrated Supervisory Unit

Duty Power Amplifier

Unregulated Power Supply

68
48

Section

1 no. Integrated Supervisory Unit (LA 08)

20 nos. CM 361 @ 3W
8 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

20 nos. CM 361 @ 3W
20 nos. CM 361 @ 3W
6 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

8 nos. VW 530 @ 30W

50 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

66 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

60 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

LEGEND:
Paging Console

Ceiling Speaker

Emergency Mic
With Push Button

Coaxial Ceiling

OFF

Handheld Mic

Horn Speaker

Radio Tuner

AM/FM

Cassette Deck
DISC

50

70

100

25

141

VOLUME

V%
1

CHANNEL SELECT

10

Amp. Monitoring
Emergency Panel

NOTES:

Amp. Changeover

All loudspeakers c/w 100 V / 70 V audio line matching transformer


All ceiling loudspeaker shall be spring mounted

Regulated Power
Supply

All audio cable shall be two core screened cables


All loudspeaker cable shall be minimally 18 AWG twisted pair in
uPVC conduit

FGM Speaker

CD Player
Digital Source

AMPLIFIER MONITORING UNIT AM 10

Box Speaker

G Design Template - Design Level 3

1 no. 10 Zones Line Selector with All Call (LS 10A)

20 nos. RH 5915 @ 10W

Column Speaker
Power Amplifier
Multichannel
Power Amplifier
Audio Attenuator

SYSTEM :
MODULAR MIXER PA SYSTEM
PROJECT :

Designed By
Date
Drawing No

AEX-DWG-0105-DL3-1

Page No

1 of 1

69

Design Template -

50

70

100

25

141

VOLUME

V%
1

10

CHANNEL SELECT

AMPLIFIER MONITORING UNIT AM 10

Internet Connectivity Panel


(iX 155)

4 nos. Amplifier Monitoring Unit

Modem

AO 2

B2

AO 3

B1

AO 4

AI 2

AI 3

AM/FM

eX 831

Tuner
(By Others)
DISC

AI 4

CD Player
(By Others)

P2

AO 6

P3

Zone P3 to P13

AO 5

AO 16

P13

4 x 120W Power Amplifier


(PA 412)

2 x 240W Power Amplifier


(PA 224)
480W Power Amplifier
(PA 148)

480W Power Amplifier


(PA 148)

eX 836

AI 1

AO 17

P11

AO 18

P11

Back of House

AO 19
eX 836

Build-In Dual Channel


Digital Source Player

6 Nos. eX 836

P1

eX 833

G Design Template - Design Level 4

eX 836

RI 2
Remote Microphone (eX 868)
@ Reception Counter

MICROPROCESSOR BASED DIGITAL MATRIX SYSTEM WITH MINIMUM 8 AUDIO BUS


(eX 801 + eX 803)

Section

Remote Microphone (eX 861)


@ FCC

B2

Back of House

11 nos. PA 148

eX 836

AO 1
RI 1

480W Power Amplifier


(PA 148)
480W Power Amplifier
(PA 148)

L10
480W Power Amplifier
(PA 148)

AO 20

480W Power Amplifier


(PA 148)

Back of
House

480W Power Amplifier


(PA 148)
480W Power Amplifier
(PA 148)
L10

Control In, CS 1 to CS 29

Control In, CS 30 to CS 32
(3 Spare)

eX 836

2 Nos. eX 841

Signal from
fire alarm system

AO 21

480W Power Amplifier


(PA 148)
L11

AO 22
Back of
House

eX 836

L11

AO 23
Mezz

70

4 x 120W Power Amplifier


(PA 412)

L11
2 x 240W Power Amplifier
(PA 224)

50 nos. CE 562M @ 2W

Section

23 nos. WM 561 @ 2W
5 nos. RH 061 @ 10W
10 nos. RH 061 @ 10W

24 nos. CE 562M @ 1.5W


35 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

12 nos. RH 061 @ 10W


5 nos. CM 361 @ 3W
27 nos. RH 061 @ 10W
5 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

5 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

LEGEND:

24 nos. RH 061 @ 10W

Paging Console

Ceiling Speaker

128 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

Emergency Mic
With Push Button

Coaxial Ceiling

24 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

Handheld Mic

OFF

Integrated Supervisory Unit (LA 08)

27 nos. RH 061 @ 10W

Horn Speaker

Radio Tuner

AM/FM

24 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

Cassette Deck
DISC

24 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

50

70

100

25

141

VOLUME

V%
1

CHANNEL SELECT

AMPLIFIER MONITORING UNIT AM 10

10

Amp. Monitoring
Emergency Panel

13 nos. CE 562M @ 1.5W


65 nos. CE 562M @ 1.5W

Amp. Changeover

7 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

Regulated Power
Supply

7 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

FGM Speaker

CD Player
Digital Source

18 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

Box Speaker

G Design Template - Design Level 4

6 nos. RH 061 @ 10W

Column Speaker
Power Amplifier
Multichannel
Power Amplifier
Audio Attenuator

SYSTEM :
DIGITAL MATRIX PA SYSTEM

7 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

PROJECT :
64 nos. CL 562M @ 1.5W

128 nos. CE 562M @ 1.5W

Designed By
Date

88 nos. CE 562M @ 1.5W

Continued on Page 2

Drawing No

AEX-DWG-0105-DL4-1

Page No

1 of 2

71

Connected to AM 10 (Page 1)

Design Template -

eX 836
eX 836

4 x 60W Power Amplifier


(PA 406)

eX 836

G Design Template - Design Level 4

MICROPROCESSOR BASED DIGITAL MATRIX SYSTEM WITH MINIMUM 8 AUDIO BUS


(eX 801 + eX 803) ~ Continued

Section

480W Power Amplifier


(PA 148)

(Spare)
4 x 60W Power Amplifier
(PA 406)

5 nos. 480W Power Amplifier


(PA 145) STANDBY
w. ASM 01B

5 nos. Integrated Supervisory Unit


(LA 08)

EQUIPMENT RACK LAYOUT:

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PROGRAM

Tuner

Internet
Connectivity Panel

PROGRAM

FUSE
2A
F

US E

POWER

O
AC

SHORT

Integrated
Supervisory Unit

OFF

BATT IN
FU

POWER SUPPLY UNIT PS 05

S E

FUSE
6A

ON

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PRIORITY

Duty
Power Amplifier
PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PRIORITY

72

PROTECT

PRIORITY

Power Supply Unit

Unregulated
Power Supply

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROTECT

Duty Power Amplifier

PRIORITY

CD Player

Amplifier Monitoring Unit

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PROGRAM

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROTECT

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROGRAM

PRIORITY

PROTECT

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROTECT

Duty Power Amplifier

PROTECT

PRIORITY

Duty Power Amplifier

PROGRAM

eMatrix
System

25 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

Section

Integrated Supervisory Unit (LA 08)

4 nos. CE 562M @ 1.5W


32 nos. CE 562M @ 1.5W

32 nos. CE 562M @ 1.5W

LEGEND:

30 nos. 25A Power Supply Unit


(PS 30)

1 no. 5A Power Supply Unit

Paging Console

Ceiling Speaker

Emergency Mic
With Push Button

Coaxial Ceiling

Handheld Mic

Horn Speaker

Radio Tuner
Cassette Deck

FGM Speaker

CD Player

Continuation from Page 1

Digital Source
Amp. Monitoring
Emergency Panel

NOTES:

Amp. Changeover

All loudspeakers c/w 100 V / 70 V audio line matching transformer


All ceiling loudspeaker shall be spring mounted

Regulated Power
Supply

All audio cable shall be two core screened cables


All loudspeaker cable shall be minimally 18 AWG twisted pair in
uPVC conduit

Box Speaker

Design Template - Design Level 4

3 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

Column Speaker
Power Amplifier
Multichannel
Power Amplifier
Audio Attenuator

SYSTEM :
DIGITAL MATRIX PA SYSTEM

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PRIORITY

PROTECT

Standby Power Amplifier

PROJECT :

Designed By
Date
Drawing No

AEX-DWG-0105-DL4-1

Page No

2 of 2

73

Design Template -

50

70

100

25

141

VOLUME

V%
1

10

CHANNEL SELECT

AMPLIFIER MONITORING UNIT AM 10

Internet Connectivity Panel


(iX 155)

4 nos. Amplifier Monitoring Unit


(Monitors up to 10 Amplifiers only)
(AM 10)

Modem

Section

Remote Paging Console (iX 151)


@ FCC

AO 2

RI 2

AO 3

G Design Template - Design Level 5

Remote Paging Console (iX 151)


@ Reception Counter

B2
Back of
House

B2

B1

4 x 120W Power Amplifier


(PA 412)

RI 3

RI 4

AO 5

P2

AO 6

P3

Digital Message for EES Auto Evacuation

AI 1

Evacuation Messages
2 Ch Digital Source Player
(DS 202)

AI 2
AI 3

Special Messages
2 Ch Digital Source Player
(DS 202)

AI 4

AI 5

2 Channel Digital Source


Player for BGM
(DS 202)

AI 6

MICROPROCESSOR BASED DIGITAL MATRIX SYSTEM WITH EES


(IX 101E)

Analog ALL CALL Mic (iX 194)

AO 16

AO 17

AO 18

AO 19

P13

P12

P12
Back of
House

L10

AI 7

AM/FM

Tuner
(By Others)
(Spare)

AI 8

Control In, CS 1 to CS 29

Control signal from


addressable fire
alarm system

AO 20

AO 21

2 x 240W Power Amplifier


(PA 224)

Zone P3 to P13

(Spare)

AO 4

1 nos Manual Zone Selector (with All Call iX 156E + 3 nos. Manual Zone Selector (iX 157E)

Remote Paging Console (iX 151)


@ GM Room

P1

11 nos. PB 136

AO 1
RI 1

480W Power Amplifier


(PA 148)

480W Power Amplifier


(PA 148)
480W Power Amplifier
(PA 148)
480W Power Amplifier
(PA 148)
480W Power Amplifier
(PA 148)
480W Power Amplifier
(PA 148)
480W Power Amplifier
(PA 148)

L10

Back of
House

480W Power Amplifier


(PA 148)

L11

Control In, CS 30 to CS 34

Emergency Panel
(iX 158E)

{
Control Out, MR 1 to MR 3
Control In, CS 35 to CS 48

(14 Spare)
(13 Spare)

AO 23
Control Out, MR 4 to MR 16

74

AO 22

L11
Back of
House

L11
Mezz

4 x 120W Power Amplifier


(PA 412)

50 nos. CE 562M @ 1.5W

Section

23 nos. WM 561 @ 2W
5 nos. RH 061 @ 10W
10 nos. RH 061 @ 10W

24 nos. CE 562M @ 1.5W


35 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

12 nos. RH 061 @ 10W


5 nos. CM 361 @ 3W
27 nos. RH 061 @ 10W

27 nos. RH 061 @ 10W


5 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

LEGEND:

24 nos. RH 061 @ 10W

128 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

Paging Console

Ceiling Speaker

Emergency Mic
With Push Button

Coaxial Ceiling

Handheld Mic

OFF

8 nos. Integrated Supervisory Unit (LA 08)

5 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

24 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

Cassette Deck

24 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

Digital Source

24 nos. FG 530 @ 15W


50

70

Amp. Monitoring

100

25

141

VOLUME

V%
1

10

CHANNEL SELECT

AMPLIFIER MONITORING UNIT AM 10

18 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

Emergency Panel

13 nos. CE 562M @ 1.5W

Amp. Changeover

65 nos. CE 562M @ 1.5W

Regulated Power
Supply

7 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

7 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

FGM Speaker

CD Player

DISC

7 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

Horn Speaker

Radio Tuner

AM/FM

Box Speaker

G Design Template - Design Level 5

6 nos. RH 061 @ 10W

Column Speaker
Power Amplifier
Multichannel
Power Amplifier
Audio Attenuator

SYSTEM :
EARLY EVACUATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
PROJECT :

64 nos. CE 562M @ 1.5W

128 nos. CE 562M @ 1.5W

88 nos. CE 562M @ 1.5W

Designed By
Date
Drawing No

AEX-DWG-0105-DL5-1

Page No

1 of 2

Continued on Page 2

75

AO 25

AO 26

G Design Template - Design Level 5

AO 27

L12

L12 B

L13

L14

AO 28

L14 B

AO 29

L15

(3 Spares)

AO 30 to AO 32

480W Power Amplifier


(PA 148)

1 nos Manual Zone Selector (with All Call iX 156E + 3 nos. Manual Zone Selector (iX 157E) ~ Continued.

Section

MICROPROCESSOR BASED DIGITAL MATRIX SYSTEM WITH EES


(IX 101E) ~ Continued.

AO 24

Connected to AM 10 (Page 1)

Design Template -

4 x 60W Power Amplifier


(PA 406)

4 x 60W Power Amplifier


(PA 406)

5 nos. 460W Power Amplifier


(PA 146) STANDBY

8 nos. Integrated Supervisory Unit


(LA 08)

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

Tuner

Emergency Panel
All Call
Manual Line Selector
Manual Line Selector

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

Internet Connectivity Panel

PROGRAM

PRIORITY

Duty
Power Supply
Integrated
Supervisory Unit

Duty
Power Amplifier

76

Unregulated
Power Supply

Duty Power Amplifier

PRIORITY

CD Player

Amplifier Monitoring Unit

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PROGRAM

PRIORITY

PROGRAM
PROGRAM

PROTECT

PROTECT
PRIORITY

PRIORITY

PROGRAM
PROGRAM

PROTECT

PROTECT
PRIORITY

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROTECT

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PRIORITY

PROTECT

PROTECT

PRIORITY

PROGRAM

PROTECT

PROGRAM

PRIORITY

PROTECT

Standby Power Amplifier

PROGRAM

Duty Power Amplifier

PROTECT

PRIORITY

Duty Power Amplifier

PROGRAM

eMatrix
System

Duty Power Amplifier

EQUIPMENT RACK LAYOUT:

25 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

1 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

32 nos. CE 562M @ 1.5W

32 nos. CE 562M @ 1.5W

3 nos. FG 530 @ 15W

12 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

13 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

16 nos. CM 361 @ 3W

LEGEND:

1 no. 5A Power Supply Unit

(PS05)

Paging Console

Ceiling Speaker

Emergency Mic
With Push Button

Coaxial Ceiling

Handheld Mic

OFF

30 nos. 25A Power Supply Unit


(PS 30)

Horn Speaker

Radio Tuner

Continuation from Page 1

Cassette Deck
DISC

50

70

100

25

141

VOLUME

V%
1

CHANNEL SELECT

10

Amp. Monitoring
Emergency Panel

NOTES:

Amp. Changeover

All loudspeakers c/w 100 V / 70 V audio line matching transformer


All ceiling loudspeaker shall be spring mounted

Regulated Power
Supply

All audio cable shall be two core screened cables


All loudspeaker cable shall be minimally 18 AWG twisted pair in
uPVC conduit

FGM Speaker

CD Player
Digital Source

AMPLIFIER MONITORING UNIT AM 10

Box Speaker

G Design Template - Design Level 5

Integrated Supervisory Unit (LA 08)

Section

4 nos. CE 562M @ 1.5W

Column Speaker
Power Amplifier
Multichannel
Power Amplifier
Audio Attenuator

SYSTEM :
EARLY EVACUATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
PROJECT :

Designed By
Date
Drawing No

AEX-DWG-0105-DL5-1

Page No

2 of 2

77

Estimating Equipment Rack Space Requirement


This section provides a guide for design engineers to estimate the space required by the Public Address equipment based
on the projects build up area.
3. Estimating total power requirement

Public address system equipment would typically be rack


mounted into standard 19 equipment racks. These racks
are usually standard in their width but may vary in terms of
rack heights. The following calculations will be based on
a 42U equipment rack size, shown below;

Based on the projects build up area, it is possible to


estimate the required power to accommodate the
loudspeakers. This can be achieved by using the Power
(W) to Area (m) ratio index. Most projects will have a
Power to Area ratio index of 0.12W/m.
However apartments and residences buildings typically
have a lower index of 0.06W/m.

