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Si hablo las lenguas de los hombres y aun de los ngeles, pero no tengo amor, no soy ms que

un metal que resuena o un platillo que hace ruido (1 Corintios 13:1)

PATRONES BSICOS
DE CONSTRUCCIN GRAMATICAL

.
"
PRLOGO

a) Patrn para preguntar: DO YOU WISH = desea Ud?


Tres verbos bsicos: TO SPEAK
TOGET
TOGO
DO
DO
DO

\.

CONVERSANDO EN INGLS est Integrado en su parte medular


por diagramas de estructura gramatical, los cuales van de la fase
elemental a la etapa ms aoonzoda; Estos patrones de construccin
enfocan en forma muy objetiva la sintaxis del idioma ingls.

you wish
you wish
you wish

TO SPEAK
TOGET
TOGO

Algunas palabras bsicas:

hablar
conseguir, obtener
ir

English?
a goodjob?
to the United States?

ENGLISH
A
GOOD
JOB
'.r_! .... :TO
THE
UNITED STATES

..

De dichos diagramas se deriva una serie de conver.~ciones de uso


corriente. En las conversaciones se emplean repetida y sistemticamente los patrones de construccin. Con esto se persigue acelerar,
sin esfuerzo, el proceso de memorizacin y, as, eliminar lo arduo y
tedioso de este aspecto.

b) Patrn para afirmar: 1 WISH =

."

Al pohtU>,'~e~prctica esta nueva tcnica se pasa, sin sentirlo, del


proceso iritil1pri.icoal proceso automtico de aprendizaje. ste consiste en manijj;'-..:d~!OOnerainadvertida y espontnea todas las foro
mas bsicas dellei:l!je cotidiano, lo cual implica que aprenderemos
a pensar en ingls desde el principio, que es factor de capital impar.

r~
tancUJ.
-, > ~

wish
wish
wish

TO SPEAK
TOGET
TOGO

ingls!
un, una
buen (o, a)
empleo, trabajo
a

el, la, los, las


Estados Unidos

yo deseo

English
a goodjob
to the United States.

c) Patrn para negar: 1DON T WISH = yo no deseo

Asimismo, hemos dotado a esta ;;6~ade vocabularios con fontica o


pronunciacin figurada y ejercici"s~:de lectura y construccin.
Creemos que esto le ser de gran utilidad al estudiante de ingls.

Algunas palabras bsicas:

Tenemos la conviccin que esta obra rendir ptimos frutos, ya que


se han utilizado los ms recientes sistemas pedaggicos.

"
-'.

1
1
1

DON'T
DON'T
DON'T

Vase

la

wish
wish
wish

POOR =
BAD
THAT
PLACE=

TO SPEAK
TOGET
TOGO

pobre, defectuoso
mal (o, a)
ese (a), aquel, aquella
lugar

a poor English
a badjob
to that place

fontica en el vocabulario al final de esta leccin


9

CONVERSATION
YOU WISH
TIME?

-DO

I TO

I ENGLISH

SPEAK

-1 WISH
IN A SHORT

I I
GET

I ro

GET

I A GOOD JOB,

[LQ]

BECAUSE I WISH

MORE MONEY.

(Desea Ud. hablar ingls en un corto tiempo? )

- YES SIR, I WISH

1 ro SPEAK 1

(Yo deseo conseguir un buen empleo porque yo deseo obtener ms


dinero).

ENGLISH SOON.

-1 DON'T WISH

(S seor, yo deseo hablar ingls pronto).


-DO YOU WISH

TO SPEAK

I A GOOD ENGLISH?

I ro

SPEAK

1 ENGLlSH

WELL.

I ro SPEAK I A POOR ENGLlSH.

I ENGLlSH

TO SPEAK

-1 WISH [

ro

TO GET

SPEAK

I ENGLlSH

ENOUGH MONEY ~
~

(Desea Ud. obtener suficiente dinero para ir a Nueva York? )


-1 DON'T WISH ~

TO CHICAGO.

TO NEW YORK. I WISH

-DO YOU WISH

TO GO

I TO

ENGLA~D,

"

- YES, 1 WISH
ENGLISH.

I ro I
GO

(S, yo deseo ir a muchos Jugares cuando yo hable ingls).

WELL, BECAUSE 1 WISH

(Yo deseo hablar ingls bien, porque yo deseo conseguir un buen


empleo).

TO GET

I A BAO JOB

(Yo no deseo conseguir un mal empleo).

-WHY DO YOU WISH

TO GET

A GOOD .JOB?

(Por qu desea Ud. conseguir un buen empleo? )

10

GO ]

TOO?

TO MANY PLACES WHEN

I A GOOD JOB.

-1 DON'T WlSH

I ro

(Desea Ud. ir a Inglaterra tambin? )

WELL?

(Por qu desea Ud. hablar ingls bien? )

(Yo no deseo ir a Nueva York. Yo deseo ir a Chicago).

(Yo no deseo hablar un ingls defectuoso.)

-WHY DO YOU WISH

I LITTLE MONEY.

YOU WISH [TO GET


TONEWYORK?

-DO

(S, por supuesto. Yo deseo hablar ingls bien.)

-1 DON'T WISH

TO GET

(Yo no deseo conseguir poco dinero)

(Desea Ud. hablar un buen ingls? )

-YES, OF COURSE, 1 WISH

...
l'

11

SPEAK

EJERCICIOS DE CONSTRUCCIN
VOCABULARIO
Do you wish?
to speak
to get
a
good
job
1 wisb
to go
to
the
United States
I don't wish
poor
bad
that

[du i uish)
(tuspcJ
(tu guet)
(ei)
(gud)
(yob)
(ai uish)
(tu gu)
(tu)
(di)
(iunited stits)
(ai dont uish)
(pur)
(bad)
(dat)

place
in
short
time
yes

(piis)
(in)
(short)
(tim)
(ies)

Sir
soon
of course
well
why
beguse
more
money
little
enough
England
too
much
many
when

(ser)

CON FONTICA

Escriba en ingls la palabra o palabras indicadas abajo de cada lnea.

Desea Ud?
hablar
conseguir, obtener
un,una
buen (o, a)
empleo, trabajo
yo deseo
ir
a

1. 1 wish

{sun}

porque
ms

to speak Englsh soon?

Desea Ud ...

. ,;1

4.
5.

el, la, los, las


Estados Unidos
yo no deseo
pobre, defectuoso (a)
mal (o, a)
se, sa, aqul aqulla
nombre demostrativo)
lugar, sitio
en, dentro
corto, bajo
tiempo (cronolgico)
s (afirmativo. No es
cional)
.
seor
pronto
por supuesto
bien
por qu? (interrogativo)

(ov crs)
(ul]
(jui)
(bics)
(mor)
(mni)
(ltol)
(inf)
(ingland)
(tu)
(moch)
(mni)
(jun)

---,,...-_ a good jobo


cirlSeguir

\.A..

do you wis~ to go to the United States?

Por qu

6. 1 wish --"-_

to the U. S. _'

ir

7. Why----,=----=-=--=-- ~to get abad job?


8.

No, Sir. 1"":':"_-,--"'-_


no deseo
I

9.

'..,t..

to get abad

Yo no deseo

job '

1 wish
porque

e'-..;-\'\~().;;.;IJ;;.;I:l:::..!..'_
-

money
suficiente .
10. ]:. .......
1. < ""
to get a good job, becaus
Yo deseo

a
no deseo

little money.
NOTA IMPaR TANTE: No pase Ud. a la leccin siguiente sin haber
asimilado perfectamente esta leccin. Memorice primero el
vocabulario con fontica. Repita oralmente tres veces cada
palabra. Pase luego a la conversacin, repsela varias veces en
voz alta y posteriormente haga el ejercicio de prctica corres.
pondiente. Escriba esta leccin haciendo que otra persona se
la dicte. Efecte esta misma operacin en todas las lecciones y
obtendr resultados ptimos. Verifique hasta qu altura de
estructura inglesa puede Ud. fcilmente alcanzar, consultando
el con tenid o de esta obra (pginas 3 a 5).
Estudie media hora diariamente procurando orse a s mismo
y en cuestin de pocos meses estar Ud. hablando perfecto
ingls.

(afirmativo)

dinero
poco, pequeo
bastante, suficiente
Inglaterra
tambin
mucho (a)
muchos (as)
cuando

13
12

' 1 wish to get a jobo


porque

....

CONJUGACIN DE WISH
y LOS PRONOMBRES PERSONALES
to inmediatamente
despus de wish y wis~ES.
las letras ES en la forma verbal correspondIente

Observe la partcula
Advirtase asimismo
a he, she, it.

I
You

wish
wish

He
She

wishES
wishES
It wishES

We
You
They

wish
wish
wish

ro SPEAK
ro SPEAK

toyou
tome

in English.
in English too.

TOGO
TOGO
TOGO

to the
to the
with us

United Sta tes.


United States too.

rOGET
ro GET
TO GET

a
a
a

Otras palabras

bsicas:

lt1

-DO

We
You

ru

They

l
ella
ello (impersonal)

YOU WISH

ellos o ellas

su, tu (adjetivo
pose
sivo)
negocios
ahora
hoy
maana
algunos (as), algo de
de (expresando
procedencia)

SPEAK

TO

ME?

us

me, mi, a m

you
them

nos, a nosotros
a Uds., a vos.
los, a ellos

la (a ella)
lo (impersonal)

-WHAT

DO

de qu desea Ud. hablarme?

I TO

-HE

WISHES

SPEAK

TO

DO

-1 WISH

ABOUT?

acerca de negocios)

SPEAK

YOU W1SH

ABOUT BUSINESS,

I ro I

I TO I HlM

TOO.

tambin)
SEE

desea Ud. ver al gerente?)


SEE

ME

TO YOU ABOUT BUSINESS.

(l desea hablar de negocios,

(Cundo

14

YOU WISH ,...T-O-SP-E-A-K-'I TO

(Yo deseo hablarle

-WHEN

1 El pronombre IT se emplea para objetos impersonales o animales.

r-'-ro-SP-E-A-Kj-' TO YOU.

(S seor, yo deseo hablarle)

- -1 WISH
Plurales

you = le (a Ud.), a ti, te


him
lo (a l)
lt

nosotros
ustedes, vosotros

objetivos

Singulares

her

TO

Ud. hablarme'!

(Ace~a

Pronombres

me

= (Adjetivo posesivo)

CONVERSATION

- VES SIR, I WISH

He
She

qu
acerca de, sobre

BUSINESS
NOW
TODAY
TOMORROW
SOME
FROM

(Desea

You

ver
dar
traer

Plurales

Singulares
yo
Ud. o

WHAT
ABOUT
MY
YOUR

good jobo
good joh
too.
job in New York.

Pronombres personales

ro SEE
TO GIVE
ro BRING

Otros tres verbos bsicos:

NOW.

15

THE MANAGER?

VOCABULARIO CON FONTICA

(Yo deseo verlo ahora)


-SHE WISHES

I TO SEE I

US IN THE OFFICE TODA Y.


you
he
She
it
we
you
they

(Ella desea vernos en la oficina hoy)


-THE MANAGER WISHES

I TO SEE I MARY TOMORROW.

(El gerente desea ver a Mara maana)


-WE WISH

I TO

SEE

HER TOMORROW, TOO.

(ai)
(i)
(ji)
(shi)
(it)
(u)
(i)
(dei)

yo

me
you
him
ella
her
ello
it
nosotros us
ustedes
you
ellos (as) them

= Ud., t
= l

(mi)
(i)
(jim)
(jer)
(it)
(os)
(i)
(dem)

= me,mi
= le (a Ud.), te,

ti

lo (a l)
= la (a ella)
lo (impersonal)
= nos, a nosotros
les (a ustedes)
= los (a ellos)

(Nosotros deseamos verla maana, tambin)

I TO

-WHAT DO YOU WISH

GIVE

GEORGE AND ALlCE?

(Qu desea Ud. dar a Jorge y Alicia? )


-1WISH

TO GIVE

I THEM SOME PRESENTS.

(Yo deseo darles algunos regalos)


-AND THEY WISH

I TO

GIVE

\~ME SOME PRESENTS, TOO.

.,.

':.

(Y ellos desean daIDle algunos regalos, tambin)

-THEY WISH TO BRING


US MANY THINGS FROM NEW
YORK.
(Ellos desean traernos muchas cosas de Nueva York)

-WHAT DO YOU WISH TO BRING


MARKET?
(Qu desea Ud. traerle a ella del mercado? )
-1 WISH

I TO

BRING

I HER

50ME

HER FROM

FRUIT

FROM

THE

,
,
!
\

THE

with!
what
about
my
your
business
he wishes
to see
manager
now
office
today
Mary
tomorrow
to give
sorne
presents
to bring
things
from
market
fruit

[uiz]
= con
(juat)
= qu
(abut)
= acerca de, sobre
(mai)
= mi (adjetivo posesivo)
(ir)
su, tu (adjetivo posesivo)
(bfsnes)
= negocios
(ji ulshes]
l desea
(tu si)
= ver
(mnayer)
= gerente, administrador
(no)
ahora
(fis)
= oficina
(tudi)
hoy
(mri)
= Mara
(tumrrou) = maana
(tu guv)
dar
(som)
algunos (as), algo de
(prsents)
= regalos
(tu bring)
traer
(Zlings)
= cosas
(from)
de (expresando procedencia)
(mrquet)
= mercado
(frut)
= fruta.

MARKET.
(Yo deseo traerle a ella algo de fruta del mercado)
-1 DON'T WISH

I TO

BRING

1 HIM

MANY THlNGS FROM

...
1

THE UNlTED STATE5.


(Yo no deseo traerle a l muchas cosas de los Estados Unidos)

16

1 El sonido de th en ingls es muy similar al de la z como se pronuncia en Espaa.

17

Ejemplos ilustrativos de cmo emplear el caso oblicuo


me

(1)

him

us
them

(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

me

(1)

him
her
it
us
them

(2)
( 3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

her
it

SEE

G 1V E

1. V ame, vme
2. Valo, vlo (a l)
3. V ala, vla ( a ella)
4. Valo, vlo (neutro)
5. V anos, vnos
6. V alos, vlos
L Dme, dame
2. Dle, dale (a l)
3. Dle, dale (a ella)
4. Dle, dale (neutro)
5. Dnos, danos
6. Dles, dales

1 see you = te veo, le veo a Ud.


1give you = te doy, le doy a Ud.

me

THIS IS FOR

PRAY

J...
--

you
him
her
it
us
you
them

forme
for him
for her
for it
for us
for them

(1)
(2)
(3)

L Esto es para m
2. Esto es para ti (o Ud.)

(4)
(5)

4. Esto es para ella

3. Esto es para l

(6)

(7)
(8)

(1)
(2)
(3)
( 4)
(5)
(6)

5. Esto es para
6. Esto es para
7. Esto es para
8. Esto es para

L
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

18

Ruegue
Ruegue
Ruegue
Ruegue
Ruegue
Ruegue

por
por
por
por
por
por

ello (neu tro )


nosotros
vos. o Uds.
ellos o ellas

VERBOS EN INFINITIVO

....

m
l
ella
ello (neutro)
nosotros
ellos o ellas

....

to
to
to
to

give
pray
go
work

(tu
(tu
(tu
(tu

giv)
dar
prei)
rogar, rezar
gu) = ir
uere)
trabajar

19

EJERCICIOS
Construya en ingls las siguientes oraciones:

EMPLEO DE DO Y DOES
PARA PREGUNTAR EN TIEMPO PRESENTE
Y DON'T y DOESN'T PARA NEGAR

I. Ellos me ven
2. Yo los veo
\

3. l lo ve(a Ud.)
4. Nosotros lo vemos (a l)

Observe el empleo de DOES delante de he, she, it y DO delante de


los dems sujetos cuando se pregunta.
Note asimismo que la forma verbal (wish) correspondiente a las
terceras personas del singular (he, she, it) no lleva ES como en el
afirmativo, ya que esto se incorpora a doES.

5. l nos ve
6. Ud. la ve
7. Nosotros desayunamos en la maana

...

8. Yo como (algo de) pescado


9. Ella come (algo de) fruta
10. Ellos comen (algo de) pollo
Ll, Nosotros comemos (algo de) carne, (algo de) legumbres y (algo
de) fruta.

DO
DO

you

wish
wish

ro SPEAK
ro SPEAK

English
to

fluently?
me?

DOES
DOES
DOES

he
she
itl

wish
wish
wish

ro SEE
1'0 SEE
1'0 SEE"

us

him
her?

today?
now?

DO
DO
DO

we
you
they

wish
wish

ro GIVE
ro GIVE
ro GIVE

wish

them
me
you

presents?
your card?
a present?

Obse.rve ahor~ el uso ~e DOESN'r ,inmediatamente despus de he,


she, .It y DON!. despues de los demas sujetos cuando se niega.
Advle.rta tambin que la forma verbal (wish) correspondiente a he,
she, tt no lleva ES como en las afirmaciones ya que sto se
incorpora de do ESn't.
'

12. Yo ceno en la noche


13. Ella almuerza al medioda
14. Ud. come (algunos) huevos en la maana

You
He
She

!tI
\

20

We
You
They

DON'T
DON'r

wish

TO SPEAK
ro SPEAK

a poor English
to
me

DOESN'T
DOESN'T
. DOESN'r

wish
wish
wisb

ro SEE
rOSEE
TOSEE

him
her

wish

TO GJVE
TO GIVE
TO GIVE

DON'T
DON'r
DON'T

wish

wish
wish

us

them
me
you

today
now

presents
your card
a present

l En este caso el pronombre impersonal it se refiere a un animal.

21

-SHE WISHES

o tros tres verbos bsicos:

roEAT
TO DRINK
TO BUY

comer
beber (tomar)
comprar

I ro

EAT

A SANDWICH.

(Ella desea comer un emparedado)


-WHAT KIND OF SANDWICH DOES SHE WISH

MEAT = carne
pescado
FISH
pollo
CHICKEN
huevos
EGGS
ensalada
SALAD
POTATOES
papas (patatas)
jitomates
TOMATOES
bistec
STEAK
jamn
HAM
agua
WATER
MILK := leche
caf
COFEE
t
TEA
I ?
WHAT KIND? := que. case.
nde
WHERE
pero
BUT
zapatos
SHOES
SOCKS := calcetines

Algunas palabras bsicas:

TO EAT

f?

( Qu clase de emparedado desea ella comer? )


-SHE WISHES

TO EAT

A CHEESE AND HAM SANDWICH.

(Ella desea comer un emparedado de quejo y jamn)

ro EAT

-DO ES ALICE WISH 1

I CHICKEN SALAD, TOO?

(Desea Alicia comer ensalada de pollo, tambin? )


-NO, SHE DOESN'T WISH

TO EAT

ANY MORE.

(No, ella no desea comer nada ms)

-DO THEY WISH 1 TO DRINK I SOME COFFEE?


(Desean ellos tomar [algo de] caf? )
THEY DON'T

-NO,

CONVERSATION
-WHAT DO YOU WISH

WISH

I TO EAT I ?

I ro

DRINK

WISH ....
1 T-O-D-R-I-N-K"'"COFFEE.

THEY

SOME TEA.

(No, ellos no desean tomar caf. Ellos desean tomar [algo de] t)
( Qu desea Ud. comer? )
-1 WISH

I ro

EAT

-DOES RICHARD WISH


A STEAK WITH FRIED POTATOES.

-HE
WISHES
SALAD.

ro

DRINK ] SOME TEA, TOO?

(Desea Ricardo tomar [algo de] t, tambin?)

(Yo deseo comer un bistec con papas fritas)


-WHAT DO ES HE WISH
(Qu desea l comer? )

I ro

I ro
EAT

EAT

-HE

PORKCHOPS

AND TOMATO

DOESN'T WISH

DRINK

I TO

DRINK

(l no desea tomar t. l desea tomar [algo de] caf)


-WHERE DOES HENRY WISH

I ro

EAT

17

ro

(Dnde desea Enrique ir? )

23
22

TEA. HE WISHES ~

SOME COFFEE.

(l desea comer chuletas de puerco y ensalada de jitomate)


-AXD WHAT DOES ALICE WISH
( Y qu desea Alicia comer? )

GO

I?

-HE WISHES

1 ro GO I

TO THE SHOE-STORE.

shoe store
where
but
socks
shirt
trousers
slippers
blouse
skirt
stockings

(l desea ir a la zapatera)
DOES HE WISH

I ro

BUY

SHOES?

(Desea l comprar zapatos? )


-VES,

HE WISHES

DOESN'r WISH

I ro

I ro

BUY

BUY

A PAIR OF SHOES, BUT HE

SOCKS.

,.

(shu str)
(jur)
(bot)

zapatera
dnde
pero
calcetines
camisa
pantaloneszapatillas
blusa
falda
medias

[socs]

(shert)
(trusers)

=:

[slipers]

(blus)
(squrt)
(stquings)

(S, l desea comprar un par de zapatos, pero no desea comprar


calcetines)
EJERCICIOS
VOCABULARIO
Fluently
Do 1 wish?
Does he wish?
he doesn t wish
to eat
meat
fish
chicken
eggs
salad
fried
potatoes
tomatoes
pork-chops
cheese
harn
steak
any more
they don 't wish
to drink
water
milk
coffee
tea
what kind
shoes

Escriba en ingls la palabra o palabras indicada abajo de cada lnea.

CON FONTICA

(fl-en-tli)
(du ai uish}
(dos ji uish]
(ji dsent uish)
(tu -it)
(m-it)
[fish]

(ehquen)
(egs)
(salad)
(fraid)
(potitous)
(tomitous)
(pare chops]
(eh-is)
(jam)

(stie)
(ni mor)
(dei dont uish)
(tu drine)
(uter)
(mile)
(efi)
(ti)

(juat eind)
(shus)
24

con fluidez o Soltura


deseo yo?
Desea l?
l no desea
comer
carne
pescado
pollo
huevos
ensalada
frito(os),(as)
papas (patatas)
jitomate (tomate)
chuletas de puerco
queso
jamn
bistec
nada, algo ms
ellos no desean
beber (tomar)
agua
leche
caf
t
qu clase
zapatos

DE ,CONSTRUCCIN

1.

?
Qu

desea Ud?

2.

Yo deseo

ver

~>

3.

lo (a l)

to see me today.
El desea

,
4.

ua desea

to speak

business with_
acerca de

5.
Ella desea

ella
sorne things.

dar

nos

6. the manager
desea

ver

los (a ellos)

7.
Deseamos,

sorne presents,

traer

le (a ella)

8.
~Desea Ud.
ew York?

traer

sorne things __
me

9. Mary
desea

de
a present.

dar

le(a Ud.)

25

tomorrow.

10.
ver

Uds. desean

e)

nos

Patrones

negativos: HE DOESN''1' WANT

no
quiere (comprar)
HE DOESN'T WANT
[buy] == l no
quiere que nosotros compremos

us ro

tomorrow'!

ll.
Desean

ver

Uds.

nos
the United

12.
Ellos desean

ir

States

soon.

Observese la posicin de TO en ambos


infinitivo (to work, to play).

1
1
WANT TO y WANT ME TO
a) Patrones afirmativos:

TO [buy} == l

[ WANT
TO (eat) == quiero (comer)
1 WANT IlIM TO (eat) == quiero que l

He
He

DON''1'
DON'T

want
want

her

DOESN'T
DOESN'T

want
want

them

patrones

ro
ro
ro
ro

y los verbos

WORK
WORK

at night
at night

PLAY
PLAY

in the street

en

in the street

(coma)
Obsrvese la posicin de '1'0 en ambos
infinitivo (to eat, to go).

He
He

want
want

him

wants
wants

you

TO
TO

ro

TO

patrones

y los verbos

EA'1'
EA'1'

sorne fruit.
sorne fruit

GO
GO

to school
to school

en

Ms verbos bsicos:

Palabras interrogativas

TO(go)?

ro (go)?

==
==

Observese la posicin de '1'0 en ambos


infinitivo (to buy, to study).

quiere
quiere
patrones

Ud. ir?
Ud. que yo vaya?
y los verbos

ro SWIM
ro TRAVEL
1'0 DO
ro STAY
ro SEE
ro COME
1'0 WRITE
ro READ

==

jugar
nadar
viajar
hacer
permanecer,
ver
venir
escribir
leer

en

WHOM

DO
DO

you
you

want
want

DOES
DOES

she

want
want

she

ro
me

BUY
TO BUY

a car?
a car?

us

TO
TO

English?
English?

STlJDY
STUDY

Otras palabras

qu?
dnde?
cundo?
a qu hora?
por qu?
cmo?
cunto (s)?
;,cunto
tiempo?
a quin'

bsicas:
ANYTHING

NOTHING
26

quedarse

bsicas:
WHAT
WHERE
WHEN
AT WHAT TIME
WHY
HOW
HOW MUCH (MANY)
HOWLONG

b) Patrones interrogativos:
DOYOUWAN'1'
DO YOU WAN'1' ME

1'0 PLAY

27

==

alguna
cosa,
nada
(cuando
se emplea despus de una forma negativa)
nada

ANYWHERE

NOWHERE
ANYBODY

NOBODY
SOON
EVERY DAY
EACH
HERE
THERE

WANl'S

YOU WANT

WANTI

1 ro

EAT

THEY

@I ro co I

BUT

1 WANT

SOME FRUIT.

BUT HE WANTS

1'0 THE LIBRARY.

I ro

PLAY

81 ro

BASE-BALL

PLAY]

SOCKER

NOW, BUT
1'HEM

WITH

ImSWIM_1

'!

DON'T

Iro

WANT

81 ro

SWIMI

SWIM

1 TODA Y,

BUT WE WANT

EVERY DAY

I ro

\.

;.

-HE

DOESN'T

WANTS

WANT

@ Iro

Iro

'IR AV EL

TRA VEL]

l'HIS

YEAR,

ALL

BUT HE

NEXT SUMMER.

(l no quiere viajar este ao, pero l quiere que yo viaje el prximo verano)
-HOW DO YOU WANT

1'0 THE MOVIES?

,,

28

WANT

WANl'

-WHY DOES YOUR BROTHER WANT


l'RAVEL
OVER THE WORLD?
(Por qu quiere tu hermano viajar por todo el mundo? )

(l no quiere ir a ninguna parte, pero l quiere que nosotros vayamos a la biblioteca)

(Quiere ir al cine Mara? )

BASE-BALL?

(No queremos nadar hoy, pero queremos que l nade todos los
das)

I?

11'0 CO I ANYWHERE,

I ro co I

SHE

(A qu hora quieren Uds. nadar? )

(.

-DOES MAR y WANT

BUl'

NEXl' SATURDAY.
(Ellos no quieren jugar beisbol ahora, pero ellos quieren que t
juegues futbol con ellos el prximo sbado ).

(Yo no quiero comer nada, pero quiero que ella coma algo de
fruta)

-HE DOESN'T WANT

PLAY

-ATWHATTlMEDOYOUWANT

ANYTHINC,

I ro co

DON'T

-THEY

-WE

-WHERE DOES RICHARD WANT


(Dnde quiere ir Ricardo? )

I THERE,

( Cundo quieren ellos jugar beisboI? )

ro EAT I?

r-r-O-E-A-T~I

CO

TO A PARTY WITH HER.

I ro

-WHEN DO THEY WANT

( Qu quiere Ud. comer? )


-1 DON"f

co

@Im

11'0

WANT

(No, ella no quiere ir ah, pero ella quiere que yo vaya a una fiesta
con ella).

CONVERSATION
-WHATDO

SHE DOESN'l'

-NO,

en alguna parte, en ninguna parte (cuando se


emplea despus de una
forma negativa)
en ninguna parte
alguien, ninguno, nadie
(cuando se emplea despus de una forma negativa)
nadie
pronto
todos. los das
cada
aqu
ah, all

I ro

SPEAK

( Cmo quiere Ud. hablar ingls? )

29

ENCLlSH?

-1 WANT

TO

81

SPEAK

I ENGLlSH FLUENTLY

TO SPEAK lIT

AND 1 WAN'f
WANTS

FLUEN1'LY TOO.

(Quiero hablar ingls con soltura y quiero que ellos lo hablen con
fluidez tambin).

-HOW MUCH DO THEY WANT

TO

BUY

-THEY DON''f WANT


TO

(Ellos no quieren comprar nada, pero quieren que Ud. compre una
docena de cada uno).

-HOW MANY THINGSDOES

SHE WANT

TO

DO

I ?

( Cuntas cosas quiere ella hacer? )

-SHE

DOESN'T

WANT

81

WANTS

TO

DO

MANY THINGS, BUT SHE

DOES

HE WANT

TO

STAY

DOESN'T

WANTS~

WANT

,sTAY

TO

HERE LONG, BUT HE

@ I TO S1'A I ONE MONTH.


y

DOES

JOHN WANT

(A quin quiere ver Juan? )

-JOHN

DOESN'T

TO

SEE

S 11'0

YOU WANT
LET'!'ER?

-DO

'1'0 ME

COME

TO MEXICO SOON.

YOVR

SECRETAR Y

1 -TO-W-R-IT-E
.......
I A
r-

..

( Quiere Ud. que su secretaria escriba una carta'? )

-VES, 1 WAN'!'
YORK.

G
11'0
V

WRITE

1 MR.

-WHATDO YOUWANT

-1 WANT

-DO

FOR

SI

TO

YOU WAN'!'
YOV?

I-

A LETTER TO NEW

DAVIES

11'0

DO

WRITE

A SALES REPORT.

fii\ TO
v::::J .

READJ

:.J

THE SALES REPORT

( Quiere Ud. que le lea a Ud. el informe de ventas? )

- VES, 1 WANT

81

TO

READ

IT

FOR

ME.

(S, quiero que me lo lea)

-WHATDOYOUWANT

@ITOREAD

I?

( Qu quiere Ud. que leamos? )

-1 WANT

WANT r-I-T-O-SE-E-'] ANYBODY, BUT HE

81

TO

READ

THE NEWSPAPER.

(Quiero que Uds. lean el peridico)


30

(Quiero que l escriba un informe de ventas)

(l no quiere quedarse aqu mucho tiempo, pero l quiere que nos


quedemos un mes).

-WHOM

COME

TO

(S, ellos quieren que ella venga a Mxico pronto).

HERE?

