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ADHD

AWARENESS
MONTH

ISSUE 1

PSYCH2GO
ISSUE 1

Created by Teresa Johnson

OCT 2015

Cover Art by Ken Samonte

PSYCH2GO
The Sci ence
thats all
about you!

Psych2Go

ISSUE 1

WAIT, WHAT EXACTLY IS "PSYCH2GO"?

Psych2Go started as a blog to feature short psychology facts in the format of memes
(text-posts that are rapidly spread around the internet). Our mission was to brand
ourselves as a forum/platform for people to get quick psychology information to further
discuss and debate about the posts. We wanted to create an open forum of discussions
to help foster critical thinking about research methods and limitations.
To accomplish that, the Psych2Go team is transparent about the fact that we don't
always post legitimate psychology information, but only do so in order to get people
to really question ALL our posts and think on an analytical level. Sometimes what you
think is true is actually not true and sometimes what is not true is yet to be supported
by research.
We have found that understanding research methods and having an open and
encouraging forum for all of this is essential. Several Facebook groups have also
been created, already aiming at this - including groups that allow people to express
their creativity like our Poetry and Doodle group, and our Research and Writing
Discussion group which creates discussion among expression of ideas, and academic
assistance.
As time went on, it made sense that Psych2Go should start providing supplementary
materials such as sources, references, as well as some explanation to our viral meme
posts that are featured on our Tumblr (as youll see an example from the Psych to
Go article in this magazine issue) which generates large discussion from audience
members. From these realizations to include more material content, psych2go.net, the
sister site was born.
When we started, Psych2Go had a team of 10 writers and published over 200 articles
within less than 2 months and received over 1 million page views. And the articles
followed a specific format:
1. Intro
2. Bring up research.
3. Identify the research methods and the limitations
4. question for our readers
This format is aligned with our mission statement to analyze research, create
discussions, and provide the resources needed to facilitate those discussions.
Then, as time went on, we thought about implementing a mentorship program to help
further facilitate this learning process for our younger audiences (since a majority of
our readers were not yet psychology students).
And thats where psych2go.net is today! We have editors, mentors, and intern writers,
who our Human Resource team has a very close relationship with and helps them every
step of the way.
Our goal is to become the go-to site for psychology, writing, help, research, studies,
and so forth. Psych2Go serves as an easily accessible and inclusive platform for our
young audiences.
Tai Tai
Manager and Creator of Psych2Go
Psych2go@outlook.com
Psych2go.tumblr.com
Psych2go.net

Artwork by:Ken Samonte

Psych2Go

ISSUE 1

HELLO!

As a special part of the Psych2Go team, we believe that this magazine sets itself
apart from other science magazines out there. Understanding this magazine is not in a
traditional magazine format gives our magazine a creative and unique feel.
This was made by a collection of young entrepreneurs from all over the world. This
publication includes international contributors from places like Slovenia, The U.K., the
Netherlands, the Philippines, Canada, and people within various places of the U.S. like
New York, Maryland, D.C., Tennessee, and California.
Keep in mind that not all of us are trained professionals in the Psychology field, but
simply people that are intrigued by Psychological concepts, only wanting to pass our
research along, while involving people to talk about their personal experiences, as well
as informing an audience with interesting Psychological facts.
We hope that you enjoy this collaborative publication that acts as an extension of our
online blog, psych2go.net, and we ask that you get involved with this entrepreneurial
organization as well! After all, Psychology is the science thats all about you, and as a
growing company, were offering the opportunity for you to grow with us.
Teresa Johnson
Editor-in-Chief, Manager & Coordinator of Psych2Go Magazine
(https://twitter.com/teresaxjohnson)

Artwork by: Drew Borja

Psych2Go

ISSUE 1

CONTENT

About Psych2Go / 2
Hello Message / 4
Meet the writers /10
Psychology in the news /13
Interview with a Psychology student /14
Social Psychology / 16
Exploring mental health / 18
Significant people that endured mental illness / 22
LGBTQA Psychology / 24
Music Psychology / 26
Personality Psychology / 28
Developmental Psychology / 30
Autism Spectrum (S.E.E.P.) Special, Exceptional, Extraordinary, People / 32
Animal Psychology / 36
Forensic Psychology 38
Art Submissions Winner / 40
Career Building / 42
Outside Submissions / 44
Entertainment/Games Section / 50
Projective Psychology / 54
Book Review / 56
Creative writing / 58
Psych to Go / 60
Debunking Psychological Myths / 62
Advice Column / 64
Mental Health Hotlines / 67
Thank you to contributors / 68

MEET
THE
WRITERS
Artwork by: Drew Borja

Psych2Go

10

Hello all! Im Sneha and Im currently pursing my Master's degree


at University of Pennsylvania's School of Design and Ive been
practicing Arts & Design for around 5 years. My work inclines toward
a palate of textures that influence the organic and structured notion
of spaces around me. Recently, I completed a Diploma in Learning
Disorders Management and Child Psychology.

U.S. (Pennsylvania)

Sneha

Hi, Im Sophie! Im currently doing my BSc in Communication


and Media, but I have always been interested in psychology. I am
especially interested in criminal psychology and how the mind of
a psychopath works, but I am also interested in personality, social,
and child psychology.

Netherlands

Sophie
Hi, Im Teresa and I attend Community College as a sophomore in
hopes of taking on NYC my Junior and Senior year of college. I plan
to receive a bachelors degree of communications and journalism
due to my love of writing, communicating and self-expression. In my
free time I love to sing, draw, write, and explore new places. I started
by making videos for Psych2Go on their YouTube channel, but now
Im project manager and editor-in-chief of this magazine!

U.S (Maryland)

Teresa

I'm Imogen, I'm 21 and going into my final year of an MSci in


Psychology and Psychological Research. I work as a staff writer
and a HR rep for psych2go.net, and I love learning and teaching all
things psychological. I hope to one day become a researcher, and I
love forensic, child and animal psychology!

The U.K.

Imogen
I'm a sophomore/junior at American University, and Im majoring
in Psychology with minors in Spanish Language/Translation and
Business Administration. I love blogging and crafting, as well as
watching YouTube like it's my job. I'm super excited to be a part of
this magazine, and I can't wait to see where this adventure takes
me!

ISSUE 1
Hi! Im Kayleigh. Besides having a passion for writing, learning new
things and gathering interesting facts (Did you know the majority
of lizards cant run and breathe at the same time?), I love creative
things like drawing and making jewelry. I'm currently studying at
University and in my free time I can be found listening to music,
reading and writing, or browsing the internet.

Netherlands

Kayleigh
Hi I'm Hannah. I have my BSc in Psychology and I'm completing
my post grad in journalism at the moment. Im fascinated by
human sexuality & sexual behavior, and the science behind mental
illness. I enjoy editing papers and long runs on the elliptical. My
two hedgehogs keep me motivated, and they say that they hope you
enjoy our articles and magazine! Just know that whenever you read
something by me, a hedgehog was nearby.

Nova Scotia

Hannah
Im Sheena, and I study Psychology BSc with the University of the
Highlands & Islands in Scotland. Being both the kid who grew up
reading encyclopedias and the Agony Aunt friend, Ive always been
interested in how what happens in our heads affects the way that we
live our lives, and in practicing acceptance (and hopefully spreading
it too!).

The U.K.

Sheena
Being a media student, I am a huge supporter of anti-consumerism
and media awareness. In my spare time you can find me reading
(especially fantasy literature), listening to music, watching
Japanese anime, taking long walks in the nature and most often
writing. Above all I am simply a girl, madly in love with stories in all
shapes and sizes.

Slovenia

Katja
Hi there! I'm oftentimes described as a shy girl with a quick wit.
Amazingly, I've managed to channel my passion to different facets
of art and psychology, and blended my two loves. A firm believer that
you never stop learning

Philippines

U.S. (Maryland)

Lauren
Hello, Im Larissa, and Im a third year Psychology major working
towards a minor in Law and Society as well as Ethics and
Philosophy. Some of my greatest passions in Psychology include the
topics of eating disorders, self-harm, psychopathology, and forensic
psychology. When Im not working or doing homework I enjoy
watching Netflix, sleeping, reading, playing with cats, and writing!

Risha
My name is Laura Corona and I am 21 years old. Currently studying
Communications and soon will begin working my way into becoming
an American Sign Language Interpreter.

U.S. (California)

Advice Column Team

U.S. (Minnesota)

Larissa

Laura

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Psych2Go

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12

13
I'm Tyra Davis, a middle school English Teacher living in NYC, but
I've always been a writer at heart. Although my background is not
in psychology, I have suffered from anxiety and depression in the
past, which brings with it a lot of experience dealing with negative
feelings and emotions. I hope to bring some of this experience to
light in my advice to our readers.

Tyra

U.S (New York)

Advice Column Team


Hey, my names Myelin (like Myelin Sheath). I receive my B.A. in
Psychology in November 2015. After that, I aspire to get a PsyD in
Clinical Psychology (fingers crossed). As a staff writer on Psych2Go,
I write on topics related to abnormal or cultural psychology and
sexuality. In my free time, I enjoy belly dancing and sketching!

U.S (California)

Myelin
Hey, hello! My names Aubrey, as Im sure it probably says
somewhere already. I squint while I talk sometimes, forget to eat
occasionally, and have hot chocolate stains in most of all my sketch
books. I work three, long and tedious jobs and go to community
college in Memphis so that I may transfer into a larger art school
within the same area. I love to both draw and write, so comics and
cartoons are an absolute passion of mine!

U.S (Tennessee)

Aubrey

Hi I'm Lauren, I graduated with a degree in psychology and a


masters in counselling. I've been a youth worker, a counsellor and
currently I'm working towards becoming a social worker. I wanted
to be apart of the magazine as I know what it's like to struggle with
your feelings and I want help where I can. That's my passion in life.
My other passion is art. I post videos of my digital art on YouTube in
the hopes of creating a relaxing space for others. You can find me at
Rad Little Drawings.

Lauren

Northern Ireland

Advice Column Team


Hi! Jessica here. I'm a psych major in college working on my junior
year. I've been inspired to study psychology by my passionate high
school teacher but my favorite topic is the brain. I'm studying hard
to research and learn to help others.

U.S (Maryland)

Jessica

IN THE NEWS
This past month was a big one for
psychology in the news. One big thing
for people involved in the field was the
revelation of repeated studies, which all
had differing results.
An article published in The Toronto
Star entitled Repeating Psychology
Experiments Yields Different Results,
details how a group of researchers in
New York attempted to duplicate over 100
social science studies. The only obvious
conclusion found was that more research
is needed after every study, including
their own. Around 40% of their attempts
yielded the same results, which is not
great news. None of the experiments
were developed to test treatments, and
tended to focus on studies with strong
statistical evidence, as well as studies
that didnt have surprising results.
A biography of Dr. Marnie Rice, who
studied the minds of some of the worst
offenders in Canada who needed
psychiatric care, was also released this
past month.
Psychologist Marnie Rice Probed the
Minds of Psychopathic Offenders, an
article in The Globe and Mail details her
lifetime. She started off working in the
jail in Penetanguishene, Ontario, where
she eventually became the Director of
Research. She did behavior modification
research here on what were referred to
as the worst offenders such as serial
killers, pedophiles, and other sexual
offenders. The article details her life,
her upbeat personality, and what her
research did for the field of Psychology.

By: Hannah Jade


Artwork by: Erin Jean
She passed away in August of 2015.
A bit of comedy is involved in the
psychology news this past month; an
article entitled The psychology behind
why couples fight when assembling
Ikea furniture. Released on a website
called Quartz, this article details reasons
couples would fight whilst assembling
furniture. It causes unnecessary stresses
and people tend not to be as polite with
those they love than those they are just
friends with. Though probably not rooted
in fact, in general the article was slightly
comedic.
Another article was released on a Calgary
programme to create an addictions
help programme almost completely
routed in the psychology of addiction.
Published in Metro News, the article
New Calgary Addictions Programme to
bridge psychology and substance abuse
details it. This programme is meant to
focus specifically on the needs of women
with addictions. It is expected to roll
out at the end of the year and women
who had participated in the programme
will eventually become mentors to new
people involved.
Those are a few of the bigger stories of
psychology in the news over the past few
months.
Citation:
Ritter, M. (2015, August 30). Repeating psychology
experiments yields different results. Retrieved
September 26, 2015.
Ryell, N. (2015, September 15). Psychologist Marnie
Rice probed the minds of psychopathic offenders.
Retrieved September 26, 2015.

