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LEARNING RESOURCES AND STUDENTS ACADEMIC

PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN


OWO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ONDO STATE

BY

ADELUGBA, SUNDAY MOSES


MATRIC NO. 110222071

A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF


EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT, FACULTY OF EDUCATION IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD
OF BACHELOR OF EDUCATION (B.ED) DEGREE IN EDUCATIONAL
MANAGEMENT, ADEKUNLE AJASIN UNIVERSITY,
AKUNGBA-AKOKO, ONDO STATE, NIGERIA

FEBRUARY, 2016.

CERTIFICATION
This is to certify that this project was carried out by ADELUGBA,
SUNDAY MOSES, in the Department of Educational Management, Adekunle
Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Ondo State.

----------------------Dr. A. J. Ayeni
Supervisor

----------------------Date

DEDICATION
I dedicate this research work to the all sufficient God, who made my dream a
reality. Is also dedicated to everyone had contributed to my academic success
particularly my dear parents. Mr. and Mrs. Adelugba.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
To the Immortal, Invisible God only wise, the most Beneficial and the
Merciful who from His inexhaustible mercy and love saw me through the
elementary education to the university education, I hereby summarize my
appreciation by saying thank you Lord.
If all the hairs of my body are tongues, they are not enough to appreciate my
amiable and God sent supervisor, Dr. A. J. Ayeni for his relentless effort and
supervisory roles to ensure a meaningful completion of my project. May God
Almighty continue to enrich your knowledge, bless you and guide you through in
life (Amen.)
My special thanks also goes to all my lecturers in the Department of
Educational Management starting from the Father of the Department, Prof. W. O.
Ibukun, Dr. (Mrs.) C.A. Akinfolarin (H.O.D), others are Dr. O.S. Alimi, Dr A.I.
Oyetakin, Dr. F.O. Alabi,

and Dr. I.G. Osifila, Dr. O.I Daniel, Dr. G.B Ehinola,

and Mr. S.B. Akinsade for their efforts in giving me all round education,
counseling and encouragement towards my academic success.
I also wish to express my appreciation to my parents Mr. and Mrs. Adelugba
for their immeasurable support, advice, prayers endurance and perseverance to
make me whom I am today.

May God reward you in multiple folds. My

appreciation goes to all my relatives that I cannot list due to limited space; I
appreciate all your supports.
Once again the work will be incomplete without appreciating the
indefatigable efforts of my colleagues and friends for releasing their resources in a
way or the other in persons of Ayobami Adedotun, Agboola Banji, Emylomo,
Busayo, Debbie, Asake, Phamoshasy and all class of 15 students of Educational
Management, I appreciate you all.

ABSTRACT
The study examined the level of availability and adequacy of learning resources
and the level of teachers utilization of learning resources in public and private
secondary schools, and determined the effect of learning resources on students
academic performance in public and private secondary schools in Owo Local
Governmrnt Area. Descriptive design of the survey type was used. Eight secondary
schools were randomly selected for the study. An instrument titled Learning
Resources and Students Academic Performance Questionnaire (LRSAPQ) was
used for data collection and t-test statistics was used to test the hypotheses raised.
Findings revealed that there is a significant difference in the level of teachers
utilization of learning resources in public and private secondary schools because
the mean score of 16.79 for the private schools is greater than the mean score of
13.94 for the public secondary schools. It was recommended that individual
parents should contribute to the success of their children, by providing necessary
learning materials that will improve their academic performance. Also, the state
Ministry of Education should provide adequate classrooms, learning equipment
and build teachers capacities in the use of instructional materials to enhance
teaching-learning process and achieve better academic performance in public
secondary schools.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page

Certification

ii

Dedication

iii

Acknowledgement

iv

Table of Contents

vi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION


Background to the Study

Statement of the Problem

Purpose of the Study

Research Questions

Research Hypotheses

Significance of the Study

Delimitation

Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


Concept of Learning Resources

10

Types of Learning Resources

13

Criteria for Selecting Learning Resources

20

Utilization of Learning Resources in Curriculum Delivery

22

Learning Resources and Students Academic Performance

25

Summary of Literature Review

27

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD


Research Design

29

Population

29

Sample and Sampling Techniques

29

Research Instrument

30

Validity of the Instrument

30

Reliability of the Instrument

30

Data Collection

30

Data Analysis

31

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Results

32

Discussion of Findings

41

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


Summary

48

Recommendations

49

References

51

Appendix

55
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study


Education, according to Coombs (1999) consists of two components which

are classified into inputs and outputs. The, inputs consist of human and material
resources while outputs are the goals and outcomes of the educational process.
Both the inputs and outputs form a dynamic organic whole and if one wants to
investigate and assess the educational system in order to improve its performance,
the interrelatedness and effects of one component on the other must be examined.
Resources are very important in the development of qualitative education.
The success or failure of an educational system depends on the quality and quantity
of resources made available to it. (Adeogun, 2002).

Availability of learning

resources enhances the effectiveness of schools as these are basic things that can
bring about good academic performance in the students. Maicibi (2003) opined
that all institutions or organization are made up of human beings (workers) and
other non-human resources. When the right quantity and quality of human
resources are brought together, the human resources manipulate the other resources
towards realizing institutional goals and objectives. Consequently, every institution
should strive to attract and retain the best of human resource.
Learning resources which are educational inputs are of vital importance to
the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum. Wales (1999) was of the
opinion that the use of learning resources would make discovered facts glued
firmly to the memory of students. Savoury (2001) also added that, a well planned
and imaginative use of visual aids in lessons should do much to banish aparthy,

supplement inadequacy of books as well as arouse students interest by giving them


something practical to see and do, and at the same time helping to train them to
think things out themselves. Examples of learning resources include textbooks,
charts, maps, audio-visual and electronic instructional materials such as radio, tape
recorder, television and video tape recorder. Other categories includes

paper

supplies and writing materials such as biro, eraser, exercise books, crayon, chalk,
drawing books, notebooks, pencil, ruler, slate, workbook, etc.
Savoury (2001) suggested a catalogue of useful visual aids that are good for
teaching in secondary schools i.e pictures, post cards, diagrams, maps, filmstrips
and models. He said that selection of materials which are related to the basic
contents of a course or a lesson, helps indepth understanding of such a lesson by
the students in that they make the lesson attractive to them, thereby arresting their
attention and thus, motivating them to learn. He advocated the use of pictures
which will help children in grounding their thoughts and feelings. He said that
pictures are used as alternatives to real objects where it is impossible to show
students the real objects, and they do serve effectively in tan imagined activities.
It is also very vital to have sufficient and adequate human resources in terms of
teacher quality for the teaching of all subjects in the school curriculum. Without
the teachers as implementing factors, the goals of education can never be achieved.
In order to achieve a just and egalitarian society as spelt out in the Nigerian