( Cunto tiempo quiere l permanecer aqu? )

-HE

I
I

JIMMY AND ALICE WANT MAR y


XICO?
..

-DO

( Qu quiere Ud. que haga el Sr. Davies? )

(Ella no quiere hacer muchas cosas, pero ella quiere que l haga su
trabajo).

-HOW LONG

I THE MANAGER.

(S, quiero que ella escriba una carla a Nueva York)

IHlSWORK.

TODO

SEE

(Juan no quiere ver a nadie, pero l quiere que ella vea al gerente)

-y ES, THEY WANT

I TO BUY I ANYTHING, BUT THEY


I BUY I ONE DOZEN OF EACH.

TO

( Quieren Jaime y Alicia que Mara venga a Mxico? )

(Cunto quieren ellos comprar? )

WANT

SI

31

-DOES MY FATHER WANT

TO READ

things
to do
his
work
how long
to stay

THE NEWSPAPER?

( Quiere mi padre leer el peridico? )

-HE

DOESN'T

@I

WANT

TO READ

TO READ lIT,

BUT HE WANTS

I A GOOD BOOK.

(l no quiere leerlo, pero l quiere que leamos un buen libro)

...

VOCABULARIO CON FONTICA


to want
anything
nothing
library
movies
there
party
to play

(tu uant)
(niZing)
(nZing)
(libreri)

(mvis)
(der)
(prti)

(tu plei)

next
when
Saturday
at what time
to swim
every day

(next)
(jun)

to travel
allover
world
brother
this
year
Summer
how
how much
to buy
one
dozen
of
each
how many

(tu trvel)
(01 ver)
(urld)

(sterdei)
(at juat taim)

(tu sum)
(vri dei)

(brder)
(dis)
[i-or]

querer
alguna cosa, nada
nada
biblioteca
cine
ah, all
fiesta
jugar (o tocar un instrumento musical)
prximo, siguiente
cundo
sbado
a qu hora
nadar
todos los das (cada
da)
viajar
por todo
mundo
hermano
== este

(Zings)
(tu du)
(js)
[urc]

jao long)
(tu sti)

long;
month
whom
John
to see
Jimmy
to come
secretary
to write
letter
sales
report
to read
for
newspaper
father
book

(long)
(monZ)
(jum)
(yon)
(tu si)
(ymi)
(tu com)
(screteri)
(tu rit)
(lter)
[sils}
(riprt)
(tu rid)
(for)
[nis-piper]
(fder)

==

para

peridico
padre, pap
libro

(buc)

cosas
hacer
su (de l)
trabajo
== cunto tiempo
permanecer,
que
darse
largo, mucho 'tiemp<l
mes
a quin
Juan
ver
Jaime, Jaimito
venir
secretaria
escribir
== carta
ventas
informe
leer

EJERCICIOS DE CONSTRUCCIN

L1e?e los espacios en blanco con DO, DOES, DON'T y DOESN'T


segun convenga.
-1..
~

1 wish to buy sorne clothes?

What kir-d of clothes

she wish to huy?

ao

(smer)
(jao)
(jao moeh)

verano
cmo (interrogativo)
cunto (a)
comprar
uno, una
docena
de
cada
cuntos (as)

(tu bi)

(un)
(dsen)
(ov)
(ieh)
(jao mni)

32

'-"3. What '

n.

What

c\~,

you wish to eat?


he wish to drink?

1'5. '~~,"'\
,/

~.

Richard wish to buy sorne shoes too?

i\.

Where ,'\ Q

~7. We (,,'-",'

they wish to go?


wish to buy clothes.
33

.4>',~~

......

wish to go to New York.

Zo.
v.

\.

.i~father...l}..""""--"'_'

They-'-''''_'.1...:;......;._~_
wish to drink tea.
Henry

.J

t .wish

,<'

,,<, ',,",'

You

;12. Alice

wish to eat chicken

A ...,s..'l\!s:'Yish

"

to eat a sandwich.

p.

-.l.

__
~
no quiere

/.

What do you want

I
f

'

6. He doesn t want.

Observe el verbo sin la partcula


presente.

~~
vayamos

c... <..:."

\"""'<~

Cuanto

_""~~,,:(:,,-.

/'

parte

/'

don't

He

doesn't:

1
he

.. late at home.

veas

a nadie

he want

.;

tiempo

_
que

DRINK
DRINK

.coffee
rnilk

every morning.
every day.

DRINK
DRINK

coffee
milk

every morning?
every day?

ilustrativos:

y ou READ the newspaper


You don't READ the newspaper
Do you READ the newspaper
She WRITES
She doesn't WRITE
Does she WRITE

do you want __ \_,,_


que yo

34

every morning.
every morning.
every morning?

nosotros

here?

A quin

en tiempo

every morning.
every day.

;., t.

"pc-,

does

hbito

coffee
milk

. o

Do
Does

permanezcamos

J..\N~o~.,,)

DRINK
DRINKS

He

Otros ejemplos

8!~t'\0 ,

to para expresar

venga

'lO\)

que t

every day,

nade

Por otro lado, note la S en dicho verbo en la accin correspondiente


a he, she, it en la forma afirmativa solamente.

ninguna

'_-::-_
que ella:

_
ellos

a letter now,

..J/

7. 1 don t want

que ella

to go

'J u'
que Uds.

want _ ...\.._
que

PATRONES DE CONSTRUCCIN
PARA EXPRESAR EL TIEMPO PRESENTE

to the market.

Where do they want_--=.'-N_;Q,!:!...


que nosotros

5. ~~'ey ~ant ~

abajo de cada lnea.

haga

\, " 1< , \
escriba

'" 'que l

you

"-- __ ""~'\....:.._
__
_____

No queremos

~SJ?

__-'-_
vaya

que Ud.
Mary want~

indicadas

\
que yo

2:/1 want_--,Y:;'_;'h;l...;.<
_

(.

o palabras

do

p(mpren
\N~ <

to drink coffee.

palabra

book.

salad.

EJERCICIOS DE CONSTRUCCIN
en ingls-la

'-that
leamos

-\----_"_iapples
Cuntas

12. ""

Escriba

us

many letters
many letters
many letters

""_"_DOW?
vea

35

every day.
every day.
every day?

Thirteen
nitive.

TO

SPEAK
TOBUY
TOWORK
TOWALK
TO FINO
TOEAT
TO ORINK
TO REAO
TOSEE
TO GET
TOWRITE
TO SLEEP
TO LEAVE

2
3

4
5
6
7

8
9
10

11
12
13

TO

Emplase

basic actions

(tuspc)
(tu bai)
(tu urc)
(tu uc)
(tu find)
(tu -it) .
(tu drinc)

You
He
She

lt
We
You
They

caminAR
encontrAR

comER

= bebER
leER
vER

(tu
(tu
(tus
(tu

conseguIR
escribIR

guet)
rit)

l-ip)
l-iv)

en la accin inmediata

= querer

SPEAKS
SPEAKS
SPEAKS
SPEAK
SPEAK
SPEAK

English
Spanish
to me
to you
. to jne
English
Spanish
to me

a los siguientes

=
=

=
=

todos los das


ingls
espaol
en la oficina
en la fbrica
en la escuela
en la casa
a m
a usted

EJERCICIOS

saliR, dejAR
verbos:

(1 want ro speak E~lish)

= gustar (He lkes ro eat fruit)


= tener que
= tener pensado
necesitar
esperar
= desear

Tomando
como gua los patrones
que aparecen arriba en la grfica
gativo.

Construya

las siguientes

en he, she, it,

in the office
in.school

every day.
every day.

in the factory
in school
at home

every day.
every day.
every day.

in school
at home
in English

every day.
every day.
every day.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10 ..

u.
12.
13.

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

anteriores,
cambie
al (l) interrogativo

oraciones

L Ricardo

=
=

36

[vri dei)
(nglish)
(spnish)
(in di fis)
(in di fctori)
(in scl)
(at jum)
(tu mi)
(tu i)

=
= dormIR

el empleo de la S en $peakS solamente

SPEAK
SPEAK

VOCABULARIO CON,FONTICA
Every day
English
Spanish
in the office
in the factory
in school
at home
to me
to you

hablAR
comprAR
trabajAR

(tu r-id)
(tu s-i)

To want
to (tu uanf tu)
To like
to (tu lic tu)
T a have
to (tu jav tu)
To intend to (tu intnd tu)
To need
to (tu ni-id t)
To expect to (tu expct tu)
To wish
to (tu wish tu)

Observe

Trece acciones bsicas


en infinitivo.

in infi-

las oraciones
y (2) al neo

en ingls.

toma caf en 1:1maana.


l no toma leche en la maana.
Toma leche Ricardo en la maana.
Tomo yo caf en la maana?
Toma Ud. leche en la maana?
Qu como yo en la maana?
Qu come l en la maana?
Qu come ud. en la maana?
Cundo come Ricardo huevos?
Cundo como yo huevos?
fono
como huevos en la maana.
.Dnde hablo yo ingls todos los das?
Dnde habla l ingls todos los das?
Dnde habla Ud. ingls todos los das?
Habla Ricardo ingls en la oficina todos los das?
.Habla Ud. ingls todos los das?
El no habla ingls todos los d as?
Yo no hablo ingls en la fbrica.
Ud. no habla ingls todos los das.
Nosotros hablamos ingls todos los das.

37

GRFICA COMPARANDO EL AFIRMAT!VO


E INTERROGATIVO EN DOCE ACCIONES BASICAS

Advierta ahora que con el sujeto he, John, she o Mary, todas
las acciones en presente terminan en S cuando se afirma.
Observe ahajo, el uso de DOES para preguntar, as como
tambin la omisin de la S en los verbos, ya que sta pasa a
dicho
auxiliar.

Observe el empleo de DO en las preguntas de la grfica de


abajo.
you
You
You
You
You
You
You
You
You
You
You
You

DO
DO
DO
DO

no

eat
drinl

buy
. get
write
work
walk
sleep
read
see
leave
find

you
you
you
you
you

two eggs
some coffee
some clothes
some goods
some letters
in the office
to the office
in a bed
the newspaper
the people
home early
English

eat
drink
buy
get
write

two eggs
some coffee
some clothes
some goods
some letters

every day.
every morning.
every month.
every week.
every month.
every day.
every morning.
every nigh t.
every night.
every day.
every morning.
interesting.

every
every
every
every
every

day?
morning?
month?
week?
month?

Lanse estos dos cuadros de construccin oralmente


38

He
John
She
Mary
He
John
She
Mary
DOES
DOES
DOES
DOES
DOES
DOES
DOES
DOES

eatS
drinkS
buyS
getS
writeS
workS
walkS
sleepS

he
John
she
Mary
he
John
she
Mary

eat
drink
buy
get
write
work
walk
sleep

two eggs
some coffee
some clothes
sorne goods
some letters
in the office
to the office
in a bed

two eggs
some coffee
some clothes
some goods
some letters
in the offi ce
lo the office
in a bed

every day,
every moming.
every month.
every week.
every month.
every day,
every morning.
every night.

every day?
every moming?
every month?
every week?
every month?
every day?
every morning?
every night?

Lanse estos dos cuadros de construccin oralmente


39

Llene los espacios en blanc.o con DO, DOES, DON'T o DOESN'T de


acuerdo con las oraciones siguientes:

..
Observe en estas oraciones negativas el empleo de DON'T
despus de 1, you, we, they y DOESN'T despus de he, she,
it. Advierta tambin any en lugar de sorne para negar y cuya
traduccin es: nada o ninguno(S).
I
You
We
They
You

He
Robert
She
Mary
John

DON'T
DON'T
DON'T
DON'T
DON'T
DOESN'T
DOESN'T
DOESN'T
DOESN'T
DOESN'T

eat
drink
buy
get
write

two
any
any
any
any

eat
drink
buy
get
write

eggs
coffee
clothes
goods
letters

two eggs
any coffee
any clothes
any goods
any letters

in
in
in
in

every day.
the morning.
New York.
Chicago.
the office.

every day.
in the morning.
in New York.
in Chicago
in the office

Lanse estos dos cuadros de construccin oralmente

l.

1 eat two eggs every morning?

2. ---_

you eat two eggs every day?

3. -----

Richard drink sorne cofCee every morning?

4.

you sleep 8 hours every day?

5.

he read the newspaper every morning?

6.

1 read the new$paper every morning?

7.

you read the newspaper every morning?

8. -

you write Jetters every month?

9. ---_

1 write letters every month?

10.
Ll.. 1

see the peopIe every day.

13. You ---_

eat two eggs every day.

14. Richard --

16. He ---17. 1

Emplanse los auxiliares DO, DON'T, DOES y DOESN'T en


todos los verbos en tiempo presente con excepcin del verbo SER o ESTAR (To Be) cuyo cuadro de construccin se
encuentra en la pgina 43.
40

see the people every day.

12. She ----_

15. You --

NOTA:

Mary write Ietters every week?

__
__

drink coffee every morning.


sleep 8 hours every day.

read the newspaper every morning.


read the newspaper every day.

18. You

buy clothes every month.

19. Mary

.find English interesting.

20. 1

get very much money every month.

41

COLOR S
white
black
brown
green
blue
gray
yellow
pink
red
violet

(juit)
(blac)
(brun)
(griin)
(blu)
(grei)
(ilou)
(pinc)
(red)
(violet)

blanco
negro
caf
verde
azul
gris
= amarillo
rosado
rojo
morado

EMPLEO DE AM, IS, ARE PARA LA CONSTRUCCIN


DEL PRESENTE DEL VERBO TO BE (ser o estar)

,.

He
They

AM
IS

. 'Sunday
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday

(sondi)
(mondi)
(tisdei)
(unsdei)
(rrsde)

. (fridei)
(sturdei)

Spring
Summer
FalI
Autumn
Winter

(smer)

(foI)
(tom)
(unter)

primavera
verano
otoo
otoo
invierno

VERBOS EN INFINITIVO
to do
tu know
to come
to play
to stay

(tu
(tu
(tu
(tu
(tu

du)
nou)

com)
ple)
stei)

hacer
saber, conocer
venir
= jugar tocar un instrumento
p:rm'anecer, quedarse

ARE

IS

ARE

he
they

a student?
a teacher?
students?

Observe la posicin de AM, IS, ARE en la grfica de la izquierda, o sea en las afirmaciones, y comprese con la de la
derecha, es decir en las preguntas. Ntese en dicha comparacin que 1 y 2 (afirmaciones) se invierte a 2 y 1 (preguntas).
IS se emplea con he, she, it y ARE con you (singular), we,
you (plural), they .

, .....
...... (

Ntese ahora la palabra NOT inmediatamente


is, are en las negaciones.
am

He
They

is
are

NOT
NOT
NOT

despus de am,

a student.
a teacher.
students.

COMENTARIOS
Pueden asimismo emplearse las siguientes formas contradas:
I'm NOT, you're NOT, he's-N'I', she's NOT, it's NOT, we're
NOT, you're NOT (plural) y they're NOT.
En la forma afirmativa se emplean tambin dichas contracciones pero, claro est, prescindiendo de la partcula negativa
NOT: I'm, you're, he's, etc.

NOTA: Tngase en mente que el adjetivo en ingls siempre precede


al nombre o sustantivo.
.
En el idioma ingls los das de la semana, meses y estaciones
del ao se escriben con mayscula.
42

COMENTARIOS

SEASONS OF THE YEAR


(spring)

AM

a siudent
a teacher
students

DAYS OF THE WEEK


domingo
lunes
martes
mircoles
= jueves
= viernes
sbado

43

}
"

.l

Algunas palabras bsicas:

Observe el empleo de 15 en palabras como my friend, Mary,


etc. y ARE en my friends, Mary and Alice, etc. Asimismo
advierta que la palabra AM slo se emplea con el sujeto 1.
AM

busy.

My friend
Mary
Mr. Davies
Henry

IS
IS

from Chicago
friendly
busy
happy

My friends
Mary and Alice
Mr. Davies and 1
Henry and you

ARE
ARE
ARE
ARE

from Chicago
friendly
busy
happy

15
15

....

{
I

COMENTARIOS
Aqu se utiliza IS cuando el sujeto es uno y referente a una
tercera persona o cosa. En cambio, si hay ms de un sujeto
debe emplearse ARE.

NURSE
enfermera
TYF'JST
mecangrafa (o)
LAWYER
abogado
ENGlNEER = ingeniero
THESAME = lo mismo
DIFFERENT
diferente
FRIENDS
amigos
NElGHBORS
vecinos
RELATIVES
parientes
THIS
esto, ste
THAT
eso, aquello
ONLY
slo, solamente

Otrosejemplos ilustrativos:
Mary is my friend
She's a nurse
She's not a typist

(Mara es mi amiga)
(Ella es enfermera)
(Ella no es mecangrafa)

Is John a lawyer?
He's not a lawyer
He's an! engineer

(Es Juan abogado?)


(~I no es abogado)
(El es ingeniero)

Is this the sarne?


It's not the sarne
lt's different

(Es esto.lo mismo?)


(No es lo mismo)
(Es diferente)

Are we neighborsl
We're not neighbrs
WeJre friends-

(Somos vecinos? )
(No somos vecinos)
(Somos amigos)

Are you relatives?


you're not relatives
You're only friends

(j,?on ustedes parientes? )


(Ustedes no son parientes)
(Ustedes son solamente amigos)

PRCTICA
Con el objeto de forzar una alternativa entre el uso de AM,IS y
ARE; frmense afirmaciones y preguntas con las palabras que a
continuacin hemos enumerado. Ejemplo: 1.- 1, a studentt 1 AM a
.student, AM 1a student?
1..
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

1, a student
y ou, my friend
Mr. Davies, my teacher
The student, busy
Americans, friendly
They, busy
Henry, from Chicago

'" .

8. We, in the office


9. Mary, happy
10. Mary and Alice, friends
n. J, in the office
12. y ou, an English teacher
13. English, easy to learn
14. It, interesting to speak English
44

1 Agrgasele una n al artculo a cuando la palabra que' le sigue


empieza con vocal. Ejemplo:

An apple

una lWImana

45

'.
VOCABULARIO CON FONTICA
Mexican
American
European
man
men
woman
women
boy
girl
handsome
pretty
good-Iooking
beautiful
nice
young
old
tall
short
fat
thin
wide
narrow
expensive
cheap
nurse
typist
lawyer
engineer
the sarne
different
friends
friendly
neighbors
relatives
this
that
only
happy
from

.(mxican)
(amrican)
(iropean)
(man)
(men)
(uman)
(umen)
(boi)
(guerl)
(jndsom)
(prti)
(gud lquing)
(bitiful)
(nis)
(ing)
(old)
(tal)
(short)
(fat)
(Zin)
(uid)
(nrrou)
(expnsiv)
(chip)
(ners)
(tipist)
(lier)
(nyinir)
(di seim)
(dferent)
(frnds)
(frndli)
(nibors)
(rlativs)
(dis)
(dat)
(onli)
(jpi)
(from)

= mexicano (a)
= americano (a)
= europeo (a)
= hombre
= hombres
= mujer
= mujeres
= muchacho
= muchacha
= bien parecido, guapo
= bonita (o)
= agraciado (a), bien parecido
= bello (a), hermoso (a)
= agradable, simptico (a)
= joven (es)
= viejo (a) (s)
= alto (a) (05)( as)
= bajo (a)(os) (as)
= gordo (a) (os) (as)
= delgado (a) (os) (as)
= ancho (a) (os) (as)
=: angosto (a)( os)( as)
= caro (a) (os)( as)
= barato (a) (os) (as)
= enfermera
= mecangrafa (o )
= abogado
= ingeniero
= lo mismo
= diferente
= amigos
= amigable, amistoso
= vecinos
= parientes, familiares
= esto, este

EMPLEO DE AM, IS, ARE CON LAS FORMAS


VERBALES TERMINADAS EN ING (ando o iendo)
1
1
He
They

AM
IS

ARE

3
spealtING
eatING
readlNG

AM
IS

1
he
they

ARE

3
speaklNG?
eatlNG?
readlNG?

COMENTARIOS
(a)

'" eso (a), aquello (a)


= slo, solamente
= feliz
= de, desde (indicando procedencia

46

i..
JI>.

Observe el cambio de posicin de los factores 1 y 2 del afirmativo a 2 y 1 del interrogativo, o sea que en este ltimo,
AM, IS, ARE, se anteponen a 1, he, they.
Ntese asimismo en el factor 3 de ambas formas, que a los
verbos en su forma simple [speak, eat, read), se agrega la terminacin ING la cual equivale en castellano a las desinencias
ando o iendo: hablando, comiendo ..

1
~

1
'"

Observe en esta forma negativa la partcula not inmediatamente despus de las formas contradas I'm, he 's, they re,
etc.

1'M
He'S
They'RE

not
not
not

speaklNG.
eatlNG.
readlNG.

COMENTARIOS
Advierta tambin la terminacin ING (ando o iendo) aadida
a speak, eat, read, etc,

47

-AT WHAT TIME IS MARY COMING?


(A qu hora viene Mara? )

CONVERSATION
-WHAT ARE YOU DOING NOW?
( Qu est Ud. haciendo ahora? )

-SHE1S COMING AT FIVE O'CLOCK


(Ella viene a las cinco)

-1 AM DOING MY HOMEWORK
(Estoy haciendo mi tarea)

-IS IT RAINING NOW?


(Est lloviendo ahora? )

-WHAT IS THE BOY DOlNG NOW?


( Qu est haciendo el muchacho ahora'? )

-YES, IT IS
(S)

-HE IS PLAYING
(l est jugando)

-WHAT IS BETTY WRITING NOW?


( Qu est escribiendo Beatriz ahora? )

-WHERE IS HE PLA YING NOW?


( Dnde est l jugando ahora? )

-SHE IS WRITING A LETTER


(Ella esta escribiendo una carta)

-HE IS PLAYING IN THE y ARD


(l est jugando en el patio)

-WHAT IS HENRY READJNG NOW?


( Qu est leyendo Enrique ahora? )

-WHOM IS HE PLAYING WITH?


(Con quin est l jugando? )

-~E IS READING A BOOK


(El est leyendo un libro)

-HE IS PLAYING WITH A FRIEND


(l est jugando con un amigo)
-WHEN ARE HELEN AND RICHARD COMING?
( Cundo vienen Elena y Ricardo? )
-THEY ARE COMING TOMORROW
(Ellos vienen maana)
-ARE YOU EATING AN ORANGE NOW?
( Est Ud. comiendo una naranja ahora? )
-NO,IAMNOT
(No)
-ARE WE SPEAKING ENGLISH NOW?
(Estamos hablando ingls ahora?)
-y ES. WEARE.
(SI)
48

Prctica 1
Cambie las siguientes oraciones a la forma lNG.
1.
2.
3.
4..
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
lO.

n.
12.
13.
14.
15.

I speak English.
You work in the office.
George writes letters.
We Iisten.to the teacher,
It rains very hard,
The students read the lesson.
Richard plays in the yard.
y ou drink sorne coffee,
They sleep in the bedroorn.
Alice eats an apple,
1 run in tite yard.
The girl sweeps Lhefloor.
You huy shoes,
John comes here.
Peter and Rohert do their home-work,

49

$
I

Prctica 2
Ahora cambie cada una de estas 15 oraciones a la forma
tiva y despus a la negativa. Emplee la forma [NG_

interroga-

!
'lo

!,

MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY


Members
family
father
grand-father
mother
grand-mother
son

grand-son
daughter
grand-daughter
brother
sister
uncle
aunt
cousin
husband
wife
brother-in-law

"sister-in-law
father-in-law
mother-in-law
son-in-law
daughter-in-law

(mmbers)
(fmili)
(fder)
(grand-fder)
(mder)
(grand-mder)
(son)
(grand-son)
(dter)
(grand-dter)
(brder)
(sister)
( ncol)
(ont)
( csin)
(jsband)
(uif)
(brder-in-l)
(s ster -in-l )
(fder-in-I)
(mder-in-l)
(son-in-l)
( dter -in-I )

miembros,
familia
padre
abuelo
madre
abuela
hijo
nieto
hija
nieta
hermano
hermana
to
ta
primo (a)
esposo
esposa
cuado
cuada
suegro
suegra
yerno
nuera

socios

(frend)
(nemi)
(bo i-frend )
(guerl-frend)
(fians)
(fians)
( suit-jarts)

==
::::

(rnrrid)
(sngol)
( divorst)

50

amigo (a)
enemigo (a)
novio (no oficial), amigo
novia (no oficial), amiga
prometido
prometida
(pronnciese
novios
casado, casados
soltero, solteros; sencillo
divorciado (a)

( spareited)
(tuguder)
( eich)
(okiupshien)
(rilyien)
( czolic)
(prtestant)
(yish)
(uld)
(Iier)
(Io-fis}
( tecnshians)
(emplies)
(emplier)
( vsitors)
(brding-jaus)
(fin)
(sic)
(juat part)
(juats)
(amrican)
(concm)
(alun)
(born)

what's
American
concem
alone
bom

==
=
=
=
=
=
==
==
==
==
=
==

=
=
=

separados (as)
juntos (as)
edad
ocupacin
religin
catlico (a)
protestante
judo (a)
viejo (a)
abogado
bufete
tcnicos
empleados
el que d empleo
visitantes
casa de huspedes, pensin
fino, bien de salud
~nfermo(a)
CW parte
what is (qu es o est)
americano (a)
compaa, firma
solo (a)
nacido

EXPRESIONES IDIOMTICAS

How old are yo u?


1 am twenty

years.old

How old is he?


He is ten years old
Where were you bom?

SEGUNDO VOCABULARIO
Friend
enemy
boy-friend
girl-friend
fianc
fiance
sweet-hearts
married
single
divorced

separated
together
age
occupation
religion
catholic
protestant
jewish
old
lawyer
law-office
technicians
employees
employer
visitors
boarding-house
fine
sick
what part

----rwas

igual)

-.::

y ou were
She was
We were
They were

born
.
bom
.
born
.
horno ..
born ...

What year was he born in?


What day was 1 born on?

=
=

Cuntos
aos tiene Ud? (Literal:
cmo viejo es Ud?
yo tengo veinte aos (Lit: soy veinte
aos viejo)
~C~ntO&. aos tiene l?
el llene diez aos
~Dnde naci Ud.? (Lit:
dnde
fue Ud. nacido? )
Yo nac (Lit: yo fui nacido.' .. )
T naciste
Ella naci
Nosotros nacimos
Ellos (as) nacieron
En qu ao naci l?
En qu da nac yo?

51

CMO FORMAR EL CASO POSESIVO


DE LOS SUSTANTIVOS
EN INGLS

Adjetivos posesivos

El caso posesivo denota pertenencia Observe que en esta


grfica se expone el poseedor o dueo '8 (apstrofe y S)
seguido de la cosa poseda. Ejemplo:
.
My father'S book = El libro de mi padre
Mary'S
My brother'S
My sister'S
My mother'S
My uncle'S
My friend'S
My friends'
l\1.yparents'

brothers and sisters


father in law
children
brothers and sisters
ranch
teacher
family

frends

Pronombres posesivos

MY
(mai)=mi
YOUR (ir) = tu o su
HIS
HER
ITS

\,
I

MINE (min)=mo
YOURS (irs) = tuyo, suyo (de
usted)
= suyo (de l)
= suyo (de ella)
= suyo (del neutro)
OURS (urs) = de nosotros
YOURS (irs) =de vos. o de
ustedes.
THEIRS (ders) =de ellos(as)

(jis) = su (de l)
HIS
(jer) = su (de ella)
HERS
(its) = su (del neutro) ITS

OUR (ur) = nuestro


YOUR (ir) = vuestro, su de
ustedes.

THEIR (der) = su de ellos(as)

(jis)
(jers)
( its)

COMENTAR]OS

Artculos determinados

En los casos en que el sustantivo o sustantivos terminan en s,


ya no se aade esa misma consonante, sino solamente el apstrofe ('). Tal es el caso del posesivo sajn de:
My parents' friends = los amigos de mis padres

(singular) THE (di)=el,


(plural)

Artculos indeterminados
la, lo (sing) A

( ei)

=un, una

THE (di) = los, las (plu.) SOME (som)=unos,

unas
(algo, algn,
algunos( as)

PRACTICA
Practique el posesivo sajn traduciendo al ingls las siguientes oraciones:
1. El libro de mi padre.
11. La cuada de mi hermana.
2. La madre de mi esposa.
12. La suegra de mi primo.
3. Los amigos de mi hermano.
13. El yerno de mi padre.
4. El auto de Juan.
14. La nuera de mi madre.
5. El hermano de Elena.
15. El sobrino de Mara.
6. La hermana de Pedro.
16. La sobrina de Ricardo.
7. Un da de trabajo.
17. El nieto de mi hermano.
18. La nieta de mi hermana.
8. La ta de Carlos.
9. El to de Alicia .
19. Los nietos de mis padres.
10 . EI suego de mi hermano.
20. La casa de Pedro.

52

Adjetivos demo.,trativos

,
1

'1.

THIS
(dis)

= este, esta,
esto

Singu-

1'HESE = estos( as)


(diis)
Plu
rajes

lares

THAT = ese o aquel

THOSE = esos(as)

(dat)

(dus)

esa o aquella.

53

aquellos( as)

EJERCICIOS
WHOSE (jus)
Le-a primeramente cada una de las siguientes oraciones en voz alta y
a continuacin cmbielas oralmente a las formas negativas, e interrogativas.
This is my book.
These are my books.
These books are mine.

ste es mi libro.
stos son mis libros.
Estos libros son mos,

That is my pencil,
Those are my pencils.
Those pencils are mine.

se es mi lpiz.
tj:sos son mis lpices.
Esos lpices son mos.

This is your note-book,


These are your note-books,
These note-books are yours,

ste es tu cuaderno.
stos son tus cuadernos.
Estos cuadernos son tuyos.

That is his pen,


Those are his pens.

Aqulla es su pluma (de l)


Aqullas son sus plumas (de
l)
Aquellas plumas son de l.

Whose book is this?


Whose books are these?

de quin, de quines
de quin es este libro?
de quines son estos libros?

CONVERSATION

Those pens are bis.


This is her eraser! _
These are her erasers.

tste es su borrador (de ella)


Estos son sus borradores (de
ella)
Estos borradores son de ella.

These erasers are hers.


That is its inhabitant.
Those are its inhabitants
Those inahabitants are of Mexico

Aqul es su habitante,
Aqullos son sus habitantes.
Aquellos habitantes son de la
ciudad de Mxico.