Psych2Go

14

ISSUE 1

really apply that to any situation, and


with enough work you can condition anyone/thing. I like it because its so simple,
yet so significant.

INTERVIEW

Amy

Livingstone
Hey guys! In this section of the magazine, well be interviewing a psychology
student who is going to tell us about their
course, some personal details about
themselves and their interests in psychology, and also their career aims and
how they hope to achieve them and finally some advice for prospective students.
Well be interviewing Amy Livingstone,
a bachelor of social sciences (psychology and forensic science) at Swinburne
University of Technology, Melbourne,
Australia. The course involves eight core
psych units, four core forensics units,
and twelve electives. She is currently in
her third year.
Well start by asking Amy about her
course, how the education is and what
the cost is like.
Whats the program like, what is the
cost and hows the education?
I like the program at Swinburne, some
units are obviously run better than others but overall I think its a pretty good
psych education. To be honest Im not
sure about the cost, the government
basically pays for UNI and we pay them
back when we earn over $54k. I hope its
not too much! I think the educations decent, it differs again from unit to unit, but
I think if you do everything you can to be
responsible for your learning and reach
out when you need it, you can get the best
psych education anywhere.
Whos your favorite professor?
My favourite lecturer is probably my forensics convener; he lectures in a way
that is relatable and really clear. Hes really easy to follow. Straight forward you
know what you have to do to do well and

The next topic was Amys career aims and


what she has done to try and help achieve
those aims.

US

From: Australia
https://www.facebook.com/amy.livingstone1

its always interesting.


Well next move on to asking about some
of her personal views about psychology,
like which subjects she likes and dislikes.
What is your favourite topic within psychology?
Abnormal psych was my favourite unit so
far. It was really interesting and I guess
got down to the real or stereotypical
psych stuff, the stuff that the public would
be thinking youre learning I guess!
Whats your favourite psychology fact/
research study?
I wish I had a really good one of the top
of my head but I dont, so Id have to say
Pavlovs dog. Everyones heard of it - I
learnt it in school psychology, but back
then I dont think I understood what it
meant. I think its so cool how you can

What are your goals in terms of


career?
I would like to work with youth offenders
at this stage, however Im open to changing direction as my education progresses.
Im really into health and fitness also so I
would love to be involved with a program
that uses exercise to break down barriers between psychologist and offender, I
believe it could be a really beneficial tool.
What do you look to do after your degree,
further study or work, or something
else?
After this degree I will hopefully complete
an honours year, and then a masters
course. Its extremely competitive to get
into so Im staying hopeful, but should all
go to plan Im looking at another 6 years
of study ahead of me!
What, outside of your degree, have you
done to further your interest or career in
psychology?
My current casual job is completely unrelated to psychology, however its with
the YMCA who run a range of really great
programs that I think I could get involved
in. I guess what drew me to that job was
that it had the potential to provide pathways for me.
Ill have 6 months off study before starting my honours (hopefully) so Im hoping
in that time I can get a position somewhere really cool that will be beneficial
for both my education and career. In the
meantime, Im hoping to start writing articles for psych2go, when I have time, to
get some better practice and some feedback of my work.
Finally, we asked her for some advice for
you guys.

What is one thing a student should


know about studying psychology?
Theres lots of content, lots to memorise,
and in Australia its very competitive. People dont realise that though they think
things like biomed are tough, psych can
be worse. There are not nearly as many
positions, but almost as many applicants.
And whats one thing a student should
know about studying at University?
I found UNI difficult to keep on top of, at
school you have a test every week and a
teacher making sure youve done your
work, whereas at UNI youre responsible
for yourself, and youve now got a job, a
car, freedom, so study slips, and then its
exam time and youve done nothing all
semester. Its definitely harder to keep on
top of, so be prepared and get organised.
Hope you enjoyed this!

15

Psych2Go

ISSUE 1

Most people know that children are


especially impressionable, but to what
extent do they absorb information? What
kinds of things do they retain? While it
may be impossible to know every little
thing, social psychologists have some
ideas about what types of information
children pick up on.

16

IT
STICKS
WITH
THEM:
Social Psychology

One of the questions psychologists wanted to know was whether children could
pick up on social cues similarly to an
adult. Diesendruck, Salzer, Kushnir, and
Xu conducted an experiment to see if children picked-up on social cues from demonstrators (2015). Their research showed
that when one demonstrator favored an
object, preschoolers associated it with a
persons preference; however, when two
demonstrators favored the same object,
preschoolers inferred that it was generalized to other agents of the same kind
(Diesendruck et al. 2015). This shows that
children are informed by social cues.
What does this information mean? Well,
this type of study starts to prove how children dont just listen to what theyre told.
They can be much more perceptive than
that. Anyone who has heard a kid mention
a word they heard their older sibling say
can attest to that. But, they are also able
to pick up social cues.
This could have serious impacts later in
life. It could explain how children grow up
to be racist or sexist when their parents
dont really say to be out loud. If a child
notices how Mom always avoids making
eye contact with black people, or how Dad
snorts or rolls his eyes when someone
mentions being anything other than cisgendered* or straight, the child notices.
Its likely this is not the only reason, but it
could be a reason.

How what children see impacts who they become


By: Lauren Miedel
Artwork by: Pilar Chavez

Another question on what influences


children is whether age plays a factor.
Schwarz and Roebers looked at 8- and
10-year old children and their ability to
withstand post-event information from
an interviewer or confederate (2006).
They found that 10-year olds were able
to distinguish that people talking with a
low amount of assertiveness probably

did not have much to contribute, and


were less trustworthy than those who
spoke assertively (2006).
The idea that children, of at least a certain age, can distinguish assertiveness
when someone is speaking shows that
as they grow, they are able to selectively take social cues and information from
those they deem knowledgeable.
No one is arguing that children are
sponges. But, they clearly absorb more
information than people like to think. So
to everyone who spends a lot of time with
children, remember that even if you believe in the motto Do as I say and not as
I do, kids are paying attention to how you
act and what you do.
Works Cited:
Diesendruck, G., Salzer, S., Kushnir, T., & Xu, F. (2015).
When Choices Are Not Personal: The Effect of Statistical and Social Cues on Childrens Inferences About the
Scope of Preferences.Journal Of Cognition & Development,16(2), 370-380.
Schwarz, S., & Roebers, C. M. (2006). Age differences in
the effects of social influence on childrens eyewitness
performance and their metacognitive monitoring.Journal Of Experimental Child Psychology,94(3), 229-248.
Terms:
*Cisgendered -applies to the majority of people, describing a person who is not transgender.

17

Psych2Go

18

ISSUE 1

Mental-Health Awareness Month:


October

A
H
By: Teresa Johnson
Artwork by: Pilar Chavez

D
D

The mental illness topic of this


month that Psych2Go chooses to bring
awareness to is ADHD. There are theories created by people that those who
claim to be affected by Attention-Deficit/
Hyperactivity Disorder are simply creating an excuse to explain their hyper
behavior. This is an incorrect speculation
because ADHD is in fact a real mental illness. Its a brain disorder that can extend
from childhood to adolescence. According to the National Institute of Health,
studies have shown that people affected
by this disorder have brain developmental delays by an extension of up to three
years! Its brain-baffling to know that a
disorder can take that much growth-related control. Hyperactive and impulsive
behaviors caused from people affected
by ADHD are much stronger and greater
than those who are not diagnosed with it.
Even though its still a mystery to scientists as to what causes ADHD, genes, as
well as various environmental factors,
are said to help influence the actions
reflected through the disorder. ADHD
sometimes gets mistaken for ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder), however they
differ in the ways of the hyperactivity element that ADD withholds. Even though
ADHD is not a detrimental disorder, it still
can make life more challenging regarding elements such as being distracted
and constantly getting up and moving.
The disorder is found in children, and can
extend throughout adolescence and into
their adult years. However, children can
grow out of ADHD and lead very productive lives, but this requires proper change
to their environment, developing their
strengths, and medication if needed (according to parents.com).
Bringing awareness to this disorder, certain organizations like adhdawarenessmonth.org and chadd.org serve to fulfill
that purpose and let people know that
it does affect people and their mental
health. Feel free to visit these particular
sites if you are someone that struggles
with ADHD and it affects your everyday
activities. Even when a health issue isnt
physical, it can create just as many is-

sues within a persons life. Although


certain theories are made, there is no
definite reason to why people are effected
by this, and the cure does not involve
taking a magical pill.
However, through time and being attentive to ones environmental surroundings,
the disorders relevance in a persons life
can slowly start to disappear. ADHD is
not made up. It is real and it does affect
people. If you have trouble concentrating,
find yourself being very impulsive, and
have hyper-tendencies, then you may
have ADHD. Dont be afraid to reach out
and seek help from your doctor if it becomes a frustrating issue.
Works Cited:
Smith, M., Robinson, L., & Segal, J. (2015, August 1).
ADD / ADHD in Children. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
Rosen, M. (n.d.). Attention for ADHD: 9 Key Facts. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
Organizations to connect with:
http://www.adhdawarenessmonth.org
chadd.org

19

Psych2Go

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21

SEPARATION ANXIETY
DISORDER

Exploring Mental Health

By: Sneha Easwaran


Artwork by: Drew Borja

A normal part of growing up and being a part of the real world is dealing with
separation in a myriad amount of ways.
Individuals with noticeable symptoms
tend to come from environments that are
held together at quite close approximation, so as one moves away, the individual may recurrently exhibit social withdrawal symptoms, apathy, or difficulty in
focusing. It depends on the individuals
age as well from monsters to the dark,
and other situations that are perceived
as presenting danger to the integrity of
the family. This disorder isnt a mild one
because it can dramatically affect a persons life by limiting the ability to engage
in ordinary day-to-day activities. Anger
and outbursts of emotion are very common.
Separation Anxiety Disorder affects approximately 2-5% of children and is much
more prominent to those who frequently
have other family members with anxiety
disorders. The tendency to develop this
disorder involves the genetic and environmental factors that come into play in
a persons lifetime. It can be effectively
treated and is based on a comprehensive evaluation of a child and their family. Some intervention strategies include
cognitive behavioral therapy with a focus
on helping the child learn skills to manage his or her anxiety. It involves helping
children and parents understand and
learn way to change unhelpful thoughts
and behaviors. The therapist may help
a mentor understand ways in which an
individual can minimize effects by, for
example, allowing a child to miss a day
of school. Its also beneficial to master the situations that contribute to the

anxiety and to find ways to minimize


it as much as possible. As always, parents and older mentors play a huge role
in being supportive in any treatment process and some individuals may resort to
benefitting in treatment with antidepressants or antianxiety medication to help
them feel calmer. Other methods may
include talking therapy in which an individual develops a comfortable relationship with the therapist, who provides a
safe haven to express ones thoughts and
feelings. Another is play therapy, in which
the therapeutic use of play is a common
and effective way to get kids to talk more
openly. Counseling for the family and
school-based counseling is also vital as
a more mature understanding can benefit an individual to explore more social,
behavioral, and academic demands of
an environment. Preventive measures to
minimize the effects of Separation Anxiety Disorder can be detected at an early
stage. This can enable a person to effectively have normal growth and development, and to improve the quality of life
experience there on out. In order to diagnose this symptom, it must be present
for at least 4 weeks and be more severe
than the normal occurrences an individual may experience.

Works Cited:
Separation Anxiety Disorder in Children. Separation
Anxiety Disorder | Boston Childrens Hospital. Accessed
August 24, 2015.
Separation Anxiety Disorder. Separation Anxiety Disorder. Accessed August 24, 2015.

Separation Anxiety Disorder affects approximately 2-5% of children and is much


more prominent to those who frequently
have other family members with anxiety
disorders.

Psych2Go

22

also suffered from depression.

Significant People Enduring Mental Illness in Psychology History:

THE CURIOUS CASE OF ELLEN WEST


Artwork by: Ale Caballero
By: Katja Stojic

Life is hanging on me like a cloud.