National Policy of Education (2004), schools should be properly and uniformly


equipped to promote sound and effective teaching. Suitable textbooks, qualified
teachers, libraries which are adequate should also be provided for schools. Scarcity
of these, according will constraint educational system from responding more fully
to new demands. In order to raise the quality of education, its efficiency and
productivity, better learning materials are needed. Knezewich (2000) also stressed
the importance of having appropriate personnel plan and adequate physical
facilities to support educational effort.
Academic performance has been described as the scholastic standing of a
student at a given moment. This scholastic standing could be explained in terms of
the grades obtained in a course or groups of courses (Daniels and Schoulen, 1999).
Simkins (1981) commented on this scholastic standing and argued that
performance is a measure of output and that the main outputs in education are
expressed in terms of learning, that is, changes in knowledge, skills and attitudes of
individuals as a result of their experiences within the school's system. STAN,
(1992) supported this argument and reported that performance is the level of
attainment of a person in an examination, that is, how an individual is able to
demonstrate his or her abilities in an examination. Noting this point, Al-Shorayye
(1995) regarded a student's performance in an examination as being depended on
his cumulative grade point average. His argument supported Entwistle and'

Wilson's (1998) assertion that a student's success is generally judged by


examination performance while the best criterion of performance is the sum of the
student's academic performance in all the subjects taken. Researchers had
deliberated much on performance as a measure of school output (Blaug and
Woodhall, 2000; Adeyemi, 1998; Bandele, 2001). Blaug and Woodhall (2000), for
instance, argued that the only measure of performance of school leavers is the
attainment in GCE examinations. Consequently, they measured output in terms of
the number of school leavers weighted by different indices of quality or number of
passes and reported that performance in GCE is one relevant criterion of
educational quality and that 'academic index' measures output in terms of GCE
results.
The pattern of grading students in the Junior Secondary Certificate (JSC)
and the Senior Secondary Certificate Examinations (SSCE) in Nigeria is such that
the distinction grade is being represented by A1 to B3. The credit grade is
represented by C4 to C6. The ordinary pass grade is represented by D7 and E8.
Ogunsaju (2004), defined students academic performance as desirable changes or
outcomes in students performance after a period of teaching and learning activities
as related to educational objectives which provide information to students,
teachers, school administrators and parents on the level at which educational
objectives have been achieved.

Statement of the Problem


There has been lot of controversy over the academic performance of students
in Nigeria secondary school. The low performance of students especially in SSCE
has clearly lent credence to this study. Only 529, 425 candidates, representing
31.28% obtained credits in five (5) subjects and above, including English and
Mathematics (Daily Post 2015). The question of academic performance and
students performance in SSCE is therefore a recurring issue, usually discussed
both in and outside the academic circles. Everybody in interested in the question of
the quality of education in Nigeria today in general and Ondo in particular. This
study examines the concept of academic performance and it relates to learning
resources and academic performance.
In the last few years, it has been observed in most secondary schools that a
high percentage of our students are performing very poorly in National
Examinations i.e. (WASSCE and NECO- SSCE) which has perhaps been attributed
to ill motivated behaviour of the students towards the education, lack of
professional teachers, existing of lazy teachers and lack of teaching and learning
facilities and equipment. The main thrust of the present study is to examine the
availability, adequacy, utilization and effect of learning resources on students
academic performance in secondary schools in Ondo local Government Area of
Ondo State.

Purpose of the Study


The main purpose of this study are as follows:
i. Examine the level of availability and adequacy of learning resources in
secondary schools?
ii. Access the level of utilization of learning resources by teachers in the
performance of instructional tasks in secondary schools
iii. Determine the effect of learning resources on students academic performance in
secondary schools

Research Questions
This study sought to answer the following questions:
i.

How adequate are learning resources in public and privates secondary

ii.

schools?
What is the level of teachers utilization of learning resources in both public

iii.

and private secondary schools?


What are the effects of learning resources on students academic performance
in both public and private secondary schools?

Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses are formulated to guide the study.
Ho1: There is no significant differences in the level of teachers utilization of
learning resources in public and private secondary schools.

Ho2: There is no significant difference in the effect of learning resources on


students academic performance in public and private secondary schools.

Significance of the Study


The study is very significant because it will provide useful information that
will enable parents, guardians, school administrators, school principals and
relevant stakeholders in providing learning resources in secondary schools for
effective teaching and learning.
The study will assist the government (Ministry of Education) in training her
teachers to improve in their primary assignment. The study will suggest to teachers
to be creative in improvised instructional materials and stop complaining and
blaming government for not providing all the materials needed for teaching and
learning.

Delimitation
This study is designed to examine variable such as; learning resources, are
related to students academic performance. The study is limited to assessment of
eight (8) randomly selected Senior Secondary School Two (SSII) in Owo
Metropolis. The school include; four (4) public secondary schools and four (4)
private secondary schools.

Definition of Terms
Learning Resources: These are educational inputs that are used to promote,
encourage and enhance qualitative teaching and learning.
Instructional Materials: Educational resources which influence the
students learning and the instructors teaching. It helps to improve students
knowledge, abilities, and skills in their assimilation of information on a
subject or course e.g. textbooks, art prints, slides, video cassettes, pictures,
sound recordings etc.
Resources: A source of supply, support, or aid especially one that can be
readily drawn upon when needed.
Visual Aids: An item of illustrative matter, such as a film, slide, or model,
designed to supplement written or spoken information so that it can be
understood more easily.
Academic Performance: This is the outcome of education- the extent to
which a student has achieved their educational goals.
Curriculum: The total learning experiences provided by a school. It
includes the content of courses (the syllabus) and the methods employed
(strategies).

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The review of related literature is presented under the following sub-headings:
i.

Concept of Learning Resources

ii.

Types of Learning Resources

iii.

Criteria for Selecting Learning Resources

iv.

Utilization of Learning Resources in Curriculum Delivery

v.

Learning Resources and Students Academics Performance

vi.

Summary of Literature Review

Concept of Learning Resources


Learning resources which are educational inputs are of vital importance to
the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum. Wales (1975) was of the
opinion that the use of instructional resources would make discovered facts glued
firmly to the memory of students. Savoury (1958) also added that, a well planned
and imaginative use of visual aids in lessons should do much to banish aparthy,
supplement inadequacy of books as well as arouse students interest by giving them
something practical to see and do, and at the same time helping to train them to

think things out themselves.