City,

This is our city.


These are our cities.
These cities are ours.

sta es nuestra ciudad.


stas son nuestras ciudades.
Estas ciudades son nuestras.

That is their hotel.


Those are their hotels.
Those hotels are theirs,

tse es su hotel (de ellos)


Esos son sus hoteles (de ellos)
Esos hoteles son de ellos.

-WHOSE -PENCIL IS THIS? ?


(;,De quin es este lpiz? )

,Jes
t"
k }\::-K?Q-t\\

'}\.. \ (j_"I_

o; ~09~

54

t.C:;?

/zfJ--

r) (v?-.::-V'>ln<2

-THAT'S YOURS
(Es tuyo)

'\I..J0' r-' ! Y- 0v\ ~.,,_)D


i[) -c; =O y"_ \.1

-WHOSE BOOKS ARE THESE?


(De quines son estos libros? )

-THEY'RE HIS AND HERS


(Son de l y de ella)
-WHOSE PENCILS ARE THOSE?
(De quin son esos lpices? )
- THEY'RE HERS
(Son de ella)
- WHOSE HOUSE IS THIS?
(De quin es esta casa? )
-IT'SOURS
(Es nuestra)

1 Pronnciese irriser.
2 Pronnciese injbitant.

'v"\..,(q,

) :'OSE'=J

-WHOSE BOOK IS THAT?


(De quin es ese libro? )
t

)0

. J

-IT'SMINE
(Es mo)

JE(j.J[~

{J)

S5

pI

\.....(,.'1

\\";''-\

I
/:,1, / I(-ro
u.:.
(., '\.11 O \.'JI

-WHOSE I:lILL IS THAT?


(De quin es esa cuenta? )

EMPLEO DE WAS y WERE PARA LA CONSTRUCCIN


DEL PASADO DEL VERBO TO BE (ser o estar)

.,

-TRAT'S YOURS
(Es de ustedes)

-WHOSE PENS ARE 1'HESE?


(De quines son estas plumas? )

You
He
We
They

WAS
WERE
WAS
WERE
WERE

-THESE PENS ARE THEIRS


(Estas plumas son de ellos)

3
sick
rich
busy
here
poor

2
WAS
WERE
WAS
WERE
WERE

yesterday
before
yesterday
yesterday
before

1
1

you
he
Wf'

they

3
sick?
rich?
busy?
here?
poor?

-THEY'RE THEIRS
(Son de ellos)
-WHOSE CAR IS THAT?
(De quin es ese auto? )

COMENT ARIOS

.....

- THAT'S HENR Y'S


(se es de Enrique)

Observe la posicin de WAS y WERE en la grfica de la


izquierda, o sea en las afirmaciones y comprese con la de
la derecha, es decir en las preguntas. Ntese en dicha comparacin que 1 y 2 (afirmaciones) se invierte a 2 y 1 (preguntas). WAS se emplea con 1, he, she, it y WERE con you
(singular y phiral), we y they.

-IT'S HENRY'S
(Es de Enrique)
-WHOSE THINGS ARE THOSE?
(De quines son aquellas cosas? )
-THEY'RE SUSAN'S AND MARY'S
(Son de Susana y Mara)

Ntese ahora la palabra NOT inmediatamente despus de was


y were para construir la forma negativa.
1

-WHOSE CAR IS THIS?


( De quin es este auto? )

You
He
They

-IT'S MY FATHER'S
(Es de mi padre)

was
were
was
were

NOT
NOT
NOT
NOT

sick
rich
busy
here

yesterday;
before.
yesterday.
yesterday.

COMENTARIOS
Pueden asimismo emplearse las siguientes formas contradas:
1 wasN'T, you wereN'T (singular y plural), he wasN'T, she
wasN'T, it wasN'T, we wereN'T, they wereN'T.
En la forma afirmativa no existen contracciones.

56

57

.\,

Observe el empleo de WAS en palabras que denotan nmero


singular como 1, he, my friend, she, Mary y WERE en las que
indican pluralidad como liJe, 1and Richard, they, Mary and
Alce, you (singular y plural), Henry and you, cuando todo
esto expresa un tiempo pasado,

1
My friend
Mary
He
Mr. Davies

WAS
WAS
WAS
WAS
WAS

very tired
very sick
very happy
veryangry
very busy

yesterday.
yesterday.
yesterday.

We
My friends
Mary and Alice
They
Henry and you

WER,E
WERE
WERE
WERE
WERE

very tired
very happy

yesterday:

EMPLEO

DE WAS y WERE CON LAS FORMAS VERBALES


QUE TERMINAN EN ING (ando o iendo)

1
You
He
They

WAS
WERE
WAS
WERE

speaklNG
sleepING
eatING
readlN6

WAS
WERE
WAS
WERE

you
he
they

3
speakING?
sleepING?
eatING?
readlNG?

yesterday:
yesterday:

COMENTARIOS

very sick

veryangry
very busy

Observe el cambio de posicin de los factores 1 y 2 del afirmativo a 2 y 1 correspondientes al inte.rrogativo, o sea que en
este ltimo WAS y WERE se anteponen a los sujetos 1, you,

sesterday.
yesterday:
yesterday,

he, tkey.
I\tese asimismo

yesterday.

que el factor 3 no sufre modificacin en


ambas formas ya que los verbos en su forma simple (speak,
sfeep, eer, rood) se les agrega la terminacn ING, la cual
equivale en. castellano a las desinencias ando o iendo: hablando, durmiendo.

COMENT ARIOS
Aqu se emplea W AS en tiempo pasado cuando el sujeto es
uno o referente a una persona o cosa. En cambio, si hay ms
de un sujeto debe emplearse WERE.

Prctica
Con el objeto de forzar una alternativa entre el empleo de WAS o
WERE, frmense afirmaciones y preguntas que a continuacin hemas enumerado. Ejemplo: 1, a student before: I WAS a student
before. WAS 1a student before?
L
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

1, student befare.
8. We, in fue office yesterday.
you, my friend before.
9. Mary, tired yesterday,
Mr. Davies, my teacher before. 10. Mary and Alice, friends before,
The students, busy yesterday. "11. 1, in fue office yesterday,
American, friendly yesterday.
12. y ou, an English teaeher hefore.
They, busy before,
13. It, cold yesterday.
Henry, happy yesterday.
14. Susan, pretty befare.
58

J.

Observe en esta forma negativa la contraccin N'T (not) inmedia.tamente despus de los verbos en pasado WAS y
JfERE:
u;.asn'f

1
You.
Re
They

was not y weren't


WASN'T
WEREN'T
WASN'T
WEREN'T

were not.

speaklNG.
sleepING.
.eatlNG.
readlNG.

COMENTARIOS
(ando o iendo) aadida

Ad ...-:ierta tambin la terminacin/NG


a speak, sleep, eat; reall, etc.

59

CONVERSATION

l.

-YES,lT
(S)

WAS

~WHAT WERE YOU DOlNG YESTERDA Y?


(Qu estaba Ud. haciendo ayer? )

-WHERE WAS IT RAINING YESTERDA Y?


(Dnde estuvo lloviendo ayer? )

-1 WAS RESTING
(Yo estaba descansando)

-IT WAS RA1:'\ING OVER THE CITY


(Estuvo lloviendo en la ciudad)

-WHERE WERE YOU RESTING YESTERDAY?


(Dnde estaba Ud. descansando ayer? )

-SHE WAS EATING ORANGES AND APPLES


(Ella estaba comiendo naranjas y manzanas)

-1 WAS RESTING AT HOME


(Yo estaba descansando en casa)

-WHAT WERETHE BOYS DOING YESTERDAY?


( Qu estaban haciendo los muchachos ayer? )

-HOW LONG WERE YOU RESTING YESTERDAY?


(Cunto tiempo estuvo Ud. descansando ayer?)

-THEY WERE PLAYING BALL


(Ellos estaban jugando a la pelota)

-1 WAS RESTING ALL DAY


(Yo estuve descansando todo el da)

-WHERE WERE THEY PLAYING BALL YESTERDA Y?


(Dnde estaban ellos jugando a la pelota ayer? )

-WAS YOUR BROTHER WORKING YESTERDAY?


( Estuvo su hermano trabajando ayer? )
-YES,HE
(S)

-THEY WERE PLAYING BALL IN THE YARD


(Ellos estaban jugando a la pelota en el patio)

WAS

-WHAT WAS SHE WRITING YESTERDAY?


( Qu estaba ella escribiendo ayer? )

-WERE ROBERT ANO RICHARD PLAYING YESTERDA Y?


(Estaban Roberto y Ricardo jugando ayer? )

-SHE WAS WRITING A LETTER


(Ella estaba escribiendo una carta)

-NO, THEY WERE NOT


(No)

-WHAT WAS HE READING YESTERDAY?


(Qu estaba l leyendo ayer?)

-WHAT WEREWE DOING YESTERDAY?


( Qu estbamos haciendo ayer? )
-WE WERE PRACTICING ENGLlSH
(Estbamos practicando ingls)
-WAS 1 PRACTlCING ENGLlSH TOO?
(Estaba yo practicando ingls tambin?)
-YES, YOU WERE
(S)

-WAS IT RAlNING YESTERDA Y?


(.Estuvo lloviendo ayer? )

60

-WHAT WAS SUSAN EATING YESTERDAY?


( Qu estaba comiendo Susana ayer? )

-HE WAS READING A BOOK


(l estaba leyendo un libro)

ti

Prctica 1
Cambie estas oraciones en presente progresivo al pasado progresivo.
Agregue la palabra yesterday al final de cada oracin.
L Mary is sleeping.
2. What is Mary doing?
3. What are the boys doing?

61

4, 1 am reading a book,

5,
6.
7.
8.
9.
lO.
ll.
12.
13.
14.
15.

y ou are writing a letter,


It is raining very hard,
They are sleeping.
Richard is resting,
Where are we eating?
I am not running.
y ou are drinking milk,
Charles is playing in the yard.
la it raining now?
Henry is eating fruit.
You are not working.

CASOS DONDE EL VERBO TO BE EQUIVALE


A LO QUE EN ESPAOL CORRESPONDE
AL VERBO HABER
Emplase el verbo
BE en lugar del verbo
HAVE en esas
oraciones que expresan existencia de algo, por ejemplo:

ro

Hay agua
Hay mucha gente

Hab io una casa


Maana habr juego de pelota

bien, por el contrario, aquellas que denotan la no existencia de


alguna cosa:

Prctica

No hay agua
No haba gente
Maana no habr juego de pelota

Llene los espacios en blanco escogiend~ entr~. WAS o WERE en las


siguientes oraciones que aparecen a contmaacrn,
1. Richard

sick yesterday.

watching television last night?


3:4. The children you busy
not playing yesterday.
yesterday?
2

you

5. I
Q.

7.

8.
9.
10.
ll.
12.
13.
14.
15.
1f

17.
18
19:
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

2t).

not vacationing last wee~. ?


Mary in the theater last nght?
She
typing a letter yeste~ay.
The employees
not working.
we studying this lesson before?
We
practicing English before.
y ou
no! eating enough last week.
I
helping him in his office yesterday.
I
not giving her mone,y last week.
John
reading the n~ws yesterday.
We
in a party last rught.
They
not in class yesterday.
the men working last week?
George and Peter
here yesterday.
My parents
traveling before.
J ohn
.not tr~veling before.
My cousin
tired yesterday.
My brother
not busy yesterday.
1 resting last Sunday?
you resting last Sunda~?
she sleeping well last nght?

62

ro

La palabra THERE es el factor imprescindible en la construccin de


este tipo de oraciones, ya que constituye su radical invariable. '
Veamos algunos ejemplos ilustrativos:
(sing) There is a man in the office now (Hay un hombre en la
oficina ahora)
(plu.) There are two men in the office now (Hay dos hombres en la
oficina ahora)
(sing) There was a man in the office yesterday (Haba un hombre en
la oficina ayer)
(plu.) There were two men in the office yesterday (Haban dos
hombres en la oficina ayer)
Ahora veamos lo anterior esquemticamente:
r: Presente

THERE---

is a man in the office now (singular)


are two men in the office now (plural)
Pasado'
was a man in the offce yesterday (singular)
'- were two men in the office yesterday (plural)

63

La partcula NOT despus de is, are,


negativa, ejemplos:

100S

y were constituye su forma


There was tambin significa en espaol hubo o haba y there were
hubieron o haban,

There is not much sugar t No hay mucha azcar


(Thcre isnst much sugar)

CONVERSATION

There are not many people here } No hay mucha gente aqu
[There aren 1; many people here)
There Wll$ not a boy in school
(There wasn't a boy in school)
There were not many boys in school
(There weren 't many boys in school)

t No

haba un muchacho en la

r escuela

There was NO telephone


There were NO telephones

- THERE IS A LA WYER IN THAT OFFICE


(Hay un abogado en esa oficina)

No haban muchos muchachos en la escuela.

Sin embargo existen algunos casos en que la part cul~ NO.se e~plea
en lugar de NOT, ocurriendo esto cuando un sustantivo sigue mmediatamente despus de la negacin. Ejemplos:
There is NO sugar today
There are NO houses here

-WHAT IS THERE IN THAT LAWOFFlCE?


( Qu hay en ese bufete? )

= No hay azcar hoy

-1S THERE A TEACHER IN THAT SCHOOL?


(Hay un maestro en esa escuela? )

-YES, THEREARE MANY PEOPLE IN THAT THEATER


(S, hay mucha gente en ese teatro)

No haba telfono
No haban telfonos

-IS THERE ANY PERSON IN THIS OLD HOUSE?


(Hay alguna persona en esa casa vieja? )

La formacin del interrogativo toma la misma pauta seguida en el


verbo
BE, o sea, se invierte la posicin del auxiliar (is, are, was,
were) con respecto a THERE. Ejemplos:

ro

-NO, THERE IS NOT ANY PERSON HERE


(No, no hay ninguna persona aqu)

Is THERE a man in the office now? = Hay un hombre en la oficina ahora?

-ARE THERE MANY PEOPLE IN THIS BUILDING?


(Hay mucha gente en este edificio?)

AreTHERE many persons in the house? = Hay muchas


personas en la casa?

-NO, THEREARE NOT MANY PEOPLE IN THIS BUILDING


(No, no hay mucha gente en este edificio)

Was THERE anl accident here?

= Hubo un ac
cidente aqu?

-IS THERE MUCH MONEY [N YOUR POCKET?


(Hay mucho dinero en tu bolsillo? )

= Haban muo
chos nios en clase ayer?

Were THERE many children in class yesterday?

64

-ARE THERE MANY PEOPLE IN THAT THEATER?


(Hay mucha gente en ese teatro? )

No hay casas aqu

I Usase el artculo indeterminado an (en vez de 'a] en los sustantivos que empiezan con vocal: an apple (una manzana), an orange
(una naranja), an accident (un accidente), etc.

-YES, THERE ARE MANY TEACHERS IN THAT SCHOOL


(S, hay muchos maestros en esa escuela)

-NO, THERE IS NOT ANY MONEY IN MY POCKET


(No, no hay nada de dinero en mi bolsillo)
I

-WHAT WAS THERE IN THAT ROOM?


( Qu haba en ese cuarto? )
65

-THERE WAS A MAN IN THAT ROOM

EJERCICIOS

(Haba un hombre en ese cuarto)


-WAS THERE AN ACCIDENT LNTRIS STREET?
(Hubo un accidente en esta calle?)

Llene l~s espacios en. bl~nco con el auxiliar apropiado y de acuerdo


con el tiempo que se indica a] principio de cada oracin.

-NO, THERE WAS NOT ANY ACCIDENT IN THIS STREET

(Presente) -::-_---,
__
.
Mexico?

(No, no hubo ningn accidente en esta calle)


-WERE THERE MANY INDIAN TRIBES IN AMERICA?
(Hubo muchas tribus indgenas en Amrica? )

the re many

sch 00 l s an d universities

in

(Futuro)

There

he no classes in school tomorrow.

(Presente)

There

a large university in Mexico City.

(Pasado)

.
there an Aztec temple where the Metropolitan Cathedral is standing now?

- YES, THERE WERE ~lA~Y I:\DIA:\ TRIBES IN AMERICA


(S, s hubo muchas tribus indgenas en Amrica)
-WERE THERE MAXY PEOPLE HERE YESTERDA Y?
(Hubo mucha gente aqu ayer? )

(Futuro)

there he more public telephones for the


next year?

-NO, THERE WERE NO PEOPLE HERE YESTERDA y

(Pasado)

There

many old huildings here before,

(Presente)

There

a few good theaters in this town.

(Presente)

There

no money now in my purse.

(No, no haba alhajas en esta caja de seguridad)

(Pasado)

There

not too much water yesterday.

-WHAT WILL THERE BE HERE TOMORROW?

(Pasado)

There

no people in the street last nght,

(Presente)

There

not any houses in that place.

(Futuro)

There

he another market in the city.

(No, no hubo gente aqu ayer)


-WERE THERE MA. 'y ]EWELS IN TRIS SAFEBOX?
(Haba muchas alhajas en esta caja de seguridad? )

l
l'

-NO, THERE WERE NO ]EWELS IN THIS SAFE-BOX

( Qu habr aqu maana? )

-THERE WILL BE

A BIRTHDAY

PARTY

(habr una fiesta de cumpleaos)


-WILL THERE BE ENGLlSH CLASSES TOMORROW?
(Habr clases de ingls maana'? )

-NO, THERE WILL BE NO CLASSES TOMORROW


(No, no habr clases maana)

(Pasado)

there not another pencil in that drawer?

(Presente)

there not another books in the book-case?

(Presente)

there any important library here?

(Futuro)

there he any good hull-fight next Sunday?

(Pasado)

there not severa] men in that meeting?

(Pasado)

66

There

no men in the meeting; only women


67

AM, IS, ARE CON LA FORMA GOING TO


PARA LA CONSTRUCCIN DEL FUTURO IDIOMTICO
Observe en esta forma afirmativa las contracciones I'm,
you're, he's, etc. seguidas de
COINC TO;t los verbos en su
forma simple: speak, eat, etc.

Advierta ahora en estas preguntas que AM, IS, ARE se anteponen a los sujetos I, you, he, etc.
Note tambin que la forma
COINC TO no vara de posicin
con respecto a las afirmaciones.
AM

You're

GOI~G TO sleep '


GOlNG TO work2

He's
She's
1t's
We're
You're
They're

I'm

ARE

1
you

GOING TO sleep?
GOING TO work?

GOlNG TO eat
GOING TO read
GOING 2'0 rain

IS
IS
IS

he
she
it

GOING TO eat?
GOING TO read?
GOING TO rain?

GOING TO dance
GOING TO rest
study
GOING

ARE
ARE

ro

we
GOING TO dance?
you GOING TO rest?
ARE they GOING TO study?

CONVERSATION

i
~

-WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO DO TOMORROW?


( Qu vas a hacer maana? )
-1 AM GOING TO SWIM WITH SOME FRIENDS
(Voy a nadar con unos amigos)
-WHERE ARE YOU GOING TO GO?
(Dnde vas a ir? )

t
-'

-1 AM GOING TO GO TO THE CLUB


(Voy a ir al club)
-WHAT IS JOHN GOING TO DO NEXT SATUROAY?
( Qu va a hacer Juan el sbado prximo? )
-HE IS GOING TO BUY SHOES
(l va a comprar zapatos)

,
Ntese ahora la partcula NOT inmediatamente despus de
las contracciones l'm, he 's, we're, they're, etc. para formar las
negaciones. La forma going to y los verbos en su forma smple conservan su misma posicin.

I'm
He's
It's
We're
Theyre

NOT
NOT
NOT

going to
going to
going to

sleep.
eat.
rain.

NOT
NOT

going to
going to

dance.
study.

-WHEN ARE ROBERT ANO YOU GOING TO COME BACK


HERE?
(Cundo van a regresar aqu Roberto y t? )

-WE ARE GOING TO COME BACK NEXT SUMMER


(Vamos a regresar el verano prximo)

I
\

-AT WHAT TIME IS HELEN GOING TO LEA.vE FOR LONDON?


(A qu hora va Elena a salir para Londres? )

COMENTARIOS
Asimismo pueden emplearse las contracciones negativas isn't
y aren't antes de going too
I'm going to sleep = Voy a dormir (Estoy yendo a dormir:
literal)
2 You're going to work ::::Ud. va a trabajar (Ud. est yendo
a trabajar: literal)
1

68

-SHEIS GOING TO LEAVE TONIGHT


(Ella va a salir esta noche)
-WHAT ARE GEORGE ANO PETER GOING
DINNER?
(Qu van a comer Jorge y Pedro en la comida? )

ro

EAT FOR

-THEY ARE GOING TO EAT CHlCKEN SALAD


(Ellos van a comer ensalada de pollo)
-HOW LONG ARE YOU GOING TO STAy IN CHICAGO?
( Cunto tiempo va Ud. a permanecer en Chicago? )

69

\
-1 AM GOING TO STAy THREE MONTHS
(Voy a permanecer tres meses)
-WHAT IS MR. MURRAY GOING TO SPEAK ABOUT IN THE
MEETING?
(De qu va a hablar el Sr. Murray en la junta? )

Prctica 1
Cambie las siguientes oraciones a la forma GOING TO. Aada la
palabra now al final de cada oracin.
L
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

-HE IS GOrNG TO SPEAK ABOUT THE NEW ENGLISH


COURSE
(l va a hablar acerca del nuevo curso de ingls)
-WHE7\ ARE THE ENGLlSH CLASSES GOING TO START?
(Cundo van a comenzar las clases de ingls? )
-THEY ARE GOINGTO Sl'ART I'lTXTWEEK
(Van a comenzar la semana prxima)

-IS IT GOING TO RAIN SOO '?


( Va a llover pronto? )
-NO, I THlNK IT IS NOT GOING TO RAIN
(no, creo que no a llover)

J ohn buys shoes.


We eat oranges.
1 speak English.
The students practice the lesson.
y ou read the newspaper.
Mary does her home-work,
The secretary writes many letters.
It rains in Mexico City.
you and 1 play base-hall.
They sleep in the bedroom.
Alice sweeps the floor.
1 drink coffee.
The boy runs in the yard.
Mary and Alice study very mucho
My father works in Chicago.
Prctica 2

ro WORK TOMORROW?
(Va Ud. a trabajar maana? )

-ARE YOU GOING

Ahora cambie cada una de estas 15 oraciones a la forma interroga.


tiva y despus a la negativa. Emplee la forma GOING TO.

-NO, IAM GOrNG TO REST


(No, voy a descansar)

i1

l
v

f
l

,.
70

\_
\

71

MODO IMPERATIVO

Prctica
Formule preguntas que contesten a las cuatro afirmaciones abajo
enumeradas y de acuerdo con las palabras interrogativas aqu em-

Una de las fa.ses ms importantes en el aspecto lingstico es el


Modo Imp~rativ~, dado su enorme empleo en el lenguaje cotidiano.
La base ~r:.mordl~ de su formacin es simplemente el verbo en su
fOJ?UaongH~al ? .~pl~. Dicho ?e otra manera, se dira que el Imperativo es un mfinztzvo sin la partcula too Ejemplos:

plearlas.

L Charles was reading a book at the library yesterday ,


What

-------------

Infinitivo

Who

__

Where.

__

When

, ?

2. The students were writing an assgnment at five o' dock yesterday.


At,vhattiLne'

Wbrt

___

~bo

~nen

---------

To speak
to eat
to come
to wait
to read
to write
to walk
to look

Imperativo

(hablar)
(comer)
(venir)
(esperar)
(leer)
(escribir)
(caminar)
(mirar)

~h~

___

~no

__

~nrt

?
?

-1. The boys are going to play base-hall in the yard now.
~o

What

Where
When

~
~~

------------------------_
72

__

(hable, habla)
(coma, come)
(venga, ven)
(espere, espera)
(lea, lee)
( escriba, escribe)
( camine, camina)
(mire, mira)

El negativo se forma mediante el empleo de DO'NT (do not) antepuesto al verbo:

3. Henry is going te buy moes in the shoe-store tomorrow.

~nen

SPEAK
EAT
COME
WAIT
READ
WRITE
WALK
LOOK

speak

No hable

eat

No coma

come

No venga

wait

No espere

read

No lea

write

No escriba

walk

No camine

look

No mire

DON'T

?
73

USO DE LET'S

(let us) EN EL IMPERATIVO

El Modo Imperativo que se emplea en la primera persona del plural


se expresa con el auxiliar LET'S (Jet us), cuando uno mismo se
incluye junto con otras personas para desarrollar una accin determinada. Dicho auxiliar va seguido de un verbo en su forma original o
simple, es decir, speok, eat, come, etc.
Veamos en este cuadro sinptico la explicacin esquemticamente
sintetizada de lo anterior.

speak

Hablemos

eat

Comamos

come

Vengamos

wait

Esperemos

read

Leamos

write

Escribamos

walk

Caminemos

look

Miremos

LET'S

Prctica
Practique el Modo Imperativo construyendo
oraciones.
1. Venga ac.
2. Practiquemos ms ingls.
3. Ve a la escuela ahora.
4. Cierre la puerta.
5. Abra la puerta.
6. Sentmonos aqu.
7. Esprame un momento.
8. Esperemos nuestro autobs aqu
9. Sintese, por favor.
.
10. No fume, por favor.
11. No comas demasiado.
12. No comamos en ese restaurant.
13. No manejes demasiado rpido.
14. No juguemos en la calle.
15. No hables en la clase.
16. No hablemos en la clase.
17. No vayas a ese lugar.
18. No vayamos al cine esta noche.
19. No me esperes, por favor.
20. No corramos en la casa.

Observemos ahora la palabra NOT despus de let'e para formar el


negativo

LE T' S N01'

speak

No hablemos

eat

No comamos

come

No vengamos

wait

No esperemos

read

No leamos

write

No escribamos

walk

No caminemos

look

No miremos

74

75

en ingls las siguientes

Observe ahora en esta forma negativa la partcula NOT despus de con, as como la carencia de to en los verbos en
infinitivo drive, read, swim, etc.

b
EMPLEO DEL VERBO AUX ILIAR CAN
PARA EXPRESAR HABILIDAD EN TIEMPO PRESENTE
Observe aqu que CAN denota po~er o ~obilidad .. ~tese
tambin que inmediatamente despues de dicho a~xlhar,.los
verbos estn en su forma simple (drive
manejar, sWlm
= nadar) etc., pero sin la partcula "to": 1 con speak
yo
puedo hablar.
. .
.
En las preguntas solamente se invierte el sujeto (1) con el
auxiliar (con). Vase.la grfica de la derecha y comprese con
la de la izquierda.

You

CAN drive
CAN read

CAN
CAN you

now
now

drioe

reod

now?
now?

He
She

CAN swim
CAN sing

now
now

CAN
CAN

he
she

swim
sing

now?
now?

They

CAN

write

now

CAN

they

write

now?

COME 'TAR.lOS
El auxiliar CAN se emplea con todos los sujetos o pro~ombres personales. Adems es muy importan~e que se ad.Vle.rta
que despus de este auxiliar se omite la partfcula to del infinitivo, as como tambin que no lleva S en las tres terc~ras
personas del singular: he, she, it, por ser un verbo defectivo.

con
can

NOT
NOT

drive
reod

now.
now.

He
She

can
can

NOT
NOT

swim
sing

now.
now.

They

can

NOT

write

now.

COMENTARIOS
Se puede emplear asimismo CAN'T que es la contraccin de
can noto Ejemplos: we CAN'T speak English, John CAN'T eat
fish, etc.
Observe la posicin de CAN (poder) en las preguntas y note las
respuestas breves. Compare adems el empleo de can con el de do y
does.
DO

you

speak English every doy?

Yes, 1

DO

CAN
CAN

you
you

speak
see

Yes, 1
No, I

CAN
CANNOT

CAN

John

come

Yes, he

CAN

CAN
CAN

Mary
1

go
see

some English now.


me in the
morning?
to the meeting
tonight?
to Ihe bank now?
you in your office

CAN
CAN
CAN

we
you
they

leaoe
arrice
arrice

CAN
CAN
CAN
CAN
CAN

they
work
you
work
1
eat
the boybuy
the girl leaue

No, she CANNOT


Yes, you CAN

later?

DOES John

76

You

earIy todoy?
here soon?
in the office
on time?
efficiently?
efficiently?
pork-meat?
cigarettes?
the house alone?

smoke pipe?

No, you CANNOT


Yes, we CAN
Yes, they CAN
Yes,
Yes,
No,
No,
No,

they
we
you
he
she

No, he
77

CAN
CAN
CAN"!'
CAN'T

cAN"T
DOESN'T

COMPARANDO

WANT CON CAN

ro

Observe la partcula
despus
WANT, as como la S de wants
he, she, it.

Patrones:

CAN you teIl me where


CAN

yOIi

tell me how

CAN you teH me at what time ... ?

CAN you teU me

Puede
Ud:' decirme
dn
de ... ?
Puede
Ud.
decirme
como ... ?
Puede
Ud. decirme a qu
hora ... ?

You

WANT
WANT

He
She

WANTS togo
to Florida
WANTS to come to Mexico

It

WANTS to eat

We
WANT
You WANT
They WANT

where the post-office IS?


how
to the station?
at what time heARR1VES?

ro co

to speak English
to travel a lo!

ro

Note la carencia de
despus de CAN y la supresin
de la S correspondiente
a
he, she, it.

1
You

CAN speak English


CAN travel eoery year

He
She

CANgo
home now
CAN come here every
day
Jt
CAN eat
meat every
day
We
CAN drink some rnlk
You CAN get
ajob now
They CAN buy
cothes

now

to drink some coffee


toget
ajob
to buy
some clothes

CONVERSATION

=.

Observe las palabras interrogativas


what, how, where,
y
CAN antes del sujeto (1) en las preguntas. Note tambin
que CAN va despus del sujeto (you) en las contestaciones.

de
en

-WHAT CAN 1 DO FOR YOU?


( En qu puedo servirlo? )

-y OU CAN HELP ME FIND A STREET


Whal
How
How
Where
When
What time
How

CAN I do
CAN [go
CAN[get
CAN Lsee
CAN Lsee
CAN I come
CAN I Ieeue

How much CAN I buy


How long CAN I stoy

leam that?
down town?
to

there 800n1
you tomorrow?

you again?
here lomorrow?
here?
over there?

in Chicago?