G Design Template - Estimating Equipment Rack Space Requirement

This index basically denotes the amount of amplification


power required for every 1m of floor space.
Aprox.
2100mm

Example:
A project with a build up area of 50000m
will generally require 6000W worth of speakers to provide adequate SPL coverage as
shown in the calculation below;
Aprox.
800mm

Aprox.
600mm

0.12W/m x 50000m = 6000W

2. Identify floor space required

4. Rack quantity Estimation Guide

Based on the standard 42U rack, the actual floor space


required in the equipment room can be estimated. This
floor space should take into account working space at the
back of the rack for future maintenance and servicing.

Once the power requirement has been estimated, the total


number of racks required can be calculated using the
Power (W) to 42U Rack Ratio Index of 3000W/Rack.

Minimally it is recommended that 1m working space be


allocated as shown in the diagram below;

1000 mm
Working
Space

Section

1. Identify Typical 42U Rack Space Size

1000mm
Working
Space

Input
Sources
Signal
Manager
Control &
Monitoring
Rack

Example:
Continuing from the previous calculations for
required amplification power, the total
number of racks can be obtained as shown
below;
6000W
3000W/Rack

42U Equipment Rack


600 x 2100 x 800 (W x H x D)

Power Amplifier
Racks

Battery Backup
& Emergency
Power Supply
Rack

Apart from the racks to house the amplifiers, the following


racks should also be allocated as below;
1 nos. rack for the Input sources, signal management
and control & monitoring equipment.
1 nos. rack for the Battery backup & emergency power
supply.
Thus total racks required are 4 nos. 42U Racks.

Typical control room floorplan


Summary
For quick estimates, the design engineer could also use the quick referencing factors below;

All Projects (Hotel, Shopping Mall, Office and all other commercial buildings):
Total Build-up area (m2)

1
25000

(Amplifiers Racks)

+ 1 rack
(Source, Signal Management,
Control & Monitoring Racks)

+ 1 rack
(Emergency Power Supply Racks)

Only Applicable to Condominiums & Residences Building:


Total Build-up area (m2 )
(Amplifiers Racks)

78

= 2 nos. 42U Rack

1
50000

+ 1 rack
(Source, Signal Management,
Control & Monitoring Racks)

+ 1 rack
(Emergency Power Supply Racks)

Section

Introduction to
Section H

H Installation Guide

Installation Guide
This section discusses the various issues that should be considered during the installation process. The section provides guide on cable specifications, ensuring that cables
with the right specifications are used as well as basic tests that should be conducted on
the system upon completion.

79

Installation Guide
Installationguide

Cable Specification

There are a few types of cable being used in a PA system. They


are:
1.1. Low-level audio signal cable

Installationguide

Conduit & Trunking


Specification

2.1. Rule of thumb to allow 30% to 40% free space clearance.


There should be 30% to 40% free space allowance in the
conduit and trunking as shown in the diagram below:

Examples are microphone cables, music signal cables, digital


message cables, etc.
These cables transmit audio signals in the microwatts or milliwatts
region.

30 - 40%

3/4

These signals are prone to both electrostatics and electromagnetic interference.


Shielding will help to reduce or eliminate electrostatics interference while balanced signals will cancel the electromagnetic field
induced.

Section

H Installation Guide

Cables recommended:
Belden 8641 - 24 AWG
Belden 8761 - 22 AWG
Belden 8762 - 20 AWG
Belden 8760 - 18 AWG

Shielded
Shielded
Shielded
Shielded

Twisted
Twisted
Twisted
Twisted

Pair
Pair
Pair
Pair

30 - 40%

1.2. High-level audio signal cable


Example is loudspeaker cable
This cable transmits hundreds of watts of audio signal.

2.2. Guides for installation:

Signal loss along the cable due to cable resistance. The thicker
the cable, the lesser the signal loss.

From riser to loudspeaker conduit is to be used

For proper cable gauge selection, refer to chart below:

No electrical power lines share the same trunking or conduit with


the PA system cabling.

Maximum allowable line lengths, in metres, for 5% line loss


Size

30W

60W

120W

240W

360W

20 AWG

233

116

58

29

19

18 AWG

367

183

91

45

30

16 AWG

583

291

145

72

48

14 AWG

930

465

232

116

77

12 AWG

1485

742

371

185

123

Information extracted from National Bureau of Standards Coper Wire Tables - Handbook 100.

Maximum allowable line lengths, in metres, for 10% line loss


Size

30W

60W

120W

240W

360W

20 AWG

466

233

116

58

38

18 AWG

734

367

183

91

61

16 AWG

1167

583

291

145

97

14 AWG

1860

930

465

232

155

12 AWG

2970

1485

742

371

247

Information extracted from National Bureau of Standards Coper Wire Tables - Handbook 100.

1.3. Communication and control cable


Examples are data communication cable, control cable, etc.
These cables transmit data & control signals in the microwatts or
milliwatts region.
These signals are prone to both electrostatic and electromagnetic
interference.
Shielding will help to reduce or eliminate electrostatic interference.
It is recommended that the communication and control cables are
laid separately from the power lines and high level audio signal
cable.

80

From Fire control center to riser trunking is to be used

Installationguide

Testing &
Commissioning

The Testing & Commissioning guide aims to provide a systematic methodology for inspecting a PA system prior to handover. The
methodology is divided into 4 sub-categories namely;
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

Cable Continuity Test


Cable Impedance Check
Installation Check
Functionality Check
Sound Pressure Level (SPL) Check

These 4 tests highlight the required data to be recorded and compiled, providing a means of ensuring a successful handover.

Step 1: From Control Room To Riser


In order to conduct the test, the system should be shorted at the riser
and measured at the amplifier, as shown below.

Equipment used to perform this test is the Multimeter

The Continuity Test is carried out in 2 steps.


Step 1: From Control Room to Riser
Step 2: From Riser to 1st loudspeaker point

Step 2: From Riser to 1st Loudspeaker Point


In order to conduct this test. Disconnect the amplifiers at the riser and
probe the loudspeaker line as shown below.

Continuity Test
Step 1

Step 2
Riser

Riser

PA 2

ZONE 1

H Installation Guide

Riser

Section

3.1. Cable Continuity Test


This is a test to check for any breaks on the loudspeaker line.

* Please refer to the diagrams opposite for a more detailed description.

The contractor will fill in a Continuity Test Table as shown on


Chart 3.1

Chart 3.1 Cable Continuity Test Table


Circuit
Ref.

From

1.1

PA2

1.2

RISER

Checked by,

To
RISER

Cable
Type

Continuity
Pass / Fail

Reading
Ohms

Short to
Earth

Remarks

Speaker Cable

PASS

3.2

No

OK

1st Speaker
Speaker Cable
ZONE 1

PASS

4.0

No

OK

Verified by,

81

Installation Guide
Installationguide

Testing &
Commisioning

3.2. Cable Impedance Test


This is a test to ensure that the load connected to the
amplifier is appropriate, as any load larger than the
specified amplifiers maximum output would damage it.
Step 1: From Power Amplifier to Riser

Equipment used to perform this test is the Impedance Meter

To conduct this test, disconnect the speakers at the rise and short the
amplifiers output there.

Impedance Test is carried out in 2 steps.


Step 1: Check line impedance from power amplifier output to
riser
Step 2: After installation of all loudspeaker, check loudspeaker
load impedance from the riser

Riser

Continuity Test

Section

Step 1

Step 2: Loudspeaker Load to Riser


To conduct this test: with the speaker line disconnected from the
amplifier at the riser probe the points shown.

H Installation Guide

Riser

PA 2

ZONE 1

Riser

* Please refer to the diagrams opposite for a more detailed description.

The contractor will fill in a Impedance Test Table as shown on


Chart 3.2

Chart 3.2 Fill in a Cable Impedance Test Table


Project
Speaker
Zone

T&C

Theoretical
Total
Loudspeaker Cable
Total
Power (W) Impedance
Impedance Impedance
(Ohms)
(Ohms)
(Ohms)

Z-3

Checked by,

82

Step 2

198

50.5

53.5

Acceptable
tolerance %

Measured
Impedence
(Ohms)

Diff.
%

Pass
/ Fail

Remarks

3.9

PASS

OK

Step 1 + Step 2

55.5

Verified by,

Installationguide

Testing &
Commisioning

3.3. Installation Check


This is a check to ensure that the installed equipment and loudspeakers are visually checked for proper installation
practices. The following are some of the check points that should be taken into consideration when performing the
installation check.

Chart 3.3 Fill in a Installation Check Table


Check

Pass/Fail

1.1

The interconnection wires at the equipment racks are properly terminated


with suitable connectors and clearly labeled.

1.2

Remarks
OK

The incoming loudspeaker lines are properly terminated with suitable terminal
blocks, cable lugs and clearly labeled.

Pass

OK

1.3

The cabling at the equipment racks do not obstruct troubleshooting &


maintenance of the system.

Pass

OK

1.4

Perforated panels are installed in between powers amplifiers and power supply
units at the front of the equipment rack for heat ventilation.

Pass

OK

1.5

There is no obstruction at the ventilation holes and at the ventilation fans of the
equipment and the equipment racks.

Pass

OK

1.6

There are no objects placed on top of the equipments or equipment racks that
may drop into the equipment.

Pass

OK

1.7

The ambient temperature is maintained during the operation of the equipment


as recommended by the manufacturer and sufficient ventilation of the area is
provided where the equipment racks are located.

Pass

OK

1.8

Equipment tray / rack runner are used to support the weight of heavy equipments
on the racks.

Pass

OK

1.9

Voltage regulators, surge arrestors and lightning protectors are installed


(if deemed necessary).

Pass

OK

1.10

The loudspeakers are safely and correctly installed and terminated.

Pass

OK

1.11

The loudspeakers are correctly positioned (location, firing direction & angle
of tilt) as per construction drawing.

Pass

OK

Checked by,

H Installation Guide

Pass

Section

Item

Verified by,

83

Installation Guide
Installationguide

Testing &
Commisioning

3.4. Functionality Check


This is a check to ensure Individual equipment and loudspeakers are inspected for its functionality during normal operation,
during emergency operation and during mains power failure. The functionality tests are designed to check all stages of the PA
system from Input sources all the way to the loudspeakers. Below is a sample of some of the main test that should be conducted
on the system.

Chart 3.4 Fill in a Functionality Check Table


Item

Section

1.1

H Installation Guide

1.2

1.3

Check

Pass/Fail

Input Source - Microphone Unit

Pass

- Testing of the ALL CALL & RESET function. Upon triggering of ALL CALL, all PA
Zones shall be selected. Upon triggering of RESET, all selected zones shall be
deselected.

Pass

- Testing of the preannouncement chime.

Pass

- Testing of the paging function and clarity of announcement.

Pass

- Testing of the analogue ALL CALL microphone

Pass

- Testing of the zone selection of every individual zone and grouped zones. There
shall be visual indicators to display the selected zones.

- Testing of the priority function (Emergency announcement overrides normal aging.


Paging overrides background music).

Pass

- Testing of SIREN function prior to emergency announcement (if applicable).

Pass

- Testing of emergency prerecorded messages playback upon receiving the trigger


signal during emergency (if applicable).

Pass

- Checking of the output level of the equipment to achieve 0 dB (1V).

Pass

Power Amplifier

Pass

- Checking of the operation of the power amplifiers during switchover to emergency


supply (24Vdc battery bank, Uninterruptible Power Supply etc.).

Pass

- Simulation of amplifier fault by switching off the amplifier and monitoring the
changeover of the amplifier to the standby amplifier. An audible warning shall be
emitted by the unit and visual indication shall display the changeover status.

Audio Attenuator

- The Emergency Overriding function is checked by providing a 24Vdc activation


signal to the unit while the level selector is set to OFF. The sound output shall switch
to maximum level during emergency override.

OK
Pass

Pass
OK
Pass

Pass

OK

Pass

OK

Secondary Power Supply

- The system is tested for functionality of the system in event of an emergency during
mains power failure. Mains power failure shall be simulated by turning off the mains
power to the equipment rack. The system shall immediately be ready for use after
the switchover to the secondary power supply.
Checked by,

84

Pass

Loudspeakers

- All the loudspeakers installed are checked for functionality and producing the
sufficient sound pressure level. The system should be checked if there is any
presence of audible distortion.
1.7

OK

Amplifier Changeover Unit

- Aural inspection of the attenuation function at the audio attenuator by switching


the unit to various level position while monitoring the output from the loudspeaker(s).

1.6

OK

Pass

- Checking of the audio output for any audible distortion via the monitor speaker at
the Amplifier Monitoring Unit.

- Simulation of fault to the standby amplifier by switching off the power to the
standby amplifier. An audible warning shall be emitted by the unit and visual
indication shall display the status of the standby amplifier. (Only if the standby
amplifier is monitored).
1.5

OK

Preamplifier & Signal Management

- Checking of the output level of the unit to obtain the desired SPL using the
Amplifier Monitoring Unit (AM 10).

1.4

Remarks

Verified by,

Installationguide

Testing &
Commisioning

3.5. Sound Pressure Level (SPL) Test


SPL refers to the loudness of the loudspeaker plotted.
SPL check is carried out using a calibrated SPL Meter set at the suitable test range of 50 ~ 100 dB. Sound weighing is set at AWeighted to simulate the human listening characteristics. A windscreen is used to prevent pickup of wind noise. During measurement, the microphone of the SPL meter is placed at the hearing level at arm length with the microphone at upright position. An
average SPL value is recorded when the reading at the meter stabilizes. SPL readings are recorded at multiple positions at the
intended listening area and an average value taken.

SPL Meter

SPL Test Method

SPL Meter

Listening
Level

Guide

SPL Test Table as shown on Chart 3.3

Chart 3.5 SPL Test Table


No.
1

Listening Level
1.5m

Checked by,

Section
Installation
Guide
H Installation

SPL refers to the loudness of loudspeaker plotted.