Exploring Mental Health

ISSUE 1

Women have always been on the


side-lines of history, leaving men to
make decisions for them. They did
not have many ways of expressing
themselves and were far from obtaining
an independent living status. The only
thing a woman could control was her
body. Hence the passage A hysterical
woman responds theatrically, with her
own body, which is her only stage, upon
which she can perform publicly (Duda
and Pusch, 1995). Although theyve been
around for centuries, eating disorders
have widely spread in the last few
decades, hidden behind the forced smiles
and layers of clothing.
Something inside of me resists gaining
weight. It resists getting healthier; having
round, red cheeks, becoming a simple,
bold woman, which would actually suit
my nature it is driving me desperate
so that I cannot help myself with all the
big words. I am fighting against secret
forces stronger than me. I cannot unite
and grab them (Duda and Pusch, 1995).
Ellen West wrote this four months before
she decided to end her life. She was
thirty-three at the time. Her life was filled
with fear and what she dreaded most was
fear itself. Food was always on her mind;
either she ate nothing or she stuffed
herself with anything she could find. She
could only eat by herself, as family meals
made her feel hopeless and empty. Her
therapist said she was trying to fulfil two
needs: hunger and love. The first was

satisfied, the second was not.


Ellen West lived in the late 19th and
early 20th centuries, a time when all
that mattered in a woman was how she
looked. She was a patient of Dr. Ludwig
Binswanger, and suffered from anorexia
nervosa, possibly in addition to other
mental illnesses. Her name is most
famously associated with existential
analysis because the treatment started to
emerge during this time. She described
her struggle with food in her diaries
which she kept for many years.
Even as a child she was intentionally
refusing
sweets
and
was
very
strongminded. Her father was wellcontrolled and stiff but secretly sensitive
and suffering from night depressions and
fears. Ellen supposedly loved him very
much. Her mother was gentle and

The family was traditional, yet many


questions remain unanswered. Many
relatives suffered from mental illnesses.
Even as a child Ellen refused to submit to
the expected role of a mother and a wife;
she wished to be a boy. Her extensive
reading and ability to deal with social
problems made her different from others.
Her problems became severe in her
twenties when she refused to live by the
strict social standards of her time. She
despised the hypocrisy and the limitations
of her gender. An ideal image formed in
her mind: a slim body. Friends mocked
her because of her figure so she started
to lose weight. She felt useless and
unworthy, was afraid of everything and
longed for death, which she saw as the
only happiness in life. Anorexia demands
a perfect self-subordination and thus
gives a possibility of existing (Duda
and Pusch, 1995). After her enrolment
in college her condition improved for a
while before she relapsed again. Doctors
discovered problems with her thyroid
and ordered bed rest, which led to her
gaining weight. The cycle repeated. She
is denying her own personality which is
full of needs, hunger, anger and desire
(Duda and Pusch, 1995).
She was very creative and wrote poetry,
mostly about freedom. After some
persuasion from her family she married
her cousin, but soon had a miscarriage
due to her poor physical health. She
must have dreaded being pregnant and
gaining weight. One of the means to her
remaining slim figure was the use of
laxatives and vomiting. Not much is said
about her husband except that she only
confessed her problems to him at the age
of thirty-two, which is why he soon sent
her to a clinic. She had reached a point
where all she thought about was food
and remaining slim. Her psychological
condition weakened, which is the reason
she wilfully saw a doctor. Her diagnosis
stated
Advancing
schizophrenic
psychosis. No effective treatments.

I am sitting in a glass sphere, she


confessed, feeling isolated from others
and being able only to see them, not hear
or touch them (Duda and Pusch, 1995). All
she felt was emptiness and loneliness.
Her thoughts of being inadequate and
unfit for life had reached their peak. She
seemed better in her last days, however;
she enjoyed food and wrote letters. Then
she swallowed poison. Her face was calm
and seemingly happy in death.
A womans body is a battlefield where
she fights for control (Duda and Pusch,
1995). It is all about controlling your body,
along with its emotional needs. Ellen
West wished to achieve something great
despite not being entitled to do so. Her
role was to be a woman, which meant
remaining in the shadows. Due to her
high intelligence she was able to analyse
her situation with fearful accuracy, but
she could not alter it. Her ultimate goal in
life was to maintain an independency and
to be different from others. She was never
able to discover who she was. Her writing
was not regarded as actual literature,
and even today her work is locked away.
We know much about her struggle with
food, yet almost nothing about her artistic
expressions. Her greatest fear had, in a
way, been realised; she was forgotten
for many years until finally her case was
re-opened and examined, but even then
her real name vanished, leaving her with
the pseudonym Ellen West. Many of her
poems and writings remain locked away
at the clinic where she spent the last
months of her life. It is a shame that a
woman of her potential could not properly
succeed due to the social, economic and
political situations of her era.
Citations:
Duda, Sibylle; Pusch, Luise F. (1995). Nore enske
(Wahnsinns Frauen). Ljubljana: Krtina
Wikipedia. (2015). Ellen West. The Free Encyclopedia.
Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ellen_
West

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24

LGBTQA:

The Online Community

LGBTQ+ Psychology

By: Aubrey Bryan


Artwork by: Fieni Aprilia

The internet is wide with all kinds


of diversity from silly baby-burp videos
to middle-aged house-dwellers trying to
find the cure for the common cold. To add
some background, I was always more the
animated cat video kind-of person growing up. It wasnt until I came across my
first social website that I realized there
was a real community on the internet.
With community however comes conflict,
opposing sides, and people with their
own individual stories feeding into these
opinions. The greatest example of this is
the *LGBTQA community! There is a consensus that people with different romantic and sexual preferences aside from the
norm are just as important and need
recognition within society. With todays
internet culture, the LGBTQA community
has more room to grow, spread information, and even discuss issues within the
group itself to allow positive change. But,
because we are dealing with the internet,
theres going to be those that take refuge
behind their screens to hurt, belittle or
put down others for self-righteous gain
and Im still talking about the same community.
Its too often we see on social media
what awful things people can do to make
themselves feel in the right position or
believe theyre doing justice by hurting
or, in extreme cases, destroying the lives
of those with one (or a few) terrible opinion(s). Those whove been on the internet
long enough can already think of multiple
examples, though they may not exactly
be the same examples. From one end, an
example would be the overbearing social
activist bloggers that find it their job to
come down on anyone for any small slipup comment or joke. On the other end,
there are the less educated members of
the LGBTQA community spreading false
information or making a bad example

of the community as a whole. As


surprising as it is that such well-intentioned people could also drag in so many
opposing perspectives to the foundation
of these beliefs, it is also not that surprising at all.
Since were all from different areas of
the world and our countries, were all
bound to have different views on what
makes sense in the LGBTQA community. Some less populated places, like the
country-side in Mississippi of the United States, may hold the reservation that
love is between two individuals; and if
a girl likes a girl shes gay and if a girl
likes a boy shes straight. In places like
these, it may just seem a little weird to
begin talking about all the in-betweens
and gray areas. However, a more populous area with wider variation between
culture, person and belief may be more
accepting to the idea that theres a neighbor next door claiming to be demi-sexual.
Not only location, but also upbringing
can affect the way we understand what
LGBTQA supports. Bisexuality, for example, in some households is the, Im
confused about my sexuality sexuality.
While that certainly isnt the case, it is
a fermented stereotype attached to the
identity. Its taught through several different mediums and not just in the household. Social groups, media and even our
culture have a bit of an input into this
belief. We have a natural tendency to feel
like we need to pick a side, like its a
football team or our favorite brand.
I think a lot of people tend to forget about
all the different perspectives and experiences others may have when they hop
online. For every trans woman thats
praised and told to be proud of her identity theres another just like her being near

ISSUE 1

beat to death for it. The LGBTQA community is so large and diverse now with
all these separate experiences that we
cant ever entirely pinpoint an exact focal point in our goal sometimes. But that
also gives way to discussion and debate
that will allow us to continue to grow even
more diversely. While some could say
thats an issue, because that would cause
even more conflicting opinions and sides
of the matterand honestly I wouldnt
blame anyone for having that view. However, diversity leads to the evolution of
these opinions, change in culture and society, and creates new levels of concepts
in gender identity and sexuality that were
starting to scratch the surface of. Whether or not these newer concepts are valid
is a whole other area of debate already,
and you can only wonder how much further our community will change for better or worse ten years from now.
*LGBTQA Acronym for the Lesbian, Gay,
Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Agender
community

25

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ISSUE 1

Music Psychology

26

27

FEELING ANGRY?
ADOPT THE
SHARK METHOD!
By: Sheena Mackenzie
Artwork by: Jane Shi

http://www.psych2go.net/feeling-angry-adopt-the-shark-method/#comment-106929

:
ED ON t
R
U
T
A
AS FE 2go.ne
h
c
psy

Back in 2011, an Australian tour


operator by the name of Matt Waller
revealed that for a number of years he
had been tracking Great White Sharks
for a very unique series of experiments.
After hearing of divers in Guadeloupe
who observed sharks reacting to certain
songs, he played music from his collection through speakers attached to shark
cages to attract them, monitoring their
reactions and it turns out that Jaws may
have been a bit of a metalhead. When
Waller played heavier music like ACDC to
the sharks he tracked, he observed more
calm and curious behavior as they detected the vibrations made by the music
(since they dont have ears to hear it).
This year, a similar experiment was carried out by Leah Sharman and Genevieve
Dingle of the University of Queensland
in Brisbane, Australia, but with slightly
more docile subjects. In order to examine the popular notion that angry music
makes for an angry listener, they found
39 participants who listened to extreme
genres of music (including the likes of
Rob Zombie and Disturbed). The subjects, with an average age of 20, were
first provoked into an angry state of mind,
then the control group were left in silence
to deal with their anger, while the other
participants were asked to take out their
iPods and listen to angry extreme music from their personal playlists for ten
minutes. Sharman and Dingle measured
changes in heart rate in both sets of participants, and also asked them about

their levels of hostility, irritability,


stress, relaxation, activity and inspiration. The results showed that listening to
extreme music while experiencing feelings of anger and aggression has a positive effect on the listener, allowing them
to process their feelings, much like the
participants in Papinczachs (2015) experiment which reported a similar sense
of sad music helping them to process
feelings of sadness.
Essentially, these findings have shown
that music can affect our moods, and that
those who consider themselves listeners of extreme music, much like Wallers
Great White Sharks, deal with their anger
better and ultimately feel calmer when
listening to heavier music (although most
likely for very different reasons). Now that
Ive discovered this research, when I feel
myself becoming angry about anything,
I may reach for my headphones before I
reach for someones neck.
For those of you who listen to extreme
genres of music, do you find that you
choose songs specifically to influence
and control your emotions in a certain
way? Do non-listeners do similar things
with their own music?

References & Further Reading:


Case, A., (2011, June 02). Great White Sharks Attracted
By AC/DC Hits. Australian Geographic. Retrieved from
http://www.australiangeographic.com.au
Sharman, L., Dingle, G. A., (2015) Extreme Metal Music
And Anger Processing, Fronteirs In Human Neuroscience, 9, 272

Psych2Go

28

ISSUE 1

Personality Psychology

CAN
ANGER
MAKE
US
MORE
RATIONAL?

I came across a quote a few


years ago that stuck with me:

Dont make decisions


when youre angry, and
dont make promises
when youre happy.