Y ou CAN
You CAN
You CAN
'y ou CAN
Y ou CAN
You CAN
y ou CAN

it
take a bus
toke a taxi
see me here
see me tomorrow
come al five
leove through
there
y ou CAN buy a dozen
y ou CAN stoy a month
practice

(Ud. puede ayuarme

a encontrar

una calle)

-HOW CAN 1 HELP YOU FIND A STREET?


( Cmo puedo ayudarlo a encontrar una calle? )
- YOU CAN HELP ME BY SHOWINC ME A CITY MAP
(UD. puede ayudarme mostrndome
un mapa de la ciudad)
-HOW CAN 1 CO TO THAT PLACE?
( Cmo puedo ir a ese lugar? )
-YOU CAN CO BY TAKING A BUS
(Ud. puede ir tomando un autobs)
-WHERE
(Dnde

78

CAN 1 CATCH THAT BUS?


puedo

tomar ese autobs?

79

r -----I
-YOU CAN CATCH IT AT THE NEXT CORNER
(Ud. puede tomarlo en la esquina prxima)

-HOW CAN 1 GET TO THAT PLACE?


(Cmo puedo llegar a ese lugar? )

--CAN 1TAKE A TAXI, TOO'?


(Puedo tomar un taxi, tambin'? )

-YOU CAN GET TO THAT PLACE BY WALKING STRAIGHT


AHEAD
(Ud. puede llegar a ese lugar caminando recto hacia adelante)

-y ES, YOU CAN


(S, s puede)

-HOW CAN I GET TO THE STATION?


( Cmo puedo llegar a la estacin? )

--CAN YOU TELL ME WHAT TIME IT IS?


(Puede Ud. decirme que-hora es'? )

-YOU CAN GET TO THE STATlON BY.TAKING A TAXI


(Ud. puede llegar a la estacin tomando un taxi)

-IT IS A QUARTER AFTER TWELVE


(Son las doce y cuarto)

-WHERE CAN I GET ON A BUS GOING DOWN-TOWN'?


(Dnde puedo subirme a un autobs que vaya al centro? )

-CAN YOU TELL ME WHERE THE POST OFFICE IS?


( Puede decirme dnde est el correo? )

-YOU CAN GET ON THAT BUS AT THE NEXT CORNER


(Ud. puede abordar ese autobs en la esquina prxima)

_ VES, I CAN. IT'S AROUND THE CORNER


(S. Est dando vuelta a la esquina)

-WHERE CAN I GET OFF THE BUS TO GO DOWN-TOWN?


(Dnde puedo bajarme del autobs para ir al centro? )

-CAN YOU TELL ME HOW TO GET DOWN-TOWN?


(Puede decirme cmo llegar al centro? )

-YOU CAN GET OFF HERE ON THlS CORNER


(Ud. puede bajarse en esta esquina)

-YOU CAN GET DOWN TOWN BY CATCHING A BUS


(Ud. puede llegar al centro tomando un autobs)

-CAN YOU SHOW ME ANOTHER COLOR?


(Puede Ud. mostrarme otro color? )

-WHERE CAN I FIND A DRUG-STORE?


(Dnde puedo encontrar una farmacia'? )

-OF COURSE, 1 CAN


(Por supuesto que s)

-YO U CANFIND IT THREE BLOCKS AWAY


(Ud. puede encontrar a tres cuadras de distancia)
Prctica
-WHERE CAN 1 FIND A SHOE-STORE?
(Dnde puedo encontrar una zapatera? )
_ YOU CAN FIND IT ACROSS THE STREET
(Ud, puede encontrarla cruzando la calle)
-WHERE CAN I FIND A TELEPHONE-BOOTH?
(Dnde puedo encontrar una cabina telefnica? )
- YOU CAN FIND IT ON THE CORNER.
(Ud. puede encontrarla en la esquina)

80

Formule preguntas que contesten a las cinco afirmaciones enurneradas abajo y de acuerdo con las palabras interrogativas aqu empleadas,
L Henry is writing a letter to his parents now.
What

__

Who

__

81

?
?

Towhom

When

t..

2. The boys are playing base-ball in the yard now.

Where

)-

When

"

What

Who

}.

What

Who

Where

When

3. Robert works in the office every day.

4. The men eat dinner in the factory every day.

Observe que COULD, al igual que can, va seguido de verbos


en su forma simple pero sin la partcula to, ya que ambos son
verbos defectivos.
COULD es la forma en pasado de can y es equivalente en
castellano a pudo o poda. En las preguntas el sujeto (1)
invierte su posicin respecto a la del auxiliar (could). Comprese la grfica de la izquierda con la de la derecha.
1
He
We
They

COULD
COULD
COULD
COULD

before
before
before
before

swim
drive
sing
dance

COULD
COULD
COULD
COULD

1
he
we
they

swim
drive
sing
dance

before
before
before
before

COMENTARIOS
El auxiliar COULD se emplea con todos los sujetos o pronombres personales cuando se quiere expresar la forma en
pasado de can. Adems, despus de dicho auxiliar nunca se
emplea la partcula to en el verbo en infinitivo que a continuacin le suceda.

Who

Where

What

When

Observe ahora en esta forma negativa la partcula NOT despus de COULD, as como la carencia de to en los verbos en
infinitivo swim (nadar), drive (manejar), sing (cantar), dance
(bailar).
1
He
We
They

5. Richard can swim very quickly in the swimming-pool.


How

What

Who

Where

!
\

82

EMPLEO DEL VERBO AUXILIAR COULD


PARA EXPRESAR HABILIDAD EN TIEMPO PASADO

could

could
could

could

NOT
NOT
NOT
NOT

swim
drive
sing
dance

before.
before.
before.
before.

COMENTARIOS
asimismo COULDN'T que es la forma contrada de
could noto Ejemplos: 1 COULDN'T speak English before,
Mary COULDN'T dance very well hefore, we COULDN'T
travel before, etc.
Emplase

83

-COULD YOU WORK WHEN YOU WERE SICK?


( Pudiste trabajar cuando estabas enfermo? )

CONVERSATION
-WHAT COULD YOU DO YES1'ERDA Y?
( Qu pudo Ud. hacer a-yer? )

-1 COULDN'T WORK WHEN 1 WAS SICK


(No pude trabajar cuando.estaba enfermo)

-1 COULD FINlSH THE REPOR1'


(Pude terminar el informe)

-COULJ) SHE COME HERE YESTERDA Y?


(Pudo ella venir aqu ayer? )

-COULD YOU FINISH CHECKING THE BILLS YESTERDAY?


( Pudo Ud. terminar de rectificar las cuentas ayer? )

- YES, SHE COULD


(S, s pudo)

-1 COULDN'T FINISH CHECKING THEM


(No pude terminar de rectificarlas)

-COULD YOUR PARENTS GO 1'0 P ARIS LAST SUMMER?


(Pudieron tus padres ir a Pars el verano pasado?

-COULD JOHN ARRIVE ON TIME LAST MONDAY?


(Pudo Juan llegar a tiempo el lunes pasado? )

-NO, THEY COULDN'T


(No, no pudieron)

- YES, HE COULD
(S)

-COULD YOU VISIT THE MUSEUM YESTERDAY?


(Pudo Ud. visitar el museo ayer? )
r

-WHEN COULD THEY SEE THE MANAGER?


( Cundo pudieron ellos ver al gerente? )

-YES, 1COULD
(S, s pude)

-THEY COULD SEE HIM YESTERDA y


(Ellos pudieron verlo ayer)

-WHERE COULD YOU NonCE SOMETHING STRANGE?


(Dnde pudo Ud. notar algo extrao? )

-WHERE COULD YOU FIND THOSE P-,\PERS?


(Dnde pudo Ud. encontrar esos papeles? )

-1 COULD NOTICE 11' BEHIND THE HOUSE


(Pude notarlo atrs de la casa)

-1 COULD FIND THEM ON MY DESK


(Pude encontrarlos sobre mi escritorio)

-HOWLOG COULD YOU S1'AY IN THAT PLACE?


(Cunto tiempo pudo Ud. permanecer en ese lugar? )

-COULD RICHARD SEE THE PARADE LAST SUNDA Y?


(Pudo Ricardo ver el desfile el domingo? )

-1 COULD STA Y FIFTEEN MINUTES.


(Pude permanecer quince minutos)

-NO, HE COULDN'T
(No, no pudo)

Prctica

>

-HOW MANY CARS COULD YOU COUNT YESTERDA Y?


( Cuntos autos pudiste contar ayer? )
-1 COULD COUNT FIFTY CARS
(Pude contar cincuenta autos)
84

Llene los espacios en blanco escogiendo entre los auxiliares CAN


o COULD, de acuerdo con las expresiones de tiempo now, be[ore, yesterday,
etc.
1.

you speak English now?

85

2. 1

not see the parad e yesterday.

3.

they come here on time last Sunday?

4. Mary

\ ..

'1.He

type very quickly now.

5. My father
6. ____

Llene las lneas en blanco con CAN o COVLD.

swim very well before.


Atice go to the movies yesterday?
i

7. We
8. 1

run very fast before.

9. They
10. ____
11. --_-

not visit the museum yesterday.

14. ____

17. The
day

not dance very weU yet.

Mary

not come here yesterday.

-They

not type quickly yet.

_____

you see the parade yesterday?

_____

you see the manager every day?

1..

not go to the movies every day.

.J ohn

read the news yesterqay.

.Alice

not go to the party last night.

you play the piano now?

19. ----

she finish the sales report yesterday?

every

go to the movies every day.


..::;_
__

Mary see that movie tonight?

_____

you go to the office every day?


visit Europe last year?

yOU.

'

you visit Europe this year?

r
,

she write letters in English now?


Mary see that movic last Saturday?

.1
not drive a car yet.

not work yesterday because 1 was sick.


send cables to New York

not go to the movies every day.

__

John move that rock yesterday.

secretary

drive to his office every day.

Alice

not talk to the manager last Friday.

18. ____

20. Henry

you go to Europe last year?

15. \Ve
16. 1

....,

the girl read and write now?

12. Susan
13. 1

"

not practice English every day.

you speak English now?

not visit Paris last year.


visit Rome this year.

_____

she send a cable" every day?

she send that cable yesterday?

j"

86

IF

\~

THE MONTHS OF THE YEAR


EMPLEO DE WILL BE PARA FORMAR
EL FUTURO DEL VERBO TO BE (ser o estar)

(Los meses del ao)


January
Fcbruary
March
April
May
June
July
August
Septcmber
October
November
December

(ynueri)
(fbrueri)
(march)
(iprol)
(mei)
(yun)
(yuli)
(gost)
(septmber)
(octber)
(novmber)
(dismber)

= Enero

= febrero

= marzo

= abril
= mayo
= junio
= julio
= agosto
= septiembre
= octubre
= noviembre
= diciembre

PRONOMBRES REFLEXIVOS

He
We
They

herself

itself

(maiseIf)
(iorself)
(jimself)
(jerself)
(itself)

WILL
WILL
WILL
WILL

BE
BE
BE
BE

2
at home
rich
in Chicago
of age '

soon
soan
soon
soon

WILL
BE?
WILL he
BE?
WILL we
BE?
WILL they BE?

COMENTARIOS

1,

Singulares
Myself
Yourself
himself

Observe que en las afirmaciones la posicin de W1LL HE (2,


3) es inmediatamente despus de los sujetos (1), en tanto que
en las preguntas WILL (2) va antes de los sujetos (1) y stos a
su vez seguidos de BE, el cual conserva la misma posicin que
en las afirmaciones (3).
Advierta, por lo tanto, que en el interrogativo la posicin del
sujeto est entre WILL y.BE (2, 1, 3).

= yo mismo
= Ud. mismo

= l mismo
== ella misma
= ello mismo (impersonal

1.

Note la partcula NOT inmediatamente despus de will para


construir la forma negativa. Advierta tambin que BE ocupa
la ltima posicin; es decir, sin contar el complemento de
estas oraciones.

Plurales
Ourselves
yourselves
themselves

NOTA: Themselves

( aurselvs)
(iorselvs)
(demselvs)

1
He
They

= nosotros mismos
= Uds. mismos
= Ellos (as) mismos

will
will
will

NOT
NOT
NOT

be
be
be

at home
rich
of age

S'OOR_.

soon.
soon.

!1\

COMENTARIOS

will not con todos los sujetos o pronombres personales. Ejem-

es el plural de himsel[. herself; itself.

Asimismo se puede emplear la forma WON'T contraccin de


plos: 1 WON'T be, you WON'T be, etc.

.,
1. of age

= mayores de edad, adultos

88

89

(literalmente: de edad)

CONVERSATION

EMPLEO
CONSTRUIR

DEL VERBO AUXILIAR


WILL PARA OS
LA FORMA FUTURA DE LOS VERB
.. , de .WILL en el afirmativo) seE antepone
Observe que Ia posicion
las prea los verbos en su forma simple (speak, eat, go.
n
untas WILL se coloca antes de los sujetos (1, you, he), o
g ue se invierte su posicin con respecto a las afl~maClOnes. s
decir en lugar del WILL (af.) ser WILL 1. .. ? (mt.)

-WHAT WILL YOU DO AFTE"R YOU ARE GRADUATED?


( Qu har Ud. despus de que se grade?

SE'

1
You

WILL
WILL

speak
eat

WILL
WILL

1
you

speak?
eat?

He
We
They

WILL
WILL
WILL

go
come
travel

WILL
WILL
WILL

he
we
they

go?
come?
travel?

-1 WILL WORK AFTER MY GRADUATlON


(Trabajar despus de mi graduacin)
-WHERE WILL YOU WORK NEXT YEAR?
( Dnde trabajar Ud. el ao prximo? )
-1 WILL WORK IN MEXICO CITY
(Trabajar en la ciudad de Mxico)

l
1.

-SHE WILL STA Y Tf-IERE THREE MONTHS


(Ella permanecer ah tres meses)

COMENTARIOS
El verbo auxiliar WILL se emplea con todos l~s su~eto~ o
renombres personales y para formar el futuro
e to ,os os
~erbos en ingls, exceptuando por supuesto a los d)emas ver..
bos auxiliares,
t al es como can (poder) , must (deber,
d 1'11etc.
(1 will)
Asimismo pueden emplearse las formas contra! a~
you'U; he'l/, she'U, it'll, v:e'l/, you'l1, they'll. Ejemplo: It 11
rain (it will rain) = llover.
t

\..

will
will
will

will

NOT
NOT
NOT
NOT

-WHEN WILL YOUR PARENTS GO TO EUROPE AGAIN?


(Cundo irn tus padres a Europa otra vez? )
-THEY WILL GO TO EUROPE NEXT YEAR
(Ellos irn a Europa el ao prximo)
-WHEN WILL JOHN COME HERE AGAIN?
( Cundo vendr Juan aqu otra vez? )

speak
go
come

-HE WILL COME HERE NEXT SUMMER


(l vendr aqu el verano prximo)

traoel

-AT WHAT TIME WILL WE LAND IN CHICAGO?


( A qu hora aterrizaremos en Chicago? )

COMENT ARIOS
Asimismo se puede emplear WON T, forma contrada dewil1
not con todos los sujetos o pronombres personales. Ejemplo~: I WON T speak (no hablar), you WON T eat (no co.mers), he WON T go (l 110 ir), they WON T traoel (no VIajarn), etc.

90

-WILL SHE UVE IN THE UNITED STATES'~


( Vivir ella en los Estados Unidos? )
-No, SHE WILL NOT (SHE WON'T)
(No.)

'

Advierta ahora en esta grfica la partcula NOT inmediatamente despus del auxiliar will para construir la forma negativa..
J
She
We
They

-HOW LONG WILL MARY STAY IN NEW YORK?


( Cunto tiempo permanecer Mara en Nueva York? )

-WE WILL LAND IN CHICAGO AT FIVE O CLOCK


(Aterrizaremos en Chicago a las cinco)

-,

-WHAT WILL YOU EAT FOR DINNER?


( Qu comer Ud. en la comida? )
-1 WILL EAT A STEAK WITH FRIED POTATOES
(Comer un bistec con papas fritas)

91

VERBOS REGULARES

-AT WHAT TIME WILL THE BOYS EAT DINNER?


(A qu hora comern los nios la comida'? )
-THEY
(Ellos

WILL

EAT DlNNER AT TWELVE


comern la comida a las doce)

-WHEN WILL YOUR BROTHER


( Cundo comprar tu hermano

Denomnanse
"VERBOS
REGULARES"
aquellos cuyo Pasado y
Participio Pasado se construye aadiendo ED al infinitivo exento de
la partcula to, o sea el verbo en su forma original, ejemplo:

O'CLOCK

BUY A CAR?
un auto? )

INFINITIVO
guIares.

-HE WILL SUY A NEW CAR NEXT YEAR


(l comprar un auto nuevo el ao prximo)
1 WAIT HERE FOR A LONG TIME?
(Esperar aqu mucho rato? )

WILL NOT

WORK

+ ED

goes to school.

= WORKED(trabaj),

grficamente

cmo

WORKED (trabajado)

To llave = haber o tener: 1 have = yo he o tengo

al futuro

que
variacin

es caraclerstica
especial de todos
alguna con ninguna de las personas

>

lt

estos
o su.

interrogativo

WORKED

We
You

'.

WiU Mary buy groceries next Saturday?


Mary wi/l not buy groceries next Saturday.

92

ED

He
She

They

Prctica 2
oracin

(Y O trabajo)
(Yo trabaj)
(yo he trabajado)

You

6. My brother gets good commissions.


7. They eal in a restaurant.
8. y ou learn languages.
9. We visit Europe.
10. 1 read the newspaper
11. Henry and Jack see Mary and Susano
12. She works for an international company.
13. You leave for New York.
14. We fly lo Paris.
15. He gives presents lo the children.

cada

y observemos

de los Verbos Re.

1-

4. The manager signs your checks.


5. The secretary writes a letter.

cambie

NOTA:

La terminacin
verbos no sufre
jetos

1. Mary buys groceries.


2. J speak English.

Despus
Ejemplo:

Pasado y Participio

work
worked
1llave worked

Practique
el auxiliar wi/l cambiando
al futuro las oraciones siguientes. Aada al final de cada oracin palabras como tomarraw, next
week, next year, next Saturday, etc.

J ohn

WON'T)

(YOU

Prctica 1

3.

+ ED

Tomemos un tpico verbo regular


se forma dicho Pasado y Participio.

-WILL

-NO, YOU
(No)

sin to

y negalivo:

Obsrvese en la pronunciacin
de WORKED que la e es muda (como
en la mayora de los verbos regulares) y la d adquiere el sonido de t.
El cambio de sonido en esta consonante
es con el fin de dar a la
palabra ms eufona y al mismo tiempo facilitar su pronunciacin.
Repita varias veces la palabra WORKED pronuncindola
urct.

93

FORMA EN PASADO DE LOS VERBOS IRREGULARES


Observe que el verbo en su forma clsica de pasado [spoke, saw,
ate.) se utiliza nicamente en el Pasado Afirmativo.
Advierta asimismo que tanto en el Pasado Interrogativo como en el
Negativo, el verbo est en presente (speak, see, eat.), ya que los
auxiliares did y didn't (did not) que se emplean en' dichas formas
estn ya en pasado.
Recuerde que did constituye el pasado de do y does, en tanto que
ddn'l lo es de don't y doesn't.
Infinitivo
1'0 speak
lo see
to eat
to drink
toga

to come
toget
tobuy
to tell
to leave
to hear
toknow
lo sleep
lo have
todo
to read
lo write
togive
to bring
lo take
tofind
to be

Pasado
Afirmativo

Pasado Interrogativo

SPOKE (spuc)
SAW (so)
ATE (eit)
DRANK (dranc)
WENT (unt)
CAME (kim)
GOT (got)
BOUGHT (bot)
TOLD (tuld)
LEFT (Ieft)
HE ARO (jerd)
KNEW (ni)
SLEPT (slpt)
HAO (jad)
DIO (did)
REAO (red)
WROTE (rut)
GAVE (guiv)
BROUGHT (brot)
TOOK (tuc)
FOUNO (fund)

Did (someone)! speak?


did (someone) see ?
did (someone) eat?
did (someone) drink?
did (someone)go?
did (someone) come?
did (someone)get?
did (someone) buy?
dd (someone) tell?
did (someone) leave?
did (someone) hear?
dd (someone) know?
did (someone) sleep?
dd (someone) have?
did (someone) do?
did (someone) read?
did (someone)write?
did (someone) give?
did (someone) bring?
did (someone) take?
did (someone)find?

was
were

EMPLEO DE DID Y DID NOT PARA CONSTRUIR


EL PASADO INTERROGATIVO Y NEGATIVO
DE LOS VERBOS REGULARES E IRREGULARES

Pasado
Negativo

Observemos primeramente que el verbo se emplea en su forma en pasado nicamente en el pasado afirmativo, tanto en
los verbos regulares como irregulares.

Did not speak

dd not see
did not eat
did not drink
dd nolgo
did not come
did notget
dd not buy
dd not tell
did not leave
dd not hear
dd not know
did not sleep
dd not have
dd notdo
did notread
did not write
did notgive
did not bring
did not take
di notfind

{ was (1, he, she, it)?


{ was not
were (we, you, they)?
were not

I
You

SPOKE
SAW

to Mary
Richard

yesterday
yesterday

He
She

ATE
WROTE

chicken
a letter

yesterday
yesterday

They

WORKEO

hard

COMENTARIOS
Las terceras personas del singular he, she, it nunca llevan s en
los verbos en pasado, ya sean regulares o irregulares. Ejemplos: It RAINED yesterday = llovi ayer; J ohn DRANK
some coffee last night = Juan bebi caf anoche; Alice
SLEPT five hours last night
Alicia durmi cinco horas
anoche; We WENT to the theater last night = Fuimos al teatro anoche, etc.

;
lf

could

can

could (someone)?

could not

Aqu someone (alguien) hace las veces de cualquier sujeto o


persona (1, vou, he, she, it, we, you, they). Por lo tanto Ud. puede
reemplazarlo por cualquiera de ellos.
1

l
I

!.\.
.1:

i.

94

yesterday

s,

95

Observe el empleo de las palabras interrogativas what, where, when


y whom (a quin), as como DID para interrogar en pasado. En las
respuestas, o sea, el pasado afirmativo, note que el verbo cambia de
su forma simple: buy, eat, go, etc., a su forma clsica de pasado:
bought, ate, went, etc.

Advierta el empleo de DID y los verbos en su ~orma simple


(speak, see, eat, etc.) para construir el pasado.mterrogotlVo.
Ntese asimismo que la posicin de DID esta antes de los
sujetos en dichas preguntas.
. .
.
En el pasado negativo se emplea DID NOT y su pOSICI~~esta
inmediatamente despus de los sujetos. Observe tambin los
verbos en su forma simple en dichas negaciones.

speak to Mary.
DID T
DID you see Richard?

You

DID NOT speak to Mary.


DID NOT see Richard.

chcken?
DlD he eat
DID she write a letter?

He
She

chicken.
DIDNOT eat
DID NOT write a letter.

DID they work hard?

They DID NOT work hard.

COMENTARIOS
Tambin se puede emplear DIDN'T, que es la contra~cin de
did not en la forma negativa. Ejemplos: John DIDN T buy a
car last week = Juan no compr un auto la semana pasada;
we DIDN'T go to the theater last night = No fuimos al teatro anoche, etc.

What
What
What
What
What
What

DID
DID
DID
DID
DID
DID

you
buy?
John eat?
Mary see?
they read?
1
write?
get?
Joe

1
He
She
They
You
He

BOUCHT
ATE
SAW
READ
WROTE
COT

a caro
a banana.
a picture.
the news.
a leUer.
ajobo

Where
Where
Where
Where

DID
DID
DlD
DID

Frank
you
Lucy
you

go? .
work?
live?
study?

He
l
She
We

WENT
WORKED
LIVED
STUDIED

to the movies.
in the bank.
in New York.
in London,

When
When
When
When
When
When

DID
DID
DID
DID
DID
DID

John
they
1
Mary
we
Frank

come?
finish?
pay?
arrive?
call?

he
They
You
She
You
He

CAME
FINISHED
PAID
LEFT
ARRIVED
CALLEO

yesterday.
last week.
last month.
last Monday.
last Sunday.
one hour ago.

Whom
Whom
Whom
Whom
Whom

DID
DID
DID
DID
DID

you
he
they
Frank
John

speak?
give it?
bring it.
love?
kiss?

1
He
They
He
He

SPOKE
CAVE
BROUCHT
LOVED
KISSED

to Charles.
it to me.
it to Helen.
Alice.
his mother

leaue?

Prctica
Cmbiense estas preguntas y respuestas en pasadg,a)a forma negativa, tambin en tiempo pasado. Use la contracin de DID NOT.
Ejemplos:
1 DIDN'T buy a car
He DIDN'T eat a banana, etc.
Despus lalas en voz alta.

97
96

LOS VERBOS IRREGULARES MS USUALES


He aqu los verbos irregulares ms frecuentemente empleados en la
conversacin cotidiana. Obsrvelos agrupados mnemotcnicamente
para facilitar una ms rpida asimilacin. Advierta tambin la dentidad en letras, as como la rima verbal que impera en cada uno de
los distintos grupos. Por ejemplo: bought, brought, thought, sought,
y foughtdonde predomina el sonido "ot".

Tobuy
to bring
to Ihink
to seek
lo fighl

(tu
(tu
(tu
(tu
(tu

lo
lo
to
to

(bol)
(brot)
(zol)
(SOl)
(fol)

comprar-compr
traer -trajo
pensar-pens
buscar-busc
pelear-pele'

(Iuspic)
(tu brc)
(tuslil)
(tu chus)

SPOKE
BROKE
510LE
CHOSE

(spuc)
(bruc)
(stul)
(chus)

hablar -habl

lowrite
todrive
to ride

(tu rit)
(tu driv)
(tu raid)

WROTE
DROVE
RO DE

(rut)
(druv)
(rud)

escribir-escribi
manejar-manej
montar-mont

to sleep
to keep
to sweep
to feel
to leave
lomeel

(tuslip)
(tu kip)
(tu suip)
(tu fiil)
(Iu liv)
(Iu mil)

SLEPT
KEPT
SWEPT
FELT
LEFT
MET

(slpt)
(kpt)
(supl)
(fell)
(left)
(mel)

dormir-durmi
guardar-guard
barrer-barri
sentir-sinti
salirsali
encontrarse-se encontr

lodrink
lo begin
toswim
lo sing
lo ring
tu run
lo sil

(Iu drinc)
(Iu bigun)
(Iusum)
(Iu sing)
(tu ring)
(tu ron)
(Iu sil)

DRANK
BEGAN
SWAM
SANG
RANG
RAN
SAT

(dranc)
(bign)
(sum)
(sang)
(rang)
(ran)
(sal)

beber-bebi
empezar-empez
nadar-nad
cantar-cant
.toear-toe (timbre o campana)
correr-corri

lo know
lo grow
to throw
loblow
lo fly

(tu
(tu
(tu
(Iu
(Iu

KNEW
GREW
THREW
BLEW
FLEW

(ni)
(gr)
(zr)
(bl)
(f1)

conocer, saber-conoci, supo


crecer-creci
arrojar-arroj
soplar-sopl
volar-vol

losend
lo spend

(Iu send)
(Iuspnd)

SENT
SPENT

(senl)
(spenl)

enviar-envi
gastar-gast

nu)
gru)
zru)
blu)
flai)

romper-rompi
robar-rob
escoger-escogi

sentarse-se sent

GAVE
FORGAVE
FORBADE

(guiv)
(forguiv)
(forbid)

dar-dio
perdonar-perdon
prohibir.prohibi

loget
to forget

(Iuguel)
(Iu forgut)

GOT
FORGOT

(gol)
(forgl)

conseguir-consigui
olvidar-olvid

lo leU
lo seU

(tu

TOLO
SOLO

(Iuld)
(suld)

decir-dijo
vender-vendi

lo wear
to tear

(tu uar]
(Iu lar)

WORE
TORE

(uor)
(Ior)

usar-us (Uevar puesto)


rasgar-rasg

lo stand
lo undersland

(Iuslnd)
(tu onderstand]

5100D
UNDERS.
TOOD

(std]
(onderstd)

poner de pie-puso de pie


enlender-enlendi

lo leaeh
lo catch

(tu tich)
(Iu eateh)

TAUGHT
CAUGHT

(101)
(col)

ensear-ense
atrapar-atrap

lo lake

(tu tie]

TOOK

(Iuc)

tomar-tom,

lo shake
lo wake

(tu shic)
(tu uie)

SHOOK
WOKE

(shuc)
(uc)

agilar.agil
despertar-despert

tosay
to pay

(tu sei)
(Iu pei]

SAID
PAID

(sed)
(pid)

decir-dijo
pagar-pag

lohang
to swing

(tu jang)
(Iu sung)

HUNG
SWUNG

(jong)
(sung)

colgar-eolg
balancear -balance

lo hold
lo fall

(Iujuld)
(tu fol)

HELD
FELL

(jeld)
(fel)

sostener-sostuvo
caer-cay

to

win
lo shine

(Iu un)
(tu shin)

WON
SHONE

(un)
(shon)

ganar-gan (compelencia)
brillarbrill

lo come
to become
to eat

(tu com)
(tu bicm)
(tu it)

CA ME
BECA ME
ATE

(kim)
(bikim)
(eil)

venir-vino
llevar a ser-lleg a ser
comer-comi

1l

tofmd
to lose

(tu find)
(tu lus)

FOUND
L051

(fund)
(lOSI)

encontrar-encontr
perder-perdi

lo have
tomake
lo do
to see

(Iujav)
(tu mic)
tu du)
(tu si)

HAD
MADE
DID
SAW

(jad)
(mid)
(did)
(so)

tener, haber-tuvo, hubo


manufacturar-manufaelur
hacer-hizo
ver-vio

lo put
lo let

(IU pul)
(tu let)

PUT
LET

[put)
(Iet)

poner-puso
permitirpermili,

"-

..
t
t

,1-

(tu

lel)
sel)

98

Traduccin de
ambas formas

(tuguiv)
(tu forguv)
(tu forbid)

Traduccin de
ambas formas

BOUGHT
BROUGHT
THOUGHT
SOUGHT
FOUGHT

speak
break
steal
choose

bai)
bring)
zinc)
sc)
fail)

Pasado

Pasado

lo give
lo forgive
lo forbid

1..

k
Infinitivos

Infinitivos

f
.J.