Public Area

Corridor

87dB

88dB

Room with V. Control


87dB

Remarks
OK

Verified by,

85

Installation Guide
Installationguide

Common Challenges
faced during installation

Below are a few common problems a contractor will face during


installation if they did not pay extra attention onto the matters:
4.1. No sound
After connecting and terminating every single connector on
the system, and the contractor still find there is no audio
signal output from the system, or the output audio signal is
intermittently disrupted with silent, this could be due to one
of the following:

4.4 Interference
Ground Loops
Ground loops are formed when more than one earth connection to
a system is available resulting in a potential difference between
grounding points. If for example both mixer and power amplifiers
are earthed at different points, an earth loop can be formed via the
cable shielding as shown in the diagram below. This can be
avoided by lifting the cable shield at one end.

Section

Wrong Termination
Wrong termination can be caused by wrong labeling on the
cables.

H Installation Guide

Poor Termination
Poor termination was mainly due to the following two reasons:
Cold solder
Loose connection

Diagram 1 : Earth loop caused by multiple Earth points


Mixer

Amplifier
Signal cable shield

4.2. Audio signal too soft


When the contractor find the audio signal is far too softer
than it suppose to be, one of the following problems may be
the cause.
Equipment signal level and impedance mismatch
One of the most likely reasons was due to the different brands
used within a same system. Different brands of equipment
carry different signal level and impedance. Hence it is
advisable to use only one brand of PA equipment for the entire
system, where these parameters for products coming from the
same manufacturer would have been matched.
Incompatibility of models chosen. Even the products are from
the same manufacturer, the signal level and impedance
mismatch could happen when design engineer choose the
models from another series of products to be used in a different
series of products.
Cable Impedance Mismatch.
This could be due to too many cable joints in a loudspeaker line
that cause the discrepancy between the calculated impedance
and the actual measured impedance. This will overdrive the power
amplifier and put it under heavy stress loads. Eventually, the
amplifier will sustain damage.
Partial Short to Ground
This could be due to mishandling of cables that cause the cables
PVC jackets torn. The exposed copper may be shorted to a metal
conduit or trunking that would result in a partial short.

Earthloop
Earth

Earth

Disconnecting cable shield at one


end prevents ground loop current
from flowing

Mixer

Amplifier

Earthloop
Earth

Earth

The difference increases with physical distances between outlets


and between two outlets on different branch circuits. The use of
ground isolators such as an audio isolation transformer breaks the
noise current path. Never break the ground loop by disconnecting
the safety ground.
An exposed loudspeaker line shorted to earth will also cause an
earth loop, thus generating a hum in the system as shown in the
diagram below.

Diagram 2 : Earth loop caused by Earth leak via loudspeaker


4.3. Grounding
There are mainly two reasons for proper & adequate grounding :
Electrical Safety
Grounding the chassis of the audio device to earth will divert any
current leakage that can be potentially hazardous to the ground.
An ELCB (Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker) may be used to disconnect mains supply to the power outlets when a residual current is
detected on the earth point.
To Reduce External Noise Pickup
To Reduce External Noise Pickup Proper grounding prevents
pickup of noise that is transmitted magnetically mainly from
motors & ac power transformers. Proper shielding prevents pickup
of noise that is transmitted capacitively (in forms of radio waves or
static from motors and lighting dimmers). Thus, the use of high
quality shielded audio signal cables for line level cabling and also
housing all line level equipment in a metal equipment rack which is
properly grounded provides protection against these interferences. Keeping the cables short and cables that carry the same
signal level as close together while keeping cables of different
types as far apart as possible and all audio cables away from the
ac power cables will help reduce noise pickup.

86

Amplifier

Earthloop

Earth

Earth

To test for earth loop, it is recommended to disconnect the units


from each other. Each of the units casing should then be tested
against a good earth source for connectivity.
Power Line Noise
The power line normally consists of a broad spectrum of harmonics and noise in addition to the pure sine wave voltage. Noise is
created by power supplies in electronics equipment, fluorescent
lights, triac light dimmers and loads that creates sparking such as
switches, relays and brush type motors. These tiny current causes
hum, buzz, pops and other symptoms when it couples into the
audio signal path. To reduce pickup of this noise, filters are
installed on the dimmer circuit and is best loaded to the rated
output for the filter circuit to work properly. Ensuring the lighting
circuits are properly grounded and using a different ac circuit will
also help.

Radio Breakthrough Interference


Public address system maybe affected by radio transmission, in
the case of radio stations or CB transmitter broadcasting over the
legal output power. The result of this radio interference is a pickup
of occasional music and speech. An area prone to this type of
interference is the microphone cables which often acts as an aerial
to these unwanted radio frequencies which are then passed into
the preamplifier of the system.

Hum and Noise


One of the most baffling problems faced in a Public Address
System is the reproduction of electrical humming or high frequencies noise in the system.
There are a few areas one should look into solving this problem:
The poor quality and incompatibility of the equipment used within a
system. The output of the sub-quality equipment may generate this
unwanted hum due to its poor isolation of its electrical signal and its
audio signal.
Poor source/microphone cable termination.

Positioning of input equipment near mains transformers.

4.5 Signal Distortion


The source of distortion in the audio path can be from the
following locations:

The basic surge arrestors work by diverting the extra voltage


to Ground or Earth via a metal oxide variable resistor or MOV.
However it is important to note that a strong surge is capable
of burning-out most MOVs, thus it is equally important to
install surge arrestors with light (LED) indicators of their
functionality.

4.7 Lightning Protection


For Public Address systems, even if surge protectors were
employed at all mains power outlets, the system may still be
prone to damaging surges from other sources.
The most common source is the 100V speaker line that runs
throughout the building. These lines can also conduct high
voltage especially if the building is struck by lightning. Thus
for full protection to the PA System the should be coupled with
lightning arrestors which are identical and work on the same
concept to surge arrestors.

Guide

Poor system grounding and shielding protection.

Common causes of surge voltage in buildings are sudden


simultaneous operation of high power electrical equipment
such as air-conditioning, elevators and escalators. A sharp
demand for electricity will evidently cause a voltage spike or
surge. Thus it is recommended that Public Address Systems
be fitted with surge arrestors as a means of protection.

Section
Installation
Guide
H Installation

The simplest remedy is an input by-pass capacitor of around


0.015uF connected across each microphone socket. Ensuring that
long microphone cables are balanced and shielded by electrical
steel conduit greatly reduces the risk of this interference. It must
be ensured that these metal conduits are well earthed for optimal
protection. However some public address system equipment
comes ready with built-in radio rejection circuitry which eliminates
the problem altogether.

4.6 Surge Protection


Surges in power are due to a transient rise in voltage from the
power supply above the designated level. Surge arrestors or
surge suppressors offer protection to any electronic system.

An important point to note when connecting lightning


arrestors are, some lightning arrestors comes with built-in
high frequency filters. Meaning high frequencies in the range
of 20 kHz and above are sunk to earth. This may affect the
public address system, if a 20 kHz pilot tone signal is used to
monitor the loudspeaker lines.

Pre-recorded Material
Poor quality material will, in the end, be reproduced poorly as it is,
no matter how good the system is. Ensuring a good source of
material would be the primary step of obtaining a good sound
reproduction.
Preamplifier
Impedance mismatch of the source and preamplifier input may
cause signal clipping which results in a distorted signal, ready to
be further amplified and reproduced by the loudspeaker. Ensure
that the input sensitivity of the preamplifier is switched to match
the output level of the source.
Power amplifier
Again, ensure that the output level of the preamplifier matches the
input of the power amplifier to ensure optimum performance of the
power amplifiers. A signal too low will result in the power amplifier
not being able to drive its loads to the maximum capacity while a
signal too high will either constantly or during program peaks, clip.
Loudspeaker
High impedance loudspeakers do have a certain protection from
being overdriven due to its audio matching transformer which is
designed to deliver a fixed power to the transducer. Ensure that
the output voltage of the power amplifiers do not exceed the rated
voltage. It is important that during design stage, the correct type of
loudspeaker and power rating is selected as there is a tendency to
increase the output voltage of the power amplifiers to compensate
for the low SPL levels during operation. Driving a high impedance
loudspeaker exceeding its rated voltage will cause over excursion
of the transducer and operate out of its normal operating region,
and not forgetting, overloading the power amplifier that too causes
distortion.

87

Installation Guide
Installationguide

Maintenance

Purpose for maintenance is to prolong equipment life-span. The


following are a few steps involved during a yearly or half-yearly
maintenance routine check:
5.1. Emergency Performance Test
This test is to ensure the integrity of the emergency evacuation
equipment
Microphone Check
To perform the functionality test on the microphone that includes
zone selection, zone group selection, function keys activation, etc.

Section

Dual CPC Check (for iX 102 and iX 102E ONLY)


To simulate the Master CPC fault and verify on the Slave CPC
automatic switch over.

H Installation Guide

Power Amplifier Changeover Check


To simulate fault on the one of the duty amplifier (by switching
OFF), and confirm on the automatic changeover to the standby
amplifier.
Loudspeaker Line Condition Check
To simulate a loudspeaker line faults (Open, Short or Ground Leak),
and verify on status display on the line monitoring units.
Internet Connectivity Check (for use with iX 155 ONLY)
To simulate a fault on the matrix system and check on emails sent
via the iX 155.

5.2. Connectivity Check


The connectivity check is to be carried out because:
On-going renovation may have removed some loudspeakers and
from the speaker cables and the speaker cable may have not been
connected back. This check is to make sure all the speaker cables
are in good condition.
Any circuit or zoning modification may have altered the speaker
cabling connection. Hence connectivity check is crucial to ensure
all cables are connected well to the main system.

5.3. Impedance Check


Due to the above two reason, the impedance of the entire
speaker cable need to be re-confirmed again.

5.4. Equipment Cleaning


Having the equipment locked inside a rack will not keep the
equipment from dust. A routine yearly or half-yearly equipment
cleaning is important. This is because the dust accumulated
inside the equipment will trap moisture. This trapped moisture
will eventually oxidized the electronic components on the
equipment circuit board. This will cause the performance of the
component to deteriorate and hence may start to give intermittent problems to the system.

88

Section

Introduction to
Section I

Mixer Amplifier PA System

90

Programmable Preamplifier PA System

94

Modular Mixer PA System

99

Digital Matrix PA System

105

Early Evacuation PA System

111

I PA System - Overall System Specifications

PA System Overall System Specifications

89

PA System Overall System Specifications


Applicable to

- Mixer Amplifier PA System


Specifications Benefits

Technical Specifications

Section

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 1

1.0 General

1.0 General

This section specifies the minimum acceptable standard


of quality and the minimum acceptable function to be
performed for the Public Address (PA) System. The PA
System shall be able to conduct general paging and
background Music (BGM) broadcast at different priority
level. The work covered in this section shall include the
design, supply, delivery, installation, wiring, connecting, final testing and commissioning with a 12 months
warranty against manufacturers defect.

The PA system is being used as a tool for performing public


announcements and providing background music.

The Public Address (PA) System equipment shall be of


one single brand, except the music source equipment.

The single brand requirement will ease the project coordination,


commissioning and after sales and maintenance service. It
will also avoid any problems arise from equipment signal
levels and impedance mismatch in the case of different
brands.

The Public Address (PA) System manufacturer shall be


of ISO9001:2000 certified. All PA System equipment
shall be designed to withstand a tropical, high humidity
climate.

The ISO9001:2000 Certification will guarantee the product


quality with consistency.

2.0 Signal Management and Amplifier Mixer Amplifier

2.0 Signal Management and Amplifier Mixer Amplifier

The PA system shall be a 6-input mixer amplifier with


sufficient power to drive the entire speaker load.

The 6-input mixer amplifier is the typical PA system mixer


amplifier requirement. The 6 inputs consist of inputs for
different microphones (for receptionist, manager, etc.) and
BGM sources.

(BGM)

Input 1

Input 2

Mixer Amplifier
Input 3

Input 4

2 more spare inputs

90

Paging

PA System Overall System Specifications


Technical Specifications

Specifications Benefits

The mixer amplifier shall have 3 microphone level inputs


(-55dB) and 3 line level inputs (-20dB). The unit shall
have voice activated muting function which enable
microphone input 1 to override other inputs. The unit
shall have individual gain controls for every input and a
master volume control with Treble and Bass control.

The voice activated muting function allows the first microphone


to automatically mute other signals in the mixer amplifier,
which are deemed lower in priority.
Top
Priority

2nd
Priority

3rd
Priority

Activated

Muted

Muted

The unit shall be powered by mains supply of 240Vac,


50 Hz or 110 Vac, 60 Hz or a DC backup supply of Regulated
24 Vdc.

The DC backup is important in any case of power outages,


the system will be required to conduct paging especially
during emergency.

3.0 Zone Separation

3.0 Zone Separation

Zone Separation shall be done using the zone selectors. Zone selection shall be done through the zone
selector buttons. If remote microphones were used, the
remote microphone zone selection shall override the
zone selection done on the panel buttons.

Zone separation will facilitate the paging signal management.


Paging need not have to be broadcast to all zones if it is
unnecessary.

4.0 Loudspeakers Selection and Monitoring

4.0 Loudspeakers Selection and Monitoring

The loudspeakers shall be wired in zones as required by


the building management.

The loudspeaker zones are dependent on the fire evacuation


zoning management.

The position of the loudspeakers is such that sound


pressure level (SPL) in each zone shall be evenly
distributed. The total SPL shall be +10dB above the
Ambient Noise. The SPL variation shall not be more
than 3dB difference.

Evenly distributed loudspeaker layout will provide an even


SPL to the system. +10dB above Ambient Noise means the
system will be loud enough to be heard by the occupants. Less
than 3dB SPL variation means the occupants will experience
no variation in loudness when standing below or he strand
away from the speaker.

Ambient Noise
Ambient Noise + 10dB

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 1

adjustable

Section

The Treble and Bass tone control for the unit allow better
control of the audio frequency adjustment and an overall
volume control allows an overall adjustment in volume of the
system.

91

PA System Overall System Specifications


Technical Specifications

Specifications Benefits

Speech intelligibility shall have a Speech Transmission


Index (STI) of greater than 0.5.

The STI refers to the clarity of the system announcement. The


greater the index, the better the system intelligibility.The greater
the better. A system can be loud but not intelligible. It is very much
dependent on the type of speaker chosen and quantity of speaker
allocated in the provided acoustic environment. Hence, this is one
important index one should monitor.

Noisy

Section

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 1


92

The ceiling loudspeakers used shall be spring mounted.

Clear

A spring mounted design ceiling loudspeaker ease the installation procedure. And it doesnt involve any screw, we dont
have to worry about the rusty screws problem due to a
prolonged exposure time to moisture environment. Besides, it
also facilitates the future maintenance job where springmounted ceiling loudspeaker simplifies the loudspeaker
cabling check and etc.

Spring Mount

All staircases shall have a box loudspeaker for each level.


All these box loudspeakers in the staircase shall be
grouped as an independent zone.

For background music reproduction, the loudspeakers


chosen shall cover the entire music frequency spectrum.
For foreground music reproduction, the loudspeakers
chosen shall be 2-way full-range high impedance
foreground music loudspeakers.