Learning resources are sine qua non in educational improvement and
attainment of educational goals. They encompass everything that provides
information to the teacher and learner for qualitative and effective teaching and
learning economics in the schools (Mordi 2009). To Nwachukwu (2012), learning
resources include all forms of school facilities that are used to promote, encourage
and enhance qualitative teaching and learning.
According to Gross et al. (ibid.), learning resources, also referred to as
facilities, that are important for effective learning because they stimulate learning
and foster development at desirable changes in the behaviour of a learner. Learning
resources for any curriculum implementation becomes one of the most important
variables. As Gross et al. (1971) note, 'implementation of any program brings into
mind the question of facilities, teacher capability towards the program' (p.203).
Therefore, teaching without the use of learning resources may adversely affect its
implementation. Bruner (1963) observes that a creative use of instructional
learning resources would enhance the teachers' feeling that their students have
learnt more and will retain better what is learnt. This is likely to result in improved
performance in the skills they are expected to develop. According to Kevin (1989),
the non-availability of resources hinders teachers' attempts towards offering
relevant education to the students. Therefore, availability of learning resources for

teaching could help foster the course objectives. Maranga (1993) notes the value of
learning resources by stating that resources and methods of instruction among
others, affect the amount of learning that takes place. This means that for learning
to be effective, the resources must be availed. The provision of quality and relevant
education and training are dependent on, among other things, the supply of
adequate equipment and teaching materials. This means that proper learning
resources used for teaching could help provide quality education; in this context,
help meet the objectives of producing well behaved students.
According to Agun (1999), learning resources are instructional materials and
devices through which teaching and learning are facilitated in schools. Examples
of learning resources include visual aids, audio aids, real objects and many
others. Visual aids are designated materials that may be locally made or
commercially produced. They come in form of, for example, wall-charts,
illustrated pictures, pictorial materials and other two dimensional objects. There are
also audio-visual aids that are teaching machines like radio, television, and all sorts
of projectors with sound attributes. Savoury (1998) suggested a catalogue of useful
learning resources that are good for teaching history i.e. pictures, post cards,
diagrams, maps, filmstrips and models. He said that selection of materials which
are related to the basic contents of a course or a lesson, helps indepth
understanding of such a lesson by the students in that they make the lesson

attractive to them, thereby arresting their attention and thus, motivating them to
learn. He suggested a catalogue of aids which could be used to teach history. He
advocated the use of pictures which will help children in grounding their thoughts
and feelings. He said that pictures are used as alternatives to real objects where it is
impossible to show students the real objects, and they do serve effectively in thier
imagined activities.

Types of Learning Resources


i.

Instructional materials
National Teachers Institutes (2002) defined instructional material as those

materials which promote the effectiveness of instruction and help the teacher to
communicate more effectively. Also Ifeagwu (2000) stated that instructional
materials facilitates teaching of subject matter with increasing effectiveness at all
levels of learning. The same vein, Ughamadu (1992) defined instructional
materials as the resource that the teacher and students use to influence the
effectiveness of teaching and learning process. However, Fadeije (2005) noted that
it is the creative use of such resources that will increase the probability of making
the students learn and improve their performance of skills that are to be developed.
Bozimo and Ikwumadu (2002) grouped instructional materials into reading
materials, Audio-Visual materials and non-reading materials.

a. The Chalk Board: The chalk board is a versatile instructional material. It


can be adopted for small or large group instruction, both inside the
classroom and outside the classroom. It can be used to teach all the subjects
at all level of our educational system.
b. Chart: According to Ocho (2004) charts are combination of such picture:
graphic, numerical or verbal materials, which together are most likely to
present clear visual summaries of important process or relationships. The
term chart can be applied to several different types, they may be classified
according to use, functions or similarities of constructions. Specific charts
can be designed for special purpose, for instance, a reading charts to assist
readers to associate words with pictures of a word reading charts to motivate
group pictures in reading and to assist in developing eye-fixation movement
skills. Purpose of Chart: Eya (2000) highlighted the following purpose of
chart.
(i)
To show relationship by means of pictures, symbols, facts, figures. Or
statistics
(ii) To represent materials symbolically
(iii) To summarize information
(iv)
To show continuity in progress
(v) To presents abstract ideas in usual form
(vi) To show the development of structures
(vii) To encourage the use of other instructional materials.
(viii) To create problems and stimulate thinking.
ii.

Laboratories Equipment, School Buildings and Facilities

Facilities according to Storm (1979), have been identified as very important


variables in the teaching and learning of vocation programme through the world.
Facilities according to the American Association for Vocational Instruction
Materials (1979) are the classroom, laboratories, workshop and equipment. Faisal
and Annutte (2001), Patrick et al (2001), in their studies observed that decline in
the performance of students is due to inadequate facilities. Maitarfsir (2003) states
that lack of instructional materials to serve as teaching aids that facilitate quick
understand of the subject matter in the classroom is a great impediment to
conducive learning environment for STM education. He went further to put it that
for effective STM learning relevant materials such as equipment in the
laboratories, charts, diagrams, chemical, models, specimen, and for technology,
technological device like computer, tape recorder and video cassette recorder must
be made available in the classroom so as to assist students to have a design of what
is taught in their mind. Various studies have shown that a proper use of teaching
materials/aid will positively enhance the teaching and learning process in science
(Dale, 1983, Okebukola 1989 and Johnson 1991). In all, various reasons have been
adduced as major factors among which is lack of necessary teaching materials/aids
in our schools as responsible for the observed poor trend on students performances
for the SSCE for the period 1993 1997. (Ajewole 1991 and Ivowi 1991).
Futunbi (1996), put it that laboratory facilities and instructional performance

materials to which students have been exposed have contributing factors to the
students academic achievement. Jimoh (1992) observed that poor laboratory
facilities and lack of relevant textbooks are among factors that are responsible for
low performance of students in physics, chemistry and Biology. Studies by NPEC
(1998), FUN/UNICEF/UNESCO UNDP (2000) and UBE (2001), showed that over
the years, there had been massive deterioration and inadequacy in school inputs
and processes. Corroborating this, FME (2003), in its Education Sector Status
Report (ESSR) noted with dismay the poor quality of inputs in public schools.
According to the report, such poor quality inputs have negative impact on teaching
and learning (school processes) and ultimately on achievement (output). Asuru
(2000), put that on the negative slope of availability of school facilities on
numeracy, it indicates that facilities in themselves may not make any positive
impact on achievement unless they are effectively utilized. Anene (1997),
examined the influence of laboratory experiment on the performance of the Nigeria
secondary school students in WASC chemistry examination. He found that
insufficient laboratory work is accountable for students poor performance in
chemistry. The availability of well equipped laboratory is a sure pointer that
adequate provision for students practical work has been made. He went further to
recommend that teachers should make effective use of the laboratory so as to
enhance students performance in the subject. While Ezeirouma (1985), assert that