99

llevar-llev

dejar-dej

Pasado

Infinitivos
to set
to C08t
to cut
toqut
to hurt

(tu
(tu
(tu
(tu
(tu

set)
C08t)
cot)
cuit)
jert)

SET
COST
CUT
QUlT
HURT

(set)
(cost)
(cot)
(cut)
(jert)

Traduccin de
ambas formas
fijar.fij
costar-cost
eortar-cort
renunciar-renunci
lesionar -lesion

Prctica
Cambie las siguientes oraciones al tiempo pasado. Agregue al final de
cada oracin palabras como yesterday, last week, Iast Sunday, etc.
1. We are busy.
2. Betty can play the piano
3. John is in New York.
4. You see him in school.
5. My father eats caviar.
6. Susan writes many letters.
.
7. The manager speaks in the meeting.
S. They go to the theater.
9. Charles reads a book,
10. 1 drink coffee.
11. You drive a caro
12. Helen does her home-work
13. We sing that songo
14. Robert sleeps in a hotel.
15. Alice buys some presents.
16. You keep money in the Bank ..
17. lt works well.
lS. They forget their umbrella
19. Youwearahat.
20. We choose nice colors.
21. He breaks hs leg.
22. Paul swims in a lake.
23. Mary brings you flowers.
24. 1 gel good percentage.
25. 1 hear a noise.
26. We know Paris.
27. Richard meets with Susano
100

28. You feel cold in Winter.


29. They Ieuve earJy
30. He sends a package.
31. y ou lend money.
32. We give toys to the children.
33. 1 think of her.
34. y ou freeze your ears.
35. George pays the bills,
36. 1 sel! cars.
37. They ride on a bus.
38. We tell the truth.
39. Helen sets the lable.
40. You hurt your armo
41. She spends too much money.
42. They fight among themselvcs.
43. 1 seek information.
44. He forgives his enemies.
45. Peter steal money.
46. They kneel in church.
47. She wceps for nothing.
48. y ou swear in vain.
49. The girl ~
the floor.
50. 1 cut the cake.
51. Henry puts on a hat.
52. your parents forbide you to smoke.

Prctica
Haga preguntas que contesten a las siguientes afirmaciones de acuerdo con las palabras interrogativas enumeradas a continuacin.
Ejemplo:
(afirmacin) John goes to the movies every Saturday.
1. What

does J ohn do every Saturday

2. When

3. Where

(afirmacin) Gregory bought a pair o shoes down-town yesterday.


.\

1. Where

----.,
101

2. What

3. When

4. Who

(afirmacin) John went to Miami by airplane last week.


1. How

2. Who

3. When

4. Where

S. What

EMPLEO DE LA FORMA USED TO


PARA EXPRESAR EL COPRETRITO
Observe el empleo de USED TO para expresar hbito en el pesado, es decir sola o acostumbraba. En otras palabras, equivale
en espaol a las terminaciones aba, abas, bamos, aban, oa, as,
amos, an. Ejemplos: 1 USED TO work = yo trabajaba. We
USED TO live = vivamos.
En el interrogativo, empleamos el auxiliar DID. Note adems que
la palabra USED pierde la D final: DID you USE TO play base.
ball? (jugabas beisbol?
1
He
We
They

USED TO speok English DID you


USED TO (JO -fo school
DID he
USEDTO trovel much
DID we
USED TO work overtime DID they

USETO
USETO
USETO
USETO

speak it?
go?
travel?
work?

(afirmacin) They work in the office every day.

t,

1. Who

2. Where

"-

3. What

4. When

COMENT ARIOS
La forma USED TO se emplea con todos los sujetos o pronombres personales y denota como ya expresamos un pasado remoto
de acciones que solamos efectuar pero que al presente ya no las
realizamos ms.

Observe ahora en el negativo el empleo de DIDN'T USE TO.


Advierta asimismo la ausencia de la D final de USED. Ejemplo:
1DIDN'T USE TO eat chicken = Yo no coma pollo.
I
He
We
They

102

DIDN'T
DlDN'T
DlDN'T
DIDN'T

USETO
USETO
USETO
USETO

103

speak
go
travel
work

English
to school
very much
overtime

CONVERSATION

-WH~RE DI~ YOUR PARENTS USE '1'0 UVE BEFO RE?


(Donde vrvran antes tus padres? )

-WHAT DID YOU USE 1'0 DO WHEN YOU WERE A BOY?


(Qu haca Ud. cuando era un muchacho?)

-THEY USED TO LIVE IN SPAIN


(Ellos vivan en Espaa)

-1 USED TO PLAY WITH MY FRIENDS


(Yo jugaba con mis amigos)

-DID YOU USE 1'0 SWIM WHEN YOU WERE YOUNG?


(Nadaba Ud. cuando era joven? )

-WHAT DID YOU USE 1'0 PLAY WITH YOUR FRIENDS?


(A qu jugaba Ud. con sus amigos? )

-1 DIDN'T USE 1'0 SWIM. 1 USED TO DANCE


(Yo no nadaba. Yo bailaba)

-WE USED TO PLAY BASE-BALL


(J ugbamos beisbol)

-WH~RE DID YOU USE 1'0 DANCE BEFORE?


(Donde bailaba Ud. antes? )
.

-WHERE DID YOU USE TO GO SOME YEARS AGO?


( Dnde iba Ud. hace algunos aos? )

-1 USE~ TO DANC IN THE PARTIES


(Yo bailaba en las fiestas)

-1 USED TO GO TO THE COUNTRY SOME YEARS AGO


(Yo iba al campo hace algunos aos)

-DID SUSA~ USE TO SPEAK ENGLISH BEFORE?

-WHEN DID JOHN USE TO COME HERE?


(Cundo vena aqu Juan?)

- YES, SHE USED 1'0


(S, ella hablaba)

-HE USED TO COME HERE WHEN HE WAS A STUDENT


(l vena aqu cuando era estudiante)

-W(.~~RdE DlD SHE USE 1'0 SPEAK ENGLISH BEFORE?


on e hablaba ella ingls antes? )
.

(Hablaba ingls antes Susana? )

-SHE USED 1'0 SPEAK ENGLlSH IN THE UN


(Ella hablaba ingls en los Estados Unidos)
ITED STATES

-WHEN DID CHARLES AND MARY USE 1'0 GO 1'0 THE


THEATER?
(Cundo iban al teatro Carlos y Mara?)
-THEY USED 1'0 GO 1'0 THE THEATER WHEN THEY WERE
FRIENDS
(Ellos iban al teatro cuando eran amigos)

-WHERE DID ALICE USE 1'0 WORK BEFORE?


(Dnde trabajaba antes Alicia? )
-SHE USED '1'0 WORK IN CANADA
(Ella trabajaba en Canad)
-WHERE DID ROBERT USE 1'0 UVE BEFORE?
(Dnde viva antes Roberto? )
-HE USED 1'0 UVE IN LOS ANGELES
(l viva en Los ngeles)
104

105

Prctica

ro

.
I f
'U.SED
las siguientes oraciones. Aada pala.
CambIe a a orma
d
.,
bras como before, many yeors ogo, etc. al final de ca a oracion.
1. 1 work in Chicago.
2. Do you live in New York?
3. They don't play base-hall.
4. John goes to picnics.
5 . Susan doesn't cook dinner
Does Henry speak English fluently?
7. We eat chicken on Sunday.
8. Mary writes many letters..
?
9. Does the secretary type qUlckly.
10. 1 don't read quickly.
..'
.
n. The children drink orange juice m the morrnng.
12. My mother drives slowly.
13. My ather doesn't swim slowly.
14. They dance very well.
15. Does Robert come here?

6:

IL

1
t
i

EMPLEO DEL AUXILIAR WOULD PARA


EXPRESAR EL POTENCIAL SIMPLE (CONDITIONAL)
Observe el empleo de WOULD para expresar acciones condicionales y cuyas terminaciones en espaol son aria, arias,
aria, criamos, aran. Ejemplos: 1 WOULD speak = yo hablara. We WOULD work
trabajaramos.
En el interrogativo WOULD se antepone a los sujetos. Ejemplos: WOULD you work?
trabajaras?
Tanto en el afirmativo, negativo e interrogativo WOULD se
emplea con verbos en su forma simple [speak, go, work, etc.)
y con todos los sujetos o pronombres personales.

=
=

WOULD buy that car WOULD you buy


1
He
WOULD live in N Y WOULD he live
They WOULD speak English WOULD they speak

that car?
inN. Y.?
English?

Observe ahora en el negativo la partcula NOT inmediatamente despus de WOULD y los verbos en su forma simple:
buy, live, speak,

l
I

1
He
They

would
would
'would

NOT
NOT
NOT

buy
live
speak

that car
in New York
English

COMENTARIOS
Asimismo se puede emplear con todos los sujetos o pronombres personales la contraccin WOULDN'T (would not)
Ejemplos: 1 WQULDN'T buy that car = Yo no comprara
ese auto. He WOULDN'T live in New York = l ne vivira en
Nueva York.

107

CONVERSATION

- AT WHAT TIME WOULD YOU GET BACK?


(A qu hora regresaran? )

-WE WOULD GET BACK AT SIX O'CLOCK


(Regresaramos a la seis)

-WHAT WOULD YOU LIKE '1'0 DO NEXT WEEK?


( Qu te gustara hacer la semana prxima? )

-1 WOULD LIKE TO DO MANY THINGS

(Me gustara haeer muchas cosas)


-WHERE WOULD YOU LlKE '1'0 GO NEXT SUNDA Y?
(Dnde te gustara ir el prximo domingo?)

-1 WOULD LlKE TO GO TO A PICNIC


(Me gustara ir a un da de campo)

-WOULD YOU LIKE TO GO BY BUS OR BY CAR?


( Te gustara ir en au tobs o en auto? )

_1 WOULD L1KE '1'0 GO BY CAR


(Me gustal'a ir en auto)

-WOULD YOU INVITE SOME FRIEN OS TO GO WITH YOU?


(Invitaras a algunos amigos para ir contigo? )
- YES 1 WOULD INVITE SOME
(S, yo invitara a algunos)

..
(

i
\
l
1

-WOULD YOU GO DRIVING YOUR CAR?


(Iras manejando tu auto? )
_ YES, I WOULD GO DRIVING MY CAR
(S, yo ira manejando mi auto)

-WOULD YOU EAT SANDWICHES OR A REGULAR MEAL?


( Comeras emparedados o comida normal? )
-WE WOULD EAT SANDWICHES
(Comeramos emparedados)
-ATWHAT TIME WOULD YOU LEAVE?
(A qu hora saldran Uds? )
-WE WOULD LEA VE AT EIGHT O'CLOCK IN THE MORNING
(Saldramos a las ocho de la maana)

1
1

- WHAT WOULD YOU DO IF YOU WERE VERY RICH?


( Qu hara Ud. si fuera muy rico?
-IF 1 WERE VERY RICH, I WOULD TRAVEL AROUND THE
WORLD
(Si yo fuera rico, viajara alrededor del mundo)
-WHAT WOULD YOU DO IF YOU HAD A MILLION DOL
LARS?
( Qu hara Ud. si tuviera un milln de dlares? )
-IF 1 HAD A MILLION DOLLARS, 1 WOULD BUY A YATCH
(Si tuviera un milln de dlares comparara un yate)
-WHERE WOULD YOU GO ON WEEKENDS IF YOU HAD A
PRIVATE AIRPLANE?
(A dnde ira Ud. los fines de semana si Ud. tuviera un avin
particular? )
-IF I HAD A PRIVATE AIRPLANE, I WOULD GO TO ACAPUL
CO ON WEEK-ENDS?
(Si yo tuviera un avin particular yo ira a Acapulco los fines de
semana)
-WHAT WOULD YOU DO IF YOU WERE VERY POOR?
(Qu hara Ud. si fuera muy pobre? )

-IF l WERE VERY POOR, 1 WOULD WORK VER Y HARD


(Si yo fuera muy pobre trabajara mucho)

-WOULD YOU ASK CHARITY, IF YOU WERE VERY POOR?


(Pedira Ud. caridad si fuera Ud. muy pobre? )
-NO, I WOULD NOT ASK CHARITY, I WOULD WORK HARD
{No, yo no pedira caridad. Trabajara mucho)

1
f

108

109

EMPLEO DEL VERBO AUXILIAR MA Y


PARA EXPRESAR POSIBILIDAD EN PRESENTE
(MA Y = ES POSIBLE O POSIBLEMENTE)

Prctica
Llene los espacios en blanco, empleando.,WILL
acuerdo con el complemento de cada oracin.
L 1

go to New York next year.

2. 1

go to New York ilI

il

you buy that car

4.

you buy a car next year?

6.
7. Mary
8.
9. We
10. 1
11. Charles,
12. Susan
13. We
14. 1
15. We

Observe que MA Y expresa dos significados diferentes. En el afirmativo,posibilidad; pero en el interrogativo denota permiso.
Ejemplo: May 1 go? = Puedo irme?

had money.

3..

5. We_---

o WOULD de

it were new.

.l

!
t

il

il

she practiced it.

you were rich?

visit Europe next Summer.


help you if 1 could.
study if he had more time.
work next week.
travel around the world if we were rich

.l

t-

1"
1.

t
l

swim today ilI

were not sick.

eat in a restaurant tonight.

to Europe soon
English soon
here soon
at night

MAY
MAY
MAY
MAY

1
we
J ohn
they

go
speak
come
study

home now?
English?
here?
at night?

Advierta la partcula NOT inmediatamente despus de MAY


para construir la forma negativa.
Aqu MA Y NOT puede expresar dos cosas: o posibilidad neo
gativa o permiso denegado. Ejemplos:
I may not travel 500n. (Es posible que yo no viaje pronto.)
You may not work without papers. (Ud. no puede trabajar
sin papeles.)
I
We
John
They

may
may
may
may

NOT
NOT
NOT
NOT

go
speak
come
study

to Europe this year


English now
herenow
at night

J.

COMENTARIOS

1.

1
t
no

go
speak
come
study

Es importante hacer notar que, tanto en el afirmativo como en el


interrogativo, despus del auxiliar may el verbo se emplea en su
forma simple, o sea, sin la partcula too
Asimismo may se emplea con todos los sujetos o pronombres
personales y no lleva s con las terceras personas he, she, it, por
ser un verbo defectivo.

they come to the party tonight?

you be happier

MAY
MAY
MAY
MAY

COMENTARIOS

not leave for Chicago tqmorrow

speak English well,

1
We
John
They

El verbo en su forma simple (ga, speak, come, etc.) se emplea


inmediatamente despus de may NOT en sus dos significados.
Ejemplos?
I MA Y not ga to Europe this year (Es posible que yo no vaya
a E uropa este ao), o
(Yo no puedo ir a Europa
este ao).

III

I
-1 THINK HEMAY
(Creo que s pueda)

CONVERSATION
-WHAT DO YOU THINK PAULMAYDO NOW?
(Qu cree Ud. que Pablo pueda hacer ahora?)

-MA Y I GO NOW?
(Puedo irme ahora? )

-HE MA Y FINISH THE EXPENSE BUDGET


(Puede que termine el presupuesto de gastos)

-YES, YOU MAY(NO, YOU MAY NOT)


(Si, SI puede. No, no puede)

-WHERE DO YOU THINK THE BOYS MAY GO NEXT SATURDAY?


(Dnde cree Ud. que los muchachos puedan ir el prximo sbado? )

-MA Y 1 SMOKE HERE?


(Puedo fumar aqu? )
-NO, YOU MAY NOT
(No, Ud. no puede)

-THEY MA Y GO TO THE MOVIES NEXT SATURDAY


(Puede que ellos vayan al cine el prximo sbado)

-MAY I SEE THE MANAGER?


(Puedo ver al gerente? )

-WHEN DO YOU THlNK MARY MA Y COME BACK HERE?


( Cundo cree Ud. que Mara pueda regresar aqu? )

-YES, YOUMAY
(Si, s puede)

-MARY MAY COME BACK HERE NEXT WEEK


(Puede que Mara regrese aqu la semana prxima)

-MAYI SPEAK TO YOU?


(Puedo hablar con Ud.? )

-AT WHAT TIME DO YOU THINK THE TRAIN MAY ARRIVE?


(A qu hora cree Ud. que pueda llegar el tren? )

-YES, YOUMAY
(Si, s puede)

-THE TRAIN MAY ARRIVE AT THREE O'CLOCK


(Puede que el tren llegue a las tres)

-MA Y I HELP YOU?


( Puedo servirlo? )

-DO YOU THINK IT MAYRAIN TODAY?


(Cree Ud. que hoy pueda llover? )

-YES, YOU MAY


(Si, SI puede)

-IT MA Y NOT RAIN TODA Y


(Puede que hoy no llueva)
-HOW LONG DO YOU THINK THE DOCTOR MAY WAIT FOR
ME?
(Cunto tiempo cree Ud. que el doctor pueda esperarme'? )

1
t

-MAY GOD BLESS YOU!


( Qu Dios te bendiga! )
-MAY YOU LIVE LONG!
( Que vivas muchos aos! )

-HE MAY WAIT FOR YOU A FEW MINUTES


(Puede que l lo espere unos minutos)
-DO YOU THINK CHARLES MAY UNDERSTAND
GLISH?
(Cree Ud. que Carlos pueda entender mi ingls? )
112

MY EN-

113

EMPLEO DEL VERBO AUX ILIAR MIGHT


PARA EXPRESAR PERMISO EN PASADO
O POSIBILIDAD

EN FUTURO

Observe primeramente; MIGHT tfltpresando posibilidad en futuro en la forma afirmativa: I might go to New York next
year = Yo podra ir a Nueva ,York el a~ prximo.
En el negativo, note la parteula NOT inmediatamente despus de might. Ejemplo:
,
.
[ might NOT go to New York next year = Yo podria no Ir a
Nueva York el ao prximo.
1
MIGHT go
He
MIGHT .tay
They MIGHT come

CONVERSATION

there next year


l
might NOT go there
here longer
He
might NOT day longer
here next month They might NOT come here

Observe ahora MIGHT expresando permiso en pasado (poda). En este caso might es la forma en pasado de mayoc~~ndo
este ltimo expresa permiso concedido, mas no pO~lb/I~.ad.
Note asimismo el pasado del verbo to soy (decir, said (dijo).

My father
said that l
MIGHT go
lo that place.
Her mother said that she /lfIGHT lIay In Chicago another week
Mr. Oavis
said that Ihey MIGHT come here lomorrow

-WHAT DIO JOHN SAY HE MIGHT DO TOMORROW?


(Qu dijo Juan que podra hacer maana? )
;.

1
A,

11

-HE SAlO HE MIGHT WORK TOMORROW


(l dijo que l podra trabajar maana)
-WHERE DID HE SAy HE MIGHT WORK?
(Dnde dijo que l podra trabajar? )
-HE SAlO HE MIGHT WORK IN HIS OFFICE
(l dijo que l podra trabajar en su despacho)
-WHEN DID MARY SAy SHE MIGHT COME HERE?
( Cundo dijo Mara que podra venir aqu? )

-SHE SAID SHE MIGHT COME HERE NEXT WEEK


(Ella dijo que podra venir aqu la semana prxima)

i,

-AT WHAT TIME DID YOU SAY THE BUSMIGHT ARRIVE?


(A qu hora dijo Ud. que podra llegar el autobs? )

-1 SAlO THE BUSMIGHT ARRIVE AT TEN O CLOCK


(Dije que el autobs podra llegar a las diez)
-DIO YOUR PARENTS SAy THEY MIGHT TRA VEL NEXT
SUMMER?
(Dijeron tus padres que podran viajar el verano prximo? )

COMENTARIOS
Para expresar permiso denegado ~n tiempo pasado, bast~ colocar la partcula negativa NOT inmediatamente despues de
might. Ejemplos:
Her mother said that she might NOT stay in Chicago lo_nger
~u madre dijo que ella no poda permanecer en Chicago mas tiempo
My father said that 1 might NOT go to that place
Mi padre dijo que yo no poda ir a ese lugar
Asimismo might se puede emplear en todos los casos y con
todos los sujetos o pronombres personales,

114

-THEY SAID THEY MIGHT NOT TRA VEL NEXT SUMMER


(Ellos dijeron que podran no viajar el verano prximo)
-DIO HER MOTHER SAY MAR Y MIGHT GO TO THE PARTY?
( Dijo su madre que Mara pod a ir a la fiesta? )
,
-MARY'S MOTHER SAID THE GIRLMIGHTGOTOTHEPARTY
(La madre de Mara dijo que la muchacha poda ir a la fiesta)
-DIO THE TEACHER SAy YOU MIGHT LEAVE THE CLASSROOM?
(Dijo el maestro que podas salir del saln de clases? )
- THE TEACHER SAID I MIGHT LEA VE THE CLASSROOM
(El maestro dijo que yo poda salir del saln de clases)

115

-DIO TI-IE MIGRATION


WORK HERE'?
(Dijeron las autoridades
aqu? )

AUTHORITIES

Prctica

SAIO YOU MIGHT


,

Llene los espacios en blanco escogiendo entre MAY, MIGHT, CAN o


COULD, de acuerdo con las indicaciones que estn entre parntesis.

de migracin que poda Ud, trabajar

-THE MIGRATION AUTHORITIES SAIO 1 MIGHT WORK HERE


(Las autoridades de migracin dijeron que yo poda trabajar aqu)
-DlD YOUR FATHER SAY YOU MIGHT SMOKE?
(Dijo tu padre quepodas fumar? )
-MY FATHER SAlO 1 MIGHT SMOKE
(Mi padre dijo que yo poda fumar)
-WHO SAlO ALICE MIGHT GO DANCING?
(i, Quin dijo que Alicia poda ir a bailar? )

f
\

,
1

(Permiso)

. l.go now?

(Posibilidad presente)

It

(Permiso pasado)

My father said 1

(Posibilidad futura)

not rain today.

____

visit New York sorne day.

(Deseo)

Christmas bring you peace and


happiness!

(Habilidad pasado)
-HER FATHER SAlO SHEMIGHT GO DANCING
(Su padre dijo que ella poda ir a bailar)

-DIO PAUL SAY YOUMIGHT SEE THAT MOVIE?


(Dijo Pablo que podas ver esa pelcula? )

you see the parad e last Sunday?

(Permiso)
-WHO SAID THE BOYS MIGHT GO SWIMMlNG?
(lo Quin dijo que los muchachos podan ir a nadar? )
-THEIR MOTHER SAID THE BOYSMIGHT GO SWIMMING
(Su madre (de ellos) dijo que los muchachos podan ir a nadar)

(Permiso pasado)

t
"J

we smoke here?
They said we

smoke here.

(Habilidad presente)

he read and write English?

(Posibilidad futura)

we learn English next year?

(Habilidad pasado)

Lucy

(Deseo)

-HE SAID 1 MIGHT NOT SEE THAT MO\lE


(l dijo que yo no poda ver esa pelcula)

(Posibilidad presente)
(Habilidad presente)

not come here yesterday.


you be very happy!

____

go swimming today.

Richard

speak English very well.

116

go to the party.

117

EMPLEO DEL VERBO AUXILIAR MUST PARA


EXPRESAR NECESIDAD U OBLIGACIN MORAL

Advierta ahora la partcula NOT inmediatamente


MUST para formar as el negativo.

Observe la carencia de to despus de MUST en los verbos en


infinitivo (work, rest, study , etc.) que a continuacin le siguen. Es decir, que el infinitivo pierde la partcula to inmediatamente despus de emplear MUST.
Ejemplo: 1 must work = debo trabajar o tengo que trabajar.
Para formar el interrogativo, basta invertir la posicin del
verbo auxiliar (must) con la de los sujetos (1,[ohn, we, etc.)
Comprese la posicin de MUST en estas dos grficas.

despus de

must

You

must

NOT
NOT

work
rest

on Sunday
on Monday

John
Alice

must
must

NOT
NOT

study
cook

at night
every day

They

must

NOT

practice

today

COMENTARIOS
MUST work
MUST test

daiJy
daily

MUST
MUST

work
rest

daiJy?
daiJy?

John MUST study


Alice MUST cook

daily
daily

MUST John study


MUST Alice cook

daily'?
daily'?

You

They

MUST practice daily

MUST

you

they

practice daily?

..

COMENTARIOS
MUST se emplea con todos los sujetos o pronombres personales. Por ser un verbo defectivo no llevan s en must las'
terceras personas he, she, it.
Ejemplo: She must cook daily = ella debe cocinar diariate.

mr

Tambin puede emplearse la contraccin de must not,


MustN'T, con todos los sujetos o pronombres personales.
Ejemplos:
John MUSTN'T study at night
Juan no debe estudiar de
noche.
She MUSTWT sweep the house on Sunday = ella no debe
barrer la casa el domingo.
We MUSTN'T laugh in class = no debemos remosen la clase, etc.

t
,
l

118

119

CONVERSATION
-WHATMUST YOU DO EVERY DAY?
( Qu debe Ud. hacer todos los das? )

-WHAT MUST JOHN BUY TODA Y?


( Qu debe comprar Juan hoy)

-HE MUST BUY AN ENGLlSH BOOK


(l debe comprar un libro de ingls)

-1 MUST DO MY WORK
(Debo hacer mi trabajo)

-WHAT MUST MARY EAT?

-MUST YOU WRITE A REPORT EVERY DAY?

-SHEMUST

(Qu debe comer Mara? )

(Debe Ud. escribir un informe todos los das?)

EAT F'RUIT ANO VEGETABLES

(Ella debe comer fruta y legumbres)

-YI':S, 1MUST WRITI': IT


-WHAT MUST PAUL DRINK IN THE MORNING?

(S, debo escribirlo)

( Qu debe tomar Pablo en la maana?

-MUST YOU CHECK THE BlLLS, TOO?


(Debe Ud. rectificar las cuentas tambin? )

-HE MUST DRINK MILK ANO ORANGE JUICE


(l debe tomar leche y juego de naranja)

-NO, I MUST NOT

-HOW LONG MUST WE WAIT IN THIS ROOM?


( Cunto tiempo debemos esperar en este cuarto? )

(N o, no debo)

-WHERE MUST YOU GO TODA Y?


(Dnde debe ir Ud. hoy? )

-YOU MUSTWAIT

FIFTEEN MINUTES

(Ustedes deben esperar quince minutos)


-1 MUST GO TO THE POSTOFFICE
(Debo ir al correo)

-WHERE MUST RICHARD WORK NOW?


(Dnde debe trabajar Roberto ahora? )

-HE MUST WORK IN THE CREDIT DEPARTMENT


(El debe lrabajar en el departamento de crdito)

-WHEN MUST YOUR BROTHER COME HERE?


( Cundo debe venir aqu su hermano? )

-HOW MANY THINGS MUST YOU BUY?


(Cuntas cosas debe Ud. comprar? )

-1 MUST BUY MANY THINGS


(Debo comprar muchas cosas)

-HOW MUCH ENGLISH MUST HENRY SPEAK?


( Cunto ingls debe hablar Enrique? )

-HE MUST SPEAK A LOT OF ENGLISH


(l debe hablar mucho ingls)

-HE MUST COME HERE NEXT WEEK


(l debe venir aqu la semana prxima)

-AT WHAT TIME MUST THEY LEAVE FOR NEW YORK?


(A qu hora deben ellos salir para Nueva York? )

-THEY MUS1' LEA VE AT EIGHT O'CLOCK


(Ellos deben salir a las ocho)

120

121

1
EMPLEO DEL VERBO AUXILIAR SHOULD PARA
EXPRESAR DEBER DE CONVENIENCIA
O REQUISITO A LLENAR

Observe cmo SHOULD no implica deber moral, sino ms


bien conveniencia o recomendacin. Note asimismo cmo se
prescinde de la partcula to en los verbos en infinitivo que se
emplean inmediatamente despus de dicho auxiliar.
Para construir la forma interrogativa, basta slo invertir la
posicin del auxiliar (should) con la de los sujetos (1, he,
Mary, etc.). Comprese la grfica del afirmativo con la del
interrogativo.
I
You

SHOULD
SHOULD

buy

se.

a car
a docto

SHOULD
SHOULD

buy

you

se.

a C:Ir'~
a doctor',

SHOULD
SHOULD

.. ve

Mary

4pend money

SHOULD
SHOULD

R iehard .fJCIve
4pend
Mary

money"
money"

Women

SHOULD

morry young

SHOULD

women

marry

young'~

Richard

money

-WHERE SHOULD WE GO TODA Y?


(Dnde deberamos ir hoy? )
-YOU SHOULD GO TO THE MUSEUM
(Deberan Uds. ir al museo)

):

should
should

should

NOT
NOT
NOT

-AT WHAT TIME SHOULD YOU MEET WlTH YOUR FRIENDS?


(A qu hora deber Ud. reunirse con sus amigos? )

that car

saue

money

spend

too much money

COMENTARIOS
Tambin se puede emplear SHOULDN'T que es la forma contrada de should noto Ejemplos:
Richard SHOULDN'T save money = Ricardo no debera ahorrrar dinero; Mary SHOULDN'T spend too much money =
Mara no debera gastar tanto dinero; women SHOULDN'T
marry twice = las mujeres no deberan casarse dos veces.
122

-1 SHOULD MEET WITH THEM AT FIVE O'CLOCK


(Deber reunirme con ellos a la cinco)
-WHAT BOOK SHOULD 1 READ?
( Qu libro debera leer? )

despus de

buy

-WHEN SHOULD WE LEA VE FOR THE MUSEUM?


(Cundo deberamos salir para el museo? )
-YOU SHOULD LEA VE IN THE MORNING
(Uds. deberan salir en la maana)

El auxiliar SHOULD se emplea con todos los sujetos o pronombres personales. Advierta asimismo cmo las terceras personas he, she, it no llevan S en dicho auxiliar por ser ste un
verbo defectivo.

You
Richard
Mary

-WHAT SHOULD 1 DO TO IMPROVE MY ENGLISH?