Grouping all the box loudspeakers in a staircase as one


independent zone is necessary as these speakers belong to a
common open area. Confusion will arise to a person who is
travelling in a staircase if these box loudspeakers were to
grouped according to their floors where different floors might
have different BGM or announcement concurrently. This
single grouping of staircases speakers also meets the
requirement for the emergency evacuation method, where a
single message will be played throughout the entire stairway
to guide the evacuating occupants accordingly.

For outdoor application, the loudspeakers chosen shall


be weatherproof aluminium column loudspeakers or
weatherproof-treated ABS foreground music loudspeakers.

Weatherproof treated loudspeakers are essential for outdoor


installation,as they should be able to withstand prolonged
exposure to rain, heat and UV.

Audio attenuators shall be place strategically in the building.


The audio attenuators chosen shall be equipped with built-in
relay emergency overriding feature. The audio attenuators
shall be controlled by a 6 level continuous rotary switch,
with attenuation in steps of 6dB. It shall be able to be both
flush and surface mounted to the wall (with optional back
box) without any visible mounting screws.

The continuous rotary switch design ease the volume adjustment


for users whenever they need to switch from the maximum to the
minimum (or vice versa) of the attenuation level in one rotary
direction only.

PA System Overall System Specifications


Technical Specifications

Specifications Benefits

Loudspeaker line supervisory feature shall be incorporated in the amplifier monitoring device as one unit
solution.

Incorporation of both features of amplifier monitoring and


speaker line supervisory into one device solution will lower
the entire system cost eventually and minimize rack space
required during installation.

The supervisory feature shall utilize line impedance


measurement method to monitor the loudspeaker lines.

The Line Impedance Measurement method of monitoring will


do away with the DC blocking capacitors installed on every
speakers and End-of-Line (EOL) resistor, hence eliminating
the filtering of the lower frequencies by the DC blocking
capacitors and improving the frequency response of the
loudspeaker unit. It allows loudspeaker lines branching,
monitoring loudspeakers installed beyond audio attenuators
and will isolate faulty loudspeaker line from the power amplifier in the event of a loudspeaker line short.

EOL
Resistor

AC
Monitoring

5.0 Power Supplies and Racks

5.0 Power Supplies and Racks

All primary power supplies for the system shall be mains


240Vac; 50Hz, and connected to the building essential
power lines in the event of mains power shut down. It
shall automatically switch over to 24 Vdc in case of
mains power failure before the essential power lines
generator starts to supply power. The standby battery
supply shall provide sufficient power and enable the
fully loaded system, announcement at the maximum
level, to continue operating without interruption for a
minimum duration of 1/2 hour should mains power fail.

In the event of power failure or a fire, when the mains supply


is disrupted, there will be no supply to the equipment. The
standby battery backup supply will provide a source of
secondary power supply.

All equipment shall be mounted into a 19 EIA Standard


equipment rack except microphone console, volume
controls and loudspeaker. All equipment, switchers, etc.
shall be clearly labeled for easy identification. All equipment supplied shall be maintenance free, high quality,
up-to-date and elegant in design. The design concept
and layout shall be such that the operation be failsafe
and easy to operate.

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 1

DC
Monitoring

Section

DC Blocking
Capacitor

93

PA System Overall System Specifications


Applicable to

- Programmable Preamplifier PA System


Specifications Benefits

Technical Specifications

Section

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 2

1.0 General

1.0 General

This section specifies the minimum acceptable standard


of quality and the minimum acceptable function to be
performed for the Public Address (PA) System. The PA
System shall be able to conduct general paging and
background Music (BGM) broadcast at different priority
level. The work covered in this section shall include the
design, supply, delivery, installation, wiring, connecting,
final testing and commissioning with a 12 months
warranty against manufacturers defect.

PA System is being used as a tool for performing public


announcements and providing background music.

The Public Address (PA) System equipment shall be of


one single brand, except the music source equipment.

The single brand requirement will ease the project coordination,


commissioning and after sales and maintenance service. It
will also avoid any problems arise from equipment signal
levels and impedance mismatch in the case of different brand
equipment.

The Public Address (PA) System manufacturer shall be


of ISO9001:2000 certified. All PA System equipment
shall be tropicalised to withstand tropical, high humidity
climate.

The ISO9001:2000 Certification will guarantee the product


quality with consistency.

2.0 Signal Management Programmable Preamplifier

2.0 Signal Management Programmable Preamplifier

The PA system shall consist of a programmable preamplifier.


The programmable preamplifier shall be able to accept
up to a total of 8 audio signal inputs.

The 8-input preamplifier is the typical PA System preamplifier


requirement. The 8 inputs consist of inputs for different
microphones (for receptionist, manager, supervisor,
telephone operator, etc.) and BGM sources.

(BGM)

Input 1

Input 2

Input 3

Power Amp.
Programmable
Preamplifier

Input 4

4 more spare inputs

94

Paging

PA System Overall System Specifications


Technical Specifications

Specifications Benefits

The inputs of the preamplifier shall be grouped into 3


different groups. Group 1 shall accept up to 3 Balanced
inputs with selectable input level between 2dBV and
62dBV; Group 2 shall accept up to 3 Balanced inputs
with selectable input level between 2dBV and 62dBV
and Group 3 shall accept up to 2 Unbalanced inputs at
selectable input level between 2dBV and 22dBV.
Individual inputs shall have an independent gain control
located at the front facial panel. The unit shall include
priority control with Group 1 having the highest priority
followed by Group 2 and Group 3 being the lowest in
priority.

Inputs with user selectable input level allow user to use a wide
range of microphones, be it a short distance handheld microphone or a long distance desktop paging console. Input grouping
will allow a better management of all the input signals with
different priority levels.
Group 1 usually used for top priority microphones and signals
like firemen microphones, pre-recorded emergency messages,
etc.
Group 2 usually used for general paging microphones and
general signals like reception microphone, operator microphone,
pre-recorded greeting messages for shopping complexes, etc.
Group 3 usually used for the BGM.

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

The unit shall feature a master Treble and Bass control


before the audio signals are being output.

The Treble and Bass tone control for the unit allow better control
of the audio frequency adjustment during commissioning.

The unit shall also feature an emergency line out with


dry contact activation for priority channel activation.
The unit shall provide 2 other line outputs for better
signal management. The output level shall be set at 0
dBV for audio amplification through an external power
amplifier. The unit shall feature a REC output for external
audio recording.

The emergency line out is the highest priority signal. It will


provide a dry contact activation for any external activation like
volume control overriding, etc. The other 2 line outputs separates
the microphone paging signals from the BGM signals from Group
3. This will allow the user to configure an uninterrupted BGM and
paging system using only a single preamplifier. The REC output
is useful for external recording equipment.

The unit shall be able to accommodate a Chime


module. The chime module shall be able to generate 5
different chime tones (user selectable) and one emergency
tone.

The optional chime module is used to compensate microphones


without a built-in chime.

The unit shall be powered by mains supply of 240Vac,


50 Hz or 110 Vac, 60 Hz or a DC backup supply of Regulated
24 Vdc.

The DC backup is important in the case of any power outages,


the system will be required to conduct paging especially during
emergencies.

3.0 Power Amplifiers

3.0 Power Amplifiers

Sufficient numbers of power amplifiers with 20% headroom


shall be provided to drive all the loudspeakers to the
maximum level without overloading. The power amplifiers
shall be powered by mains 240Vac, 50Hz or by external DC
power supply supplying at 28Vdc. They shall accept a
secondary power supply of 24Vdc backup battery array.

The power amplifier headroom allows any fluctuation in line


impedance that may draw more power than the actual
loudspeaker load from the power amplifier. This headroom will
also allow room for any future expansion. To be able to connect
to backup battery array is to ensure uninterrupted operation even
in the event of mains power failure.

A failsafe system for these power amplifiers shall


perform continuous fault monitoring on each power
amplifier unit. The power amplifiers shall have greater
than 12% backup capability. It shall instantly route the
input and output signals of a faulty amplifier (of similar
or higher power) into the signal lines of the standby
power amplifier automatically within 1s without any
human intervention. At the same time, the automatic
amplifier changeover unit shall sound a buzzer to alert
maintenance personnel to attend to the situation. The
amplifier monitoring device shall incorporate line supervisory function to monitor loudspeaker lines for SHORT,
OPEN and GND Leak. The unit shall isolate the loudspeaker line from the power amplifier if a SHORT is
detected.

To have greater than 12% backup capacity means at least 8


duty amplifiers to be backup by 1 backup amplifier. The
continuous fault monitoring and automatic changeover
within 1s in the event of amplifier fault is imperative to
warrant a fail-safe system. With the amplifier faulty buzzer
going on in the control room, the faulty amplifier should be
attended immediately.

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 2

adjustable

Section

priority decreases

95

PA System Overall System Specifications

Section

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 2


96

Technical Specifications

Specifications Benefits

A Monitor Panel shall be incorporated in the main equipment


rack with a selector switch, a volume control, a loudspeaker,
and a VU meter to monitor the output of the power
amplifiers.

For monitoring purpose, one need not have to go to every floor


to listen to the amplifier level. Amplifiers levels can be
monitored audibly and visually via the Monitor Panel installed
into the amplifier rack.

4.0 Zone Separation

4.0 Zone Separation

Zone Separation shall be done using the zone selectors.


Zone selection shall be done through the zone selector
buttons. If remote microphones were used, the remote
microphone zone selection shall override the zone selection done on the panel buttons.

Zone separation will facilitate the paging signal management.


Paging need not have to broadcast to all zones if it is
unnecessary.

5.0 Loudspeakers Selection and Monitoring

5.0 Loudspeakers Selection and Monitoring

The loudspeakers shall be wired in zones as required by


the building management.

The loudspeaker zones are dependent on the fire evacuation


zoning management.

The position of the loudspeakers is such that the sound


pressure level (SPL) in each zone shall be evenly distributed.
The total SPL shall be +10dB above the Ambient Noise. The
SPL variation shall not be more than 3dB difference.

Evenly distributed loudspeaker layout will provide an even SPL


to the system. +10dB above Ambient Noise means the system will
be loud enough to be heard by the occupants. Less than 3dB SPL
variation means the occupants will experience no variation in
loudness when he stand below the speaker or he stand away from
the speaker.
Ambient Noise
Ambient Noise + 10dB

The speech intelligibility shall have a Speech Transmission


Index (STI) of greater than 0.5.

The STI refers to the clarity of the system announcement. The


greater the index, the better the system intelligibility. A system
can be loud but not intelligible. It is very much dependent on the
type of speaker chosen and quantity of speaker allocated in the
provided acoustic environment. Hence, this is one important
index one should monitor.

PA System Overall System Specifications


Technical Specifications

Specifications Benefits

Clear

Noisy

The ceiling loudspeakers used shall be spring mounted.

All staircases shall have a box loudspeaker for each level.


All these box loudspeakers in the staircase shall be
grouped as an independent zone.
For background music reproduction, the loudspeakers
chosen shall cover the entire music frequency spectrum.
For foreground music reproduction, the loudspeakers
chosen shall be 2-way full-range high impedance
foreground music loudspeakers.

Grouping all the box loudspeakers in a staircase as one independent


zone is necessary as these speakers belong to a common open area.
Confusion will arise to a person who is travelling in a staircase if
these box loudspeakers were to grouped according to their floors
where different floors might have different BGM or announcement
concurrently. This single grouping of staircases speakers also meets
the requirement for the emergency evacuation method, where a
single message will be played throughout the entire stairway to guide
the evacuating occupants accordingly.

For outdoor applications, the loudspeakers chosen shall be


weatherproof aluminium column loudspeakers or
weatherproof-treated ABS foreground music loudspeakers.

Weatherproof treated loudspeaker is essential for outdoor installation, as they should be able to withstand prolonged exposure to
rain, heat and UV.

Audio attenuators shall be placed strategically in the building.


The audio attenuators chosen shall be equipped with a
built-in relay emergency overriding feature. The audio
attenuators shall be controlled by a 6 level continuous
rotary switch, with attenuation in steps of 6dB. It shall be
able to be both flush and surface mounted to the wall (with
optional back box) without any visible mounting screws.

The continuous rotary switch design ease the volume adjustment


for users whenever they need to switch from the maximum to the
minimum (or vice versa) of the attenuation level in one rotary
direction only.

Loudspeaker line supervisory feature shall be incorporated


in the amplifier monitoring device as one unit solution.

Incorporation of both features of amplifier monitoring and


speaker line supervisory into one device solution will lower the
entire system cost eventually and minimize rack space required
during installation.

The supervisory feature shall utilize line impedance


measurement method to monitor the loudspeaker lines.

The Line Impedance Measurement method of monitoring will do


away with the DC blocking capacitors installed on every speakers and End-of-Line (EOL) resistor, hence eliminating the
filtering of the lower frequencies by the DC blocking capacitors
and improving the frequency response of the loudspeaker unit. It
allows loudspeaker lines branching, monitoring loudspeakers
installed beyond audio attenuators and will isolate faulty
loudspeaker line from the power amplifier in the event of a
loudspeaker line short.

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 2

Spring Mount

Section

A spring mounted design ceiling loudspeaker ease the installation


procedure. And it doesnt involve any screw, we dont have to
worry about the rusty screws problem due to a prolonged exposure
time to moisture environment. Besides, it also facilitates the future
maintenance job where spring-mounted ceiling loudspeaker
simplifies the loudspeaker cabling check and etc.

97

PA System Overall System Specifications

Technical Specifications

Specifications Benefits
DC Blocking
Capacitor

EOL
Resistor

DC
Monitoring

AC
Monitoring

Section

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 2


98

6.0 Power Supplies and Racks

6.0 Power Supplies and Racks

All primary power supplies for the system shall be mains


240Vac; 50Hz, and connected to the building essential power
lines in the event of mains power shut down. It shall automatically switch over to 24 Vdc in case of mains power failure
before the essential power lines generator starts to supply
power. The standby battery supply shall provide sufficient
power and enable the fully loaded system, announcement at
the maximum level, to continue operating without interruption
for a minimum duration of 1/2 hour should mains power fail.

In the event of power failure or a fire, when the mains supply


is disrupted, there will be no supply to the equipment. The
standby battery backup supply will provide a source of
secondary power supply.

All equipment shall be mounted into a 19 EIA Standard


equipment rack except microphone console, volume
controls and loudspeaker. All equipment, switchers, etc.
shall be clearly labeled for easy identification. All equipment supplied shall be maintenance free, high quality,
up-to-date and elegant in design. The design concept
and layout shall be such that the operation be failsafe
and easy to operate.

PA System Overall System Specifications


Applicable to

- Modular Mixer PA System


Specifications Benefits

Technical Specifications
1.0 General

1.0 General

This section specifies the minimum acceptable standard of


quality and the minimum acceptable function to be performed
for the Public Address (PA) System. The PA System shall be
able to conduct general paging and background Music
(BGM) broadcast at different priority level. The work
covered in this section shall include the design, supply,
delivery, installation, wiring, connecting, final testing and
commissioning with a 12 months warranty against
manufacturers defect.

The PA System is used as a tool for broadcasting public


announcements and providing background music.

The Public Address (PA) System equipment shall be of one


single brand, except the music source equipment.