By: Sophie Poulsen


Artwork by: Ruth Grace Estipona

Id like to address the first part of


this quote.
Some qualities that are more commonly
associated with anger are stupidity, risky
behavior, distrust, prejudice, hostility,
aggression, and, above all, being irrational. Weve all been in a fight where weve
said things we didnt mean. We may have
called someone something we didnt
mean, hurting them and embarrassing
ourselves in the process. We may have
impulsively lashed out and made hasty,

stupid decisions, similarly to when


were intoxicated.
More and more research has shown,
however, that anger can perhaps make us
more rational.
One of the most prominent experiments
in this area was done by Moons and
Mackie (2007), where they presented two
groups of students - one angry, one neutral - with a persuasive message about
the fiscal responsibilities of students.

one angry, one neutral - with a persuasive message about the fiscal responsibilities of students. Each group of
students had to write about a particular
situation or event. One group, however,
was instructed to write about an event
that made them feel angry. The researchers then presented them with different
persuasive messages that they had to
evaluate.
Moons and Mackie (2007) found that angry students were more likely to ignore
an irrelevant message from a superficial expert, while participants in neutral
moods did not. This shows that angry
people appear to process analytically,
which contradicts the notion that angry
peoplelack the cognitive resources or
the motivation to engage in deeper processing (Moons & Mackie, 2007, p. 717).
Thus, anger acts as a motivator rather
than a barrier to analytic thought.
In another study, Young, Tiedens, Jung,
and Tsai (2011) researched whether angry people could objectively evaluate
information without confirmation bias.
Confirmation bias is when individuals
seek information that favors their pre-existing beliefs while ignoring information
that does not favor their beliefs, meaning
that individuals create biased opinions
because of the way in which they evaluate information. For example, a reporter
writing an article on an important topic
may only interview experts who support
his or her views on the issue. Confirmation bias is problematic because it does
not allow for an objective, realistic perspective.
So are angry people also affected by confirmation bias?
Interestingly, Young et al. (2011) found
that anger results in less confirmation
bias than other emotional states. In their
study, Young et al. (2011) provided participants with a survey that asked them
about their political views. The main
question was: Who do you want to win
the 2008 Presidential Election? Their
choices were Senator John McCain and
Senator Barack Obama. Participants

were then presented with twelve expert statements on the election. Half of
the statements were in favor of McCain,
the other half were in favor of Obama.
Participants were asked to select the
statements that they were more interested in.
In order to manipulate the participants
emotional states, they were also asked
to recount
a memory that was either angry, sad, or
neutral.
Young et al. (2011) found that angry participants often selected information that
did not follow their beliefs. They attributed this to the fact that the feeling of anger
produces an antagonistic interchange,
where individuals are in an argumentative state, ready to move against someone who disagrees with their opinion.
In comparison, people in sad or neutral
states were more likely to select information that confirmed their current opinion.
Both of these studies are significant in
that they show that angry people will be
more flexible in their perspectives, as
well as more analytical in their thinking,
than people in other emotional states.
However, this does not mean that people
should try to experience more anger in
order to make better decisions or think
more analytically.
Every individual is different; anger can
make you rational, but it can also lead to
impulsive decisions that you regret later.
--Work Cited
Moons, W. G., & Mackie, D. M. (2007). Thinking Straight
While Seeing Red: The Influence of Anger on Information Processing. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(5), 706- 720. doi: 10.1177/0146167206298566
Young, M. J., Tiedens, L. Z., Jung, H., & Tsai, M. (2011).
Mad enough to see the other side: Anger and the search
for disconfirming information. Cognition and Emotion,
25(1), 10- 21. doi: 10.1080/02699930903534105

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30

Developmental Psychology

By: Kayleigh Herber


Artwork by: Jeffrey Bigelow

Developmental Psychology is the


study of how, and why, people change
over their lifetime. When this branch of
psychology was just getting started it
was primarily concerned with babies and
young children, but over the course of the
decades it has expanded to include adolescents and adults as well. As humans
we are constantly developing in one way
or another, for better or for worse, and
developmental psychology now studies
people of all ages. Today we will be discussing three major themes within developmental psychology that scientists have
been busy with for years.
The Nature and Nurture Debate
Over the course of history psychologists have argued whether behaviour is
shaped by genetics and natural forces we
encounter growing up, or if its shaped by
a childs upbringing. These are referred
to as empiricism (nurture) and nativism
(nature). The empiricists argue that children are born as a tabula rasa (blank
slate), and that behavioural traits develop almost exclusively from the way
children grow up. On the other hand,
nativists argue that a lot of skills have a
genetic or innate basis, like instinctively
looking for food. While both points of view
used to be usually quite black and white,
contemporary psychologists recognise
that both are very important, though it
is hard to prove exactly how much each
contributes. In a 2014 survey, many of
the responding scientists wrote that the
two-sided nature vs. nurture debate has
outlived its usefulness because it has

3 Important
Themes in
Developmental
Psychology You
Must Know About
sufficiently been proven that both
sides interact.
Continuity and Discontinuity
Also a very widely discussed topic even
the famous psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud
discussed it - is how we describe patterns
of development. Some psychologists view
development as a continuous process,
where development happens gradually
and skills and abilities are accumulated
over the years. Others tend to view it as
a staircase of step-like phases that are
qualitatively different from the ones before and after, each defined by particular
behaviours. Contemporary psychologists
view development as a smooth continuous curve rather than steps; they do
agree that within that curve there are
phases, but they transition into another
phase gradually.
Domain-general and Domain-specific
Another topic that has intrigued many
psychologists is whether, and to what
extent, the development of new skills
can influence our development of other skills. For example, if youre learning
a new way of swimming like the backstroke, which involves bringing your arms
over the head in order to move through
the water, it might impact other motor
abilities too. Practicing this posture and
movement could possibly help you develop other skills, like over-arm serving in
tennis, or weight lifting, which includes
similar movements. Psychologists differ
in how far they consider things like these
are domain-general. Others have tak-

ISSUE 1

en a more domain-specific point of


view, and believe developments like this
proceed rather independently.
These three important subjects might
seem very one-or-the-other, but they
are anything but that. There is more and
more consensus among scientists and
psychologists that development is probably caused by multiple factors at all levels. This means that there is rarely just
one correct answer to the question what
causes this development? or which of
these is true. Finding out exactly what
the answer is seems pretty much impossible, but the psychological community
will keep trying and trying to get as close
to the answer as possible.
Works Cited:
Buehl, M. M., Alexander, P. A., & Murphy, P. K. (2002).
Beliefs about schooled knowledge: Domain specific or
domain general?.Contemporary educational psychology,27(3), 415-449.
Gopnik, A. (2014). Time to Retire: The Simplicity of Nature vs. Nurture,.Mind and Matter, published,1, 25.
Leman, P., Bremner, A., Parke, R. D., & Gauvain, M.
(2012). Developmental Psychology. London: McGraw
Hill.
Weinfield, N. S., Sroufe, L. A., & Egeland, B. (2000).
Attachment from infancy to early adulthood in a high
risk sample: Continuity, discontinuity, and their correlates.Child development,71(3), 695-702.
Further reading:
Developmental Psychology (2011) Dr Rachel Gillibrand, Dr Virginia Lam & Dr Victoria L. ODonnell.
An Introduction to Developmental Psychology (2011)
Alan Slater, J. Gavin Bremner

As humans we are constantly


developing in one way or
another, for better or for
worse

31

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32

S.E.E.P

AUTISM SPECTRUM
EDUCATING EARLY

S.E.E.P. (Special, Exceptional, Extraordinary People)

By: Sheena Mackenzie

To those unfamiliar with Autistic


Spectrum Disorders (ASD), our ideas
about what it really is are shaped by
representations in popular culture,
and perhaps the two most prominent
examples are the film Rain Man and
Jim Parsons Sheldon Cooper from
the American comedy series The Big
Bang Theory (although the latter is not
diagnosed, it is widely accepted that he
is). Representational media is incredibly
important to all of us, but it can present
its own problems, as in this example,
where both characters are portrayed
similarly: as troubled geniuses with
strangely obsessive interests, quirky
behaviors and difficulty in socializing
with others. All of these traits are
associated with autism, but the reality is
much more complex than the simplistic
understanding many seem to have of
it - its a spectrum disorder, with many
different levels of functionality and kinds
of expression.
As someone who has known a number
of people at different points on the
Autistic Spectrum, a trend Ive noticed
is that once children reach about seven
or eight years old, there comes a division
in which neurotypical children exclude
and sometimes even bully peers who
have autism. Promoting the inclusion of
those on the autistic spectrum in schools
is vitally important to allowing them to
create friendships, relationships, and
support systems which are key to living
a fulfilled life for all people. Creating
awareness of autism among those

who attend school with people who


have ASD and dealing with the stigma
of it at a very young age could greatly
improve tolerance and understanding
of the sometimes confusing behavior
that people with autism can exhibit, and
allow them to develop sympathetic and
supportive friend groups with peers,
separate from the parental and formal
support that can easily become the only
support a person receives coping not only
with their disorder, but the other stresses
that young people face growing up.
To this end, Kimberly Maich and E.
Christina Belcher from Ontario, Canada
and Melbourne, Australia respectively,
have investigated the use of picture
books depicting and exploring autism in
schools to promote awareness among
children from a young age. Their study
looked at a variety of books already in
print which address this issue, including
both books which specifically addressed
autism and autistic behavior (such as
Understanding Sam And Aspergers
Syndrome (Van Niekerk & Venters,
2006)) and books which portray autism
in an indirect manner (like Looking
After Louie (Ely, 2004)). Its important
to use both types of portrayal so that
children both understand the complexity
of the disorder, but also that to have
autism does not have to be a disruptive
or defining thing in normal everyday
situation. The paper suggests ten factors
to be considered when approaching this
issues in this way (including (a) story
selection tools, (b) direct labelling,

ISSUE 1

(c) indirect terminology, (d) the


wider context, (e) finding positive
perspective, (f) pictorial and literary
value, (g) curricular considerations, (h)
participation possibilities, (i) instructional
approaches, and (j) putting a plan in
place), but concludes that, although
it needs to be done in a very carefully
planned manner in educational setting, it
is beneficial for both neurotypical pupils
and pupils withASD.
The key thing to remember when
educating people about the autistic
spectrum is that those with ASD are
people who have autism, not autistic
people. This particular condition, to
varying degrees, does have an impact
on an individuals social, intellectual,
and emotional development, but it is
not their defining characteristic. Autistic
is not a personality trait or a lifestyle,
and those who have it are people before
they are autistics, people with dreams,
motivations, a sense of humor and their
own way of being in the world.

33

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34

35

SPENCER
By: Natalie Pedemonte

S.E.E.P. (Special, Exceptional, Extraordinary People)

ISSUE 1

All my life, I knew my brother had


Autism. Being the younger of the two,
I didnt always understand what that
meant, but I knew that he was different.
As far as I was concerned, Spencer was
the kind of big brother that all my friends
had. But as I grew up, I slowly began to
realize that my brother and I were not the
same in comparison to my friends and
their siblings.
I took notice and was baffled by how my
friends older siblings always seemed
so uninterested in spending time with
their younger brothers and sisters. Most
siblings with a three-year age gap didnt
get along as well as me and my brother
did. They never really developed a bond
until later in life. But despite their lack of
interest in one other, the older sibling was
always there to show the younger one the
ropes of life. In my case, I had to try and
figure out the ropes on my own and then
try and help Spencer figure some out
along the way. Spencer and I have always
been close and I cant remember a game
that he didnt involve me in. I could always
confide in him when it came down to it.
Spencer was big into history when we
were younger, and every game we played
had some historical significance that we
always stuck to. So all in all, a majority of
my childhood was learning a wide range
of historic events. By the time I got to high
school, I knew almost everything I was
learning in class because my brother and
I had played games based on the same
content as children.

The patience required by me to


play games with my brother rolled
over into my teenage years, and in turn,
hes affected the way in which I interact
with others. I believe that Im able to
understand how people think a lot better
than other people my age. From years of
following games step by step, Im a lot
more analytical when observing peoples
actions. Spencer has allowed me to
look at the world and the people in it,
muchdifferently.
People have asked me what its like
growing up with Spencer being the way he
is. And I have never been able to properly
answer them because I was less than a
year old when he was diagnosed, so Ive
never known any differently.
For my entire life, Spencer has always
been Spencer. And while that made him
different to others, it made my entire
childhood all the more special. There was
never a dull moment with him. Ive had to
grow up a little bit faster than my friends
have because of my brother. And since
the death of our mom, weve both had to
do a lot of growing up in a short period
of time. From experiences like this that
have evoked life-changing mentalities,
our relationship has become even
stronger. Ive had to be his rock, and hes
done the same for me. Ive never really
known anything else and, despite a few
difficulties, I wouldnt want anyone other
than Spencer to be my sibling. To be my
big brother.