( Qu debera yo hacer para mejorar mi ingls? )
- YOU SHOULD PRACTICE IT EVERY DAy
(Ud. debera practicarlo todos los das)

COMENTARIOS

Note ahora la partcula NOT inmediatamente


SHOULD para construir la forma negativa.

CONVERSATION

-YOU SHOULD READ A HISTORY BOOK


(Ud. debera leer un libro de historia)

-WHAT KIND OF PRESENT SHOULD 1 HUY FOR CHARLES?


( Qu clase de regalo debera yo comprar para Carlos? )
.
-YOU SHOULD BUY A GOOD BOOK FOR HIM
(Ud. debera comprarle un buen libro)
-WHAT KIND OF MOVIES SHOULD THE CHILDREN SEE?
(Qu clase de pelculas debern ver los nios? )
-THEY SHOULD SEE COMIC MOVIES
(Ellos debern ver pelculas cmicas)

123

-WHAT PLACE SHOULD WE VISIT IN NEW YORK?


( Qu lugar deberamos visitar en Nueva York'? )
-YOU SHOULD VISIT CENTRAL PARK
(Uds. deberan visitar el Parque Central)
-WHAT CLOTHESSHOULD
1 WEAR FOR THE PARTY?
( Qu ropa deber usar yo para la fiesta? )

-YOU SHOULD WEAR NECKTIE


(Ud. deber usar corbata y saco)
-WHAT SHOULD 1 LEARN
( Qu debera yo aprender

EMPLEO DE OUGHT TO
PARA EXPRESAR DEBER DE CONVENIENCIA

ANO JACKET

TO MAKE MORE MONEY?


para ganar ms dinero? )

-YOU SHOULD LEARN ENGLlSH


(Ud. debera aprender ingls)
-WHAT SHOULD 1 WRITE ON THIS CARO?
( Qu deber escribir en esta tarjeta? )
-YOU SHOULD WRITE YOUR
(Ud: deber escribir su nombre

NAME ANO ADDRESS


y direccin)

\
1

.~

Observe el empleo del verbo auxiliarOUGHT (TO) para expresar deber, pero no moral, es decir, es ms dbil que must y
should. Ms bien expresa lo que equivale en espaol a ES
CONVENIENTE. Recurdese que must implica necesidad o
tener que y should expresa es preciso, tambin implica requisito alIenar.
Advirtase asimismo que OUGHT es el nico auxiliar que va
seguido de la partcula TO. De ah que la forma negativa es
OUGHT NOT TO, no existiendo contraccin alguna. Ejemplos:
Richard ought NOT to spend too much money
(Ricardo no debiera gastar tanto dinero)
What you ought to know

I OUGHTTO
He OUGHTTO
We OUGH1'TO

huy
practice
learn

= Lo que es conveniente

that book
sports
Engltsh

I ought
He ought
We ought

NOT
NOT
NOT

que Ud. sepa .

towork
spend
to ea'
lo

.1 nighl
that money
pork meat

.
1

COMENTARIOS

]24

El auxiliar OUGHT (to) se emplea con todos los sujetos o


pronombres
personales.
Como es un auxiliar defectivo no
lleva S en lo referente
a las terceras personas he, she, it,
Ejemplos:
[ohn ought to read good books (.Juan debiera leer buenos
libros)
Mary ought NOT to study late at night (Mara no debiera
estudiar tarde en la noche)

125

Prctica
Llene los espacios en blanco con MUST, SHOULD O OUGHT TO
segn convenga al caso.
1. You 2. Henry_....:..:.__

Observe aqu en la forma interrogativa la posicin de OUGHT


as como la de TO. Note que ought se antepone a los sujetos.

OUGHT
OUGHT
OUGHT
OUGHT

John
you
Mary
they

to buy that book. It's very interesting .

3. We ..;;;-_-

...

finslr that report today.

defend our country in case of war.

to practice

base-hall?

4. You .....
O..;...... t _....;.._
learn to drive.

to work

over-time?
to New York?
during the winter?

5. Susan.;...~_.......;._ save money.

togo

to travel

COMENTARIOS
Aunque los auxiliares MUST, SHOULD y OUGHT (TO) expresan deber, ntese que los tres implican diferentes significados.
Para mejor comprensin del correcto uso de ellos, comprense las tres grficas y construya oraciones empleando estos
tres auxiliares en el afirmativo, negativo e interrogativo.

t
,

6. Y OU

not to eat pork meato

_1'"

7. 1 lU "
8. They ....
<.~'
9. We ..L...

marry young.
love our parents.

10. We..::S",,-,-~1
..;:__not

n. He

\'\ )"

12. You~"..-:
13. Robert
14. You
15. Susan_---'

126

to practice sports.

steal money.

improve his English.


not buy those things.
not smoke because he 's too young.
to see thal picture. It'5 interesting.
not drink coffee at night.

127

PARTES DEL CUERPO HUMANO


VOCABULARIO CON FONTICA

DESCRIBING THE USE OF SOME PARTS


OF THE BODY Reading

PARTS OF THE BODY


Body
head
face
arms
hands
legs
foot
feet
hair
ears
eyes
nose
rnouth

tooth
teeth
forehead

(bdi)
(jed)
(fis)
(arms)
(jands)
(Iegs)
(fut)
(fiit)
(jer)
( irs)
(is)
(nus)
(muz)
(tuz)
( tiz)
(fred)

eye-lids
eye-lashes

( ai.lids)

eye-brows
temples
cheeks
eheek-bone
jaws
chin
neck
back

( ai-brus)
(tmpols)

ehest

shoulder
elbow
wrist
finger
finger -nails
finger-tips
toe( s)
toe-nails
waist

(ai-Ishes)
( chiics)
( chiic-boun)

(yos)
( chin)
(nec)
(bac)
( chest)
(shlder)
(lbou)
( rist)

(fnguer)
(nils)
( tips)

(tu( s)
( tu-nils)
(uist)

= cuerpo
= cabeza
= cara
= brazos
= manos
= piernas
= pie
= pies
= pelo, cabello
= odos
= ojos
= nariz
= boca
= diente
= dientes
= frente
= prpados
= pestaas
= eejas
= sienes
= mejillas
= pmulo
= quijadas
= mentn, barbilla
= cuello
= espalda
= pecho
= hombro
= codo
= mueca
= dedo de la mano
= uas de la mano
= yemas de los dedos
= dedo(s) de los pies
= uas de los dedos de los pies
= cintura

128

-What are the eyes for?


- The eyes are to see. We can also use our eyes to read.
-What are the ears for?
-The ears are to hear. We can also use our ears to listen to the
music, etc.
-What is the mouth for?
-The mouth is to speak. We can also use our mouth to eat and to
sing.

-What is the nose for?


-The nose is to breathe. We can also use our nose to smell.
-What are the hands for?
-The hands are lo hold things. We can also use our hands to write,
to work and lo play.
-What are the feet and legs for?
-The feet and legs are to walk, to run and to jump. We can also use
our feet and legs to dance and lo kick a hall.

NEW WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS


What is thisfor?
The eyes are to see
to use (tu is)
to breathe (briid)
to smell (sml)
to hold (jul)
to kick (kic)

= .Para qu es esto?
=
ojos son para ver

tos

emplear, utilizar
respirar
= oler
= sostener, sujetar
patear, dar puntapis

DESCRIBING THE HUMAN BODY


Reading
The human hody is divided into head, trunk and limbs. There is hair
on the head, The ears are on the head too. The head comprises also
the face where we have the eyes, the nose and the mouth.
There are two rows of teeth in the mouth, the upper one and the
lower one. There is also the tongue.
The trunk comprises the chest, the belly and the back. The neck
joins the head with the trunck.
There are two types of limbs in the human body: the upper limbs
which comprise the arms and hands and the lower limbs which are
the legs and feet.

]29

NEW WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS


Human
is divided into
trunk
limbs
to comprise
it comprises
row
two rows of teeth

upper
the upper one
lower
the lower one
tojoin
joint

type
belIy
hips
knee
tigh
ankle

(jiman)
(divided ntou)
(tronc)
(limbs)
(tu compris)
(it comprises)
(ro)
(per)
(ler)
(tu yin)
(yint)
(tip)
(beli)
(jips)
(nii)
(tai)
(nkol)

eye-Iashes)

humano
= se divide en
= tronco
= miembros, extremidades
= comprender, abarcar
= ello comprende
= hilera, fila
= dos hileras de dientes
= superior
= la de arriba
= inferior
= la de abajo
= unir
= articulacin
= tipo, elase categora
= barriga, estmago
= caderas
= rodilla
= pantorrilla
= tobillo

(tongue, mouth, Iips)


(feet, ears, tongue)
neek, hands, back)
(hair, head , fingers)

(chest, mouth, nose)

(fingers, toes, shoulders)


(wrist, toe-nails,
fingers-nails)

= el tacto
= el olfato
= el gusto

EJERCICIOS
Escoja la palabra adecuada de las que estn entre parntesis y llene
los espacios en blanco.
(eyes, hair, teeth)
(mouth, nose, eyes)
(toes, fingers, elbows)
(legs, hands, shoulders)
(cheek-bone, forehead,

We have
on our head.
We can see with our
_
Each hand has five
_
We walk with our
_

130

_
protect

our
pro-

Reading

= la vista
= el odo

(sait)
(jirring)
(toch)
(smel)
( tist)

Each feet has five


The
fingers and the
tect our toes.

DESCRmING A HOUSE

THE FIVE SEN SES


(Los cinco sentidos)
The sight
the hearing
the touch
the smell
the taste

The
protect our eyes
from the sun, the bright Iight and many
other things.
The teeth are in the
_
We use our
to speak and
also to taste the food.
We touch things with our
=_
We use our
to play
the guitar, the piano and some other
musical instruments.
We breathe through our
and we can use it also to smell things.

J..

-How many rooms are there in your house?


-There are twelve rooms including, of course the servant's room
the living room, the dining-room, the kitchen and two bathroorns.
-Does it inelude the garage, too?
=No, 1 didn't count the garage.
-How many stories does your house have?
-My house has two stories.
-Does it have a garden in front?
-N.o, it doesn't, but it has a porch instead.
-Does it have a back-yard?
-Yes, it does.
-s it large or small?
-It's a large one and there are several trees and flowers growing
there,
-Where are the bedrooms?
-The bedrooms are upstairs on the second floor.
-How many bedrooms are there?
- There are four bedrooms.
-Where are the bathrooms?
-The small one s down-stairs on the main fIoor, by the end of the
hall. The larger bathroom is upstairs.
131

-Where's the living-room located on?


-lt's on the main oor near the entrance
-What else is there on the main floor?
-On the main t100r there are the hall, the dnng-room. the kitchen,
the breakfasl, the small bathroom and, of course, the garage.
-How long is the hall?
-lt is long enough.
-Where's the servanls room?
-lt's over the roof. lt has also a shower and a toilet. They are
separated from that room, and they are situated at one end of the
roof.
-How many winclows or balconies are there in your house?
-There are three big windows down-stairs, each one overlooking
the street. There are five windows upstairs. They are also overlooking the street
-How big is the baekyard?
-It is as big as the area occupied by the house itself.
-How many stair-wave are there?
_There is one inside and another one outside, connecting the backyard with the roof.
-ls your house located at a comer!
--y es, it is.

wall
roof
ceiling

FURNITURE
Furniture
bed

CON FONTICA

PARTS OF THE HOUSE


Porch
living room
dining room
kitchen
breakfast
back-yard
bedrooms
bathroom
attic
basement
cellar
door
window
floor

(porch)

(lving rum)
(dining rurn)
(ktchen)
(brcfast)
(bac yard)
(bed-rums)
(buz-rum)
( tic)
(bisment)
(slar)
(dor)
(undou)
(flor)
132

terraza
sala
comedor
cocina
desayunador
patio trasero
dormitorios
cuarto de bao
tico, desvn
stano, cuarto bajo
sM~no, bodega
puerta
= ventana
piso

pared
tejado, azotea
techo interior, cielo raso
AND OTHER THINGS

locker
dressing-table
mirror
closet
table
chair

(frnichur)
(bed)
(urdrob)
(lker)
(drsing tibol)
(mrror)
(clset)
(tibol)
(cher)

easy-chair

(Isi-cher)

arrn-chair

(arm-cher)

wardrobe

rocking-char

(rking)

so fa
hed-cloth
table-cloth
curtains
rug

( sufa)
(bed-eles]
(tbol-clos)
(krtens)
(rog)

PARTES DE LA CASA Y MOBILIARIO


VOCABULARIO

(ul)
(ruf)
(sling)

=
=
=
=
=

muebles, mobiliario
cama
ropero
ropero
tocador, coqueta
espejo
ropero empotrado
mesa
silla
silln, butaca
silln de brazos
sill~ mecedora, balance
sofa
colcha, cobertor
mantel
cortinas
alfombra

NEW WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS


Including
servants' room
to count
story
stories
in front
behind
instead
flowers
growing
upstairs
down-,stairs

( inclding)
(tu cunt)
(stri)
(stris)
(bijind)
(instd)
(fluers)
(gruing)
( opsters)
(dun-sters)

mam floor
(rnin-flor)
by the end of the hall

Where s the living-room locatcd on?

incluyendo
cuarto de criados
contar, tomar en cuenta
piso
pisos
enfrente
= atrs
en lugar de
= flores
creciendo
arriba
= abajo
planta baja
al ~xtremo del pasillo
donde est situada la
sala?

entrance

( ntrans)

entrada
133

Qu tan largo? o
cunto tiempo?
suficientemente largo
inodoro, servicio sanitario
balcn
halcones
dominando, que da a
'qu tan grande?
ts tan grande como ...
rea
ocupada( do)
la casa misma
escalera
conectando,
comunicando, que comunica
= alto (de dimensin o
tono en el sonido)
= bajo ( de dimensin o
_,Ino en el sonido)
alto (fuerte en sonido)

How long?
long enough
toilet

(long inf)
( tilet)

balcony
halconies
overlooking
How big?
It is as hig as...
area
occupied
the house itself
stair-way
connecting

(blconi)
(blconis)
(overluking)
( rea)
(kiupaid)
(ster-uei)
(concting)

high

(ji)

low

(lu)

loud

(lud)

stout
thick

(stut)
(zic)

grueso
espeso, grueso

wide
narrow
long

(uid)

ancho, amplio
angosto, estrecho
largo

cold
cool
wann

(kuld)
(kul)
(Iuc-uorm)
(uorm)

hot

(jot)

(nrrow)
(long)

Abordemos primeramente los adjetivos largos, o sean, los que constan de dos o ms slabas como:
IMPORTANT
INTERESTING
INTELLlGENT
USEFUL

fro
fresco
tibio
caliente (agradablemente caliente)
caluroso (calor intenso)

Grado Positivo:
Grado Comparativo:
Grado Superlativo:

USEFUL
(til)
USEFUL than (ms til que)
the most USEFUL of
(el ms til de)
more

Veamos lo anterior expuesto esquemticamente.

more~

( cludi)
(undi)

(superlativo)

the most_.--'"

nublado
ventoso, con aire
lluvioso
nevado, con nieve
soleado, con sol
hmedo

( reini)

(snui)
(sni)
(damp)
134

.-

..-A than

Positivo
USE'FUL

OTROS ESTADOS DE TIEMPO


cloudy
windy
rainy
snowy
sunny
damp

(importante)
( in teresan te)
(inteligen te)
(til)

Tom,em?s ahora u.no de ell~s para ilustrar sus tres grados, ya que los
dems siguen el mismo patrono
,

(comparativo)

TEMPERATURAS

Iuke-warm

GRADO DEL ADJETIVO

135

o[

REGLA APLICABLE A LOS ADJETIVOS CORTOS


Denomnanse aqu adjetivos cortos los que constan de una sola
slaba, como tall, short, quick, etc.; o bien aquellos de dos slabas
terminados en y, w y de, como easy, narrow y wide, etc.
Frmase el Comparativo de esta clasificacin aadiendo ER al Positivo, por ejemplo:

EL GRADO COMPARATIVO
y SUS DISTINTAS FORMAS

taUER
shortER
quickER
easiER
narrowER
widER

El comparativo tiene tres variantes, a saber: comparativo de igualdad, comparativo de superioridad y comparativo de inferioridad.
Comparativo de Igualdad

aL)
neg)

not

as
so

USEFUL
USEFUL

as
as

u S E FU L

than

the tallEST
the shortEST
the quickEST
the easiEST
the narrowEST
the widEST

(ms til que)

alto)
corto)
rpido)
fcil)
angosto)
ancho), etc.

Para el Superlativo se aade al Positivo las letrasEST, por ejemplo:

(tan til como)


(no tan til como)

Comparativo de Superioridad
more

(ms
(ms
(ms
(ms
(ms
(ms

(el
(el
(el
(el
(el
(el

ms
ms
ms
ms
ms
ms

alto)
corto)
rpido)
fcil)
angosto)
ancho), etc.

Comparativo de Inferioridad
less

USE F UL

tha,l

Observemos lo anterior expuesto en forma esquemticamente


rida.
(1)

(2)

not

T.enemo~ ahora ~no de los adjetivos arriba expuestos, a fin de suministrar ejemplos Ilustrativos de cada uno de sus grados.

(menos til que)

as

as

(1)

so

as

(2)

dige-

USEFUL
(3)

more

than

(3)

(4)

less

than

(4)

136

Positivq:

the horse is quick


(El caballo es rpido)

Comparativo:

The train isquickER than the horse


(El tren es ms rpido que el caballo)

Superlativo:

But the airplane is the quickEST of the three


(Pero el avin es el ms rpido de los tres)

137

Tanto en el Comparativo como en el Superlativo los adjetivos terminados en y, como easy (fcil), pretty (bonito), dirty (sucio), etc.
cambian dicha consonante por la vocal i:
Observemos en el siguiente esquema la explicacin grfica y
condensada de lo anterior.

..,

Positivo
1)
2)

3)
4)
5)

6)
7)
tJ)

9)
10)
11)

12)
13)
14)
1) viejo
2) joven
3) nuevo
4) rpido
5) fuerte
6) dbil
7) largo
8) pequeo
9) rico
10) pobre
11) limpio
12) duro
13 suave
14 fro

easy
pretty
dirty

old
young
new
fast
strong
weak
long
small
rich
poor
clean
hard
soft
cold

easier
prettier
dirtier

easiest
prettiest
dirtiest

Tambin otro~ adjetivos como big (grande),fat (gordo), thin (del.


gado), hot (caliente), duplican la consonante final en el Comparativo
y Superlativo:
ER

than

(Comparativo)

EST

of

(Superlativo)

big
fat
thin
hot

bigger
fatter
thinner
hotter

biggest
fattest
thinnest
hottest

EL GRADO COMPARATIVO DE LOS ADJETIVOS


CORTOS Y SUS DISTINTAS FORMAS

ms viejo
ms joven
ms nuevo
ms rpido
ms fuerte
ms dbil
ms largo
ms pequeo
ms rico
ms pobre
ms limpio
ms duro
ms suave
ms fro

que
que
que
que
que
que
que
que
que
que
que
que
que
que

el ms viejo
el ms joven
el ms nuevo
el ms rpido
el ms fuerte
el ms dbil
el ms largo
el ms pequeo
el ms rico
el ms pobre
el ms limpio
el ms duro
el ms suave
el ms fro

de
de
de
de
de
de
de
de
de
de
de
de
de
de

':' eamos las tres formas del grado Comparativo en este tipo de adjetivos.
Comparativo de Igualdad

Af.)

AS

tall AS

(tan alto como)

SO

tall AS

(no tan alto como)

Neg)

not

Comparativo de Superioridad
tallER

than

(ms alto que)

Comparativo de Inferioridad
LESS

B8

tall

than

(menos alto que)

139

l
t
SUPERLATIVO

DE SUPERIORIDAD

E INFERIORIDAD

,~

La palabra LEAST colocada delante de un adjetivo en gra~o Positivo


origina el Superlativo de Inferioridad, tanto en los adjetivos cortos
como largos:
(La menos cmoda de todas las casas)
01 all churches (La menos vieja de todas
las iglesias)

the LEAST comfortable 01 all houses


the LEAST

old

Advierta que el artculo the siempre se antepone a la palabra least;


Sinteticemos en este cuadro sinptico el Comparativo y Superlativo de Superioridad y de Inferioridad.

Comparativo
more

1. (superioridad)

less

2. (inferioridad)

ADJE'J::_IVOS IRREGULARES
EN CUANTO A LA
FORMACION
DE SU COMPARATIVO
Y SUPERLATIVO

than

(1)

than

(2)

.~

1
J..

Los adj~tivos good (bueno), bad (malo), muc (mucho), many (muchos),. little (poco) y/ew (pocos) se apartan totalmente del patrn
que siguen los dems para formar su Comparativo y Superlativo,
toda vez que poseen una forma especial e independiente en cada uno
de sus grados.
CUADRO COMPARATIVO DE LAS TRES CLASES DE ADJETIVOS
Compranse a continuacin los adjetivos que presentan dicha irregularidad con los adjetivos largos y cortos.
Positivo

Superlativo

eOOD
BAD

BETTER
WORSE

than
than

the
the

BEST
WORST

(of')
(of)

MUCH
MANY

MORE
MORE

than
than

the
the

MOST
MOST

(of)
(of)

LITTLE
FEW

LESS
FEWER

than
than

the
the

LEAST
FEWEST

(of)
(of)

COMFORTABLE.
Superlativo
importara

3. (superioridad)

the

most

oI

(3)

4. (inferioridad)

the

least

of

(4)

L
2.
3.
4.

Comparativo

Ms cmodo que
Menos cmodo que
El ms cmodo de
El menos cmodo de

HO

difficult
omplicated

new
old
young
late

more important
more
difficult
more complicated

newER
oIdER
youngER
IatER

than
than
than

than

the most important


the most
difficult
the most complicated

than

the
the

than

the

than

the

141

newEST
oIdEST
youngEST
latEST

(of)
(of)
(of)
(of)
(of)
(of)
(01)

Observe la formacin de los distintos grados del adjetivo, tanto los


largos como los cortos. Lea en voz alta las o~aciones de ambas
grficas y despus construya otras nuevas oraciones sustituyendo
comfortable por modern en la primera ilustracin. En la segunda
grfica reemplace young por short y old por tall.
My house is
more
your house is
His house is the most

COMFORTABLE
COMFORTABLE
COMFORTABLE

than mine
of
the three

Her house is less


Their house is the leost

COMFORTABLE
COMFORTABLE

than ours
al!
of

Traduccin
Mi casa es cmoda
Tu casa es ms cmoda que la ma
La casa de l es la ms cmoda de las tres

1
Observe grficamente la formacin del comparativo de igualdad, as
como su forma negativa. Lea los siguientes ejemplos ilustrativos en
voz alta.

",....
J

....

La casa de ella es menos cmoda que la nuestra


La casa de ellos es la menos cmoda de todas
1 am
My brother is
My sister is
1 am
My father is

1 am
My father is

the

YOUNG
YOUNGER
YOUNGEST

tOOn I
of
the family

less
the least

YOUNG
YOUNG

than my brother
of
al! the family

the

OLDER
OLDEST

AS
SO

comfartable
comfortable

AS
AS

yours
hers

Frank is
She is

not

AS
SO

old
old

AS
AS

lam
you are

Traduccin

Francisco tiene la misma edad que yo


Ella tiene menos edad que t

EJERCICIOS
1. Sustituya de la grfica el adjetivo comfortable
(caro) y old por strong.

tt
J

Yo soy mayor que mi hermano


Mi padre es el mayor de los tres
1

142

por expensive

11. Haga que alguien le dicte en espaol las oraciones de estas tres
ltimas grficas para que Ud. las traduzca por escrito al ingls.
Despus rectifquelas guindose por su libro.

Traduccin

Yo soy menos joven que mi hermano


Mi padre es el 'menos joven de toda la familia

not

Mi casa es tan cmoda como la tuya


La casa de eUos no es tan cmoda como la de ella

tOOn my brother
of
the three

Yo soy joven
Mi hermano es menor que yo
Mi hermana es la menor de mi familia

Our house is
Their house is

143

Observe grficamente la formacin de los grados Positivo, Comparativo y Superlativo en los adjetivos irregulares como goad y bad.
Lea en voz alta cada una de las oraciones que ilustran las tres grficas siguientes:
My pronunciation is
eOOD
y our pronunciation is
BETTER
The teacher's pronunciation is the BEST

than mine
of
the three

Mi pronunciacin es buena
La pronunciacin de Ud. es mejor que la ma
La pronunciacin del maestro es la mejor de las tres

John
is a
BAD
student
Henry s
WORSE than John
Paul
is the WORST of
all students
Juan es un mal estudiante
Enrique es peor que Juan
Pablo es el peor de todos los estudiantes

His pronunciation
Frank's pronunciation

is
AS
is not SO

good
good

AS hers
AS Helen's

your brother is
AS bad student AS you
y our sister is nat SO bad student AS your brother

Prctica
Traduzca al ingls las siguientes oraciones:
1. Mi hermano es ms alto que yo
2. La casa de Juan es ms grande que la casa de Pedro
3. Este es el edificio ms alto de la ciudad
4. Ricardo es tan alto como Roberto
5. Jorge es el ms alto de todos mis amigos
6. Yo soy menos alto que Enrique
7. Enrique es mayor que yo
8. Mara es menor que su hermana
9. Mi padre es el mayor de toda mi familia
10. Mi padre es ms fuerte que yo
11. Tu auto es tan nuevo como el mo
12. Mi casa es tan vieja como la tuya
13. La casa de Juan es menos vieja que la ma
14. Esta iglesia es la menos vieja de la ciudad
15. Carlos es ms inteligente que Jorge
16. Jorge es menos inteligente que Carlos
17. Carlos es tan inteligente como Juan
18. Enrique es el ms inteligente de todos
19. Jorge es el menos inteligente de todos
20. Esta casa es ms cmoda que la ma
21. La casa de Roberto es tan cmoda como la de Enrique
22. Mi casa es menos cmoda que la tuya
23. La casa de mi to es la ms cmoda de todas
24. El idioma alemn es ms difcil que el ingls
25. El idioma rabe es el ms difcil de los tres
?6. El idioma italiano es el menos difcil de los cuatro

La pronunciacin de l es tan buena como la de ella


La pronunciacin de Francisco no es tan buena como la de Elena
Tu hermano es tan mal estudiante como t
Tu hermana no es tan mal estudiante como tu hermano

EJERCICIOS
Haga que alguien le dicte en espaol las oraciones de estas tres
grficas para que Ud. las traduzca por escrito al ingls. Despus
rectifquelas guindose por su libro.
144

145

FORMACIN DE LOS ADVERBIOS


NMEROS CARDINALES
Advirtase cmo la terminacin LY aadida al final de algunos adjetivos, los convierte en adverbios_
Note adems que LY equivale en espaol a mente.

y LA FORMACIN DE LOS ORDINALES

Cardinales
quick
more quick
the most quick

LY

slow
more slow
the most slow

LY
LY
LY

easi
more ea si
the most ea si

LY

perfect
more perfect
the most perfect
exact
more exact
the most exact

LY
LY

LY

than

than

than

LY
LY
LY

than

LY
LY
LY

than

LY

COMENT ARIOS
Al grado comparativo y superlativo de los adverbios, se les da
el mismo tratamiento, bien sea si stos provienen de adjetivos
cortos o largos. Ejemplos:

more quickly tha'l (ms rpidamente que)


the most quickly
(lo ms rpidamente)
more exactly than (ms exactamente que)
the most exactly
(lo ms exactamente)

146

1 one
2 two
3 three
4 four
5 five
6 six
7 seven
8 eight
9 nine
10 ten
11 eleven
12 twelve
13 thirteen
14 fourteen
15 fifteen
16 sixteen
17 seventeen
18 eighteen
19 nineteen
20 twenty
21 twenty-one
22 twenty-two
23 twenty-three
24 twenty-four
25 twenty-five
26 twenty-six
30 thirty
40 forty
50 fifty
60 sixty
70 seventv
80 eighty
90 ninety
100 one hundred
101 one hundred
102 one hundred
103 one hundred

Ordinales
(un)
(tu)
(zri)
(for)
( fiv)
(six)
(sven)
( eit)
(nin)
(ten)
(ilven)
( tulv)
(zertn)
(fortn)
(fiftn)
(sixtn)
(seventn)
(eitn)
(naintn)
( tunti)

(zrti)
(frti)
(ffti)
(sxti)
( sventi)
(iti)
(ninti)
(un jndred)
and one
and two
and three

1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th
10th
11th
12th
13th
14th
15th
16th
17th
18th
19th
20th
21st
22nd
23rd
24th
25th
26th
30th
40th
50th
60th
70th
80th
90th
100th
101st
102nd
103rd
147

first
(ferst)
second
(scond)
third
(zerd)
fourth
(forz)
fifth
(fifz)
sixth
(sixz)
seventh
(sevenz )
eighth
( eitz)
ninth
(ninz)
tenth
(tenz)
eleventh
(ilvenz)
twelfth
(tulfz)
thirteenth
(zertnz )
fourteenth
(fortnz)
fifteenth
( fiftnz)
sixteenth
(sixtnz)
seven teen th
(seventnz)
eighteenth
(eitnz)
nineteenth
(naintnz )
(tuntiez)
twentieth
twenty-first
twenty-second
twenty-third
twenty-fourth
twenty-fifth
twenty-sixth
(zrtiez )
thirtieth
fortieth
(frtiez)
fiftieth
(fftiez)
(sxtiez)
sixtieth
(sventiez)
seventieth
(itiez)
eightieth
ninetieth
(nintiez)
. one hundredth (jndredz)
one hundred and first
one hundred and second
one hundred and third

Cardinales
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1,000

two hundred
three hundred
four hundred
five hundred
six hundred
seven hundred
eight hundred
nine hundred
one thousand
(zusand)
2,000 two thousand
1.000,000 one million
(mlion)
2.000,000 two million

EMPLEO DE LOS VERBOS AUXILIARES HA VE Y HAS


PARA CONSTRUIR EL ANTEPRESENTE
PRESENT PERFECT)

Ordinales
200th
300th
400th
500th
600th
700th
800th
900th
1,000th

two hundredth
three hundredth
four hundredth
five hundred th
six hundredth
seven hundredth
eight hundredth
nine hundredth
one thousandth
(zusandz)
2,000th two thousandth
LOOO,OOOth onemillionth
(mlionz)
2.000,_OOOth two millionth

Observe el empleo de los auxiliares HA VE y HAS para expresar lo equivalente en espaol a he, ha, hemos, han. Advierta
asimismo q.ue HAS se utiliza nicamente con las terceras personas d~1 smgular he, she, it y HA VE con los dems sujetos.
En el afirmativo la forma verbal que les sigue a ambos auxiliares es el participio pasado: spoken (hablado),eaten (comido)
written (,:scrito Ejemplos: 1 have spoken (yo he hablado):
he has wntten (el ha escrito).
En el interrogativo HA VE y HAS se anteponen a los pronombres personales o sujetos.