The single brand requirement will ease the project coordination,


commissioning and after sales and maintenance service. It will
also avoid any problems arise from equipment signal levels and
impedance mismatch in the case of different brand equipment.

The Public Address (PA) System manufacturer shall be of


ISO9001:2000 certified. All the PA system equipment shall
be tropicalised to withstand tropical, high humidity climate.

The ISO9001:2000 Certification will guarantee the product


quality with consistency.

2.0 Signal Management Modular Mixer

2.0 Signal Management Modular Mixer

The PA System shall be a modular mixer design. All


electronic boards shall be inserted from the front for easy
servicing. The modular mixer system shall be backed by a
backplane PCB inside the modular frame. There shall be
no jumper cutting required in order to configure the
system.

Modular system allows flexibility in system design. Users are


required to install the modules of their needs only. The front
access module cards allow maintenance personnel to remove and
install module cards from the front without going to the back of
the rack, hence simplify the servicing efforts. The backplane PCB
allows users to remove and install module cards as and when
they want without worrying on any jumpers being cut on the
frame. Hence this facilitates any system re-configuration.

The system shall include the following programming


functions:

These programming functions are for the reasons stated below:


1. TOP Priority A module set to TOP priority will cut-off all
signals generated from modules placed to its left. Hence it is
required for top priority microphone or firemen microphone
preamplifier module setting.

block signal from mic 1 & 2

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 3

TOP Priority
First-In-First-Out (FIFO) Priority
CASCADE Priority
Speech Filter
Chime Activation
Chime Selection
Priority Channel Trigger
Mic Enable
Automatic Mute

Paging

Section

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

(BGM)

Mic 3
Mic 1

Mic 2

Mic 3
(Top Priority)

99

PA System Overall System Specifications


Specifications Benefits

Technical Specifications

2. FIFO Priority Modules set to this priority will adhere to the


FIFO rule, thus it is suitable to be used for microphones of same
priority.
Mic 1
(FIFO set)

Come 1st

Mic 2
(FIFO set)
Come 2nd
Mic 3
(FIFO set)

Mic 1

Come 3rd

3. CASCADE Priority Modules set to this priority will cause


modules of the same priority setting on the left to mute. This is
commonly configured for establishments that requires different
priority microphones like factories and hotels.

Section

left

right

Mic 3
Mic 1
(Cascade set)

Mic 2
Mic 3
on Paging
on Paging
(Cascade set) (Cascade set)

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 3

4. Speech Filter This setting will improve speech articulation


by filtering lower frequency components in the speech spectrum.
This is usually set for microphones dedicated for a male paging.
5. Chime Activation - This provides triggering signal to an
external chime device. This is commonly used when the system
required triggering any melody player and etc.
6. Chime Selection There are different chimes built into the
Chime Generator Module, this setting allows users to choose
different chimes for different microphones in the system.
7. Priority Channel Trigger This signal will be sent through the
Line Amplifier Module for external priority trigger. This is
required to trigger the priority channel of the power amplifiers.
8. Mic Enable This setting allows microphones without activation
switch to be used with the system.
9. Automatic Mute This function is required for the BGM
preamplifier modules where higher priority module will mute the
lower priority modules signal.
These programming functions shall be user settable
through switch setting on the module cards.

This is the option for user to choose which are the functions user
requires.

The system shall have a frequency response of 20Hz to


20kHz.

A 20Hz to 20kHz frequency response guarantees a full audio


spectrum to be amplified by the modular mixer system.

The system shall comprise of module as follow:


1. Emergency microphone receptacle module
2. Microphone level preamplifier module
3. Line level preamplifier module
4. Mono preamplifier module
5. Stereo combining preamplifier module
6. Source selector module
7. Parallel source selector module
8. Emergency tone generator module
9. Chime generator module
10. Line amplifier module
11. Extension module

These module choices allow users to select the right module for
the right application.

All the modules are user selectable and shall be compatible


with each other.
100

center

PA System Overall System Specifications


Specifications Benefits

Depending on the module selected the system shall be


able to accept both microphone level as well as line level
microphone inputs. The system shall have no limit to the
number of microphone to be connected to the system.
Individual microphone shall be pre-amplified by an
individual preamplifier module. Individual microphone
module shall have a gain adjust knob locate at the front of
the module. The microphone modules shall accept a
Balanced audio signal. Each microphone preamplifier
module shall be able to be activated by an external trigger.

There are different types of microphone with different mic level.


Microphones for short distance application and long distance
application have different microphone output levels and impedance. Hence it is imperative to have different microphone preamplifier modules to cater for these different levels and impedance.

For Background Music broadcast, the system shall accept


either MONO or STEREO music input depending on the
modules selected. The music preamplifier modules shall
have user selectable multiple input levels depending on
the music source used. The modular mixer shall have both
the individual or parallel source selector options for the
user to select Background Music source to be broadcast
through the system.

BGM sources (AM / FM Tuner, CD Player and Cassette Player)


are commonly equipped with L&R output channels. It is important
to properly combine both the L&R channels electronically in
order to get the full music component for BGM broadcast.

R Channel

rich music

Stereo
Combine

The modular mixer shall have emergency tone generator


for siren, yelp or buzzer. The tone duration and level shall
be adjustable by the user. User shall be able to choose one
of these emergency tones to preceed an emergency
announcement to comply with the International Standard
IEC 60849.

The emergency tone of 4s to 10s preceeding an announcement is


in compliance with the IEC 60849 International Standard for
Sound System for Emergency.

Siren

The modular mixer system shall have a chime module that


generates 6 different chimes depending on the user
choice. This chime module shall be programmed to sound
a chime before and after an announcement.

The chime module is required when using together with a microphone without a built-in chime. This chime module allows user to
assign different chime to different microphone installed onto the
system.

The modular system shall have a line amplifier module that


combines all signals in the system and pre-amplify them to
a level that is compatible to the power amplifiers and
match the impedance of the power amplifier. This module
shall have both Treble and Bass tone control knobs
located on the front facial of the panel. The module shall
have a calibrated VU meter consists of LEDs indicating
signal level and signal clip.

The line amplifier module is the one that gather all signals within
the modular mixer frame before output it to the power amplifiers.
The line amplifier VU meter and tone controls allow user to
commission the system more effectively.

Should the system need more card slots than one frame,
the system shall have an Extension Module to transfer all
signals on the backplane PCB to the second frame.

Extension module is to ease the transfer of all signals within the


frame to the second frame.

The unused module slots shall be covered by blank


panels.

It is important to cover all the unused module slots with the blank
panels for both protection and aesthetic reason.

The system shall be able to be powered by a power supply


module that accepting mains supply of 240Vac, 50 Hz or
110 Vac, 60 Hz or a DC backup supply of Regulated
24 Vdc.

The DC backup is important in any case of power outage, the


system will be required to conduct paging especially during
emergency.

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 3

L Channel

Section

Technical Specifications

101

PA System Overall System Specifications


Technical Specifications

Specifications Benefits

Section

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 3

3.0 Power Amplifiers

3.0 Power Amplifiers

Sufficient numbers of power amplifiers with 20% headroom


shall be provided to drive all the loudspeakers to the
maximum level without overloading. The power amplifiers
shall be powered by mains 240Vac, 50Hz or by external DC
power supply supplying at 28Vdc. They shall accept a
secondary power supply of 24Vdc backup battery array.

The power amplifier headroom allows any fluctuation in line


impedance that may draw more power than the actual
loudspeaker load from the power amplifier. This headroom will
also allow room for any future expansion. To be able to connect
to backup battery array is to ensure uninterrupted operation even
in the event of mains power failure.

A failsafe system for these power amplifiers shall perform


continuous fault monitoring on each power amplifier unit.
The power amplifiers shall have greater than 12% backup
capability. It shall instantly route the input and output
signals of a faulty amplifier (of similar or higher power) into
the signal lines of the standby power amplifier automatically within 1s without any human intervention. At the same
time, the automatic amplifier changeover unit shall sound
a buzzer to alert maintenance personnel to attend to the
situation. The amplifier monitoring device shall incorporate
line supervisory function to monitor loudspeaker lines for
SHORT, OPEN and GND Leak. The unit shall isolate the
loudspeaker line from the power amplifier if a SHORT is
detected.

To have greater than 12% backup capacity means at least 8 duty


amplifiers to be backup by 1 backup amplifier. The continuous
fault monitoring and automatic changeover within 1s in the event
of amplifier fault is imperative to warrant a fail-safe system.
With the amplifier faulty buzzer going on in the control room, the
faulty amplifier should be attended immediately.
Duty Amp.
Duty Amp.
Duty Amp.
Duty Amp.

Backup Amp.

Duty Amp.
20% Backup
Duty Amp.
Duty Amp.
Duty Amp.

A Monitor Panel shall be incorporated in the main equipment


rack along with a selector switch, a volume control, a
loudspeaker, and a VU meter to monitor the output of all
power amplifiers.

For monitoring purpose, one need not have to go to every floor


to listen to the amplifier level. Amplifiers levels can be
monitored audibly and visually via the Monitor Panel installed
into the amplifier rack.

4.0 Zone Separation

4.0 Zone Separation

Zone Separation shall be done using the zone selectors.


Zone selection shall be done through the zone selector
buttons. If remote microphones were used, the remote
microphone zone selection shall override the zone selection done on the panel buttons.

Zone separation will facilitate the paging signal management.


Paging need not have to broadcast to all zones if it is
unnecessary.

5.0 Loudspeakers Selection and Monitoring

5.0 Loudspeakers Selection and Monitoring

The loudspeakers shall be wired in zones as required by


the building management.

The loudspeaker zones are dependent on the fire evacuation


zoning management.

The position of the loudspeakers is such that sound


pressure level (SPL) in each zone shall be evenly distributed. The total SPL shall be +10dB above the Ambient
Noise. The SPL variation shall not be more than 3dB
difference.

Evenly distributed loudspeaker layout will provide an even SPL


to the system. +10dB above Ambient Noise means the system will
be loud enough to be heard by the occupants. Less than 3dB SPL
variation means the occupants will experience no variation in
loudness when he stand below the speaker or he stand away from
the speaker.
Ambient Noise
Ambient Noise + 10dB

102

PA System Overall System Specifications


Technical Specifications

Specifications Benefits

Speech intelligibility shall have a Speech Transmission


Index (STI) of greater than 0.5.

The STI refers to the clarity of the system announcement. The


greater the index, the better the system intelligibility. A system
can be loud but not intelligible. It is very much dependent on the
type of speaker chosen and quantity of speaker allocated in the
provided acoustic environment. Hence, this is one important
index one should monitor.

Noise

The ceiling loudspeakers used shall be spring mounted.

Clear

All staircases shall have a box loudspeaker for each level.


All these box loudspeakers in the staircase shall be
grouped as an independent zone.

Grouping all the box loudspeakers in a staircase as one independent


zone is necessary as these speakers belong to a common open area.
Confusion will arise to a person who is travelling in a staircase if
these box loudspeakers were to grouped according to their floors
where different floors might have different BGM or announcement
concurrently. This single grouping of staircases speakers also meets
the requirement for the emergency evacuation method, where a
single message will be played throughout the entire stairway to
guide the evacuating occupants accordingly.

For background music reproduction, the loudspeakers


chosen shall cover the entire music frequency spectrum.
For foreground music reproduction, the loudspeakers
chosen shall be 2-way full-range high impedance
foreground music loudspeakers.
For outdoor applications, the loudspeakers chosen shall be
weatherproof aluminium column loudspeakers or
weatherproof-treated ABS foreground music loudspeakers.

Weatherproof treated loudspeaker is essential for outdoor installation, as they should be able to withstand prolonged exposure to
rain, heat and UV.

Audio attenuators shall be place strategically in the building.


The audio attenuators chosen shall be equipped with a
built-in relay emergency overriding feature. The audio
attenuators shall be controlled by a 6 level continuous
rotary switch, with attenuation in steps of 6dB. It shall be
able to be both flush and surface mounted to the wall (with
optional back box) without any visible mounting screws.

The continuous rotary switch design ease the volume adjustment


for users whenever they need to switch from the maximum to the
minimum (or vice versa) of the attenuation level in one rotary
direction only.

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 3

Spring Mount

Section

A spring mounted design ceiling loudspeaker ease the installation


procedure. And it doesnt involve any screw, we dont have to
worry about the rusty screws problem due to a prolonged exposure
time to moisture environment. Besides, it also facilitates the future
maintenance job where spring-mounted ceiling loudspeaker
simplifies the loudspeaker cabling check and etc.

103

PA System Overall System Specifications


Technical Specifications

Specifications Benefits

Loudspeaker line supervisory feature shall be incorporated in the amplifier monitoring device as one unit
solution.

Incorporation of both features of amplifier monitoring and


speaker line supervisory into one device solution will lower
the entire system cost eventually and minimize rack space
required during installation.

The supervisory feature shall utilize line impedance


measurement method to monitor the loudspeaker lines.

The Line Impedance Measurement method of monitoring will


do away with the DC blocking capacitors installed on every
speakers and End-of-Line (EOL) resistor, hence eliminating
the filtering of the lower frequencies by the DC blocking
capacitors and improving the frequency response of the
loudspeaker unit. It allows loudspeaker lines branching,
monitoring loudspeakers installed beyond audio attenuators
and will isolate faulty loudspeaker line from the power amplifier in the event of a loudspeaker line short.

Section

DC Blocking
Capacitor

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 3


104

EOL
Resistor

DC
Monitoring

AC
Monitoring

6.0 Power Supplies and Racks

6.0 Power Supplies and Racks

All primary power supplies for the system shall be mains


240Vac; 50Hz, and connected to the building essential
power lines in the event of mains power shut down. It
shall automatically switch over to 24 Vdc in case of
mains power failure before the essential power lines
generator starts to supply power. The standby battery
supply shall provide sufficient power and enable the
fully loaded system, announcement at the maximum
level, to continue operating without interruption for a
minimum duration of 1/2 hour should mains power fail.

In the event of power failure or a fire, when the mains supply


is disrupted, there will be no supply to the equipment. The
standby battery backup supply will provide a source of
secondary power supply.

All equipment shall be mounted into a 19 EIA Standard


equipment rack except microphone console, volume
controls and loudspeaker. All equipment, switchers, etc.
shall be clearly labeled for easy identification. All equipment supplied shall be maintenance free, high quality,
up-to-date and elegant in design. The design concept
and layout shall be such that the operation be failsafe
and easy to operate.

PA System Overall System Specifications


Applicable to

- Digital Matrix PA System


Specifications Benefits

Technical Specifications
1.0 General

1.0 General

This section specifies the minimum acceptable standard of


quality and the minimum acceptable function to be
performed for the Public Address (PA) System. The PA
system shall be able to conduct general paging and background Music (BGM) broadcast at different priority level.
The work covered in this section shall include the design,
supply, delivery, installation, wiring, connecting, final
testing and commissioning with a 12 months warranty
against manufacturers defect.

PA system is being used as a tool for performing public


announcement and providing background music. At a small
premium over the cost of a conventional PA system, the
additional early evacuation feature is easily justified.

The Public Address (PA) System equipment shall be of one


single brand, except the music source equipment.