Psych2Go

36

Animal Psychology

SCRUB JAYS

&
FUTURE PLANNING
By: Imogen Bowler
Artwork by: Ale Caballero

ISSUE 1

Future planning is an interesting,


and particularly hard skill to have. The
reason it is particularly hard is because
to plan for the future, you have to plan for
the motivational state (e.g. hunger, thirst)
you will be in at that time. This requires
the suppression of the motivational state
you are currently in. For this reason,
researchers are not sure whether it is
something animals can do or not. One
interesting study looking into this was
conducted with scrub jays, looking at the
hunger motivational state.
For context, experiments with humans
have shown even we are not perfect at
this kind of future planning. For example, in Atance and Meltzoffs (2006) study
children were allowed to eat as many
pretzels as they liked. They were then
asked if they would want a glass of water,
or some more pretzels tomorrow. While
4-5 year olds performed above chance
level, they were not perfect. 3 year olds
also failed this task (ed: what determined
a fail?). Its even been shown that adult
humans can fail at these kinds of tasks.
Read and van Leeuven (1998) conducted a
field experiment on adult participants in
an office, they were asked whether they
would want a healthy or unhealthy snack
the day after. They were either hunger or
not at the time of asking, and hungry or
not when they would receive the snack.
Participants struggled to correctly predict what they would want when the two
states of hunger did not match.
With these findings in mind, lets look at
what Raby et al (2007) found when testing
this skill in scrub jays. This study consisted of two phases, a training phase and a
testing phase. In the training phase, for 6
days scrub jays spent the morning either
in place A or place C. In place A they were
given breakfast, whereas in place C they
were not. Therefore, in place C, hunger
was more likely to occur. On the 7th day,
the scrub jays were pre-fed so they were
not hungry. They were then given extra
food which they could cache. Caching is
a behavior many birds display where they
store food in a hidden place in case they

need it at a future date. During this


testing phase, the jays were given free
reign of the two places (A and C). If they
were able to ignore their current state
(not being hungry) and plan for a future
point in time (where they would be hungry) then they should cache more food in
place C. This was in fact what was found,
scrub jays would cache the food in place
C at a higher rate than chance.
This is taken by some as an example of
the scrub jays resisting current state to
plan for the future, however others suggest that there are problems with this
experiment and that coming to that conclusion is premature. Can you think of
any possible alternative explanations of
this finding?
Works Cited:
Atance & Melztoff (2006) Preschoolers current desires
warp their choices for the future. Psychological Science, 17(7).
Read & van Leeuwen (1998) Predicting hunger: the effects of appetite and delay on choice.
Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 76(2), 189-205
Raby, C.R., Alexis, D.M., Dickinson, A., & Clayton, N.S.
(2007) Planning for the
future by western scrub jays. Nature, 445, 919-921

37

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38
FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY

PSYCHOPATHY
Forensic Psychology

By: Larissa Grundmanis


Artwork by: Pilar Chavez

ISSUE 1

Im not a psychopath, Im a highfunctioning sociopath. This quote has


often been heard by fans of the BBC show
Sherlock, and while viewers may laugh,
do they truly understand what is it to be
a psychopath, and why Holmes would
prefer to be called a high-functioning
sociopath? As an avid fan of Sherlock
as well as someone who is interested
in forensic psychology I have often
wondered to myself: do I truly know the
difference between the two? While both
are truly fascinating, the main focus
here is on psychopathy after all, many
individuals with psychopathic traits are
found in prisons.
Psychopathy, while often confused
with one who is psychotic, is actually a
mere individual who has the abilities to
manipulate their way through life without
remorse. While this is a simplified
definition, the most common traits of a
psychopath are that they are incapable
of forming deep emotional attachments,
they often times are unable to feel guilt or
empathy, they are manipulative, and they
often hold a profuse level of superficial
charm. Unfortunately, many times these
traits are overlooked by the general public
who instead see someone with antisocial
personality disorder, psychosis, or a
serial killer, according to the Society for
the Scientific Study of Psychopathy.
Why then, is psychopathy so often
associated with murderers? Perhaps it
is because of the media, or perhaps it is
because many individuals who have killed
have been diagnosed with some form of
psychopathy, such as Joanna Dennehy. It
may also be due to the notion that only
criminals would be able to behave in
such manners, but is that really true?
According to Chivers, its not. He notes
that Robert Hare, the creator of the
PCL-R once stated:
There are people who are part-way up
the scale, high enough to warrant an
assessment for psychopathy, but not
high enough up to cause problems. Often
theyre our friends, theyre fun to be
around. They might take advantage of us
now and then, but usually its subtle and
theyre able to talk their way around it.
How many times have you found yourself
taking advantage of your friends, even if it
was to just get a free meal out of them?

39

How many times have you or your friends


acted impulsively or irresponsibly? How
many times have you found yourself
unwilling to acknowledge that you made
a mistake, and take responsibility for the
consequences? How many times have
you, or someone you know, committed
acts of wanton sexual behavior?
Most individuals would be able to find
some common ground between these
traits and their own lifestyles, but that
does not mean that they are violent
individuals who are prone to crime.
Psychopathy is often looked down
upon, but many times the average
human being acts in ways that would
be found in someone with psychopathic
tendencies. Perhaps instead of jumping
to conclusions, we, as individuals, should
look for true motives behind someones
actions.
Citation:
Chivers, T. (2014, April 6). Psychopaths: How can you
spot one?. In The Telegraph. Retrieved from http://
www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/10737827/
Psychopaths-how-can-you-spot-one.html
Society for the Scientific Study of Psychopathy. (2013).
Psychopathy: A misunderstood condition. In Society
for the Scientific Study of Psychopathy. Retrieved from
http://www.psychopathysociety.org/en/
Webb, D. (n.d.). The psychopath. In All About Forensic
Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.all-aboutforensic-psychology.com/psychopath.html

Psych2Go

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3

41

ART SUBMISSION WINNER:


THEME: Psych2Go Community

I chose to illustrate the theme Psych2Go Community as


a group of people helping each other solve a puzzle. Ive observed members of various Psych2Go Facebook groups from
their posts online that the wit and wisdom of each community
members increases camaraderie - or the spirit of humor and
fun. I want to express it in this illustration how they share their
views to enhance learning from each other while in the process
of creating something big.
Ruth Espinosa
r-gie.tumblr.com

If you would like to have the chance to win and have your art
showcased in our next issue, be on the lookout for the next art
theme which will be posted on our social media!

Psych2Go

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42

For those trying to get a job,


here are some tips for your interviews! Youve got your foot
in the door and now its time to
tell your story. These are also
helpful for conducting your own
interviews. Good luck!

Career Building

TIPS FOR
INTERVIEWS

THE FOUR DIMENSIONS OF SIMPLE


ATTENDING BEHAVIOUR
Eye contact
This is when the interviewer and interviewee look each other in the eyes.
The culture and the interviewee might
prefer it to others.
Body language
This is when the interviewer or interviewee communicate other messages
based on their movements and posture.
Mirroring is when both parties are consistent in their movements and is best
done subtly. This helps people become
comfortable with you.
Vocal qualities
This is how loudness, pitch, rate, and
fluency affects the interviewee since it
can communicate feelings of empathy or
cause conflict. Its best to use a soft, firm
voice when interviewing.

By: Jessica Jang


Artwork by: Jane Shi

Verbal tracking
This is listening to the interviewee to
clarify and summarize what they say
without putting their meanings in it.

Negative attending behaviors are overused positive attending behavior that it


becomes uncomfortable. Excessive head
nods are distracting, saying uh huh
often becomes annoying, too much eye
contact overwhelms others, repeating
the last words intimidates the client,
awkward mirroring looks like mocking.
The interviewee doesnt want to be scrutinized or apprehensive otherwise the interviewer wont get the true information
they want. Remember everything is good
in moderation.
Its important to consider culture with
attending skills because an interview
should be a good environment for getting
information and both parties should be
respectful of each other. Individuals have
a preference on the amount of each dimension of attending behavior. Gestures
could convey other messages in other
cultures and might not be appropriate.
The most important part of interviewing
is being a good storyteller. You need to be
able to take your past experience and use
it to explain how youve developed skills
important for the new job. DO NOT just
repeat your resumes because they have
already seen it you just need to expand on
it more. A good method to use is to write
out your positions then come up with at
least three tasks you had to do then the
skills related to it. Heres an example:
1. Cashier
a.) Accept currency and keep accounts updated
Organization
i.) Trustworthiness
b.) Clean checkout area
i.) Multitasking skills
c.) Help customers with purchases
i.) Communication/interpersonal skills
ii.) Customer Service

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Community Submissions:
October: Sport Psychology & Psychology and the Internet

HOW IS

PSYCHOLOGY
INVOLVED IN
SPORTS?

By: Yara Melndez


Artwork by: Jane Shi

What is Sports Psychology? (Cherry,


2015) tell us that Sports Psychology is
the study of how psychology influences
sports, athletic performance, exercise,
and physical activity. It is said that sport
psychologists, aside from working with
people who just want to exercise for their
health and well-being, they also work
with athletes and coaches so they can enhance the ir motivation and performance.
Could that be effective? Thanks to this
article and my perfectly done research
youll find out now, today. Just keep reading!

coach doesnt feel like he or she has


made any progress throughout the process, then it hasnt been effective at all.
(Sharp & Hodge, 2014) conducted a study
in which nine elite athletes would be interviewed to talk about what they perceived to be essential for effective sport
psychology consulting and to examine
their perceptions of the key components
of an effective sport psychology consulting relationship. There were six males
and three females from a variety of sports
(e.g. cricket, rugby, swimming, triathlon,
dressage and wheelchair rugby).

According to (Comar, 1994) educationally-based psychological interventions


have produced significant increases in
performance. He states that 38 of the
45 studies examined (85%) have found
positive performance effects. Recently conducted research has added that
sport psychology has had positive affect
on performance enhancement, as well as
the personal growth of athletes. However,
further research needs to be conducted
to improve the understanding of these
positive affects. Youre probably thinking
that this article will only contain information about studies that have been conducted throughout the years but youre
wrong. Besides information about those
studies, I will be speaking about the
athletes perspective which is extremely important. The psychologists can say
anything they want, but if the athlete or

The analysis indicated that three categories were essential for sport psychology
consulting effectiveness; sport psychology consultants were friendly but not a
friend, consulting experience and athlete-centered consulting.

FOUR
1
2
3
4

categories resulted essential for


effective consulting relationships;
flexibility
open, honest, and respectful
contributions from both the athlete
and the consultant
athlete as an active participant in the
consulting relationship

After conducting this research I did some


serious brainstorming. I tried to see this
from their perspective and came to my

own conclusions and opinions. I think


that sports psychology could really be effective. Yes, people say that you can only
motivate yourself and the only one that
can or cannot make you do what you want
is you. Somewhat that might be true
but dont you think that if you have people around you who care, take the time
to listen and give you advice; that it will
motivate you too ? Having someone rooting for you always. Isnt that nice? Yes, it
is!Thats why I think it is effective. Obviously, the psychologist cannot do the job
by him or herself. You have to be faithful
and hopeful about your goals and try to
make them happen with the help of your
sports psychologist or any psychologist if
you want to speak about your goals in life
instead of just athleticism. You do your
part and he/she will do his. In the end,
everyone wins.
Citations:
Weinberg, R. (1994, December 1). The Effectiveness of
Psychological Interventions in Competitive Sport. Retrieved September 1, 2015.
Weinberg, R. (1994). The effectiveness of psychological
interventions in competitive sport. Retrieved September 1, 2015
Sharp, L., & Hodge, K. (2014, April 14). Sport psychology consulting effectiveness: The athletes perspective.
Retrieved August 31, 2015.

45

The psychologists can say


anything they want, but if
the athlete or coach doesnt
feel like he or she has made
any progress throughout the
process, then it hasnt been
effective at all.

Psych2Go

46

PSYCHOLOGY OF THE MARTIAL ARTS


Body, Mind, Spirit:
The Strength from Within

Community Submissions:
October: Sport Psychology & Psychology and the Internet

By: Mitchell Mabugat


Artwork by: Jane Shi

I fear not the man who has practiced 10,000 punches once,
But I fear the man who has practiced 1 punch 10,000 times.
-Bruce Lee
Dedication. Intensity. Control. Focus.
All these are key aspects in the world of
martial arts. Dating back to as far as 2000
BCE, martial arts has become a strong
spiritual, physical, and emotional discipline, that for years has given strength
and enlightenment in one way or another,
to all those who went in search for the
true meaning of combat.
Whether you look at the ancient samurai of Japan, or the brutal bare knuckle
boxing of Greece, all cultures of the world
have developed in some sense, their own
art of self-defense. Though a common
misconception, many people believe
that all combat consists of is a bunch of
brutes toppling over each other to see
who is the strongest. This idea, I can
confidently say, is false. Though physical
strength is, like in all sports important, it
does not alone make up the foundations
and principles of martial arts. The most
important and sometimes the most difficult aspect of ones self to master is the
mind. In its truest form, martial arts is a
science. Similar to all areas of science it
requires analysis, repetition, and reflection in order to truly master. A second
too slow and you take damage, a second
to fast and you lose an opportunity to do
damage.