J.

SPOKEN
EATEN
H.
HAS
II'IlITTEN
She
/fAS
IlEAIl
'l'bey /fA VE DIIIVEN
You

HA VE
/fA VE

tollim

fish

HA VE I
/fA VE you

a leller
the news

HAS

SPOKEN
lo him?
EATEN
f,h"
WRITTEN a letterv
she REAO
the news"
thev ORIVEN
a truck?

HAS

a truck

NAVE

he

COMENTARIOS

~ambin aqu pueden emplearse las siguientes contracciones:


I VE, you'~E, He'S, she'S, t'S, we'VE, you'VE, they'VE.
Ejemplos: 1 VE SPOKEN = he hablado, she'S swept = ella
ha barrido.

Observe ahora en el negativo la partcula NOT inmediatamente despus de HA VE y HAS.


1

You
He
It

They

have
have
has
has
ha ve
-

.. -

NOT
NOT
NOT
NOT
NOT

SPOKEN
~AT~N
WRITTEN
RAINED
DRIVEN

tohim
fish
that letter

loday
a truck

yet
this week
yet
yet

COMENTARIOS
Tambin puede sustituirse la partcula NOT por la palabra
NEVER (nunca). Asimismo se pueden utilizar las siguientes
contracciones negativas: 1 HAVEN'T you HA VEN'T she
HASN'T, etc. Ejemplo:
'
,
ItHASN'T rained today (no ha llovido hoy).

148

1-19

'"

IV'....
('0('

'l~O

l,

..

..1

-:-l\

INFlNITIVE

VERBOS IRREGULARES EN INGLES

Observe los diferentes grupos verbales rnnemotcnicamente


ficados.

clasi-

CLASE L Con idnticas formas en el pasado y participio pasado.


INFINITIVE
INFINITIVO

PAST
(third person
singular)
PASADO

PAST
PARTICIPLE
PARTICIPIO
PASADO

To buy
comprar

bought
compr

bought
comprado

to bring
traer

brought
trajo

brought
trado

to think
pensar

thought
pens

thought
pensado

to seek
buscar

sought
busc

sought
buscado

to fight
pelear

fought
pele

fought
peleado

to catch
coger

caught
cogi

caught
cogido

to teach
ensear

taught
ense

taught
enseado

To sleep
dormir

slept
durmi

slept
dormido

to keep
guardar

kept
guard

kept
guardado

to sweep
barrer

swept
barri

swept
barrido

....

, ...

...

"l

...

152
\

"

PAST
PARTICIPLE

INFINITIVO

PAST
(third person
singular)
PASADO

to feel
sentir

felt
sinti

felt
sentido

to leave
dejar, salir

left
dej, sali

left
dejado, salido

to meet
encontrar, conocer

met
encontr, conoci

met
encontrado,

To swing
mecer

swung
meci

swung
mecido

to stick
clavar, pegar

stuck
clav, peg

stuck
clavado, pegado

to strike
golpear

struck
golpe

struck
golpeado

to hangcolgar

hung
colg

hung
colgado

To spend
gastar

spent
gast

spent
gastado

to send
enviar, mandar

sent
envi, mand

sent
enviado, mandado

to build
construir

built
construy

built
construido

to bend
doblar, encorvar

bent
dobl, encorv

bent
doblado, encorvado

to lend
prestar

lent
prest

lent
prestado

To bleed
sangrar

bled

bled
sangrado

sangr

153

PARTICIPTO
PASADO

conocido


INFINJ1'lVE

to lead
conducir,

INFINITIVO

fed
alimentado

red
aliment

dirigir

-,

sped
acelerado

sped
aceler

to speed
acelerar

PAST
(third person
singular)
PASADO

PARTICIPIO
PASADO

PASADO

to fced
alimentar

INFINITIVE

PASl'
PARTlCIPLE

PAS1'
(third person
singular)

INFINITIVO

led
condujo,

dirigi

led
conducido,

dirigido

PAST
PAR11CIPLE
PARTICIPTO
PASADO

to make
hacer, manufacturar

made
hizo, manufactur

made
hecho,

To bite
morder,

picar

bit
mordi,

bit (o bitten)
mordido, picado

to slide
deslizar,

resbalar

slid
desliz', resbal

pic

manufacturado

"d
(o slidden)
deslizado, resbalado

to find
encontrar

found
encontr

found
encontrado

to hide
esconder( se)

hid
(se) escondi

hid (o hidden)
escondido

to bind
unir, atar

bound
uni, at

baund
unido,

to light
encender

lit
encendi

lit
encendido

to grind
moler

ground
moli

ground
molido

To say
decir

said
dijo

said
dicho

1'0 deal

deall
trat

dec lt
tratado

to pay
pagar

paid
pag

paid
pagado

to lay
colocar

laid
coloc

laid

To win
ganar, vencer

won
gan, venci

ganado,

vencido

to shine
brillar, lucir

shone
brill, luci

shone
brillado,

lucido

to wake
despertar

woke
despert

woke
despertado

To tell
decir, contar

told

told

dijo, cont

dicho, contado

to sell
vender

sold
vendi

vendido

tratar
to lean
apoyar,

leant
recostar

to mean
significar

apoy,

recost

atado

leant
apoyado,

recostado

meant
significado

meant
signific

dwelt
habit

dwelt
habitado

sal
se sent

sat
sentado

to spit
expectorar

spat
expector

spat
expectorado

to have
haber, tener

had
hubo,

had
habido,

to dwell
habitar

1'0

tt

sentarse

tuvo

]54

tenido

colocado
wan

sold

155

PAST

INFJNITIVE

PAST
PARl'ICIPLE

(third person
singular)

1'0 stand
quedarse, estarse

.._ to understand
entender

......_

INFJNITIVf:

PARTICIPIO
PASADO

PASADO

INFINITIVO

1.

stood
se qued, se estuvo

stood
quedado, estado

understood
entendi

understood
entendido

PAST
PAR1'ICIPLE

PAST
(third person
singular)

PARTICIPIO
PASADO

INFINITIVO

PASADO

to choose
escoger

chose
escogi

chosen
escogido

to freeze
congelar

froze

frozen
congelado

congel

1'0 read
leer

rcad
ley

read
ledo

to tread
pisar

trod

pis

trodden
pisado

to hear
oir

heard
oy

heard
odo

to weave
hilar

wove
hil

woven
hilado

1'0 hold
sostener

heId
sostuvo

held
sostenido

To write
escribir

wrote
escribi

written
escrito

to withhold
retener

withheld
retuvo

withheld
retenido

to drive
manejar

drove
manej

driven
manejado

1'0 lose
perder

lost
perdi

lost
perdido

to ride
cabalgar

rode
cabalg

ridden
cabalgado

shot
dispar

shot
disparado

to rise
levantarse

rose

to shoot
disparar

se levant

risen
levantado

to strive
esforzarse

strove
se esforz

striven
esforzado

il@;(V
UO)<Ir"";V

a?
~j

to speak
hablar

6: S

Co

C:on el!
'\ t'o.Y'

{'n-t
('

Y'Q e

..

~O,("l'V\~

e",

'P" o 1"0. ........ ~ '),

spoke
habl

spoken
hablado

to steal
robar

sto le
rob

sto len
robado

to break
romper

broke
rompi

broken
roto
156

1'0 begin
began
empezar, comenzar empez, comenz

'-

to drink
beber

drank
bebi

drunk
bebido

to sing
cantar

Inng

sung
cantado

cant

,
.~

.""

begun
empezado, comenzado

157

INFINITIVE

PAST
(third person
singular)
PASADO

PAST
PARTICIPLE

to sink
hundirse

f!ank
se hundi

sunk
hundido

swim
nadar

swam
nad

nadado

lo stink
apestar

stank
apest

stunk
apestado

to spring
brotar, saltar

sprang
brot, salt

sprung
brotado, saltado

to spin
hilar

span
hil

spun
hilado

to shrink
encoger

shrank
encogi

shrunk
encogido

to ring
sonar (el timbre)

rong
son

rung
sonado

to run
correr

ron
corri

ron
corrido

To know
conocer, saber

knew
conoci, supo

known
conocido, sabido

to grow
crecer

grew
creci

grown
crecido

INFINITIVO

10

i
"-

~
PARTICIPIO
PASADO

swum

to throw
lanzar

threw
lanz

thrown
lanzado

to blow
soplar

blew

sopl

blowl!
soplado

to fly
volar

flew
vol

flown
volado

...,"
~
....

.1.

1
.).'.

158

,
"

INFINITIVO

PAST
(third person
singular)
PASADO

To take
tomar, llevar

too k
tom, llev

taken
tomado, llevado

to mistake
errar, confundir

mistook
err, confundi

mistaken
errado, confundido

to undertake
emprender

undertook
emprendi

undertaken
emprendido

to partake
participar en

partook
particip en

to shake
sacudir

shook
sacudi

shaken
sacudido

to forsake
abandonar

forsook
abandon

forsrken

To give
dar

gave
dio

given
dado

to forgive
perdonar

fo rgave
perdon

forgiven
perdonado

to bid
ofrecer

hade
ofreci

bidden
ofrecido

to forbid
prohibir

forbade
prohibi

forbidden
prohibido

To wear
usar (prendas)

wore
us

worn
usado

to tear
desgarrar

tare
desgarr

torn
desgarrado

INFINITIVE

PAST
PARTICIPLE
PARTICIPIO
PASADO

\ partaken
participado de

abandonado

159

INF1NITIVE

PAST

INFINITIVO

(third person
singular)
PASADO

PAST
PARTICIPLE

INFlNITIVE

PAST

PARTICIPIO
PASADO

INFINITIVO

(third person
singular)
PASADO

PAST
PARTICIPLE
PARTICIPIO
PASADO

to swear
jurar, blasfemar

swore
jur, blasfem

swom
jurado, blasfemado

To eat
comer

ate
comi

eaten
comido

to bear
parir

bore
pari

born, borne
parido

to fall
caer

fell
cay

fallen
cado

1'0 get
conseguir

got
consigui

gotten, got
conseguido

To He
tenderse

lay
se tendi

Iain
tendido

to forget
olvidar

forgot
olvid

forgotten
olvidado

to slay
matar

slew
mat

slain
matado

to beget
engendrar

begot
engendr

begotten
engendrado

To be
ser, estar

was, were
fue, estuvo

been
sido, estado

1'0 draw
sacar, dibujar

drew
sac, dibuj

drawn
sacado, dibujado

to see
ver

saw
vio

seen
visto

to withdraw
retirar

withdrew
retir

withdrawn
retirado

To do
hacer

did
hiw

done
hecho

to overdraw1
excederse

overdrew
se excedi

overdmwn
excedido

togo
ir

went
fue

gone
ido

To come
venir, llegar

carne
vino, lleg

come
venido, llegado

to undergo
sufrir, padecer

underwent
sufri, padeci

undergone
sufrido, padecido

to become
llegar a ser

became
lleg a ser

become
llegad o a ser

to overdo
exagerar

overdid
exager

overdone
exagerado

to overcome

overcame
se sobrepuso

overcome
sobrepuesto

sobreponerse

Con respecto a un giro monetario o crdito.

160

..

CLASE 3. Con idnticas formas en sus tres partes principales.


Tolet
dejar, permitir

let
dej, permiti

161

let
dejado, permitido

PAS1'
PARTICIPLE

PAST

INFIN111VE

(third person
singular)

INFINITIVO

PARTICIPIO
PASADO

PASADO

INFINITIVE

PAST

PAST
PARTICIPLE

(third person
singular)

INFINITIVO

PASADO

PARTICIPIO
PASADO

to cost
costar

cost
cost

cost
costado

upset
trastornado

To hurt
herir, lastimar

hurt
hiri, lastim

hurt
herido, lastimado

wet
moj

wet
mojado

to hurst
reventar

burst
revent

hurst
reventado

to bet
apostar

bet
apost

bet
apostado

to put
poner

put
puso

put
puesto

to spread
extender

spread
extendi

spread
extendido

To cast
tirar, fundir

cast
tir, fundi

oest

broadcast
difundi

broadcast
difundido

foreeest
predijo

foreosst
predicho

to set
fijar

set
fij

set
fijado

to upset
trastornar

upset
trastorn

to wel
mojar

To hit
pegar, golpear

hit
peg, golpe

hit
pegado, golpeado

to hroadcast
difundir

to quit
renunciar

quit
renunci

quit
renunciado

to forecast
predecir

to spit
escupir

spit
escupi

spit
escupido

to split
dividir

split
dividi

split
dividido

to cut
cortar

cut
cort

cut
cortado

to shut
cerrar

shut
cerr

shut
cerrado

to thrust
introducir

thrust
introdujo

thrust
introducido

162

tirado, fundido

163

~HAVETHEY EVER EATEN CAVIAR'!


(Han comido dios alguna vez caviar" )

CONVERSATION
~WHAT HA VE YOU DONE WITH YOUR OLD CAR?

~~O, '1'HEY HA VE NEVER EATEN 1'1'

( Qu has hecho con tu auto viejo? )

(No, ellos nunca lo han comido)

~IHAVE SOLD IT
(Lo he vendido)

~WHAT HAS JOHN DONE WITH HIS BOOK?


( Qu ha hecho Juan con su libro? )

~HAS JOHN EVER DONE THAT TYPE OF WORK BEFORE?


(Ha hecho] uan alguna vez esa clase de trabajo anteriormente?

~NO, HEHAS N8VER DONE IT BEFORE


(No, l nunca lo ha hecho antes)

~HEHAS LOST IT
(l lo ha perdido)

~HAVE HENRY AND JOHN EVER COME HERE BEFORE?


(Han venido alguna vez Enrique y Iuan aqu anteriormente? )

~WHAT HA VE YOU BEEN DOING LATELY?

~NO, THEY HA VE NEVER COME HERE BEFORE

( Qu has estado haciendo ltimamente? )

~I HA VE BEEN WORKING

(No, ellos nunca han venido aqu antes)


-HAS THE GIRL EVER GONE '1'0 THE ZOO?
(Ha ido la muchacha alguna vez al zoolgico? )

(He estado trabajando)


~HAS MARY EVER READ THAT BOOK?
(Ha ledo Mara alguna vez ese libro? )

~NO, SHE HAS NEVER GONE TO THE ZOO

-NO, SHE HAS NEVER READ IT

~WHEREHAVE YOU BEEN?


(Dnde has estado? )

(No, ella nunca lo ha ledo)

(No, ella nunca ha ido al zoolgico)

-HAS HELEN EVER WRITTEN A LETTER IN ENGLISH?


(Ha escrito Elena alguna vez una carta en ingls? )

-1 HA VE

-NO SHE HAS NEVER WRITTEN IT

~HOW HA VE YOUR PARENTS BEEN?

(No', ella nunca la ha escrito)

BEEN OUT OF TOWN

(He estado fuera de la ciudad)


( Cmo han estado tus padres? )

-HA VE YOU EVER SEEN THAT MAN?


(Han visto Uds, alguna vez a ese hombre? )

~THEY HA VE BEEN VERY WELL

-NO WE HA VE NEVER SEEN HIM

-WHAT HA VE YOU BOUGHT FOR CHRISTMAS?

(No', no lo hemos visto)

(Ellos han estado muy bien)

(Qu ha comprado Ud. para Navidad? )

-HA VE THEY SPOKEN TO THE MANAGER?


(Le han hablado ellos al gerente? )

~I HA VE BOUGHT MANY PRESENTS


(He comprado muchos regalos)

-VES THEY HA VE SPOKEN TO HIM ALREADY


(Si, ~lIos ya le han hablado)

164

165

Prctica
Llene los espacios en blanco escogiendo entre HA VE o HAS.
___

Robert been in this place?

____

you seen that movie?

Lucy and Alice


Mary
____
___

practiced English aII the week.

read the newspaper a1ready.


the girl swept the floor already?
done this assignment many times.

____

you written a letter in English?

____

Henry ever driven a car?

She

not eaten breakfast yet.

We

not spoken to him yet.

___
The boys
He
___
Mary

t
1.

they arrived in New York already?

Do you drink coffee in Susan's house?


1 find very interesting things in the markets.
Do you choose nice colors?
My brother doesn't drive fasto
They don't keep their money in the Bank.
1 give money to my parents.
Does Robert sleep eight hours?
My father takes us to the circus.
The student doesn't hring his book.
Do you buy vegetables in the market?
1 get very good commissions
The girl doesn't sweep the floor.
We meet with many friends in the club.
Does Alice set the table?
1 put my books on the tableo
My parents sit at the tableo
Do they forget to mail the letter?
Do you bring your camera in your car?
The secretary doesn't write many letters
We don't read the newspapers.
Who works in this office?
He leaves for Europe by airplane.
Does Henry come here by bus?
Those children don't know who
amo
1 swim in this swimming pool.
This actress sings on television.

sung many American songs.


Prctica

finished the report on time.


1 given you the change?
not given me the change.

_.l
Prctica
Cambie a HA f/E o HAS las siguientes oraciones que estn en
tiempo presente. Al emplear HA VE o HAS estarn en el antepresente (present perfect).
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

John speaks English fluently.


Does Mary eat fish?
We often see American movies.
Paul doesn't hear the church bell.
166

...

Emplee HA VE o HAS con EVER en las preguntas y NEVER en las


negaciones de acuerdo con lo enumerado a continuacin.
Ejemplo: '. l. Ht'- ro h.. in New York.
(Pregunta) Has he eoer been in N. Y? (Ha estado l alguna vez en
N.Y?)
(N egacn) He has never been in N. Y. (l nunca ha estado en N. Y.)
Forme dos oraciones con cada sujeto y forma verbal correspondiente. Esta deber estar en participio pasado: been, caten, etc.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

He - to be in New York.

J ohn - to eat caviar


You - to see a giraffe
Susan - to write a letter.
You - to speak in a meeting
They - to go to that place.
167

7. He - to read that book.


8. This ehild - to drink coffee
9. You - lo drive a car
.
10. The secretary - to do that assgnment
11. We - to sing that song
12. Robert - to sleep in a hotel
13. Alice - to buy a present
14. You - to keep money in the Bank
15. lt - to work well
16. They - to forget their umbrella
17. You - to wear a hat
18. We - to ohoose a nice color
19. He - to break his leg
20. Paul - to swim in a lake
21. Mary - to bring you flowers
22. 1 - to get a good job
23. you - to hear voiees
24. We - to know that man
25 Richard - to meet with Susan
26: y ou - to feel cold at night
27. They - to leave early
28. He - to send a package
29. y ou - to lend money
30. We - to glve presents
31. 1 - to think o her
32. y ou - to freeze your ears
33. She - to pay the bills
34. 1 - to sell cars
35. They - to ride on a bus
36. We - to tell the truth
37. Helen - to set the table
38. y ou - to hurt your arm
39. She - to spend much money
40. They - to fight among themselves
41. 1 - to seek information
42. He - to orgive his enemies
43. Peter - to steal money
44. They - to kneel in church
45. She - to weep in a funeral
46. You - to swear in vain
47. Mary - to sweep the floor
48. [- to cut a cake
49. Henry - to put on a hat
50. y our parents - to forbid you to smoke

EMPLEO DEL VERBO AUXILIAR


CONSTRUIR EL ANTECOPRETRITO

Obsrvese el empleo del auxiliar HAD para expresar lo equivalente en espaol a haba, habas, IJabamos, haban. Advierta asimismo que HAD se utiliza con todos los sujetos o
pronombres personales y que la forma verbal que le sigue es
siempre un participio pasado: spoken (hablado), eaten (comido), written (escrito). Ejemplos:
1 had spoken (yo haba hablado), he had written (l haba
escrito).
En el interrogativo, HAD se antepone a los sujetos o pronombres personales. Comprese la posicin de HAD en la grfica
del afirmativo con la del interrogativo.

-,
I

liAD

tu hin!

liAD

SPOKEN

tohimJ

H.

HA 1) ~Ef:N
liAD WIHITEN
liAD RAINED

Ihal vidurr
a It:lt~'r
loo mua

nn

he

Ihal picturr:'!
a letter?
beforc'!

HAD
liAD

that di'"

that dish'~

Sh.
It
IVe
They

SPOKEN

EAn:N
IJKIVJ;N

a truck

liAD
liAD

sh.
It

SEEN
IVIIITTEN
KAINED

liAD
liAD

we
they

EATEN
IJIIIVJ;N

a trnek"

COMENT ARIOS
En el afirmativo pueden emplearse las contracciones sguientes:
(1 h~d), you'D (you had), he'd, she'D, it'D, you'D y
they D, seguidas de cualquier forma verbal en participio pa
sado: spoken.

rD

169
168

HAD PARA
(PAST PERFECT)

Who

Observe ahora en el negativo la partcula NOT inmediatamente despus de HAD.

Where
1

had

NOT

SPOKEN

tohim

before,

He

had

NOT

SEEN

that picture

before.

...

NOT

DRlVEN

a truck

before,

How

--------

3. Paul will go to New York b


\

They had

___

.' l
y alrp ane next month.

-------------

Where

__

Who

__

?
?

COMENTARIOS

?
What

Tambin puede sustituirse la partcula NOT por la palabra


NEVER (nunca): 1 had NEVER spoken to him (Yo nunca
haba hablado con l).
Asimismo se pueden utilizar las siguientes contracciones negativas: 1 HADN'T (1 had not), you HADN'T, he HADN'T,
etc., seguidas de cualquier forma verbal en participio pasado:
spoken.

When

---------------------------------

-----------------------

4. Christofer

ships,

Columbus had

traveled to America in 1492 on sal-

WhO

__

When

__

Prctica

-----------------------------

What
Formule preguntas que contesten a las cuatro afirmaciones enumeradas abajo y de acuerdo con las palabras interrogativas aqu
empleadas.
1. Robert has spoken to the manager in his office ~sterday.
'1'0 whom

Who

....

Where

How

1._'

What

___

Where

When

'-

2., They have worked in a factory during their vacation.


What

___

When

___

?
?

'?

170
171

?
?
?
?
?

EMPLEO DE THAT 1 MA Y... ETC. PARA


CONSTRUIR
EL PRESENTE DE SUBJUNTIVO

Prctica
Db.eldequlivalente.en ingls a lo que aparece escrito entre parntesis
a ajo e os espacios en blanco.

Observe el empleo de THAT l MA Y... (That 1 may speak =


que yo hable) etc. para expresar lo equivalente en espaol a
que yo escriba, que leamos, que vengan, etc.
Advierta tambin que el auxiliar MA Y se utiliza en todos los
sujetos o pronombres personales y que su posicin es despus
de dichos sujetos (l, you, he, she, etc.),
En el negativo la partcula NOT se coloca inmediatamente
despus de MA Y. Ntese adems que este auxiliar va seguido
de verbos en su forma simple [speak; eat, see, write, etc.).

1. J ohn wears eye-glasses so


2.
L

That
That
That
That
That
That
That
That

you
he
she
it
we
you
they

MAY
MAY
MAY
MAY
MAY
MAY
MAY
MAY

speak
eat

see
write
rain
live
work
study

That
That
That
That
That
That
That
That

you
he
she
it
we
you
they

may
may
may
may
may

may
may

may

NOT speak
NOT eat
NOT see
NOT write
NOT rain
NOT live
NOT work
NOT study

r practice

English so -:----__
(que hable)

4. We work hard so

------(que compre)

--;-----__
(que ahorremos)

a new caro

money.

5. They play foot-ball so ----

strong.
(que estn)

6. Mary eats much fruit so

fluently.

3. Henry saves money so .

COMENTARIOS
Recurdese que MA Y, adems de ser el auxiliar del presente
de subjuntivo, tambin puede expresar permiso, posibilidad y
deseo. Ejemplos:
(permiso)
MAY 1 speak to you?
Puedo hablar con
Ud?
MAY 1 go?
Puedo irme?
MAY 1 smoke?
Puedo fumar?
(posibilidad)
1MA Y go to Europe next year = Posiblemente vaya a
Europa el ao prximo.
HeMA Y arrive in Mxico tomorrow = Posiblemente llegue
a Mxico maana.
It MAY rain today
Posiblemente llueva
hoy.
(deseo)
MAY God bless you! = Que Dios te bendiga!
MA y Christmas bring you happiness!
Que la Navidad te
traiga felicidad!
MA Y you have a good time!
Que te diviertas!

better.
(que vea)

------(que se conserve)

7. 1sleep eight hours so

healthy.

well.

(que descanse)
8. They huy very cheap so

at a good price.

(que vendan)

9. 1 read the newspapers so

the news.
(que comente)

10. Susan Iistens carefulIy so

the conversation.

(que entienda)
11. He wears an ear-aid

so ----

12. She eats vegetables so

__
(que oiga)

well.

-------(que adelgace)
1

172
173

soon

9bser~e ahora en el negativo, el uso de DlDN'T se ido


inmediato por verbos en su forma sm le {.
k
gu
etc.). Advierta tambin WEREN'T par~ la pea , com~,
d d
bi
,
orma negativa
pasa o e su [untvo del verbo to be (ser o
t)
COULDN'T
en lo que respecta a la forma negativa
es al'
COULD.

b7iee

EMPLEO DE ir (condicional)
CON EL PASADO DE LOS VERBOS
PARA CONSTRUIR
EL PASADO DE SUBJUNTIVO
Observe el empleo de la palabra condicionallF con los verbos
en pasado lo cual equivale en castellano a si yo hablara = if 1
SPOKE, si l viniera = if he CAME, si escribiramos = ifwe
WROTE, si ellos compraran = if they BOUGHT, etc.
Advierta tambin aqu que estas oraciones en el pasado de
subjuntivo se complementan con el auxiliar WOULD seguido
de verbos en su forma simple: go, buy, travel, etc.

II I D/DN"l'
1I he DIDN1'

'peak t::nglioh
come here

If I
If I

so

WEREN1'
COULDN"I'

poor
te London

dey

I WOULD eern "1')' little money.


I WOULD
him al home.
I WOULD buy
I WOULD 80

a caro
lo New York.

Lea este cuadro oralmente


Prctica

IF I
IF h.
IF we

SPOKE
CAME
BOUGHT
Ir Ihey WORKED

IF, I
IF he
IF she
IF it

WERE
WERE
JIIERE
WERE

IF you COULD

Englioh
her.lomorrow
the newspaper
evertime

I
we
we
lhey

JIIOULD
JIIOULD
JIIOULD
JIIOULD

lO
lo New Yorl ..
"Uir him,
Ieorn the n_o.
""'"
more money,

very rieh
my friend
in Me.xieo
euy

I
I
ohe
I

WOULD
WOULD
WOULD
WOULD

buy

a ranm.

help
_k
do

him~

speak Englioh

you

WOULD

tnwol

through gurcpe.

Spanoo,
t.

Conteste en ingls con oraciones completas las siguientes preguntas:


1. What would you do if you were rich?
2. What would you do if you were very poor?

3. What would you do if you had a million dollars?


COMENTARIOS
Ntese aqu el empleo de WERE (fuera, estuviera) en 1, he,
she, it" en estas acciones condicionadas en las que se antepone
la palabra lF. No emplee WAS en 1, he, she, it, cuando estn
en pasado de subjuntivo~
Por otra parte, en este caso, el auxiliar WERE se utiliza con
todos los sujetos o pronombres personales.

4. What would you do if you were blind?


5. What would you do if you were President of this eountry?

6. What would you do ir you had a prvate airplane?

Lea este cuadro orahnente


7. Where would you go on week-ends if you had an arplane?

8. What would you do if you were a bird?

174

175

9. Where would you go if you could fly?

EMPLEO DE LA FORMA 1 WISH


PARA SIGNIFICAR OJAL EN ESPAOL

...

Observe el uso de las formas 1 WISH l ... ,1 WISH YOU .. , 1


WISH he... , etc., que en castellano equivalen a OJAL.
Note asimismo que dichas formas van seguidas de verbos en
~asado como had, carne, spoke, etc., que en este caso sgnfican en espaol tuviera, viniera, hablara, etc.

10. What places would you visit if you were in New York?

11. What would you do if you had a ranch?

12. What would you do if you were very sick?

'.
I

13. What would you do if you spoke English very well?


14. How would you feel if you ate only bread every day?

l\;

.L

1
1
1
1
1

wish
wish
wish
wish
wish

1
you
he
Mary
we

HAD
CAME
SPOKE
WERE
COULD

a million dollars.
to the party tonight.
English very well.
my classmate in school.
travel every year.

),

15. How would you feel if you slept only two hours every night?

16. What would you do if you saw a ghost?

,,:....

...

"

17. What would you do if you heard an explosin near you?


18. What would you do if youfelt a strong earth-quake?

~
I

\
19. What would you do f you went to China and you didn't speak
Chnese?

1 wish 1
1 wish you
1 wish he

DIDN'T
DIDN'T
DIDN'T

work
come
speak

so much every day.


so late every morning.
so much in class.

1 wish Mary
1 wish they

WEREN'T
COULDN'T

go

so busy every day.


to that place tonight.

COMENT ARIOS
I
J.

176

Advirtase ahora aqu en el negativo el empleo de DIDN'T y


el verbo en su forma simple despus de 1 wish l.., etc. en
todos los casos excepto en los verbos en pasado were y could
cuyas formas negativas son WEREN'T y COULDN'T'

Emplase asimismo en el afirmativo el auxiliar WOULD segudo del verbo en su forma simple despus de 1 wish 1. .. etc.
Ejemplo:
1 wish 1 would have a million dollars.
Ojal yo tuviera un milln de dlares.
En el negativo tambin se puede utilizar WOULDN'T con
verbos en su forma simple. Ejemplo:
1 wish 1WOULDN'T uiork so much
Ojal yo no trabajara tanto.