The single brand requirement will ease the project coordination,


commissioning and after sales and maintenance service. It will
also avoid any problems arise from equipment signal levels and
impedance mismatch in the case of different brand equipment.

The Public Address (PA) System manufacturer shall be of


ISO9001:2000 certified. All the PA system equipment shall
be designed to withstand a tropical, high humidity climate.

The ISO9001:2000 Certification will guarantee the product


quality with consistency.

2.0 Signal Management Digital Matrix

2.0 Signal Management Digital Matrix

The PA System shall be of PA Digital Matrix System to


conduct simultaneous multiple paging to designated
zones. This Digital Matrix System shall operate in at least
16 bit, 48kHz sampling, CD quality, Analog to Digital (ADC)
and Digital to Analog (DAC) conversion rate.

PA digital matrix system is the only system that allows multiple


messages broadcast simultaneously. A digital matrix will allow
multiple audio signals to be managed digitally and hence
losslessly. A CD quality sound system is of utmost important in
high class establishment like Hotels and Exhibition Centers,
where the occupants enjoy its superb BGM quality.

The PA digital matrix system shall be able to handle at least


8 x 8 full audio matrix with minimum 8 audio buses, and
expandable up to a maximum of 20 x 60 full audio matrix
for a medium scale matrix system, and a 32 x 128 full audio
matrix for a full scale matrix system.

8 x 8 full audio matrix means that all the 8 audio inputs can be
broadcast to any of the 8 audio output channels simultaneously.
8 audio buses means allowing 8 audio sources to be broadcast at
the same time. The matrix shall have room for future expansion
and be able to be extended to a 20 x 60 full audio matrix for a
medium scale matrix and 32 x 128 full audio matrix for a large
scale matrix system.

The PA digital matrix shall be able to operate as a normal


PA system that broadcast different Background Music
(BGM) to different designated zones simultaneously. This
system shall provide at least 4 different BGM signals
broadcast to different speaker zones simultaneously. The 4
simultaneous BGM shall have room for future BGM system
expansion.

This is important for big establishment like hotel or shopping


complexes where different BGM is required at different zones at
the same time to provide different psycho-acoustic experience to
the customers. Different BGM to be broadcast to different areas of
the building relaxes the customers as they enter and some cases
enhance the productivity of the employees within the building.

The PA digital matrix system shall be able to manage at


least 4 remote microphones and expandable up to 8
remote microphones inputs (for medium scale matrix
system) or 32 remote microphone inputs (for large scale
matrix system) with programmable priority. The remote
microphone shall be able to page independently to any
zones in the entire building individually or collectively.

The 4 remote microphones independent paging means all 4


microphones paging can be in use at the same time. In fact,
microphones are the most common signal source in most PA
system especially in high occupancy establishment like hotels,
shopping complexes, airports etc. to make announcement as well
as to conduct manned evacuation.

(BGM)

Paging

Section

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 4


105

PA System Overall System Specifications


Technical Specifications

Specifications Benefits

The PA digital matrix shall be able to handle different


microphone paging broadcast to different designated
zones simultaneously. This PA matrix shall be able to
handle up to 4 simultaneous paging (for medium scale
matrix) and 32 simultaneous paging (for large scale matrix)
at any one time.

This is important for buildings like airports, factories, offices,


and any other establishment that requires multiple microphones
paging. . Hence it is imperative to have a matrix that can handle
all microphone at its full input capacity and all microphones
shall be able to do independent paging at all time.
Mic 4

Mic 1

Mic 3

Mic 2
Concurrent

Mic 1

Mic 3
Mic 4

Section

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 4


106

Mic 2

The higher priority microphones shall be able to override


the signals and microphones of lower priority automatically
upon activation. The BGM shall be muted when paging
and resume automatically after paging.

When microphone of higher priority selected a zone that is


already occupied by a lower priority signals (be it BGM or lower
priority microphone), the higher priority microphone paging will
be able to override it, because the priority microphone paging is
deemed to have more important paging than the others. After the
microphone paging, the selected zones will resume the BGM
broadcast automatically.

In the case of zones clash, a Microphone Queue Management


system shall be apply to handle the system queuing operation. This Microphone Queue Management System shall
incorporate an audio and visual notification to the operators
upon availability of the zones selected.

Microphone Queue Management feature allows microphones of


same priority level to go on queue based on fist-come-first-serve
basis. The microphone operators will be notified via the microphone LCD and a buzzer upon the availability of the zones
selected. The operator need not have to re-enter the zones again
when comes his turn to page.

Mic Queue

(Applies Only to Medium Scale Matrix System)


The matrix system remote microphone should be incorporated with optional features of password protection,
volume control over zones and change of BGM routing
patterns.

The microphone password protection feature would minimize the


possibility of misuse of the device, such as paging broadcast by
unauthorized personnel. Allowing the function keys of the microphone to be programmed to control zones volume as well as
changing the routing patterns would ease the operation and
control over the system as the authorized personnel need not to
be in the control rooms to perform such adjustment. It allows
immediate response to be carried out when required.

It shall have a top priority Firemen Microphone that


overrides all microphones in the building. Its announcement shall precede with an attention-drawing siren for 4s
to 10s to comply with IEC 60849. It shall be located at the
Fire Control Room.

This top priority will override all microphones in the building.


This microphone should only be used by the firemen. The
attention-drawing siren precede an announcement is the IEC
60849 Standards for Sound System for Emergency Purpose.

It shall accept up to a maximum of 128 control sensor


inputs and 188 multipurpose relay outputs (for medium
scale matrix system), and of 128 control sensor inputs and
256 multipurpose relay outputs (for large scale matrix
system).

The control sensor input channels allow external control signal


to control the matrix system, e.g. Addressable Fire Alarm System.
Any fire alarm triggered from the any fire alarm zone/s or floor/s
will be feedback to matrix and an automatic digital message will
be broadcast to the respective zone/s or floor/s (if the matrix was
programmed to do such). The multipurpose relay outputs
channels allow matrix system to control any external equipment
or system, like evacuation strobe lights etc.

This system shall have a built-in Time Scheduler that


will automatically trigger events as programmed. The
time scheduler shall have up to at least 560 time
blocks/programs per week.

When come to operation on routine programs, the built-in Time


Scheduler is the timetable that one can program into the matrix
and let it perform those routine programs automatically without
any human intervention.

PA System Overall System Specifications


Technical Specifications

Specifications Benefits

Auto Route

The modularity of matrix design allows greater flexibility in


terms of future upgrading and expansion. Should any card fail,
modular system allows the faulty card to be unplugged from the
frame and replace with a new one. This will keep the system
running and minimize the system down time.

The system shall be able to be configured and monitored


through a PC. The configuration software shall be userfriendly Windows-based and incorporated with a Configuration Wizard to guide the user throughout the system
configuration procedure. The software shall allow configuration and monitoring of the system.

The PC configuration is friendlier in terms of configuration and


monitoring. It operates on a common Window platform that most of
the user familiar with. Its Configuration Wizard is most useful for
beginner when he first configure the system. By following through
the steps guided by the wizard, one can configure the entire matrix
system in no time.
Let me
help ..

It shall be equipped with at least 2-Level password


protection. 10 user-definable passwords shall be available
in each level.

First level password allows users to monitor and view the


system operation status. The second level password allows users
to change system configuration. Each level of password allows
10 different users to define their personal password. Besides
protecting the system from unauthorized tempering, it is also
for management to monitor who has entered the system and
who did the last system configuration modification.

The matrix system shall be able to support Dual CPU


redundancy option and shall be able to perform system
diagnosis automatically.

Any frequently used system will require certain degree of fail-safe


redundancy. A highly used PA system in establishment like
airports, exhibition halls, etc. will need a dual redundancy
requirement. The Dual CPU redundancy is an option for this
purpose. System self-diagnosis allows the system to monitor its
own operating condition.

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 4

The Matrix System shall be modular in design and all


electronic boards shall be inserted from the rear.

Section

Auto Route

Speaks the
same ..

107

PA System Overall System Specifications

Section

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 4


108

Technical Specifications

Specifications Benefits

The system shall have a simulation function to facilitate the


Testing & Commissioning (T&C) procedure.

The simulation function is to simplify the T&C chore by having


the system run its full Time Scheduler function at one go.

The system shall be able to connect to the Internet via an


optional Internet Connectivity Panel. This is to enable the
user to monitor the status of the matrix system and upload
new configuration settings from a remote online PC.
Besides, the system shall be able to send emails up to 5
designated addresses upon any fault detected.

Internet connectivity will allows building owners to monitor the


condition of its PA system operation. This will also allow authorized
contractors to monitor and change configuration remotely. Any
faults detected upon system diagnosis can be sent through emails to
5 different parties for action. The 5 different parties could be:
a. Service Department Head
b. Building owner
c. Consultants
d. System Integrator
e. Contract Maintenance companies

The PA digital matrix system shall be able to upgrade to


Early Evacuation System (EES) to conduct concerted
evacuation during emergency by changing the Central
Processing Card with the EES software.

By having the PA digital matrix to upgrade to EES, is to allow the


building owners and the fire authority to program the people
evacuation steps as it was planned and confirmed based on the
building evacuation plan discussed even before the Certificate of
Fitness was issued.

The system shall be able to be powered by mains supply


of 240Vac, 50 Hz or 110 Vac, 60 Hz or a UPS backup
supply of 24 Vdc.

Besides the AC mains, the system needs to be in operation


especially in the event of emergency. Hence, any failure of power
supply to the system should be prevented.

3.0 Power Amplifiers

3.0 Power Amplifiers

Sufficient numbers of power amplifiers with 20% headroom


shall be provided to drive all the loudspeakers to the
maximum level without overloading. The power amplifiers
shall be powered by mains 240Vac, 50Hz or by external DC
power supply supplying at 28Vdc. They shall accept a
secondary power supply of 24Vdc backup battery array.

The power amplifier headroom allows any fluctuation in line


impedance that may draw more power than the actual
loudspeaker load from the power amplifier. This headroom will
also allow room for any future expansion. To be able to connect
to backup battery array is to ensure uninterrupted operation even
in the event of mains power failure.

A failsafe system for these power amplifiers shall perform


continuous fault monitoring on each power amplifier unit.
The power amplifiers shall have greater than 12% backup
capability. It shall instantly route the input and output
signals of a faulty amplifier (of similar or higher power) into
the signal lines of the standby power amplifier automatically within 1s without any human intervention. At the same
time, the automatic amplifier changeover unit shall sound
a buzzer to alert maintenance personnel to attend to the
situation. The amplifier monitoring device shall incorporate
line supervisory function to monitor loudspeaker lines for
SHORT, OPEN and GND Leak. The unit shall isolate the
loudspeaker line from the power amplifier if a SHORT is
detected.

To have greater than 12% backup capacity means at least 8 duty


amplifiers to be backup by 1 backup amplifier. The continuous
fault monitoring and automatic changeover within 1s in the event
of amplifier fault is imperative to warrant a fail-safe system.
With the amplifier faulty buzzer going on in the control room, the
faulty amplifier should be attended immediately.
Duty Amp.
Duty Amp.
Duty Amp.
Backup Amp.

Duty Amp.
Duty Amp.
20% Backup
Duty Amp.
Duty Amp.
Duty Amp.

The status of the automatic changeover unit shall feedback


to the Matrix System for fault reporting.

This is for total system monitoring.

A Monitor Panel shall be incorporated in the main equipment


rack with a selector switch, a volume control, a loudspeaker,
and a VU meter to monitor the output of the power
amplifiers.

For monitoring purpose, one need not have to go to every floor


to listen to the amplifier level. Amplifiers levels can be
monitored audibly and visually via the Monitor Panel installed
into the amplifier rack.

PA System Overall System Specifications


Technical Specifications

Specifications Benefits

4.0 Loudspeakers Selection and Monitoring

4.0 Loudspeakers Selection and Monitoring

The loudspeakers shall be wired in zones as required by the


building management.

The loudspeaker zones are dependent on the fire evacuation


zoning management.

The position of the loudspeakers is such that the sound


pressure level (SPL) in each zone shall be evenly distributed.
The total SPL shall be +10dB above the Ambient Noise. The
SPL variation shall not be more than 3dB difference.

Evenly distributed loudspeaker layout will provide an even SPL


to the system. +10dB above Ambient Noise means the system will
be loud enough to be heard by the occupants. Less than 3dB SPL
variation means the occupants will experience no variation in
loudness when he stand below the speaker or he stand away from
the speaker.
Ambient Noise
Ambient Noise + 10dB

Clear

Noise

The ceiling loudspeakers used shall be spring mounted.

A spring mounted design ceiling loudspeaker ease the installation


procedure. And it doesnt involve any screw, we dont have to
worry about the rusty screws problem due to a prolonged exposure
time to moisture environment. Besides, it also facilitates the future
maintenance job where spring-mounted ceiling loudspeaker
simplifies the loudspeaker cabling check and etc.

Spring Mount

For background music reproduction, the loudspeakers


chosen shall cover the entire music frequency spectrum. For
foreground music reproduction, the loudspeakers chosen
shall be 2-way full-range high impedance foreground music
loudspeakers.

Grouping all the box loudspeakers in a staircase as one independent


zone is necessary as these speakers belong to a common open area.
Confusion will arise to a person who is travelling in a staircase if
these box loudspeakers were to grouped according to their floors
where different floors might have different BGM or announcement
concurrently. This single grouping of staircases speakers also meets
the requirement for the emergency evacuation method, where a
single message will be played throughout the entire stairway to
guide the evacuating occupants accordingly.

For outdoor application, the loudspeakers chosen shall be


weatherproof
aluminium
column
loudspeakers
or
weatherproof-treated ABS foreground music loudspeakers.

Weatherproof treated loudspeaker is essential for outdoor installation, as they should be able to withstand prolonged exposure to rain,
heat and UV.

All staircases shall have a box loudspeaker for each level. All
these box loudspeakers in the staircase shall be grouped as
an independent zone.

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 4

The STI refers to the clarity of the system announcement. The


greater the index, the better the system intelligibility. A system
can be loud but not intelligible. It is very much dependent on the
type of speaker chosen and quantity of speaker allocated in the
provided acoustic environment. Hence, this is one important
index one should monitor.

Section

Speech intelligibility shall have a Speech Transmission Index


(STI) of greater than 0.5.

109

PA System Overall System Specifications


Specifications Benefits

Audio attenuators shall be place strategically in the building.


The audio attenuators chosen shall be equipped with built-in
relay emergency overriding feature. The audio attenuators
shall be controlled by a 6 levels continuous rotary switch,
with attenuation in steps of 6dB. It shall be able to be both
flush and surface mounted to the wall (with optional back
box) without any visible mounting screws.

The continuous rotary switch design ease the volume adjustment


for users whenever they need to switch from the maximum to the
minimum (or vice versa) of the attenuation level in one rotary
direction only.

Loudspeaker line supervisory feature shall be


incorporated in the amplifier monitoring device as one
unit solution.

Incorporation of both features of amplifier monitoring and


speaker line supervisory into one device solution will lower the
entire system cost eventually and minimize rack space required
during installation.