schools with well equipped laboratories have significantly better school certificate
results. Bassey (2004), observed that most schools lacked textbooks and other
types of instructional media for achievement of curriculum delivery. Odukwe
(1999), regretted that many schools in Nigeria apart from the model school and
Federal Government Colleges hardly have adequate material resources. Gidado
(2005), states that in some rural public schools, teachers and pupils read under
trees. He went further argued that in some secondary schools, staff rooms are not
enough to accommodate teachers. And in some teacher education institutions, it
has been observed that lecture halls, classrooms, laboratories, hostels, staff
quarters, offices and office equipment, generating plants etc are in most cases
inadequate compared to the number of staff and students that make use to them. In
some federal and state owned institutions, the ratio of student/staff to the available
infrastructure is greatly inadequate. In the researchers, school there are students
populations of over 1500, with 9 classes, which means each class will have no less
than 166 students.
Onyejiemezi (1981), Adedayo (2000) Ibrahim (2005) and Atadoga (2007),
ascertained that the use of teaching materials, be it visual, audio or audio visual
materials, enhance effective learning of some science subjects and contribute to
the full potential of the learners. Effective learning cannot take place without
availability of basic relevant learning materials. In addition to private studies,

where teachers give the students tutorial, exercises and home work, the need for
learning materials is imperative. Ogunshege (1990) and Ekpenyong (1990), called
books veritable vehicles of communication and transmission of education, learning
and culture in any society. Akujuo (1991), emphasis that books have been the
basics tools for any educational development. Many studies and reports have
confirmed the crisis of books and other learning materials. According to Adesina
(1990) and Iyila (1995), most of the higher institution of learning in Nigeria are
facing the problem of acute shortage (and non availability for some disciple) of
essential books. While Gojeh (1993), noted that most college libraries have
outdated and insufficient collections, while some programmes in the colleges do
not have books, journal and other reference materials to meet the needs of their
patrons.
According to Ayodele (2008:13), a situation in which machine tools are
lacking in technical colleges, where tractors and harvesters are not available in
schools of agriculture, where computers are not known in commercial school.
Shuaibu (2005), observe that for effective and meaningful learning to take place
three factors are indispensable, namely: the teacher, the pupils and the instructional
materials alongside the conductive environment.
iii.

Exercise Books and text books


Textbooks are systematically organized materials comprehensive enough to

cover the primary objectives outlined in the current statewide instructional


standards for a grade or course, James (2014). Formats for textbooks may be print,
non-print or digital media, including hardbound books, softbound books, activityoriented programs, classroom kits and technology-based programs or materials that
require the use of electronic equipment in order to be used in the learning process.
State-approved textbooks are used as a means to help students meet the goals and
objectives of the current statewide instructional standards. At a time when oral
instruction still prevailed as the method used to transmit knowledge and
instruction, written texts, although then the reserve of a privileged minority of
educated people, had already taken on a didactic role. Whatever their nature, such
texts had for many centuries served as teaching tools and instructional aids,
alongside their function of historical conservation or of leaving tangible and
faithful traces of societies and civilisations. It is essential that textbook needs be
studied in-depth and quantitative estimations made, on the one hand, for the
different levels of instruction and, on the other of the objectives and content of
programmes. In order to obviate the production of books which are not adapted to
needs, such studies are generally based on surveys of books already used in
schools, on the opinions of the most qualified teachers, and on comparable books
published in other countries. It is usually one of the tasks of Textbook Committees
to undertake these surveys. Planning of the provision of books to schools should be

undertaken on a long-term basis and, therefore, foresee needs in accordance with


well calculated estimations of growth in school enrollment figures. An important
conclusion of researchers during the past fifteen years is that the availability of
textbooks in schools in developing countries is associated with student
performance: Students do better on tests when there are textbooks in the classroom
(Heyneman et al. (1978), Fuller (1987), Fuller and Clarke (1993).

Criteria for Selecting Learning Resources


The responsibility for the selection of learning resources is delegated to the
professional staff under the direction of the superintendent and will be made
primarily at the school level with the involvement of a school media and
technology advisory committee. The committee shall be appointed by the principal
and will include teachers and instructional support personnel representing various
subject areas and grade levels, parents, and, if on-staff in the school, the library
media coordinator and the technology facilitator. Students also should be involved
when feasible.
The selection process used by the committee will include: ?
(1) an evaluation of theexisting collection;
(2) an assessment of the available resource and curriculum needs of the
school; and

(3) consideration of individual teaching and learning styles.


In coordinating the selection of resources, the committee should use
reputable, unbiased selection tools and should arrange, when possible, for firsthand
examination of resources to be purchased. When examining proposed materials,
the committee should consider the following factors:
a.

the materials overall purpose, educational significance and direct


relationship to instructional objectives and the curriculum and to the
interests of the students;

b.

the materials reliability, including the extent to which it is accurate,


authentic, authoritative, up-to-date, unbiased, comprehensive and well
balanced;

c.

the materials technical quality, including the extent to which technical


components are relevant to content and consistent with state-of-the-art
capabilities;

d.

the materials artistic, literary and physical quality and format, including its
durability, manageability, clarity, appropriateness, skillfulness, organization
and attractiveness;

e.

the possible uses of the material, including suitability for individual, small
group, large group, introduction, in-depth study, remediation and/or
enrichment;

f.

the contribution the material will make to the collections breadth and
variety of viewpoints;

g.

recommendations of school personnel and students from all relevant


departments and grade levels;

h.

the reputation and significance of the materials author, producer and


publisher; and

i.

the price of the material weighed against its value and/or the need for it.

Utilization of Learning Resources in Curriculum Delivery


Effective teaching and learning of any subject depends on the availability
and utilization of suitable learning resources. Nwije (1999) emphasized that
learning resources are intrinsic part of the teaching and learning process and that
the effective curriculum delivery depends primarily on the proper utilization of
these resources. Making and using teaching/learning resources is an important
aspect of good teaching. Even in classrooms with few resources; teachers can use
locally available resources to improve pupil learning. Learning takes place in an
exciting and active environment. Most secondary schools do not have instructional
materials. Apart from this state of affairs, most teachers were not trained in the use
of such material, it is therefore, logical to believe that even the teacher training
colleges, the materials do not exist or that the ones they have are outdated and

absolute.
Akolo (1997) conducted a survey of audio-visual materials for eight Teacher
Training Colleges in Kwara State and for twelve Teachers Colleges in Plateau
State of Nigeria. His study considered such elements as equipment and materials
owned by each of the selected teachers colleges, utilization of equipment and
materials owned, and the number of teachers that had some measure of audiovisual related training.
The study revealed that there was under-utilization of instructional
equipment in some areas and non-utilization in other areas where the research was
conducted.
In a study on effective utilization of visual aids in business studies, Bridge
(2000) pointed out that teachers need to increase their knowledge in the field of
Audio- Visual materials and use them to make their lessons attractive and
interesting to students. In a bid to find alternative of making instructional materials
available for use, Dike (2002) observed that a creative teacher can construct some
of the needed instructional materials and as well teach students how to construct
these materials. Okpala (1999) noted that if learning resources are properly
utilized, they will enable the teachers to achieve the following:
(a) Reduce verbalization.
(b) Humanized and utilized the subject matter.