Keeping this in mind, Id say that


approximately 80% of fights are won before the first punch is thrown. In Sun Tzus
book, The Art Of War, he explains A skillful general must defeat the enemy without coming to battle, take his cities without siege and overthrow his state without
a long campaign. He must make every
effort under the heaven to achieve total
victory with his forced undiminished: This
is the true art of strategic offence. (Tzu,
S. 513 BCE). Never let your enemy see
your fear. When weak appear to your enemies as strong. When strong appear to
your enemies as weak. Sun Tzu describes
warfare and combat as the path of deception (Tzu, S. 513 BCE). To never show
your aggressors your fears or insecurities; to appear a lion when feeling like a
mouse. Showing your aggressor not how
strong you are physically but how impenetrable and indestructible your mind is.
Even when in a competition of strength,
he whose psyche is unbreakable, is physically unbreakable.
Now I am aware that the topic I am supposed to be writing on is sports psychology, and although mixed martial arts,
boxing, and taekwondo are all technically
sports, I can assure you martial arts in
its truest form is much more than just
a sport. To some it is a lifestyle forged
through repetition and tradition, and to

ISSUE 1

others it is a form of self-expression.


But to all, it is simply an escape. Coming
into a training session, you could have
the world weighing down on you. And by
the end of the class, feeling lighter than
ever before. Sure, your body may not feel
that way at first, but your mind will gain
a sense of relief, if even for a moment,
which I could only describe as magical.
Throughout our lives we tend to find ourselves shying away from any thoughts of
violence; however, when the time comes
as it is inevitable, we are not prepared
to defend ourselves from this unexplored,
frightening monster. And unless you live
under a rock, I guarantee you that someday, somewhere you will need to fight.
Fight for love, fight for pride, or even a
fight to get that killer beach body youve
always wanted. Everyday of our lives is a
fight.
Is martial arts for everyone? No. Will you
become a great UFC fighter by going to
a few classes? Hell no. Will you gain the
individual strength and resilience needed to walk through life with less fear and
more confidence? Most definitely.
Citations:
Anonymous. Martial Arts Training: Benefits Physical
and Psychological. Retrieved from http://www.ontarioselfdefence.ca/martial-arts-training-benefits-physical-and-psychological/
Lapre, S. Personal Communication. June 2012.
Mccaferty,G. (2015, July). Psychological Benefits of
Martial Arts Training. Retrieved from http://believeperform.com/performance/psychological-benefits-of-martial-arts-training/

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Psych2Go

48

PSYCHOLOGY AND THE INTERNET


Community Submissions:
October: Sport Psychology & Psychology and the Internet

By: Digby Driver


Artwork by: Pilar Chavez

Interpretation is the most necessary


survival skill for all thinking creatures,
though rarely is it associated with basic
needs. Any cub scout, disaster prepper,
or off the grid homesteader will tell you
that food, shelter, and water are the most
crucial things to consider, but the fact
is that these things would never have
crossed their minds were it not for their
bodys ability to interpret hunger, thirst,
and cold. We use interpretation every
second of the day without hesitation as
our bodies interpret the need to breathe,
the words of our friends and family, and
the passing of time.
Have you ever realized that without sensory data, (or the ability to interpret it),
we wouldnt be able to interact with the
world on any level? We wouldnt even
know it existed. Without the ability to
take in and interpret sensory stimuli, we
wouldnt even be the most basic parts
within Sartres existential bubble as
for-itself beings in an in-itself world. The
only thing between us and falling into the
void is entirely in the way our body interprets, translates, and plans to take in and
make sense of it all every hour in a day,
every day in a week, and year after year
so we can stay aware of our shared bubble for as long as possible.
Well, thats a little depressing.
Maybe so, but not as much as having
the ability to interpret all that sensory
stimuli, but not being able to explain it
in a way other people can relate to, or in
a way they can relate to you personally.

What happens if youre the one with


an atypical method of interpretation that
makes the status not so quo for you and
seemingly no one else? What then? Consider carefully that it takes us right to to
why the Internet is so much more than
just a piece of technology, and why the
psychology behind the Internet isnt just
for kicks and pop culture giggles.
Communication and interpretation are
the fluids that keep so many areas of
cognitive and developmental psychology running smoothly. Its the oil, the
antifreeze, the water pumping through
the radiator cooling down Carl Jungs
engine of human thought and reaction.
Theyre the most basic parts of our brain,
yet so crucial. In a car, theyre the one
thing mechanics and garages will top up
and monitor freely. Its not just because
theyre nice guys, but because without
them everything in the entire engine will
break apart, fuse together, and grind to a
painful, inevitable halt if they run out or
grow too stagnant.
A popular quote from Jungs novel Memories, Dreams, Reflections says, loneliness does not come from having no
people about one, but from being unable
to communicate the things that seem
important to oneself, or from holding
certain views which others find inadmissible.
The internet is not just another product
or service of the tech age. Its not the
same thing as the first blocky, off-white

ISSUE 1

Macs my generation started out with.


Neither can the Internet be compared to
the other more advanced technology that
seemed to grow mushrooms overnight
during the late 90s and on into the 21st
Century. Perhaps the Internet started
out that way, and it was probably intended to be nothing more than another tool
in the end, but thats not what happened.
Instead, the Internet has evolved into a
virtual real estate, pioneered and settled
by my fellow Millennials before it was
passed on and seized by Generation Z as
a brave new world they now claim as a
mother country. Like any other country,
the Internet has a language and a culture. It has currency, government, and
patriotic pride. The fact that it has no set
location, legal residency, or even a physical mailing addresses isnt something its
citizens worry about. If the World Wide
Web were an actual place, anthropologists and government intelligence agencies would study nothing else for generations to come, but since it exists solely
as data connections, Wi-Fi hotspots, and
DSL hookups across the world, its up
to psychology enthusiasts to spread the
news that the times are changing and
wed better be prepared for a hostile
takeover by a country that exists only as
stored memory in hard drives and human
minds.

49

Psych2Go

50

ISSUE 1

QUIZZES

Created by: Sadia Nadeem


Designed by: Craig Alexander

51

Created by: Jade Li


Designed by: Craig Alexander

Please see answers on page 69!

Psych2Go

ISSUE 1

52

53

Comic by: Katherine Fosso


Blog: sunsinourhands.tumblr.com

Psych2Go

54
Projective Psychology

Rorschach Projective Test

INTERPRETATIONS

ISSUE 1

This set consists of the most common


answers that were sent to Psych2Go.
All compiled responses are listed here.
The audiences responses were able to
point out and identify some aspects of
their personality and character:
1. A part of the human body.
A common answer was ribcage, but this
also varied to lungs or the pelvis of a
person. Sometimes, it was even specified
as an x-ray. This would be interpreted as
someone who tends to set the bar high
for themselves. Presumably, they would
be the type of person who (consciously or
unconsciously) projects their intelligence
to their environment.
2. An animal.
There were also a lot of responses
regarding animalsthe most common
being a cow, but there were also
interpretations of different breeds of
dogs, followed by rats, elephants, and
foxes. Now, in order to decipher this,
it depends on the characteristic of the
animal. Cows, for example, are known
to be stoic, yet emotionally deep. Dogs
are often called loyal. Rats are often
the witty, mischievous ones. Elephants
are sometimes described as calm and
confident. While foxes are associated
with wisdom and are often guides.

By: Risha Mae Ordas

3. Two people kissing/shaking hands.


First off, the immediate association with
a human being means that the person
who interpreted the picture in this
way may have strong connections with
humanism. Also, it would depend on the
gender of the person in the image (is it
a man and a woman? Or two people of
the same gender?). The gender or age
observation may depict the attachment
the interpreter has to a particular
figurehead in their life (was it you and
your sibling you saw shaking hands,
perhaps?). The action can be explained
as someone who is aware of themselves,
and is attuned to the different needs of
the people around them.

4. Supernatural figures such as


fairies, dwarves, and angels, and
the grim reaper, were also common
answers.
These kinds of responses can be
associated with someone who is aware of
themselves and has a greater tendency to
be more empathic to other people. But it
would also depend on what the creature is
doing: If its positive (like shaking hands),
then it can be interpreted in a positive
light. If negative emotion is clipped with
the figure, then the person identifying the
image could be experiencing some sort of
negativity within their life, or some kind of
pent up emotion.
The next Rorschach will be posted on
the Psych2Go Website and social media
accounts before the next issue, so to
keep yourself up to date and post your
interpretation, be sure to follow us on
social media!

55

Psych2Go

56

ISSUE 1

BOOK REVIEW:

WINTERGIRLS

By: Hannah Jade

While well written and an interesting


read, Wintergirls is definitely not
representative of what it is like to have
an eating disorder. The book opens with
a description of how Cassie, Lias best
friend of 10 years, has been found dead
in the room of a motel. Lia is the main
character of the novel, which documents
her struggles with anorexia, which she
has personified with the name ana. It
appears to me that the authors research
into bulimia and anorexia may not have
spanned further than researching pro
*ana and *mia websites.

Book Review

A lot of the way things are written seem


to romanticize eating disorders, rather
than show what kind of torture they are.
Lia called herself strong for keeping
herself empty.
Cassie had been
bulimic and was influencing her friend to
be the same, which actually made Lias
parents somewhat grateful that she had
died. I thought that was a bit of a harsh
way to introduce the stepmother in a
scene. I understand that they could have
been blaming her for the eating disorder
of the child they were raising, however
wouldnt a death of your childs best
friend warrant a response that was more
caring and trying to help your struggling
child rather than tarnishing their late
best friends name? I dont know really,
as I thought the way the stepmother was
shown was extremely cold, even though
most of the time she was making an
attempt to help out. A lot of the book the
narration is disconnected and it feels
cold. The chapters are titled in the way
that she would weigh herself and write
down the weight (00.0) which I thought
was interesting. Stylistically, the book
somewhat resembles a diary. It is written
in a very poetic style, but I didnt hate the
poeticism as much as I hate anything like
that by Sharon Creech. (Im looking at
you, Heartbeat).

Anderson, L. H., & Viking. (2009). Wintergirls. New York: Viking.

However, a lot of the time the author


will cross out words to show what the
character was thinking at first but then
changed their mind to state differently.

Things like stepmother crossed


out to say Jennifer. She also refers to
any type of food as either a number or a
color. The numbers represent the calories
in the food she is discussing. There are a
lot of scenes that are graphically about
self harm and intense self deprecation on
Lias part both mentally and physically.
She realized that Cassie had called her 47
times on the night of her death, and a part
of what is making her so stressed out and
ill is that she blames herself for not being
there for her friend.
The hotel in which Cassie died has a
person named Elijah working there and
he and Lia form an unlikely friendship.
Its very strange to watch this persons
world unravel. We find out that Cassie
died from a ruptured esophagus and Lia
had actually had some points where she
sabotaged Cassies attempts to recover
from bulimia- the disease that ultimately
killed her. Cassie had left a message
for Lia - that she was the skinniest, and
she had won. As if it was some sort of
competition, again the glorification of a
weight achieved by means of an eating
disorder.
The book describes the changes in her
body and it gets increasingly emaciated,
which shows the brutality of what
happens with an eating disorder. The very
end of the book Lia is cutting herself,
and her stepsister Emma who absolutely
adores her walks in. It ends on this note
and doesnt allow further elaboration, so
one can only make assumptions about
where to go from there. Overall, the book
was decent, however I found it slightly
romanticizing eating disorders and who
can be the sickest, but I have not suffered
from bulimia or anorexia, so I would leave
people with more authority on that to
judge better. All in all the book was easy
to read, well written, and interesting. I
think research could have been better,
but overall it was a good read.
*ana short for Anorexia Nervosa
*mia short for Bulimia

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Psych2Go

ISSUE 1

58
3

59

Everyday
Everyday tell something you didnt see Something
that wasnt old, or on repeat Something that would
give me hope, to believe So I can see a chance, to
come back from defeat
Ammunition takes lives is what I hear on the radio
From state to state, from coast to coast
Most of the times we ask why, but dont know
We dont have an answer; theres nothing to post
More tears than smiles, I continue to hear
More suffering than living, please tell me how
These young kids that live their life in such fear
Give me a reason why I shouldnt be doing
something now
This list goes on as we drift into slumber
Reset the clocks, for the day is almost over
Prepare yourself tomorrow; its time to repeat the
same thing Our first world problems block out the
help when others sing
-Anonymous

Artwork by: Ale Caballero


Note from the author: This poem represents how people can alter
their thinking to reflect more positivity to make an impacting change.