The supervisory feature shall utilize line impedance


measurement method to monitor the loudspeaker lines.

The Line Impedance Measurement method of monitoring will do


away with the DC blocking capacitors installed on every speakers and End-of-Line (EOL) resistor, hence eliminating the
filtering of the lower frequencies by the DC blocking capacitors
and improving the frequency response of the loudspeaker unit. It
allows loudspeaker lines branching, monitoring loudspeakers
installed beyond audio attenuators and will isolate faulty
loudspeaker line from the power amplifier in the event of a
loudspeaker line short.

Section

Technical Specifications

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 4


110

DC Blocking
Capacitor

EOL
Resistor

DC
Monitoring

AC
Monitoring

The status of the loudspeaker line supervisory unit shall be


feedback to the Matrix System for fault reporting.

This is for total system monitoring.

5.0 Power Supplies and Racks

5.0 Power Supplies and Racks

All primary power supplies for the system shall be mains


240Vac; 50Hz, and connected to the building essential
power lines in the event of mains power shut down. It shall
automatically switch over to 24 Vdc in case of mains power
failure before the essential power lines generator starts to
supply power. The standby battery supply shall provide
sufficient power and enable the fully loaded system,
announcement at the maximum level, to continue operating without interruption for a minimum duration of 1/2 hour
should mains power fail.

In the event of power failure or a fire, when the mains supply is


disrupted, there will be no supply to the equipment. The standby
battery backup supply will provide a source of secondary power
supply.

All equipment shall be mounted into a 19 EIA Standard


equipment rack except microphone console, volume
controls and loudspeaker. All equipment, switchers, etc.
shall be clearly labeled for easy identification. All equipment supplied shall be maintenance free, high quality, upto-date and elegant in design. The design concept and
layout shall be such that the operation be failsafe and easy
to operate.

PA System Overall System Specifications


Applicable to

- Early Evacuation PA System


Specifications Benefits

Technical Specifications
1.0 General

1.0 General

This section specifies the minimum acceptable standard of


quality and the minimum acceptable function to be
performed for the Public Address (PA) System. The PA
system shall be able to conduct voice evacuation, general
paging and background Music (BGM) broadcast at different priority level. The work covered in this section shall
include the design, supply, delivery, installation, wiring,
connecting, final testing and commissioning with a 12
months warranty against manufacturers defect.

PA system is increasingly being taken advantage of as a tool for


providing concerted early evacuation in the event of an
emergency besides its traditional roles in performing public
announcement and providing background music. At a small
premium over the cost of a conventional PA system, the
additional early evacuation feature is easily justified.

(BGM)

Paging

EES

The Public Address (PA) System manufacturer shall be of


ISO9001:2000 certified. All the PA system equipment shall
be tropicalised to withstand tropical, high humidity climate.

The ISO9001:2000 Certification will guarantee the product


quality with consistency.

2.0 Signal Management Digital Matrix

2.0 Signal Management Digital Matrix

The PA system shall be of PA digital matrix system to


conduct simultaneous multiple paging to designated
zones. This digital matrix system shall operate in at least
16 bit, 48kHz sampling, CD quality, Analog to Digital (ADC)
and Digital to Analog (DAC) conversion rate.

PA digital matrix system is the only system that allows multiple


messages broadcast simultaneously. A digital matrix will allow
multiple audio signals to be managed digitally and hence
losslessly. A CD quality sound system is of utmost important in
high class establishment like Hotels and Exhibition Centers,
where the occupants enjoy its superb BGM quality.

The PA digital matrix system shall be able to handle at least


8 x 8 full audio matrix with minimum 8 audio buses, and
expandable up to a maximum of 20 x 60 full audio matrix
for a medium scale matrix system, and a 32 x 128 full audio
matrix for a full scale matrix system.

8 x 8 full audio matrix means that all the 8 audio inputs can be
broadcast to any of the 8 audio output channels simultaneously.
8 audio buses means allowing 8 audio sources to be broadcast at
the same time. The matrix shall have room for future expansion
and be able to be extended to a 20 x 60 full audio matrix for a
medium scale matrix and 32 x 128 full audio matrix for a large
scale matrix system.

The PA digital matrix shall be able to operate as a normal


PA system that broadcast different Background Music
(BGM) to different designated zones simultaneously. This
system shall provide at least 4 different BGM signals
broadcast to different speaker zones simultaneously. The 4
simultaneous BGM shall have room for future BGM system
expansion.

This is important for big establishment like hotel or shopping


complexes where different BGM is required at different zones at
the same time to provide different psycho-acoustic experience to
the customers. Different BGM to be broadcast to different areas of
the building relaxes the customers as they enter and some cases
enhance the productivity of the employees within the building.

The PA digital matrix system shall be able to manage at


least 4 remote microphones and expandable up to 8
remote microphones inputs (for medium scale matrix
system) or 32 remote microphone inputs (for large scale
matrix system) with programmable priority. The remote
microphone shall be able to page independently to any
zones in the entire building individually or collectively.

The 4 remote microphones independent paging means all 4


microphones paging can be in use at the same time. In fact,
microphones are the most common signal source in most PA
system especially in high occupancy establishment like hotels,
shopping complexes, airports etc. to make announcement as well
as to conduct manned evacuation.

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 5

The single brand requirement will ease the project coordination,


commissioning and after sales and maintenance service. It will
also avoid any problems arise from equipment signal levels and
impedance mismatch in the case of different brand equipment.

Section

The Public Address (PA) System equipment shall be of one


single brand, except the music source equipment.

111

PA System Overall System Specifications


Technical Specifications

Specifications Benefits

The PA digital matrix shall be able to handle different


microphone paging broadcast to different designated
zones simultaneously. This PA matrix shall be able to
handle up to 4 simultaneous paging (for medium scale
matrix) and 32 simultaneous paging (for large scale matrix)
at any one time.

This is important for buildings like airports, factories, offices,


and any other establishment that requires multiple microphones
paging. Hence it is imperative to have a matrix that can handle
all microphone at its full input capacity and all microphones
shall be able to do independent paging at all time.
Mic 1

Mic 4

Mic 2
Mic 3

Mic 3
Concurrent

Mic 1

Mic 4
Mic 2

Section

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 5


112

The higher priority microphones shall be able to override


the signals and microphones of lower priority
automatically upon activation. The BGM shall be muted
when paging and resume automatically after paging.

When microphone of higher priority selected a zone that is


already occupied by a lower priority signals (be it BGM or lower
priority microphone), the higher priority microphone paging will
be able to override it, because the priority microphone paging is
deemed to have more important paging than the others. After the
microphone paging, the selected zones will resume the BGM
broadcast automatically.

In the case of zones clash, a Microphone Queue Management


system shall be apply to handle the system queuing
operation. This Microphone Queue Management System
shall incorporate an audio and visual notification to the operators upon availability of the zones selected.

Microphone Queue Management feature allows microphones of


same priority level to go on queue based on fist-come-first-serve
basis. The microphone operators will be notified via the microphone LCD and a buzzer upon the availability of the zones
selected. The operator need not have to re-enter the zones again
when comes his turn to page.

(Applies Only to Medium Scale Matrix System)


The matrix system remote microphone should be
incorporated with optional features of password
protection, volume control over zones and change of BGM
routing patterns.

Mic Queue

The microphone password protection feature would minimize the


possibility of misuse of the device, such as paging broadcast by
unauthorized personnel. Allowing the function keys of the microphone to be programmed to control zones volume as well as
changing the routing patterns would ease the operation and
control over the system as the authorized personnel need not to
be in the control rooms to perform such adjustment. It allows
immediate response to be carried out when required.

It shall have a top priority Firemen Microphone that


overrides all microphones in the building. Its
announcement shall precede with an attention-drawing
siren for 4s to 10s to comply with IEC 60849. It shall be
located at the Fire Control Room.

This top priority will override all microphones in the building.


This microphone should only be used by the firemen. The
attention-drawing siren precede an announcement is the IEC
60849 Standards for Sound System for Emergency Purpose.

It shall accept up to a maximum of 128 control sensor


inputs and 188 multipurpose relay outputs (for medium
scale matrix system), and of 128 control sensor inputs and
256 multipurpose relay outputs (for large scale matrix
system).

The control sensor input channels allow external control signal


to control the matrix system, e.g. Addressable Fire Alarm System.
Any fire alarm triggered from the any fire alarm zone/s or floor/s
will be feedback to matrix and an automatic digital message will
be broadcast to the respective zone/s or floor/s (if the matrix was
programmed to do such). The multipurpose relay outputs
channels allow matrix system to control any external equipment
or system, like evacuation strobe lights etc.

This system shall have a built-in Time Scheduler that will


automatically trigger events as programmed. The time
scheduler shall have up to at least 560 time
blocks/programs per week.

When come to operation on routine programs, the built-in Time


Scheduler is the timetable that one can program into the matrix
and let it perform those routine programs automatically without
any human intervention.

PA System Overall System Specifications


Technical Specifications

Specifications Benefits

Auto Route

The modularity of matrix design allows greater flexibility in


terms of future upgrading and expansion. Should any card fail,
modular system allows the faulty card to be unplugged from the
frame and replace with a new one. This will keep the system
running and minimize the system down time.

The system shall be able to be configured and monitored


through a PC. The configuration software shall be userfriendly Windows-based and incorporated with a Configuration Wizard to guide the user throughout the system
configuration procedure. The software shall allow configuration and monitoring of the system.

The PC configuration is friendlier in terms of configuration and


monitoring. It operates on a common Window platform that most of
the user familiar with. Its Configuration Wizard is most useful for
beginner when he first configure the system. By following through
the steps guided by the wizard, one can configure the entire matrix
system in no time.
Let me
help ..

It shall be equipped with at least 2-Level password protection. 10 user-definable passwords shall be available in
each level.

First level password allows users to monitor and view the system
operation status. The second level password allows users to
change system configuration. Each level of password allows 10
different users to define their personal password. Besides
protecting the system from unauthorized tempering, it is also for
management to monitor who has entered the system and who did
the last system configuration modification.

The Matrix System shall be able to support Dual CPU


redundancy option and shall be able to perform system
diagnosis automatically.

Any frequently used system will require certain degree of fail-safe


redundancy. A highly used PA system in establishment like
airports, exhibition halls, etc. will need a dual redundancy
requirement. The Dual CPU redundancy is the only efficient
option for this purpose. System self-diagnosis allows the system
to monitor its own operating condition.

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 5

The Matrix System shall be modular in design and all


electronic boards shall be inserted from the rear.

Section

Auto Route

Speaks the
same ..

113

PA System Overall System Specifications


Technical Specifications

Specifications Benefits

The system shall have a simulation function to facilitate the


Testing & Commissioning (T&C) procedure.

The simulation function is to simplify the T&C chore by having


the system run its full Time Scheduler function at one go.

The system shall be able to connect to the Internet via an


optional Internet Connectivity Panel. This is to enable the
user to monitor the status of the matrix system and upload
new configuration settings from a remote online PC.
Besides, the system shall be able to send emails up to 5
designated addresses upon any fault detected.

Internet connectivity will allow building owners to monitor the


condition of its PA system operation. This will also allow authorized contractors to monitor and change configuration remotely.
Any faults detected upon system diagnosis can be sent through
emails to 5 different parties for action. The 5 different parties
could be:
a. Service Department Head
b. Building owner
c. Consultants
d. System Integrator
e. Contract Maintenance companies

Section
I PA System Overall
4

System Specification - Design Level 5


114

The PA digital matrix system shall be also an Early Evacuation


System (EES) to conduct concerted evacuation during emergency. The EES matrix system shall be able to be
programmed to perform the Early Evacuation Steps during
evacuation. The EES evacuation shall have a minimum of 6
different pre-recorded evacuation messages to be broadcast
to different evacuation zones simultaneously, namely Evacuation Message 1, Evacuation Message 2, Warning Message,
Staircase Message, Outdoor Message and Special Message.
The messages shall be expandable up to at least 8 different
messages. Once programmed, the EES matrix shall be able
to perform those evacuation patterns and steps
automatically.

By having the PA digital matrix to perform EES, is to allow the


building owners and the fire authority to program the people
evacuation steps as it was planned and confirmed based on the
building evacuation plan discussed even before the Certificate of
Fitness was issued. The EES conducts evacuation systematically
and automatically before the arrival of the firemen by having
several pre-recorded evacuations messages to be broadcast to
different evacuating zone simultaneously. The 6 different types of
messages are:
a. Evacuation Message 1 to inform the hazardous floor on the
nature of the threat and the evacuation routes.
b. Evacuation Message 2 to inform the adjacent floors on the
alternative evacuation routes to avoid any congestion with the
hazardous floor/s.
c. Warning Message to put the building occupants in other
floors on alert and to standby for further instruction.
d. Staircase Message to calm the evacuating occupants on the
staircase / escape routes not to push and rush to the exit.
e. Outdoor Message to make announcement to the assembling
crowd at the refuge area.
f. Special Message to make announcement to the pedestrians
and anyone that crowd around the building to give way to the
evacuating occupants

Special
Message

Evacuation
Message 1
Evacuation
Message 2
Warning
Message

PA System Overall System Specifications


Technical Specifications

Specifications Benefits

This EES Matrix System shall be able to carry out both


Phased Evacuation and Optimal Evacuation in response to
different types of threats generated within the building or
outside the building that is going to impose any kind of
danger to the building occupants. Besides the Fire Hazard
within the building, it shall be able to have another 10 different triggering to carry out different evacuation steps in
response to different types of threat / hazard accordingly.
The Phased Evacuation of EES shall be able to integrate
with the Addressable Fire Alarm system.

Phased Evacuation is the evacuation steps carried out originate


from certain evacuating zone/s, e.g. fire. Optimal Evacuation is
evacuation steps to evacuate the most people within the shortest
possible time. Both these evacuation steps can be programmed in
response to any internal or external threats that may put the life
of the building occupants in peril. Fire Hazard will be one hazard
that should be programmed into all building PA system. Besides
this, theyre another 10 different types of threat to be able to
program into the EES. The examples are:
a. Bomb Threat Evacuation
b. Earthquake Evacuation
c. Air Raid Evacuation
d. Tsunami Evacuation.
e. Evacuation Drill.
f. Etc.

Section

Optimal Evacuation

The EES Matrix System shall be able to run in two modes:


Automatic Evacuation Mode & Manual Evacuation Mode.

The Automatic Evacuation Mode allows the EES to launch the


concerted evacuation steps automatically before the firemen
arrival. The Manual Evacuation Mode allows firemen to take over
the evacuation procedures and make announcement manually.

During the automatic evacuation mode, all the BGM and


remote microphones are barred from broadcasting and
paging except remote microphones with highest priority.

This is in compliance with the IEC 60849 standards on Sound


Systems for Emergency Purpose.

The EES Matrix System shall have its independent confirmation procedure to confirm on the real emergency from
any false alarm. Besides the confirmation mechanism, it
shall have an alternative option of time-out mechanism to
launch the evacuation steps if no one confirms the fire
alarm trigger signal.