(c) Stimulate self-activities.


It is interesting to note that a large percentage of trained teachers and those
Undergoing professional training courses can teach with

teaching/ learning

resources. They do so consciously because they know the use have positive effect
on learning outcomes as their cognate experiences during teaching practice
supervision reveals (Morris,1999).
Using educational learning resources boosts students success in the
classroom. These resources reinforce what a teacher says and ensures the main
points are understood. Some of these resources signal students to the important
information and allow them to experience something that is abstract in life. They
engage students other senses in the learning process and allow for different
teaching styles.
Learning resources should have specific educational values and should help
in the realization of desired learning objectives (Patil, 2009).When these resources
are employed; there is a great scope for pupils to move about, talk, laugh and
comment upon. Therefore, under such atmosphere the pupils work because they
want to work and not because the teacher wants them to work. The teaching
profession is filled with countless opportunities to enrich the academic lives of
students. While some concepts and educational objectives will be easy to students
to grasp, others will require you to think creatively to ensure that important

learning objectives are met. Using audio-visual aids in teaching is one way to
enhance lesson plans and give students additional ways to process subject
information. Regardless of their overall quality, learning resources are of little use
if operators do not know how to incorporate them effectively into a presentation.
Availability and utilization of suitable learning resources in good supply and
in rich variety and range is essential in education and especially for the
achievement of curriculum objectives. Ibitoyo (2001) noted some of the advantage
of learning resources in heighten motivation for learning, provide freshness and
variety, appeal to students of varied abilities, encourage active participation, give
needed reinforcement and widen the range of students experienced. Dale (2000),
Ofoefuda (1996), Ocho (2003) noted that some instructional materials used in
schools area).

Learning Resources and Students Academic Performance


In enumerating the factors that could be responsible for varying public and
private school achievement, Coombs (1991), listed four important factors including
the acute scarcity of learning resources which he said constrained educational
systems from responding more fully to new demands. He claimed that, in order to
do their part in meeting the crisis in education, educational systems will need real
resources that money can buy, they will need a fuller share of the nations

manpower, not merely to carry on the present work of education, but to raise its
quality, efficiency and productivity. They will need buildings, equipment and more
learning materials.
Akintayo (1998) did a survey of the learning and teaching problems of
history in the secondary schools in Ekiti central local government area of Ondo
State. She made use of 100 students and all history teachers in 6 secondary
schools. Questionnaires were distributed to them to respond to. 44% of the students
agreed that one of the factors affecting poor performance in history is lack of
qualified teachers to teach the subject.
Momoh (1995) carried out a research on the effects of instructional
resources on students performances in WASC examination in Kwara State. He
correlated material resources with academic achievements of students in ten
subjects. Information was collected from the subject teachers in relation to the
resources employed in teaching in five schools. The achievements of students in
WASC examinations for the past five years were related to the resources available
for teaching each of the subjects. He concluded that material resources have a
significant effect on students achievement in each of the subjects. In the same
manner, Moronlola (1992) carried out a research in Ilorin local government of
Kwara State. She also used questionnaires to tap information on the material
resources available for the teaching of ten subjects in ten secondary schools. She

collected WASC examination results for the past five years and related these to
students academics performance in each of the ten subjects and to the amount of
resources available for the teaching of the subjects. She also reported a significant
effect of material resources on the academic achievements of students in each of
the subjects.
In the same vein, Popoola (1990) investigated the effect of instructional
resources on the academic performance of students in Ogun State. Five secondary
schools in Abeokuta were used for his study. Questionnaires were designed to elicit
responses on instructional materials that were available for the teaching and
learning of each of the three school subjects he examined. He collected WASC
examination results for five years and compared performance of students in
schools with adequate material resources and performance of students in schools
with inadequate material resources. He found a significant difference in the
performance of the two sets of students.

Summary of Literature Review


Numerous investigations have been carried out to find the concepts of
learning resources and the types which includes, the instructional materials,
facilities, and exercise books and textbooks. Eminent scholars have also
contributed immensely to report the effects of the learning resources on academic

performance.
The criteria for the selection of learning resources were explained according
to the Board of Education (2014) and finally various researchers gives suggestions
on the utilization of learning resources in curriculum delivery.

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHOD
This chapter contains the procedure used for the study under the following sub
heading:
Research Design
Population and sample
Research Instrument
Validity of the Instrument
Reliability of the Instrument

Procedure for Data collection

Method of Data Analysis


Research Design
The research design adopted for this study is the descriptive survey.
Population
The target population for this study were teachers in secondary schools in
Owo Local Government.

Sample and Sampling Techniques


The sample consisted of eight (8) secondary schools (4 public and 4 private)
selected with the use of stratified sampling method. Eighty (80) teachers were

randomly selected from eight (8) secondary schools which comprises of 10


respondents from each of the schools sampled for the study.
Research Instrument
The instrument used was a questionnaire developed by the researcher, titled
Learning Resources and Students Academic Performance Questionnaire
(LRSAPQ). The instrument adopted a modified three-point Likert scale with
response ranging from Agree (A), Fairly Agree (FA), and Disagree (D) with value
of 3, 2, and 1 respectively.
Validity of the Instrument
The questionnaire was scrutinized by the researchers supervisor to ensure
content and face validity of the instrument.
Reliability of the Instrument
The Instrument was tested reliability by using test-retest method within an
interval of two weeks in two secondary schools that were not included in the
sample. The two set of responses were correlated and found to be stable and usable
for the study.
Data collection
The questionnaire was administered on the respondents with the help of a
research assistant in each school selected for the study. All the copies of the
questionnaire were collected after completion.

Data Analysis
The data collected were analysed using frequency counts, percentage and ttest statistics at 0.05 level of significance.

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Results
This chapter contains the analysis of data collected with appropriate
statistics to answer the research questions and test the hypotheses.
Table 1: Demographic Information of the Respondents
Schools
21-30
31-40
41-50
50 years and above
Total
Gender
Male
Female
Total
Educational Qualifications
N.C.E
Bachelor Degree
Masters Degree
Total

Frequency
17
26
29
8
80
Frequency
54
26
80
Frequency
30
32
18
80

Percentage %
21.0
33.0
37.0
19.0
100.0
Percentage %
67.5
32.5
100.0
Percentage %
37.5
40.0
22.5
100.0