Psych2Go

60

PSYCHOLOGY

TOGO
By: Lauren Miedel

ISSUE 1

If youre like me, youve had your fair


share of awkward moments. A lot of
mine revolve around the fact that I cannot
control when I laugh. I laughed when my
friend told me that she and her girlfriend
had broken up. I make jokes about awful
situations, as well as during sad and
angering scenarios. I joke around during
serious talks between myself and my
parents. I have depression, and lots of
times people think that Im ok because of
how often I make them laugh. So I can say
with certainty that it was a relief when I
discovered that I wasnt broken; in fact,
Im just one of many who use humour
to deal with fairly large problems. Many
people use humour or laughter to cope
with stressful and hard situations.
According to Keltner and Bonanno (1997),
laughing helps us respond to stress by
increasing the psychological distance
from distress and by enhancing social
relations. In other words, we laugh in
times of distress because sometimes
our minds cannot handle the stress.
Think about it, whenever something bad
happens, it can be hard to process. Your
brain deals with this trouble processing
by laughing, which releases a bunch
of endorphins, increases personal
satisfaction, and improves your mood
all of these help deal with stress (Mayo
Clinic Staff 2013). By creating these
physiological changes to make your body
think its happy, you put distance between
yourself and the situation. Also, think
about how laughing and joking around
play a huge part in our socialization.
Laughing is one of the biggest socializing
elements. In times of distress, your mind
craves human contact and interaction (to
help deal with the stress), so it makes
sense that it would laugh to increase
those chances.
Theres also another reason the brain
might force us into laughter. As humans,
we are generally very good at reading
peoples emotions. We know when
someone is smiling out of politeness
or, in this case, when someone laughs
without feeling a positive emotion.
People who are not as good at hiding

their true emotions are more likely


to do this fake-laugh, which could be a
signal to others that we are in distress.
The brain may do this in order to raise
the likelihood of someone coming to find
out what is causing the stress (Keltner &
Bonanno 1997).
With this information in mind, its easy to
see why the brain would sometimes think
that having us laugh is the best course of
action. It may be inconvenient and possibly
a social faux-pas, our brain is just trying
to look out for us. Now I understand why
I make so many jokes when Im feeling
so down; my brain is trying to find ways
to help me cope with the stress. So the
next time you find yourself laughing when
you think you shouldnt, remember that it
may help you in the long run.
Citation:
Keltner, D., & Bonanno, G. A. (1997). A Study of Laughter
and Dissociation: Distinct Correlates of Laughter and
Smiling During Bereavement. Journal Of Personality &
Social Psychology, 73(4), 687-702.
Mayo Clinic Staff (2013). Stress relief from laughter? Its
no joke. Retrieved September 10, 2015.

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62

PSYCHOLOGICAL MYTHS
Similarities Attract
Debunking Opposites Attract

Debungking Psychological Myths

By: Myelin Abenojar


When looking at ones partner or
friend, one may suddenly question
with squinting eyes: Why? This may
be a question that is posed repeatedly
or not at all. Maybe there is a mystical
acceptance of fate that brought two
beings together. Or maybe it was simply
proximity, and there was no one else to
choose from. Regardless of the believed
circumstances, it is safe to wonder: Why
do people like the people that they like?
What is this gravitational pull called
attraction that people experience
amongst each other? How can this bond
be maintained? And, what if we knew the
formula to achieving peak happiness in
interpersonal romantic relationships?
There are some basic trends that have
been found. Opposites attract is a
rationale that is often disputed yet
equally often suggested. The sight of a
cat cuddling with a dog, an interracial
couple, or the pull of two magnets
promotes a sense of awe. But, is it true?
In general, it is more difficult to interact
with someone who is unlike us. As
depicted throughout history in various
battles and wars, dissimilarity has often
been a source of conflict, and furthermore
hatred. Conversely, one can also assume
that it is easier to interact with someone
who is like them. This phenomenon is
highlighted when people of similar ages,
races, religions, or socioeconomic status
get along because they are connected via
a point of similarity (Wilson & Cousins,
2003, p. 161). Overall, partners or
friends who are similar are more likely
to establish, maintain, and sustain happy
and healthy interpersonal relationships.
Similar Romantic Partners
Romantic partners, especially long
term marital partners, tend to be more
similar on personality and interests
than dissimilar in comparison to
random couplings (Gonzaga, Carter, &
Buckwalter, 2010, p. 642). In fact, the

Artwork by: Jane Shi


more similar the couples were the
greater report of marital satisfaction
resulted (Wilson & Cousins, 2003, p. 164).
So, similarity is not a random occurrence
amongst people, but something that tends
to bring people together and promotes
happiness. The interplay of a couples
neuroticism, openness to experience,
empathy, self-esteem, extraversion,
emotional stability, and autonomy are
all qualities that significantly affect
the quality of an intimate relationship
(Barelds, 2005, p. 502, 513). For instance,
an introvert in a relationship may feel
very drained being with an extrovert. Or
someone with low self-esteem may grow
to feel inferior with his or her partner who
has a high self-esteem. And perhaps, in
a stressful situation, someone who is
emotionally stable will find the reactions
of an emotionally unstable partner
strange and discerning. Discordance in
personality type can create dissonance in
the relationship.
Yet, this does not answer why partners
tend to be similar in these studies. The
most convincing argument for how
interpersonal similarity is the largest
factor in relationship satisfaction is based
on the idea of convergence. Convergence
is the tendency for partners to become
more alike over time (Gonzaga et al.,
2010, p. 634). One study showed that,
couples who converged in personality
between first meeting and the first
years of marriage were more satisfied
with their relationships (Gonzaga et al.,
2010, p. 642). In this situation, similarity
is something that occurs overtime. This
leads to question, are couples least
similar from the onset of a relationship?
To answer that question, its logical to
revisit our first interpersonal relationship.
Foundational Primary Caregivers
The foundation created by the initial
relationship with our primary caregiver
affects all future interpersonal

ISSUE 1

relationships.
For
instance,
individuals with an avoidant attachment
style use fewer relationship-maintaining
behaviors, such as talking about problems
and coming to an understanding, and are
less likely to seek support from [others]
(Barelds, 2005, p. 503) thus making
relationships more difficult to maintain
than they already are. But this trend does
not determine that other relationships
with children raised with an avoidant
attachment will be fruitless, but instead
shows that this individual must find a
friend or partner that can understand
and fulfill their needs. And that is the
key difference between our interpersonal
relationship with our primary caregiver
versus our romantic partners or friends;
there is an element of choice. As infants
we do not choose whom we interact with
but as we grow older we gradually receive
freedom to interact with our environment
and the people in it.
Our lives begin with and are propelled by
interpersonal relationships. Others can
and tend to be our source of self-esteem,
comfort, love and belonging. Similarity
is an ideal, but often not a realityfor
the attraction to someone exactly like
oneself is narcissism. And presumably
people are not generally aware of the
similarities they may find in another
person and it is also possible that they
are unaware of their own personality
characteristics. There is not a constant
evaluation mechanism that we go through
that weeds out people who are unlike
ourselves. Our attraction is dependent
more on our perception of the other
person. Perceiving that another has
similar traits (attitudes, interests, etc.)
increases attraction only because the
perceiver usually positively values those
traits and [therefore hold a] positive

value of the other person (Steele &


McGlynn, 1979, p. 111-112). Essentially,
it is not the list of traits that may match
up with another person; it is whether or
not those perceived similarities have an
affective value on us, which produces
a sense of attraction. Notably, there
is more to attraction than personality.
Yet, it is helpful to know in retrospect
that the symmetry that is reflected
between partners at the very start of
the relationship may help determine the
eventual success of the partnership, and
the changes over time may help shape
the relationship as it develops (Gonzaga
et al., 2010, p. 642). In conclusion,
relationships are subjective and can vary
across cultures and individuals. So what
may work for one couple may not work
for another. Research in this field of
relationship attraction and maintenance
is not only useful to researchers but also
to marriage counselors, relationship
therapists, clergy, love-struck teenagers,
friends, co-workers, and basically anyone
in the world who engages in any form of
an array of interpersonal relationships
(Wilson & Cousins, 2003, p. 165). But
discovering exactly what elements or
personality characteristics to find in
another person to complement ones own
personality should be knowledge received
and taken in precaution. Although it is
an ideal to achieve peak happiness in
our lives, that sense of happiness would
be irrelevant if there was nothing to
compare it to. Therefore, people should
not limit themselves and disregard other
people who are unlike them. For while
there are times of dissonance when
confronting differences between people,
there is also an equal potential for growth
and understanding in others as well
asourselves.

Citation:
Barelds, D. (2005). Self and partner personality in intimate relationships. European Journal of Personality, 19(6),
501-518.
Gonzaga, G. J., Carter, & Buckwalter (2010). Assortative mating, convergence, and satisfaction in married couples.
Personal Relationships, 17(4), 634-644.
Steele, M. P. & McGlynn, R. P. (1979). Effects of affective value and similarity on attraction. Journal of Social
Psychology, 108(1), 111.
Thompson, W. & Nishimura, R. (1952). Some determinants of friendship. Journal of Personality, 20(3), 305.
Wilson, G. D. & Cousins, J. M. (2005). Measurement of partner compatibility: further validation and refinement of the
CQ test. Sexual & Relationship Therapy, 20(4), 421-429.
Wilson, G. D. & Cousins, J. M. (2003). Partner similarity and relationship satisfaction: development of a compatibility
quotient. Sexual & Relationship Therapy, 18(2), 161.

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64

ADVICE COLUMN
Ive been in a long term relationship
for almost six years. We have a child,
and I also have a child from a previous
relationship. We had only been dating
for six months when I got pregnant,
and things werent going so well then.
I decided to stay in the relationship
and make it work for the new baby. I
thought - if I loved him once I could love
him again. I did fall in love again but
everything that happened within the
first year of our child being born brought
me to a deep depression. He was so
naive and selfish that he neglected my
feelings and just said I needed to suck
it up. All this created resentment, but
we finally bought a house, and I thought
maybe then we would be happy. So many
more things happened, which lead me to
cheat. I never slept with anyone, but I
did manage to get involved emotionally.
I feel that his neglect didnt help, and I
think I fell out of love with him. I know
that I love and care for him, but Im not
in love. Its important to me to be in love
with the person Im spending the rest of
my life with. We get along, hes a great
dad, but he also hurt me by mistreating
my son verbally. He takes care of all his
responsibilities, is a family man, and is
really smart. I have told him how I feel,
and I know hes upset that I might not
be in love anymore. Hes being sweet
now but what if its too late? I have a life
coach, and Im trying to give our love and
family a chance, but I cant seem to get
that feeling back. I feel I have stronger
connections with other men that I meet,
but I fight it off. I cant help but wonder
why my significant other and I cant
connect. I think its easier if I just suck it
up and stay rather than separate and put
the kids and him though the heartache. I
dont want to hurt anyone by making a
selfish decision. Please help!
Anonymous

Thank you for sharing your story


with us. I believe the first step to
creating positive change in our lives is
getting real about what needs fixing.
As I read through your very personal
account, I cant help but notice some
contradictions in the ways you describe
your significant other (s.o.). You say you
love and care for him, but you are not in
love with him due to stronger emotional
connections you have with other men
(despite efforts to fight it off). You say
your s.o. is smart, responsible, and is a
great dad even though he has verbally
abused your child from a previous
relationship in the past. Finally, you say
you dont want to hurt anyone by making
a selfish decision. I think its a great
thing that you are seeking the help of a
life coach, but if you are still focused on
the negatives you are not going to make
much progress. If your s.o. is smart,
responsible, and great as a father as you
say he is and you sincerely want to keep
your family together, I think you already
know that youre going to have to stop
indulging outside emotional connections
as this just divides your energy and focus.
On the other hand, if you truly believe that
your relationship with your s.o. cannot be
salvaged, then be 100% honest with him,
yourself, and your children. Your children
will experience some negative emotions
either way. Again, Im sure you know that
its better if they are supported by a single
mother who is confident and happy with
herself and her decisions rather than
a mother who is sad, depressed, and
regretful. Focus on what you really want
with your life, decide what will really
make you happy, and let your true desires
guide you.