This independent confirmation mechanism is to avoid any false


alarm triggered by the Fire Alarm panel. The time-out mechanism
is to ensure the safety of the building occupant by directly launching the evacuation steps without taking any chance.

The evacuation steps shall be floor-by-floor or group-bygroup depending on the building requirement.

This flexibility will accommodate all types of evacuation plan and


scheme, in all types of building.

The evacuation shall be carried out in minimally 5 different


patterns and 5 different steps. The evacuation patterns
steps and intervals shall be user programmable.

The different evacuation steps and patterns allow more flexibility


and more concerted way of evacuation.

As for the Manual Evacuation Mode, the system shall be


able to link to the Fireman Emergency Panel and to the
mimic panel to facilitate the fireman manual evacuation. The
Firemen Emergency Panel shall be in Red in color with a
Firemen handheld microphone. This microphone activation
shall precede with a Siren. The mimic panel shall depict the
zones that the Evacuation Messages have been broadcast
and the zones that are still listening to the Warning
Message.

Both these panels are typical fire command panel that is familiar
to all firemen. The firemen need not have to learn and operate the
matrix system in order to conduct manual evacuation. The red
Firemen Emergency Panel is coupled with a handheld firemen
paging microphone, a big Firemen Mode button, a red emergency
light for visual indication, an All-call button, etc. A preannouncement Siren requirement is in compliance with the IEC
60849 Standards.

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 5

Phased Evacuation

115

PA System Overall System Specifications

Section

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 5


116

Technical Specifications

Specifications Benefits

The EES Matrix System shall have manual zone selector


panels to allow firemen to perform selective announcement. These zone selector panels shall show visually the
zones that have listened to the Evacuation Message and
zones that are still listening to the Warning Message.

In the event where firemen found paging to all zones at once is


impractical, zone selector panels here are for firemen to select the
zone that he wants to page to. The visual indication on the zone
selector panel will facilitate the firemen evacuation procedures by
telling the firemen which zones have already been evacuated
automatically and which zones have not.

The EES shall be able to store an extra 500 evacuation


logs.

This evacuation event logging is useful when carrying out any


post mortem analysis on the event. Records like when did the fire
alarm send signal to the EES, when did firemen take over the
evacuation from automatic mode, etc.

The EES Matrix System shall be able to be powered by


mains supply of 240 Vac, 50 Hz or 110 Vac, 60 Hz or a UPS
backup supply of 24 Vdc.

Besides the AC mains, the system needs to be in operation


especially in the event of emergency. Hence, any failure of power
supply to the system should be prevented.

3.0 Power Amplifiers

3.0 Power Amplifiers

Sufficient numbers of power amplifiers with 20% headroom


shall be provided to drive all the loudspeakers to the
maximum level without overloading. The power amplifiers
shall be powered by mains 240Vac, 50Hz or by external DC
power supply supplying at 28Vdc. They shall accept a
secondary power supply of 24Vdc backup battery array.

The power amplifier headroom allows any fluctuation in line


impedance that may draw more power than the actual loudspeaker
load from the power amplifier. This headroom will also allow room
for any future expansion. To be able to connect to backup battery
array is to ensure uninterrupted operation even in the event of
mains power failure.

A failsafe system for these power amplifiers shall perform


continuous fault monitoring on each power amplifier unit.
The power amplifiers shall have greater than 12% backup
capability. It shall instantly route the input and output
signals of a faulty amplifier (of similar or higher power) into
the signal lines of the standby power amplifier automatically within 1s without any human intervention. At the same
time, the automatic amplifier changeover unit shall sound
a buzzer to alert maintenance personnel to attend to the
situation. The amplifier monitoring device shall incorporate
line supervisory function to monitor loudspeaker lines for
SHORT, OPEN and GND Leak. The unit shall isolate the
loudspeaker line from the power amplifier if a SHORT is
detected.

To have greater than 12% backup capacity means at least 8 duty


amplifiers to be backup by 1 backup amplifier. The continuous
fault monitoring and automatic changeover within 1s in the
event of amplifier fault is imperative to warrant a fail-safe
system. With the amplifier faulty buzzer going on in the control
room, the faulty amplifier should be attended immediately.
Duty Amp.
Duty Amp.
Duty Amp.
Backup Amp.

Duty Amp.
Duty Amp.
Duty Amp.

20% Backup

Duty Amp.
Duty Amp.

The status of the automatic changeover unit shall be


feedback to the EES matrix system for fault reporting.

This is for total system monitoring.

A Monitor Panel shall be incorporated in the main equipment


rack with a selector switch, a volume control, a loudspeaker,
and a VU meter to monitor the output of the power amplifiers.

For monitoring purpose, one need not have to go to every floor


to listen to the amplifier level. Amplifiers levels can be
monitored audibly and visually via the Monitor Panel installed
into the amplifier rack.

4.0 Loudspeakers Selection and Monitoring

4.0 Loudspeakers Selection and Monitoring

The loudspeakers shall be wired in zones as required by


the building management.

The loudspeaker zones are dependent on the fire evacuation


zoning management.

The position of the loudspeakers is such that sound


pressure level (SPL) in each zone shall be evenly distributed. The total SPL shall be +10dB above the Ambient
Noise. The SPL variation shall not be more than 3dB
difference.

Evenly distributed loudspeaker layout will provide an even SPL


to the system. +10dB above Ambient Noise means the system will
be loud enough to be heard by the occupants. Less than 3dB SPL
variation means the occupants will experience no variation in
loudness when he stand below the speaker or he stand away from
the speaker.

PA System Overall System Specifications


Technical Specifications

Specifications Benefits
Ambient Noise
Ambient Noise + 10dB

Speech intelligibility shall have a Speech Transmission


Index (STI) of greater than 0.5.

The STI refers to the clarity of the system announcement. The


greater the index, the better the system intelligibility. A system
can be loud but not intelligible. It is very much dependent on the
type of speaker chosen and quantity of speaker allocated in the
provided acoustic environment. Hence, this is one important
index one should monitor.

A spring mounted design ceiling loudspeaker ease the installation


procedure. And it doesnt involve any screw, we dont have to
worry about the rusty screws problem due to a prolonged exposure
time to moisture environment. Besides, it also facilitates the future
maintenance job where spring-mounted ceiling loudspeaker
simplifies the loudspeaker cabling check and etc.

Spring Mount

All staircases shall have a box loudspeaker for each level.


All these box loudspeakers in the staircase shall be
grouped as an independent zone.
For background music reproduction, the loudspeakers
chosen shall cover the entire music frequency spectrum.
For foreground music reproduction, the loudspeakers
chosen shall be 2-way full-range high impedance
foreground music loudspeakers.

Grouping all the box loudspeakers in a staircase as one independent


zone is necessary as these speakers belong to a common open area.
Confusion will arise to a person who is travelling in a staircase if
these box loudspeakers were to grouped according to their floors
where different floors might have different BGM or announcement
concurrently. This single grouping of staircases speakers also meets
the requirement for the emergency evacuation method, where a
single message will be played throughout the entire stairway to
guide the evacuating occupants accordingly.

For outdoor application, the loudspeakers chosen shall be


weatherproof aluminium column loudspeakers or
weatherproof-treated ABS foreground music loudspeakers.

Weatherproof treated loudspeaker is essential for outdoor installation, as they should be able to withstand prolonged exposure to
rain, heat and UV.

Audio attenuators shall be place strategically in the building.


The audio attenuators chosen shall be equipped with built-in
relay emergency overriding feature. The audio attenuators
shall be controlled by a 6 levels continuous rotary switch,
with attenuation in steps of 6dB. It shall be able to be both
flush and surface mounted to the wall (with optional back
box) without any visible mounting screws.

The continuous rotary switch design eases the volume adjustment


for users whenever they need to switch from the maximum to the
minimum (or vice versa) of the attenuation level in one rotary
direction only.

I PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 5

The ceiling loudspeakers used shall be spring mounted.

Clear

Section

Noisy

117

PA System Overall System Specifications


Technical Specifications

Specifications Benefits

Loudspeaker line supervisory feature shall be incorporated


in the amplifier monitoring device as one unit solution.

Incorporation of both features of amplifier monitoring and


speaker line supervisory into one device solution will lower the
entire system cost eventually and minimize rack space required
during installation.

The supervisory feature shall utilize line impedance


measurement method to monitor the loudspeaker lines.

The Line Impedance Measurement method of monitoring will do


away with the DC blocking capacitors installed on every speakers and End-of-Line (EOL) resistor, hence eliminating the
filtering of the lower frequencies by the DC blocking capacitors
and improving the frequency response of the loudspeaker unit. It
allows loudspeaker lines branching, monitoring loudspeakers
installed beyond audio attenuators and will isolate faulty
loudspeaker line from the power amplifier in the event of a
loudspeaker line short.

Section

DC Blocking
Capacitor

EOL
Resistor

DC
Monitoring

I
PA System Overall System Specification - Design Level 5
118

AC
Monitoring

The status of the loudspeaker line supervisory unit shall be


feedback to the EES matrix system for fault reporting.

This is for total system monitoring.

5.0 Power Supplies and Racks

5.0 Power Supplies and Racks

All primary power supplies for the system shall be mains


240Vac; 50Hz, and connected to the building essential
power lines in the event of mains power shut down. It shall
automatically switch over to 24 Vdc in case of mains power
failure before the essential power lines generator starts to
supply power. The standby battery supply shall provide
sufficient power and enable the fully loaded system,
announcement at the maximum level, to continue operating without interruption for a minimum duration of 1/2 hour
should mains power fail.

In the event of power failure or a fire, when the mains supply is


disrupted, there will be no supply to the equipment. The standby
battery backup supply will provide a source of secondary power
supply.

All equipment shall be mounted into a 19 EIA Standard


equipment rack except microphone console, volume
controls and loudspeaker. All equipment, switchers, etc.
shall be clearly labeled for easy identification. All equipment supplied shall be maintenance free, high quality, upto-date and elegant in design. The design concept and
layout shall be such that the operation be failsafe and easy
to operate.

PA System - Glossary

Acoustic: Having to do with sound;


principally used for buildings. The overall
sound properties of something.
Amplifier: An electrical circuit in which a
signal is modified to make it more
suitable to drive following equipment.
Balanced lines: A three wire system
used with mono signals to help cut down
on the external interference from electrical equipment when using long cable
runs.
Bass: The lower end of the audio
spectrum.
Cabinet: The enclosure in which a
loudspeaker is mounted.

Compatibility: The ability of one particular system of signal processing to be


used with apparatus designed from
another system.

Distortion: Any alterations to a signal


other than in amplitude or frequency
response introduced by equipment.
These alterations normally consist of the
addition of harmonics of the original
signal not intended to be there and
frequently not musically related to it.
Driver: A term for the electromechanical
element in a loud-speaker.
Echo: Fast repetition of an audio signal
either once or several times, but with an
audible gap between each repetition.
EES (Early Evacuation System): Early
evacuation systems are designed to
conduct fully automated concerted
evacuations prior to the arrival of the
emergency response team. EES should
provide adequate messages with the
following key elements;

Graphical User Interface: Commonly


referred to by the abbreviation "GUI", a
graphical user interface is a method of
interacting with a computer or program
through visual perception and manipulation of images on a screen.
Hum: Spurious signal injected into, or
picked up by, electronic equipment from
the local mains supply.

Loudspeaker: The apparatus that turns


electrical signals back into audible ones.
Matrix system: A system is classified as
a matrix system if it is able to route
multiple inputs to multiple outputs
simultaneously. This includes simultaneous paging to different zones as well as
differing background music to various
zones. Yet a matrix system would not be
physically confined to a particular
pattern and users should be able to
change the routing patterns easily.
Muting: Simply the turning off of a
signal.
Noise: Random electrical signals that
exist in all circuits. Noise usually sounds
like a quiet hiss. It cannot be removed
entirely since it is produced by anything
electrical, but its effects can be
minimized by good engineering design.
The signal-to-noise ratio of an amplifier is
a mark of how well this has been done
and should be a large figure in decibels.

Inform the occupants what has happened.


Inform the occupants what they should do.
This should be specific to zones and areas
relative to the emergency.

Pilot tone: Oscillation of known


frequency and amplitude used to test or
set up audio equipment.

Inform the occupants why they should do it.

Polar response: The sensitivity of a


microphone to sounds coming to it from
different directions.

Enclosure: The box, and its detail


design, in which a loudspeaker is
mounted.

Programmable preamplifier: An amplifier which normalizes different input


signals as well as providing some form of
priority management between all the
inputs.
Sensitivity: The input voltage required to
drive an amplifier to maximum output.
Short circuit: Zero resistance.

Input sources: Refers to equipment that


provides audio input into the public
address system. Common input source
equipment are microphones, CD Players
and Digital Source Players.

Open circuit: A break in a circuit so that


there is no complete path for the current
to take.

Efficiency: Usually of loudspeakers. The


acoustical power output compared to the
electrical power input expressed as a
percentage.

Preamplifier: An amplifier which normalizes different input signals and allows


tonal changes, etc., to be made to them.

Signal management: Equipment that


manages all the various audio input
signals, for example routing background
music to user designated zones and
routing announcements only to required
zones.
Signal-to-noise ratio: The ratio of the
normal output signal to the noise output
with zero signal. These ratios are
normally measured in decibels.
Speakers: Abbreviation for loudspeakers.
Tone controls: The controls on a preamplifier that adjust its frequency response.
Transformer: A piece of apparatus that
changes the voltage and current amplitudes of a signal without altering its
power. Transformers are used among
other things to produce low voltage from
mains efficiently, in order to provide
power supplies suited to transistors. A
transformer will operate only with a/c.

PA System - Glossary

Decibel(dB): Logarithmic measurement


of sound pressure.

Gain: The relationship between the input


signal and the output signal of an amplifier or system, measured in power. volts
or amps.

Public address system: Refers to a


system that provides communication in
public areas. Typical applications include
making announcements, summoning
personnel or declaring states of
emergency.

Glossary

Coaxial cable: A cable consisting of two


conductors, one as a wire and one as a
tube, both sharing the same axis. The
tube is usually used as an electrical
screen for the wire within it.

Frequency response: The range from


the lowest to the highest frequency a
system is capable of reproducing with
equal amplification.

Unbalanced lines: A two wire system of


audio connection. Not recommended for
microphones or for long cable runs.
VU meter: Volume unit meter. A cheaper
form of meter for showing audio signal
amplitudes. It is not logarithmic and so
does not really indicate how loud a signal
is; it also has a slow response so that fast
transient signals are ignored.
Volume: The overall perceived amplitude of a sound.
Watt: The unit of power in electricity, it is
the product of voltage and current.

Power amplifier: An amplifier which


takes a low-level signal and increases it
to a suitable level that it is able to drive a
loud-speaker.

119

An accompanying CD is also available with this book to aid in the public address
system design steps. The CD contains;

Accompanying
Book 1 CD

Product technical specifications.


Standard Public Address System tender documents.
Standard Design Templates.
AEX System Design Aid - a calculator tool for the estimation of:
(i)
Cable requirements
(ii)
Speaker placement
(iii)
Equipment rack space requirements

www.aexsystem.com

ES - 06 - 011 Technical Alterations Reserved