In table one, the distribution of the selected respondents was according to the
Age, Gender and Education qualifications. From the result, the questionnaire was
evenly distributed among the selected schools in the study area, it was discovered
that 17 of the respondents are between the age range of 21-30, while 26 of the
respondents are between the age range of 31-41, 29 of the respondents are between

the age range of 41-50, while only 8 respondents are 50 years and above. The
distribution according to gender shows that male teachers 54(67.5%) are more than
the female teachers with 26(32.5%). Finally, most of the teachers educational
qualifications are NCE with 30(37.5%), Bachelor Degree 32(40.0%) and Masters
Degree 18(22.5%).
Research Question 1: How adequate are learning resources in public secondary
schools?
Table 2a: Distribution and adequacy of learning resources in public schools.
S/N
ITEMS
Agree Fairly
Disagreed
d
Agreed
%
%
%
1.
The school buildings are enough for the
7
13
20
students population
17.5%
32.5%
50.0%
2.
Government,
parent/guardians
provide
12
6
22
financial support for the procurement of 30.0%
15.0%
55.0%
stationaries and teaching aids
3.
The school library have textbooks in the
20
12
7
subject area I teach
50.0%
30.0%
17.5%
4.
The school laboratory is well equipped with
22
12
6
the necessary science equipment needed.
55.0%
30.0%
15.0%
5.
The school provides teachers with audio10
10
20
visual material and electronic instructional 25.0%
25.0%
50.0%
materials for teaching.
6.
Writing material such as exercise books,
15
15
10
biro, pencil, chalk, workbooks are made 37.5%
37.5%
25.0%
available for the teachers by the school
authority.
7.
The school computer laboratory is
25
10
5
inadequate with few computers installed.
62.5%
25.0%
12.5%
8.
Students are well equipped with learning
7
13
20
materials such as exercise books, textbooks, 17.5%
32.5%
50.0%
biro, pencils/biros

From the table 2a above, in item 1, it was revealed that 7(17.5%) of the
respondents agreed that the school buildings are enough for the students,
population, 13(32.5%) fairly agreed, while 20(50.0%) disagreed that the school
class buildings are enough for the students population. Item 2 revealed that
12(30.0%) of the respondents agreed that the government, parent/guardians
provides financial support for the procurement of stationeries and teaching aids,
6(15.0%) fairly agreed while 22(55.0%) disagreed that the government,
parent/guardians provides financial support for the procurement of stationeries and
teaching aids. Item 3 revealed that 20(50.0%) of the respondents agreed that the
school library have textbooks in the subject area they teach, 13(32.5%) fairly
agreed while 7(17.5%) disagreed that the school library have textbooks in the
subject area they teach. Item 4 revealed that 22(55.0%) of the respondents agreed
that the school laboratory is well equipped with the necessary science equipment
needed, 12(30.0%) fairly agreed while 6(15.0%) disagreed that the school
laboratory is well equipped with the necessary science equipment needed. Item 5
revealed that 10(25.0%) of the respondents agreed that the school provides the
teachers with audio-visual materials and electronic instructional materials for
teaching, 10(25.0%) fairly agreed while 20(50.0%) disagreed that the school
provides the teachers with audio-visual materials and electronic instructional
materials. Item 6 revealed that 15(37.5%) of the respondents agreed that writing

materials such as exercise books, biro, pencil, chalk, work book are made available
for the teachers by the school authority, also 15(37.5%) fairly agreed while
10(25.0%) disagreed that writing materials such as exercise books, biro, pencil,
chalk, work book are made available for the teachers by the school authority. Item
7 revealed that 25(62.5%) of the respondents agreed that the school computer
laboratory is inadequate with few computers installed, 10(25.0%) fairly agreed,
while 5(12.5%) disagreed that the school computer laboratory is inadequate with
few computers installed. Item 8 revealed that 7(17.5%) of the respondents agreed
that students are well equipped with learning materials such as exercise books,
textbooks, biro, pencil etc., 13(32.5%) fairly agreed while 20(50.0%) disagreed
that student are well equipped with learning materials such as exercise books,
textbooks, biro, pencil etc.

Table 2b: Distribution and adequacy of learning resources in private schools.


S/N
ITEMS
Agree Fairly
Disagreed
d
Agreed
%
%
%
1.
The school buildings are enough for the
20
13
7
students population
50.0%
32.5%
17.5%
2.
Government,
parent/guardians
provide
22
12
6
financial support for the procurement of 55.0%
30.0%
15.0%
stationaries and teaching aids
3.
The school library have textbooks in the
20
13
7
subject area I teach
50.0%
32.5%
17.5%
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.

The school laboratory is well equipped with


the necessary science equipment needed.
The school provides teachers with audiovisual material and electronic instructional
materials for teaching.
Writing material such as exercise books,
biro, pencil, chalk, workbooks are made
available for the teachers by the school
authority.
The school computer laboratory is
inadequate with few computers installed.
Students are well equipped with learning
materials such as exercise books, textbooks,
biro, pencils/biros

25
62.5%
20
50.0%

15
37.5%
10
25.0%

30
75.0%

10
25.0

10
25.0%
20
50.0%

5
12.5%
13
32.5%

10.
25.0%

25
62.5
7
17.5%

From the table 2b above, in item 1, it was revealed that 20(50.0%) of the
respondents agreed that the school buildings are enough for the students,
population, 13(32.5%) fairly agreed, while 7(17.5%) disagreed that the school
class buildings are enough for the students population. Item 2 revealed that
22(55.0%) of the respondents agreed that the government, parent/guardians
provides financial support for the procurement of stationeries and teaching aids,

12(30.0%) fairly agreed while 6(15.0%) disagreed that the government,


parent/guardians provides financial support for the procurement of stationeries and
teaching aids. Item 3 revealed that 20(50.0%) of the respondents agreed that the
school library have textbooks in the subject area they teach, 13(32.5%) fairly
agreed while 7(17.5%) disagreed that the school library have textbooks in the
subject area they teach. Item 4 revealed that 25(62.5%) of the respondents agreed
that the school laboratory is well equipped with the necessary science equipment
needed, 15(37.5%) fairly agreed while non respondent disagreed that the school
laboratory is well equipped with the necessary science equipment needed. Item 5
revealed that 20(50.0%) of the respondents agreed that the school provides the
teachers with audio-visual materials and electronic instructional materials for
teaching, 10(25.0%) fairly agreed and also 10(25.0%) disagreed that the school
provides the teachers with audio-visual materials and electronic instructional
materials. Item 6 revealed that 30(75.0%) of the respondents agreed that writing
materials such as exercise books, biro, pencil, chalk, work book are made available
for the teachers by the school authority, while 10(25.0%) fairly agreed while non of
the respondents disagreed that writing materials such as exercise books, biro,
pencil, chalk, work book are made available for the teachers by the school
authority. Item 7 revealed that 10(25.0%) of the respondents agreed that the school
computer laboratory is inadequate with few computers installed, 5(12.5%) fairly

agreed, while 25(62.5%) disagreed that the school computer laboratory is


inadequate with few computers installed. Item 8 revealed that 20(50.0%) of the
respondents agreed that students are well equipped with learning materials such as
exercise books, textbooks, biro, pencil etc., 13(32.5%) fairly agreed while
7(17.5%) disagreed that student are well equipped with learning materials such as
exercise books, textbooks, biro, pencil etc.