TYRA

ISSUE 1

My best friends mom has cancer


and its really tearing her apart. What
can I do to make her feel better? How
can I make things better for her? What
are some things I can say to offer
comfort to her without sounding cheesy
and generic or unsympathetic?
Anonymous
Hi, I think your friend is very lucky to
have someone like you in their lives,
whos so committed to being there for
them. Im sure youre already a huge
comfort to them. I think theres 3 main
ways to help your friend. The simplest
one is just to ask them what they need,
this might be as simple as helping them
with chores. What theyre going through
is exhausting, so less responsibility could
make it easier for them to cope. Secondly,
normal life and routine are so important
to help someone feel grounded, try not to
treat them differently and that includes
not having that sympathetic expression
which can be alienating for some people.
The 3rd way to help would be support
groups. Bringing your friend to support
groups allows them to connect to people
going through the same thing. It can be
a place with a lot of information lead by
someone experienced and skilled. Its a
very difficult situation for your friend to
be in but with a support network around
them, theyll come through this.

LAUR

EN

Ive moved on with my life and am over


what happened. My ex was very abusive
to me and made me feel guilty about it,
as though it was my fault. Im over it.
But am I truly over it? Last night I had
a nightmare about him coming back into
me and my daughters life (hes m.i.a.)
well he was just worse and I had to call
the cops on him. I kept asking this guy
that I want to be with (still in my dream) if
he wanted to be with me because I felt it
wasnt worth him dealing with my ex and
baggage. What do I do? Im considering
going to a therapist. - Anonymous

Hello, Im sorry to hear about what


youre going through. No one should feel
that level of paranoia and not be able to
move on with their life. It seems to me
like youre in a bit of a trauma situation.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
is a serious thing to deal with at an
early stage. I suggest you do go see a
therapist. Having nightmares about your
ex and feeling like he might show up out
of no where can be early signs of PTSD.
You have to let go of the past in order
to continue your relationship with the
new guy. Youll never feel safe or worthy
enough around another man and that can
lead to a lot of emotional stress. Please
seek for help. My mother is a victim of
physical and verbal abuse and she never
took care of it. She always ignored and
pretended that things were okay. Now
shes m.i.a. because shes so afraid of her
boyfriend that she prefers not to leave his
side in fear he might hurt her if she leaves.
This is her choice. She got the same
opportunity youre getting of starting
over again and she didnt take it. You
must seek happiness for your daughter
and see that she doesnt suffer the same
emotional distress from experiencing all
of this at an early age. Every day brings
new choices and you should always strive
for the best. Do not belittle yourself. You
have to stay strong for your daughter and
for yourself. I hope everything gets better
for you and always remember that theres
help out there. You just have to reach out.

LAUR

For future issues if youd like to receive


advice from your peers, feel free to email
your inquiry to psych2goadvice@gmail.
com. Advice responding to your concerns
may be featured in our next magazine!

65

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66

Mental Health Crisis Lines


Suicide hotlines by country:
Argentina: 54-0223-493-0430
Australia: 13-11-14
Austria: 01-713-3374
Barbados: 429-9999
Belgium: 106
Botswana: 391-1270
Brazil: 21-233-9191
China: 852-2382-0000 (Hong Kong:
2389-2222)
Costa Rica: 606-253-5439
Croatia: 01-4833-888
Cyprus: 357-77-77-72-67
Czech Republic: 222-580-697, 476-701908
Denmark: 70-201-201
Egypt: 762-1602
Estonia: 6-558-088
Finland: 040-5032199
France: 01-45-39-4000
Germany: 0800-181-0721
Greece: 1018
Guatemala: 502-234-1239
Holland: 0900-0767
Honduras: 504-237-3623
Hungary: 06-80-820-111
Iceland: 44-0-8457-90-90-90
Israel: 09-8892333
Italy: 06-705-4444
Japan: 3-5286-9090
Latvia: 6722-2922, 2772-2292
Malaysia: 03-756-8144 (Singapore:
1-800-221-4444)
Mexico: 525-510-2550
Netherlands: 0900-0767

New Zealand: 4-473-9739


New Guinea: 675-326-0011
Nicaragua: 505-268-6171
Norway: 47-815-33-300
Philippines: 02-896-9191
Poland: 52-70-000
Portugal: 239-72-10-10
Russia: 8-20-222-82-10
Spain: 91-459-00-50
South Africa: 0861-322-322
South Korea: 2-715-8600
Sweden: 031-711-2400
Switzerland: 143
Taiwan: 0800-788-995
Thailand: 02-249-9977
Trinidad and Tobago: 868-645-2800
Ukraine: 0487-327715
More specific mental health lines:
USA
Depression: 1-630-482-9696
Suicide: 1-800-784-8433
LIFELINE: 1-800-273-8255
Trevor Project: 1-866-488-7386
Sexuality Support: 1-800-246-7743
Eating Disorders: 1-847-831-3438
Rape and sexual assault: 1-800-6564673
Grief: 1-650-321-5272
Runaway: 1-800-843-5200, 1-800-8435678, 1-800-621-4000
Post Abortion: 1-866-4394253
Child Abuse: 1-800-422-4453
UK
Childline (for anyone under 18 with any
problem): 08001111

ISSUE 1

Mind infoline: 0300 123 3393 e-mail:


info@mind.org.uk
Mind legal advice: 0300 466 6463 legal@
mind.org.uk
Eating Disorders: 0845 634 14 14 e-mail:
help@b-eat.co.uk
Eating Disorders for under age 25:
08456347650
Bereavement: 08444779400 e-mail:
helpline@cruse.org.uk
Frank (information and advice on drugs):
0800776600
Drinkline: 0800 9178282
Rape Crisis England & Wales: 0808 802
9999 1 e-mail info@rapecrisis.org.uk
Rape Crisis Scotland: 08088 01 03 02
India
Self Harm:00 08001006614
Suicide: 022-27546669
Canada
Kids helpline: 1-800-668-6868
International text based help:
imalive.org
crisischat.org
blahtherapy.com
7cupsoftea.com
Artwork by:
Jeffrey Bigelow
Mental helpline provided by:
riseandtry.tumblr.com

67

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68

THANK YOU!
The contributors & Digital Research
team:
Mary Walrath U.S. (New York)
Rhonda Marie U.S. (Kentucky)
Tai Tai - Canada,
Analucia Guzman Guatemala
Holly Schaefer-U.S. (Pennsylvania)
David Bradley- U.S. (Massachusetts)
Megan Altemus- U.S. (Louisiana)
Jasmine Cepeda - U.S. (New York)
Game Designers:
Jade Li- The U.K.
Sadia Nadeem-U.S. (California)
Editors:
Brandon Michael-U.S. (Ohio)
Jo Collinson- The U.K.
Elizabeth Bailey- U.S. (Maryland)
Miles Underwood-The U.K.
Angelina Coronado- U.S. (New Jersey)
Helen Warriner-The U.K.
Teresa Johnson-U.S. (Maryland)
Imogen Bowler- The U.K.
The graphic designers:
Ken Samonte New Zealand
kensamonte.tumblr.com
Pilar Chavez Mexico
sugar-levels.tumblr.com
Jane Shi Singapore
Janerart.tumblr.com
Ruth Estipona Philippines
r-gie.tumblr.com
Ale Caballero Mexico
Dashingdollsintothewoods.tumblr.com

Jeffrey Bigelow U.S. (New York)


shallowfeelings.tumblr.com
Instagram: Vapor_Wave
Fieni Aprilia Indonesia
www.behance.net/Fiensh
novusvultura.tumblr.com
Anne Vu Australia
facebook.com/ayveephotos
https://ayveecreative.wordpress.com/

ISSUE 1

Thank You to the Donators of Psych2Go Magazine Campaign:


Dereck Lock
Mary Johnson
Tyra Tselane
H.E.
Luc White
Keely Cooper
Gabriel Taylor
Courtney Allison
Cindy Miedel
Brandon Michael
Jamie Caknipe
Geneva Fluet
Paul Novak
Miles Underwood
Sadia Nadeem
Lauren Miedel
Caroline Johnson
Tooru Sugano

Craig Alexander The U.K.


Chillibyte.wordpress.com
Comic contribution:
Katherine Fosso- U.S. (Indiana)
sunsinourhands.tumblr.com
Issues of the Psych2Go Magazine come
out Quarterly (four times a year) because
we want to make sure we deliver the
best compilation of Psychology related
material to you. All of the people that
have contributed to this entrepreneurial
project as a part of the Psych2Go
community, have worked very diligently
and hard to produce this publication.
Everyone was such a vital asset to its
production and none of this is possible
without everyones willingness to
participate! Wed love to hear your
feedback! Send us a message at
psych2go@outlook.com telling us what
you think of the magazine!
Be sure to keep up to date with Psych2Go
and check out the next issue of our
magazine coming out January 2016!
Teresa Johnson
Editor in Chief of Psych2Go Magazine

Your contributions helped make this project possible!


Stay tuned for Issue #2!

ANSWER KEY
TRUE OR FALSE
1. True
2. True
3. False
4. True
5. False

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUIZ


1. B
2. A
3. D
4. A

69

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Psych2Go's Community Challenge

70

Psych2Gos
COMMUNITY CHALLENGE

ISSUE 1

71

Psych2Go

ISSUE 1

of the interview with the same font


styling(end of page 14 to the beginning of
page 15). Thats definitely not to say its
all bad, I love how all the colors pop out
at you and grab your attention I also enjoy
the pictures and imagery used for every
section of the magazine.

72

You can tell that the people writing this


put a lot of effort into it and genuinely enjoy what they do, this is expressed
through the use of more personal dialogue to connect with the reader rather
than just reading the information to you.
Despite my few complaints that I feel may
hamper your experience if only a little bit,
I have no doubt you will still enjoy reading
through this magazine as much as I did.
(Obligatory not-so obligatory
score)PSYCout ofPSYCH

review

Testimonials

- Callestere

READER TESTIMONIALS

Psych2Go Issue 1

I thoroughly enjoyed reading Psych2gos first magazine for ADHD awareness month, for their first magazine this
is a very strong start, unfortunately it isnt
without its problems. I was surprised to
find that the barrier to entry is quite low,
literally anyone with little to no background knowledge of psychology or any of
the social sciences could pick this up and
read it if psychology is something youre
interested in. This magazine covers a
plethora of thought provoking topics from
separation anxiety disorder, to autism, to
martial arts, and even tips for interviews
so its filled with things everybody can
take something away from.
The magazine is very colorful with many
illustrations throughout so it doesnt feel
like youre reading a college textbook.
However, many of the pdf pages follow
this format where there are two normal
pages crammed together on one page,

a nice idea but there are some instances where I feel it doesnt quite
work (for example page 37). I dont know,
it just bugs me when one page is full but
the page next to it is half blank (or half
full if youre feeling optimistic). The last
two paragraphs on page 19 clash a bit
with the art on the page, its a minor issue but I feel that it should be mentioned.
Also, I wish that the font for the citations
were a little darker, so theyre easier to
read (especially pages 66 & 67 with the
suicide hotlines). Page 15 in particular
has a few font related problems, page
14 & 15 have an interview with a college
student but surprisingly theres no use of
quotation marks at all for her responses,
even though the text is a different color
the questions have the same sized font as
her responses, and theres even a part on
that page where it transitions from her
responses back into the next section

Hello,
Honestly I think that you guys had an
amazing idea of creating a dynamic and
more fun access to the psychological
world, something with good source and
using a language that is not too formal,
which makes easier and accessible for
anyone to read, Its just really amazing.
Im brazilian and I found you guys through
tumblr, it was really great for me because
like some people who work in the magazine I dont act in the psychology field but
I always had a great interest on it. Congrats for the magazine, its awesome!!
Keep it up!
(Sorry about my english)
-Love, Marina.

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