Table 3a: Utilization of Learning Resources in Public Schools


S/
ITEMS
Agree
Fairly Agree
N
%
%
9.
Access to utilization of learning
20
30
resources during lessons.
25.0%
37.5%
10. Teachers are satisfied with the
40
21
condition of learning resources in
50.0%
26.2%
my school.
11. I achieve instructional objectives are
43
24
the use of learning resources
53.8%
30.0%
12. Students achieve to a greater extent
52
10
with the use of available learning
65.0%
12.5%
resources.

Disagree
%
30
37.5%
19
23.8%
13
16.2%
18
22.5%

Item 9 revealed that 15(37.5%) of the respondents agreed that they have
access to learning resources during lessons, 15(37.5%) fairly agreed while
10(25.0%) disagreed that they have access to learning resources during lessons.
Item 10 revealed that 10(25.0%) of the respondents agreed that they are satisfied
with the condition of learning resources in their schools, 5(12.5%) fairly agreed

while 25(62.5%) disagreed that they are satisfied with the condition of learning
resources in their schools. Item 11 revealed that 22(55.0%) of the respondents
agreed that they achieve instructional objectives with the use of learning resources,
12(30.0%) fairly agreed, while 6(15.0%) disagreed that they achieve instructional
objectives with the use of learning resources. Item 12 revealed that 25(62.5%) of
the respondents agreed that the students achieve to a greater extent with the use of
available learning resources, 10(25.0%) fairly agreed, while 5(12.5%) disagreed
that the students achieve to a greater extent with the use of available learning
resources.

Table 3b: Utilization of Learning Resources in Private Schools


S/
ITEMS
Agree
Fairly Agree
N
%
%
9.
Access to utilization of learning
20
10
resources during lessons.
50.0%
25.0%
10. Teachers are satisfied with the
25
10
condition of learning resources in
62.5%
25.0%
my school.
11. I achieve instructional objectives are
22
6
the use of learning resources
55.0%
15.0%
12. Students achieve to a greater extent
30
10
with the use of available learning
75.0%
25.0%
resources.

Disagree
%
10
25.0%
5
12.5%
12
30.0%

Item 9 revealed that 20(50.0%) of the respondents agreed that they have
access to learning resources during lessons, also 10(25.0%) fairly agreed while
10(25.0%) disagreed that they have access to learning resources during lessons.
Item 10 revealed that 25(62.5%) of the respondents agreed that they are satisfied
with the condition of learning resources in their schools, 10(25.0%) fairly agreed
while 5(12.5%) disagreed that they are satisfied with the condition of learning
resources in their schools. Item 11 revealed that 22(55.0%) of the respondents
agreed that they achieve instructional objectives with the use of learning resources,
6(15.0%) fairly agreed, while 12(30.0%) disagreed that they achieve instructional
objectives with the use of learning resources. Item 12 revealed that 30(75.0%) of
the respondents agreed that the students achieve to a greater extent with the use of
available learning resources, 10(12.5) fairly agreed, while non of the respondent

disagreed that the students achieve to a greater extent with the use of available
learning resources.
Table 4a: Analysis on Students Academic Performance in WASSCE 2012/20132014/2015 in public secondary in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo State
Year

No.
of No.
of
Candidates
candidates with
Examined
5 credits and
above including
English language
& Mathematics

No of students
that obtained 5
credit and above
without English
language
&
Mathematics

No
of
candidates
without
any credit

2012/2013

970

120
(12.37%)

800
(82.47%)

50
(5.15%)

2013/2014

1,085

140
(12.90%)
225
(18.67%)

875
(80.64%)
920
(76.34%)

70
(6.45%)
60
(4.98%)

2014/2015

1,205

Source: Field Survey, 2015


Table 4a showed students academic performance in WASSCE results in
public secondary schools in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo State. In
2012/2013, the total number of students examined is 970, number of candidates
with 5credit including English and Mathematics is 120(12.37%), No of candidates
with 5 credit above without English Language and Mathematics is 800(82.47%),
also number of students without any credit is 50(5.15%).
Also, in 2013/2014, the total number of students examined is 1,085, number of
candidates with 5credit including English and Mathematics is 140 (12.90%), No of

candidates with 5 credit above without English Language and Mathematics is 875
(80.64%) also number of students without any credit is 70(6.45%).
Also, in 2014/2015, the total number of students examined is 1,205 number
of candidates 5credit including English and Mathematics is 225(18.67%), No of
candidates with 5 credit above without English Language and Mathematics is
920(76.34%), also number of students without any credit is 60(4.98%).
Table 4b: Analysis on Students Academic Performance in WASSCE 2012/20132014/2015 in Private secondary schools in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo
State.
Year

No.
of No.
of
Candidates
candidates with
Examined
5 credits and
above including
English language
& Mathematics

No of students
that obtained 5
credit and above
without English
language
&
Mathematics

2012/2013

400

300
(75.0%

100
(25.0%)

2013/2014

600

550
(91.67%)

50
(8.33%)

2014/2015

700

680
(97.14%)

20
(2.86%

No
of
candidates
without
any credit

Source: Field Survey, 2015


Table 4b showed students academic performance in WASSCE results in
Private secondary schools in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo State. In

2012/2013, the total number of students examined is 400 number of candidates


with 5credit including English and Mathematics is 300(75.0%), No of candidates
with 5 credit above without English Language and Mathematics is 100(25.0%),
there is non of the candidates without any credit.
Also, in 2013/2014, the total number of students examined is 600, number of
candidates 5credit including English and Mathematics is 550(91.67%), No of
candidates with 5 credit above without English Language and Mathematics is
50(8.33%), also number of students without any credit is 0.
Also, in 2014/2015, the total number of students examined is 700 number of
candidates 5credit including English and Mathematics is 680(97.14%), No of
candidates with 5 credit above without English Language and Mathematics is
20(2.86%), also number of students without any credit is 0.
Testing of Research Hypothesis
This section focused on testing the research hypothesis that were stated in
chapter one. t-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.
This implies that at 0.05 level of significance if the private mean score is lesser
than the public mean score, the null hypothesis will be rejected that there is no
significant relationship but if the private mean score is greater than the pubic mean
score, then the null hypothesis will be accepted than that there is no significant
relationship.

Hypothesis 1
H01: There is no significant difference in the level of teachers utilization of
learning resources in public and private secondary schools.
Table 5: Test of difference in the level of teachers utilization of learning resources
in public and private secondary schools.
School
Public
Private

N
40
40

Mean
13.94
16.79

Std. Deviation t-cal


3.413
0.458**
2.275

t-tab

Sig.

0.666

0.05

From table 5, there is no significant difference in the level of teachers


utilization of learning resources in public and private secondary schools. Hence
accept the null hypotheses. Meaning there is no significant difference in the level
of teachers utilization of learning resources in public and private secondary
schools.

Hypothesis II:
H02: There is no significant difference in the effect of learning resources on
students academic performance in public and private secondary schools.
Table 6: Test of difference in the effect of learning resources on students academic
performance between public and private secondary schools.
School

Mean

Public
Private

40
40

11.67
18.89

Std.
Deviation
4.356
1.775

t-cal

t-tab

Sig.

0.677**

0.236

0.05

From table 6, there is a significant difference in the effect of learning


resources on students academic performance between public and private
secondary schools. The public schools effect of learning resources on students
performance with mean score of (11.67), than their private counterparts with a
mean score of (18.89). Hence reject the null hypotheses. Meaning there is a
significant effect of learning resources on students academic performance in
public and private secondary schools.

Discussion of the Findings


In research question one, the school class buildings are fairly adequate for
the students population. This corroborated Faisal and Annutte (2001), Patrick et al
(2001), findings in their studies, that decline in the performance of students is due
to inadequate facilities.

It was revealed that majority of the respondents disagreed that the school
laboratory is well equipped with the necessary science equipment needed. This
implied that shortage of labouratory equipment constitute a setback to students
academic performance. This confirmed the view of Futunbi (1996) that learning
materials contribute significantly to students have been exposed have contributing
factors to the students academic achievement. Also Jimoh (1992) observed that
poor laboratory facilities and lack of relevant textbooks are among factors that are
responsible for low performance of students.
In hypothesis one, there was a significant difference in the level of teachers
utilization of learning resources in public and private secondary school. The private
schools performed better than the public secondary schools. This furthein
Technical Drawing with a low mean score of (13.94), than confirmed the findings
by Fagbemi (2002), that lack of equipment and teaching resources in schools
would hinder the teaching and learning of school subjects, thereby not achieving
educational goals.
Schulman and Tamir (1983), also compiled a list of objectives of using
laboratory or workshop in teaching, the list included the teaching and learning of
skills, concepts, attitudes, cognitive abilities and understanding the nature of
Technical and Vocational Education.

Table 4 shows the calculated t-test of the effect of learning resources on


students academic performance in public and private secondary schools. The
private schools performance was better in their WASSCE examination
consecutively for three years with higher number of candidates with 5 credits and
above including English and Mathematics which is (12.35). This connote that there
is a significant difference in the effect of learning resources on students academic
performance in public and private secondary schools.
Finally, the interview conducted with the teachers revealed that teachers
utilization of learning resources is determined by the teachers expertise in the
subject, how well the teacher knows the subject and how to select appropriate
materials to teach the class makes the students show more commitment, interest
and passion to learn. This further confirmed the findings by Olarewaju (2006), that
under-achievements in secondary schools was caused by the following among
other things; learners unpreparedness to work, teachers lack of interest in their job
and poor academic and professional training.

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Summary
The research work was carried out to examines Learning Resources and
Students Academic Performance in Private and Public Secondary Schools in Owo
Local Government Area of Ondo State.
Chapter one introduces the problem while chapter two reviewed some
relevant literatures on the topic. Chapter three discussed the instrument, population
and sampling techniques used for the study and also the method of data analysis.
Questionnaire was used to collect data in selected secondary schools in Owo Local
Government Area of Ondo State and 80 teachers were used in all.
Chapter four was the result of the data analysis, which was done using
frequency count, percentage, and t-test. After the analysis of the data in chapter
four, it was discovered that:
i.

Students from private schools performed better than students from public
schools.

ii.

The schools facilities have no significant effect on students academic


performance in public secondary schools because of the poor condition of
the learning facilities.

iii.

Large number of students in the classrooms made the class rowdy and not
conducive for learning.

Conclusion
The study examined the comparative analysis of learning resources and
students academic performance in public and private secondary schools in Owo
Local Government. It was discovered that the private schools students performed
better than their public schools counterparts. The public secondary schools are
faced with lack of access to standard laboratory facilities, rowdy classes in an unconducive learning environment and low commitment on the part of parents.
The study has further proved that schools facilities are highly potent
determinant of academic achievements. Facilities in terms of laboratory, libraries,
schools buildings, chairs, tables, administrative blocks, school maps and the likes
are very crucial to high academic attainment. The study indicated that achievement
is a function of availability of learning resources.

Recommendations
The following suggestions are made for the improvement of students
academic performance in secondary schools in Owo Local Government.

Parents should give more attention to the education of their children/wards


by equipping them with relevant learning materials and textbooks to
improve their academic performance in secondary schools.
There should be periodic in-service training programmes for secondary
school teachers to broaden their knowledge on the use of instructional
materials to facilitate learning.
The State Ministry of Education should provide adequate learning resources
to improve the quality of teaching and learning in public secondary schools.

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APPENDIX
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
ADEKUNLE AJASIN UNIVERSITY AKUNGBA AKOKO.
TEACHERS QUESTIONNAIRE
I am currently undertaking a research work with the topic: Analysis of
Learning Resources and Students Academic Performance in Public and Private
Secondary Schools in Owo Local Government.
This questionnaire contains the necessary information for this research work.
You are expected to respond to the items objectives as possible. All information
supplied will be treated confidentially and will be used strictly for this research
work.
Thank you for your co-operation.
___________
Adelugba, S.M

SECTION A
BIO-DATA
Age: 21-30years
above
Gender:

Male

31-40years

41-50 years

50 years and

Female

Educational qualification: Teachers Grade II


M.Ed

N.C.E

B.Ed

SECTION B
Please respond to each statement according to your own opinion on items
discussed. The following are the options to choose from:
SA= Strongly Agree, A = Agree, D = Disagree, SD = Strongly Disagree.
S/
N
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11.
12.

ITEM

FA

The school class buildings are not enough for the students population
Government, Parent/guardians provides financial support for the
procurement of stationeries and teaching aids
The school library have textbooks in the subject area I teach
The school laboratory is well equipped with the necessary science
equipments needed.
The school provides the teachers with audio-visual materials and
electronic instructional materials for teaching
Writing materials such as exercise books, biro, pencil, chalk, work
book are made available for the teachers by the school authority.
The school computer laboratory is inadequate with few computers
installed.
Students are well equipped with learning materials such as exercise
books, textbooks, biro, pencil e.t.c.
I have access to learning resources during lessons.
I am satisfied with the condition of learning resources in my school
I achieve instructional objectives with the use of learning resources
Students achieve to a greater extent with the use of available learning
resources.

SECTION C
Checklist of Students Academic Performance in WASSCE 2012/2013 2014/2015
Academi No. of Candidates No. of Candidates No. of Candidates No. of
c Session Examined
with 5 credits and with 5 credit and
Candidates
above, including
above without
without any
English and
English Language credit
Mathematics
and Mathematics