177

Prctica
Exprese una opinin favorable empleando la forma 1 WISH (ojal)
en cada una de las siguientes oraciones. Ejemplo:

EMPLEO DE LAS FORMAS COMPUESTAS


IF 1 HAD ... 1 WOULD HAVE . ETC.

1. Not many people are rieh in Mexico.


l wish many people were rich in Mexico.
(Ojal mucha gente fuera rica en Mxico)
1. Not many people are rich in Mxico
2. A few people can go lo the beach every year.
3. John is sick.
4. It is raining very hard
5. A few peoplc haue a cal' in this country.
6. Not many peoplego to New York every year.
7. lt is snowing in Chicago now.
8. Acapulco is very hot in Summer-tme.
9. A few people own a house in Mxico City.
10. No! many people buy cars on cash.
11. Life is expensive nowadays.
12. Not many mexicans can travel to Europe.
13. Not many people earn good salaries.
14. Not many guestsare in this party.
15. A few students speak English fluently.

Observe el uso de jf 1 HAD ... , jf you HAD .. , jf he HAD ... ,


etc. seguidas de verbos en participio pasado [spoken, studied,
etc.) y combinadas con las formas WOULD HAVE seguidas
igualmente de participios pasados: gone, learned, etc.
Advierta asimismo que jf 1 HAD .. , etc., equivale en espaol
a si yo hubiera, etc. 'y la forma WOULD HAVE a habra ... ,
cte.
If
If
If
1I
1I
If
If
If

....

HAO
HAO
HAO
'she HAO
it
HAO
we
HAO
you
HAO
they HAO
you
he

SPOKEN
STUDIEO
WORKEO
WRI'M'EN
RAINEO
HUN
HELPEO
COME

wel!

more
hard

you

'aster

".
here

WOULO HAVE
WOULO HA VE
he WOULO HA VE
she WOULO HA VE
it
WOULO HA VE
we WOULO HA VE
we
WOULO HA VE
1
WOULO HA VE

CONE
LEARNED
EARNED
COTTEN
BEEN
CAUCHT
FlNlSHED
SEEN

loN.Y.
better.
money.

a lener.
cooler.
tm,
earlier.

bem,

COMENTARIOS
En ambos patrones compuestos pueden emplearse las siguientes formas contradas. Ejemplos:

.._\

If I'd spoken English well, 1 would've gone to England.


(Si yo hubiera hablado ingls bien, yo habra ido a Inglaterra)
If you'd studied more, you uiould've ledt(_nedbetter.
(Si hubieras estudiado ms, habras aprendido mejor)
If he'd worked hard, he would've earned money.
(Si l hubiera trabajado duro, l hahrfa ganado dinero)

178

179
L

Prctica

HAVE

Conteste en ingls con oraciones completas a las siguientes preguntas:

EMPLEO DE LA FORMA: MUST


PARTICIPIO PASADO (debe haber ... )

Observe que la forma MUST HAV~ (WOllKED) expresa solamente suposicin en tiempo pasado y nunca deber moral.

1. What would you have done, if you had be en Napolen?


2, Where would you have gone last year, if you had had more
money?
3, What would you have done, if you had been born blind?
4, What would you have done, if you had been a bird?
5. What would you have done, if a doctor had told you that
you had only six months to live?
6. What would you have bought, if you had had a million dollars?
7. How would you have spent a million dollars, if you had
been in Paris last year?
8. What would you have done, if you had seen a fire near
your house?
9. How would you have spent your time, if you had been in
New York last year?
10. Where would you have flown, if you had had wings?
11. Where would you have gone during your last vacation if
you had had more money?
12. What would have you eaten Testeniay f JOU hadn"t been sick?

I suppose he
thev
1 suppose he'

1 thlnk

MUST HA VE WORKED
J!UST HA "E LIVED
.lfUST HAVE SPOKEN

very hard yesterd ay.


in the United Sta tes.
EngLishvery welL

cmlENTARJOS
Asimismo se puede emplear la contraccin MUST'VE (worked,
lived, spoken, rained). Ejemplo:
1 suppose itMUST'YE rainED very much yesterday.
Supongo que debe haber llovido mucho ayer)

HAVE

..

EMPLEO DE LA FORMA: SHOULD


PAR TICIPIO PASADO (debera haber .. )

Observe que la forma SHOULD


obligacin moral en pasado .

HAVE (WORKED) expresa

r
You
He

SHOULD
SHOULD
SHOULD

HAVE WORKED yesterday, but 1 DIDN'Twork


HAVE GONE
to school, but you DIDN_'T go
HAVE RESTED
yesterday, but he DIDN'T rest
COMENT ARIOS

Igualmente
puede usarse la contraccin SHOULD'VE
WORKED etc. Ejemplo:
John SHOULD'VE
slept more hours last night, but he only
slept four hours.
(J uan debera haber dormido m~ horas anoche, pero slo
durmi cuatro horas)

180

181

Prctica
S.aq.ue conclusiones hipotticas de acuerdo con las aseveraciones
a najo enumeradas. Para ese efecto emplee la forma MUST'VE
Anteponga a cada oracin las-palabras 1 suppose. Ejemplo:
.
1. John speaks English very well.
1 suppose he MUST'VE practiced -a lot.
1. J ohn speaks English very well.
2. He has a cut on his face.
3. Helen can't find her peno
4. 1 never see his old car anymore. 1 don't know what he did
wrth rt.
5. 1 saw Paul in a d~ug-stol'e. He has looking pale and tired.
6. 1 saw Alice runnmg. She ddn't stop. She only said: HelIo
7. 1 called Mary over the telephone. The phone rang but
nobody answered it.
8. 1 went to Paul's apartment, but he wasn't there.
9. 1 saw Betty getting many presents and congratulations
10. 1 saw Charles in a restaurant. He was eating very mucho

Prctica
Con el fin de que el uso de SHOULD'VE (SHOULD HAVE) se tome
automtico; emplelo en cada una de las frases abajo enumeradas,
anteponindolo
L

gone to the hospital for his operation last week,


He SHOULD'VE gone to the hospital for hisoperation last week.

gone to the hospital for his operation last week,

2.

worked in the office yesterday.

3.

finished my assignmentlast Friday.

4.

written a letter to her parents last week,

5.

read the instructions before.

6.

rested after your operation last month.

7.

eaten breakfast before going to work.

8
9.

182

a ellas y as formar oraciones completas. Ejemplo:

arrived on time yesterday.

_ swept the floor yesterday morning.

10.

slept eight hours last night.

11.

got that job last week.

12.

visited Paris last Summer.

13.------

driven carefully last night.

14..

bought that house last year.

15.

taken a taxi during the rain last night.

183

Prctica
Con el objeto de forzar una alternativa entre el empleo de
SHOULD VE o el negativo SHOULDN T HA VE, frmense oracio,
nes de acuerdo con los siguientes complementos. Note que todos
los verbos estn en participio pasado.
L ----

__

finished my report on time yesterday.

2. ----

__

left without permission.

3.

arrived early yesterday.

4.

gone lo the hospital for your operation.

5.

done your home-work yesterday.

6. -

worked when she was sick,

7.

asked the nurse for more medicine without the


doctor s orders.

8. --

slept so late when he had to work.

9. -

eaten so much yesterday.

TO HAVE

'-

Observe que OUGHT TO HAVE (WORKED) expresa tamo


bin deber en tiempo pasado, pero no de tipo moral.
Advierta asimismo que OUGHT TO HAVE siempre va seguida de verbo en participio pasado: seen (visto).
1
OUGHT TO HAVE SEEN
y ou OUGHT TO HAVE BOUGHT
He
OUGHT TO HAVE PRACTICED

rested when the doctor told you to do so.

ll. --

checked those bilIs yesterday

12. --

aloud when the teacher was teaching


the lesson.

13. ------

read that book, because it is for adults only,

He should NOT have worked yesterday.


(l no debera haber trabajado ayer)
He ought NOT to have worked yesterday.
(l no debiera haber trabajado ayer)

spoken

15. --

__

come to the meeting yesterday.


told that secret lo anybody.

las tres formas compuestas en negativo:

1 think he must NOT have worked yesterday.


(Creo que l no debe haber trabajado ayer)

"(

14. ----

a doctor last week.


that car last year.
English in Chicago,

OBSERVACIONES
l.-Note

I, -----_

EMPLEO DE LA FORMA: OUGHT


+ PARTICIPIO PASADO (debiera haber . )

J.
"'1

2.-Nole

s610 dos formas compuestas en interrogativo:

Should he have worked yesterday?


(Debera l haber trabajado ayer? )
Ought he to have worked yesterday?
( Debiera l haber trabajado ayer? )

184
185

t.

EMPLEO DE MA Y HAVE, MIGHT HAVE


Y COULD HAVE + PARTICIPIO PASADO

EMPLEO DE LA FORMA ING DESPUS


DE PREPOSICIONES Y OTRAS PALABRAS

Observe que tanto MAY HAVE (arrived) como MIGHT


HAVE (spoken) expresan una posibilidad en pasado y que
COULFJ HAVE (done) es equivalente en espaol a hubiera
podido (hacer) o pudo haber (hecho).

I sappose
I think
I guess

Henry
Mary
Alice

I suppose
I suppose
I guess

Ihey
he
she

Richard
Helen
They

MA Y HA VE been
MAY HAVE .een
MA Y HA VE .rrived
MIGHT HA VE known
MIGHT HA VE 60ne
MIGHT HA VE fini.hed

Debe utilizarse la forma verbal en gerundio y no en infinitivo, des.


pus de las preposiciones y algunas otras palabras que se exponen en
la grfica siguiente.

here last week


me yesterday
in Chicago yesterday
eaeh other long lime ago
lo the movies last nigh I
that assignmenl yeslerday

COULD HAVE 'earned English lasl year


here yeslerday
COULD HAVE come
ther assignmenl yeslerday
COULD HA VE done

1. Think twice

BEFO RE

speaking.

2. you should rest

AFTER

working.

3. He wenl away

WITHOUT

saying

4. Thank you

FOR

coming.

5. She persisted

IN

asking

6.

ON

leaving.

AT

making

watches.

buying

the house?

Please, close the door

good-bye.

questions,

COMENTARIOS
7. They are experts
Las contracciones de estas formas compuestas son: MA Y'VE,
MIGHT'VE y COULD'VE. Ejemplos:

.::

9. He stays at home

He MA Y'VE worked (Posiblemente l haya trabajado)


HeMIGHT'VE
worked (l podra haber trabajado)
He COULD'VE worked.(I pudo haber trabajado)
Sus formas negativas son MAY
HAVE y COULD NOT HAVE.

NOT HAVE, MIGHT

8. Did they say anything ABOUT

INSTEAD OY going

to school.

10. 1 finished

IN SPITE OF

feeling

tired.

11. Read thenewspaper

WHILE

waiting.

NOT

L Piense dos veces antes de hablar.

Prctica
1.. Construya
oraciones empleando
MIGHT'VE en afirmativo y negativo.

las formas

MAy'VE

2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
2. Conteste con .varias afirmaciones a las siguientes preguntas:
a) What COULD you HAVE done last week that you didn't do?
b) Where COULD you HAVE gone yesterday that you didn't
go?
e) Whom COULD she HAVE se en last Sunday that she didn't
see?

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Ud. debera descansar despus de trabajar.


El se fue sin decir adis.
Gracias por haber venido.
Ella persista en hacer preguntas.
Por favor, cierre la puerta al salir.
Ellos son expertos para hacer relojes.
iDijeron ellos algo acerca de comprar la casa?
El se queda en casa en lugar' de ir a la escuela.
Termin a pesar de sentirme cansado.
Lea el peridico mientras espera.
Lea este cuadro oralmente

18~

187

EMPLEO DE LA FORMA ING


DESPUS DE CIERTOS VERBOS

EJERCICIOS
Llene los espacios en blanco con la palabra abajo indicada, que est
parntesis, cambindola al gerundio. Traduzca despus esas
oraciones al castellano en forma oral.
entre

1. He went horne withoul

Obsrvese la forma ING y no el infinitivo, despus de to


enjoy (disfrutar, gozar), to avoid (evitar), to stop (parar, cesar), to practice (practicar), to finish (terminar), to consider
(considerar) y to mind (tener inconveniente, importar).
Note asimismo cmo estos siete verbos pueden estar en cualquier tiempo y forma.

his work.

(finish)
2. She drinks coca-cola instead of

rnilk,
(lo drink )

:1. Call me firsl befo re

lo my house,

Henry

often

ENJOYS

swimming

Peter

always

AVOIDS

fighting

finally

STOPPED

smoking

We

never

PRACTICE

reading

They

haven't

FINISHED

working

John

hasn't:

CONSIDERED

traveling

Alice

doesn't

MIND

waiting

(lo go)
4. Don't forget to brush your teeth after

_
(lo eat)

5. This book is for

English.
(to learn)

6. My brother is very good at

chess,
(play)

7. She's very shy about


to sing)
8. Be careful on

the bus.
(get off)
COMENTARIOS

sick.

9. He carne to school in spite of a


(to be)

Tambin existen otros verbos que pueden tomar tanto la forma


ING como el infinitivo indistintamente. Ejemplos:

that house.

10. My uncle is interesied in


(to buy)
11. Don't forget to write upon

I,
anything.

12. He worked yesterday without

continued

(to arrive)

started
Frank

(to eat)

began

to the radio.

13. They danced while


(to listen)
14. Wash your hands before

liked

_
(to eat)

15. y ou can play base-ball after

your lesson.
(to study)

188

189

PRONOMBRES OBJETIVOS E INFINITIVOS


DESPUS DE ALGUNOS VERBOS

Prctica
Con el objeto de que las formas WAN1' ME TO ... etc., se tornen
automticas" sustituya en la siguiente oracin: They want us to
finish the report on time, el verbo want por:

Emplanse los pronombres objetivos me, you, it, him, her, uso
them seguidos de infinitiuos, despus de estos verbos.

He

EXPECTS

me

to come

tomorrow

ORDERED

you

to go

home

ASKED

him

to study

everyday

He

INVITED

her

to go

down town

They WANT

us

to call

him this aftemoon

TOLO

you

to waitfor

me here

ADVISE

you

to send

me the packages home

We

WANTED

them to bring

She

ASKED

him

to write

the letters now

He

PERMITTED

us

to wait

in the lobby

He

FORCED

us

to come back

to Chicago

PERSUADED

them to travel

He

CONVINCED me

URGED

hE!~ to speak

more English

ALLOWED

him

base-ball

to leam

to play

U!!

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

9.

10.
11.
12.

telJ
ask
order
force
advise
persuade
convince
invite
urge
expect
permit
allow

(told)
(asked)
(ordered)
(forced)
(advised)
(persuad ed)
( convinced)
(invited)
(urged)
(expected)
(permitted)
(allowed)

many presents
Forme dos oraciones con cada verbo, una en presente y otra en
pasado. Ejemplo:
L

byairplane

They teJl us to finish the report on time


(Ellos nos dicen que terminemos el informe a tiempo)

They told us to finish the report on time


(Ellos nos dijeron que terminramos el informe a tiempo)

English

COMENT ARIOS
Observe que la forma verbal en infinitivo no vara aunque los
verbos principales estn en presente o en pasado. En stos el infinitivo equivale en ePaol al presente y pasado de Subjuntivo.
Ejemplos:

,.
i

He expects me to come tomorrow. (l espera que yo venga maana).


Ordered you to go home, (Te orden que fueras a casa).

190

decir-dijo
pedir-pidi
ordenar-orden
obligar -oblig
aconsejar-aconsej
persuadir-persuadi
convencer-convenci
invi tar -invit
urgir -urgi ( apremiar)
esperar-esper
permitir-permiti
permitir-permiti

191

..
CASOS EN QUE SE EMPLEA EL TIEMPO PRESENTE
DE INDICATIVO EN VEZ DEL SUBJUNTIVO
DESPUS DE CIERTOS VERBOS

Prctica
D el equivalente en ingls a lo que aparece escrito entre parntesis
abajo de los espacios en blanco.

Emplase el tiempo presente en lugar del presente de subjuntivo despus de los verbos propose (proponer), recommend (recomendar), prefer (preferir), suggest (sugerir),
demand (exigir) y insist (insistir). La forma verbal en presente
que sigue a dichos verbos, no lleva S en las terceras personas:
he, she, it. Ejemplos:

1. 1 recornrnend

_
(que vengas)

2. Henry insisted

to Mxico next Summer.

to New York during my vacation.


(que yo fuera)

I propase that he come on Saturday,


(Propongo que l venga el sbado)

3. His father preferred --:-----(que Juan hablara)

I recammend that she speak English often.


(Recomiendo que ella hable ingls a menudo)

\.

..

propases
The

teacher

recommends'
prefers
suggests

4. They insist _-:(que vengamos)

English very soon,

to their home for dinner.

5_ My teacher pro poses

English very often.


(que yo practique)

that he practice

English
6. He dernanded

demands
insists

those bilIs soon.


(que ellos pagaran)

7. Mary suggets
COMENTARIOS

that caro
(que compremos)

8. 1 prefer _-:-_-::(que ella venda)

Los seis verbos en cuestin son regulares, de modo que su


pasado y participio pasado es: proposed, recommended, preferred, demanded, insisted,
La forma verbal que sigue a estos verbos en pasado tambin
va en tiempo presente. Tampoco llevan S en he, she, it, Ejemplos:
I suggested that he go to Florida (Suger que l fuera a Florida)
He recommended that she see a doctor (l recomend que
ella viera a un mdico)
Para las negaciones slo basta anteponer la partcula NOT a la
forma verbal subordinada. Ejemplo:
[ suggested that he NOT go to Florida (Suger que l no fuera
a Florida)

that piano.

9. She recommends _-,(que yo viaje)


10. We suggested _-;-_-:(que Uds. comieran)

192
1-93
\

during the Summer,


in another restaurant.

PRONOMBRES
OBJETIVOS E INFINITIVOS
DESPUS DE CIERTOS VERBOS

SIN TO
Prctica

ro

Advirtanse los verbos en infirtivo sin la partcula to, despus de let, help, have,. see, hear, make y feel, cuando entre
estos dos grupos se interponen los pronombres objetivos me,
him, us, etc. Ejemplo:
Let me go = Djame ir
Comprese esta grfica con el cuadro que aparece en la pgina
190.
1
I
I
I
I
I
1
I

HAD
the studen ts
HELPED
them
MADE
them
LET
them
'them
HEARD
SAW
them
WATCHED them
FEEL
my tongue

read
understand
discuss
read
laugh
talk
practice
move

Con el objeto de que el empleo del INFINITIVO sin


se torne
automtico, practquelo oralmente en las siguientes oraciones.
a) Will Mr. Brown let you do the extra work for the program?

Sustityase en esta oracin, let por:

1. have
2. help
3. see

the newspaper.
the news,
the editorial.
other articles too.
at the comics.
about sports.
sorne catching.
as I speak.

4.

b) I had one student speak about public relations

Sustityase en esta oracin, had por:


1. heard

4. let
5. made
6. saw

helped
3. watched

COMENTARIOS

c) Mary is going

Estos ocho verbos especiales pueden estar en cualquier tiempo o forma verbal, sin que el infinitivo (sin to) sufra alguna
modificacin.
Ejemplos:
He doesn't help me understand the lesson
(l no me ayuda a entender la leccin)

to help

Paul decora te the living-room

Sustityase en esta oracin, to help por:


1. to see

4. to watch
5. to make

2. to let
3. to have

He didn't help me understand the lesson


(l no me ayud a entender la leccin)

I had the students read the newspaper


(Les mand a los estudiantes leer el peridico)
I'm going to have the electrician fix the light
(Voy a hacer que el electricista componga la luz)

194

make

5. watch
6. hear

2.

Asimismo observe que aqu, have no denota posesin sino


ms bien mandato u orden. Ejemplos:
ru have the maid sweep the floor
(Ordenar a la criada barrer el piso)

195

Prctica 2

Para forzar una alternativa entre el empleo del. infinitiVt c~n ~::t:!
infinitivo sin to, eljase cul debe ser el apropiado en as Ig
oraciones:
a) My teacher asked me to talk about American History.

Sustityase en esta oracin, asked por:


1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

10. invited
11. had
12. saw
13. convinced
14. urged
15. ordered
16. watched
17. expected
18. allowed

helped
told
wanted
made
advised
forced
let
persuaded
heard

b) We will watch our foot-hall team play next Sunday

Sustityase en esta oracin watch por:


L
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7. ask
8. advise
9. persuade
10. help
11. see
12. force

expect
have
let
urge
permit
make

EXAMEN FINAL DE ESTRUCTURA INGLESA


(VALOR 100 PUNTOS)
TEMA l.

Escriba una composicin en ingls con un mnimo de


cien palabras. Tema libre. (VALOR 10 PUNTOS).

TEMA I. De las palabras que estn entre parntesis, seleccione la


correcta (o correctas) subrayndola (VALOR 60 PUNTOS).
1. (Am) (Can) (May) 1 ask you a question?
2. 1 thought Mary (can)( could) (wilI) speak English.
3. john said that he (would) (will) (may) come to the party tonight.
4. Her mother said that Mary (may) (might) (can) go dancing.
5. Henry has to huya book. He (should) (must) (would) buy it.
6. Tom is able to paint. He (wilI) (can) (could) paint.
7. Mary was able to sing. She (would) (can) (could) sing.
8. Alice has permission to go to the party. She (wilI) (may)( can)
go to the party.
9. Albert had permission to play yesterday. He (would) (could)
(might) play.
10. Frank had an obligation to study yesterday. He (rnust have)
(could have) (should have) studied yesterday.
11. Susan wasn't at home last night. J supposed she (would have)
(must have) (could have) gone out to the theater.
12. John didn't finish his work yesterday, but it was possible for
him to finish it. He (might ha:ve) (may have) (could have) f.
nished his work yesterday.
13. Dr. Jones had an obligation to return from his vacation last
week, but he didn't return. He (must have) (should have) (may
have) returned last week,
14. There was a possibility that Mr. Black was in his office
yesterday He (would have) (might have) (should have) been in
his office yesterday,
15. There is a possibility that Dr. J ones planned to go to the
country Iast week. He (may have) (ought to have)(will have)
planned to go to the country last week,
16. Edward had an obligation to come here yesterday, but he didn't
come. He (must have) (could have) (ought to have) come here
yesterday
17. 1 suppose he was working yesterday. He (rnust have been)
(should have been) (would have been) working yesterdy.

196
197

18. He was working last week too, but the doctor told him to rest.
He (couldn't have been) (shouldn't have been) (wouldn't have
been) working lasl week.
.'
19. Miss Brown wasn't in the office yesterday mormng, but it was
possible for her to be there. She (may nave been) (~ight have
been)( could have been) in the office yesterd ay mo rrung.
,
20. She wasn't al home when I went lo see her yesterday. She
(would have heen) (may have been) (should have been) DownTown yesterday.
21 I think she was buying clothes yesterday. She (must have been)
. (should have been) (ought to have been) buying clothes yesterday.
22. Mary avoided (to see) (seeing) (see) J ohn I~stweek ..
23. My cousin is very good (for) (by)(at) playlng the plano.
24. Please,listen (me) (to me) (at me).
25. llooked (at her) (her) when she went out,
26. She lives(at) (on) (in) 523 Hidalgo Street..
.
27. You .can learn more English (in) (on) (by) speaking and readl~.
28. 1 gave (to Robert) (Robert) (at Robert) a present last Christmas.
~ 29. They want (that we)(we)(us) to go to their rancho
30. 1 advised George (bought) (to buy) (will buy) a good. book,
31. You should hrush your teeth after (to eat)( eat)(eahng)
32. He told his secretary (that she not send)(not to send)(that she
doesn't send) that letter yet.
.
.
33. We have (strive) (striven) (strove) to learn more Enghsh during
this year.
..
34. We are interested (to) (for) (in) visiting the Umted States this
year.
35. Henry stopped (to gol (going)(gone) to schoollast year.
36. y ou should study instead of (playing) (to play)( p~ay).
37. I am tired (going) (of to go) (of going) to the movl~s.
38. He was sorry (for to have come late) (at commg late) (for
coming late).
39. [ asked Mary (that she carne) (that she would come) (to come)
to the party.
.
.
40. The students enjoy (to take) (of taking) (taking) vacations
every year.
41. I wish 1(can) (will) (could) go to Europe next year.
42. If [ had money 1 (will) (would) (can) huya car
43. 1 would help you if I (could) (can) (might).
44. My uncle (will not can) (could not) (will not be able) to go to
Europe next year.
45 If I (was) (were) (been) rich, I wouId travel around the word,
198

,,

46. He carne to school in spite of (been) (be) (being) sick.


47. My parents gave me a presento 1 (gave) (was given) (give) a
presento
,
48. He was late, so he (stridden) (strode) (stride) out of his house
very quickJy.
49. My aunt has (flew) (f1y) (f1own) on jet-planes many times.
50. 1 (take) (taken) (took) a walk last Sunday
51. 1 (blown) (blow) (blew) my nose when 1 h'ave a cold.
52. My shirt hasn't (shrunk) (shrink) (shrank), yet.
53. Have you (choose)( chosen) (chose) the colors you like?
54. Somebody stole my peno My pen was (stole) (steal) (stolen).
55. He (breaks) (broken) (broke) his arm last week.
56. Hens (put) (Iay)(set) eggs,
57. Please, let me (to go) (go) (going) to the movies.
58. Mr. Sl_TIith(underwent) (understood) (undertook) a surgical
operaton.
59. D!d Mr. Lopez help you (doing)(to do) (do) your homework?
60. D~dhe convmce you (learn) (to learn) (learned) more English?
61. Dd he make you (to speak) (speaking) (speak) English with
your teacher?

TEMA III. Co~plete las siguientes oraciones llenando los espacios


vacios con la palabra apropiada. (VALOR 10 PUNTOS).

l,

(obligacin)

He
have gone to the hospital for his
operation last week.

(Suposicin)

This dress

(Posibilidad
en presente)

It

(Habilidad
en pasado)

The student
rrectly.

be very expensive.
be raining in Toluca now.

answer the question

(Condicional) Mary said that she


her work early.
(Permiso)

----

(Posibilidad
en pasado)

1 thought 1 nutes:

co-

come if she finished

1 go horne now?
finish this test in twenty mi-

199

God bless you!

(Deseo)
(Futuro)

My parents

(Habilidad
en presente)

_____

RESPUESTAS

go to Europe next year.

May
Could
Would
Might
Must
Can
7 Could
It May

TEMA IV. Traduzca al ingls las siguientes oraciones. Ntese que


todas estn en voz pasiva. (VALOR 10 PUNTOS)

TEMA V. Llene cada uno de los espacios en blanco con el verbo


indicado en los parntesis.
NOTA: Todos los verbos en ingls constan de dos pala.
bras. (VALOR 10 PUNTOS).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

I'll
my uncle tomorrow (telefonear)
I
a friend yesterday (encontrarse)
Since you
the days grow long (alejarse)
The girl is going to
the baby (cuidar)
1 am
of money because 1 spent too much of it last
week (acabarse, agotarse).
1 am going to
my cousing next Sunday (visitar)
He feels
because he was working too much [extenuarse).
Don't forget to
the book I lent you (devolver)
May you
soon! (ponerse bien)
A poor old man was
'_by a car(atropellar)

200

TEMA II
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
9. Might
39.
10. Should have
40.
11. Must have
41.
12. Could have
42.
13. Should have
43.
14. Might have
44.
15. May have
45.
16. Ought to have
46.
17. Musthavebeen
47.
18. Shouldn't have been
48.
19. Could have been
49.
20. May have been
50.
21. Must have been
51.
22. Seeing
52.
23. At
53.
24. Tome
54.
25. Ather
55.
26. At
56.
27. By
57.
2B. Robert
58.
29. Us
59.
30. 1'0 buy
60.
61.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

you tell me where the station is?

1. Me voy a hacer retratar maana.


2. Mand a pintar mi casa la semana pasada. '
3. Mandar a barrer el piso.
4. Esto debera hacerse mejor.
5. Esto pudo haberse hecho mejor.
6. Lo que se ha hecho puede hacerse otra vez.
7. Se le dijo a Mara que viniera temprano ..
B. Se le debera decir a Mara que venga a tiempo.
9. Se me ha pagado siempre a tiempo.
10. Se le est ayudando a l a construir su casa.

AL EXAMEN FINAL

..

201

DE INGLS

Eating
Not to send
Striven
In
Going
Playing
Of going
For coming late
To come
Taking
Could
Would
Could
Will not be able
Were
Being
Was given
Strode
flown
took
Blow
Shrunk
Chosen
Stolen
Broke
Lay
Go
Underwent
Do
To learn
Speak

TEMA III
(O bligacin)

Should

(Suposicin)

Must

(Posibilidad
en presente)

May

- Could

(Habilidad
en pasado)
(Condicional)

Would

(Permiso)

May

(Posibilidad
en pasado)

Might

(deseo)

May

(Futuro)

Will

(Habilidad en
presente)

Can

..

TEMA V
L
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Call up
Ran into
Went away
Look after
Running out
Call on
Rundown
Give back
get well
Run over

TEMA IV
L
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
lO.

1 am going to have my picture taken tomorrow.


1 had my house painted last week
1 will have the floor swept
This should be done better
This could have been done beUer
What has been done, can be done aaan
Mary was told to come early
Mary should he told to come on time
1 have always been paid on time
He is being helped to build his house
NOTA: Para mayor abundamiento en el tema de la Voz Pasiva y
otros aspectos ms avanzados de gramtica inglesa, v~e el
libro INGLS EXTRACTADO, del mismo autor y editado
por EDITORIAL DIANA, S. A.

202

203

..

Con el fin de estar acordes con el actual progreso clentltico-cultural, hemos


revolucionado el campo de la lingstica con un estimulante avance pedaggico que, probada ya su eficacia en el
terreno de la prctica, no hemos vacilado en reproducir en la obra CONVERSANDO EN INGLES. Dicha innovacin didctica est contenida en la
serie de conversaciones que aparecen
en este libro, que estn coordtr-adas de
manera tal que se asimilan si'" esfuerzo y, sobre todo, forman patrones mentales. Estos constituyen la base primordial para construir en ingls en forma
automtica y lograr, as. hablarlo con
fluidez.
Para elamente la estructura gramatical
de cada conversac n se condensa en
un diagrama de construccin que permite visua zar muy objetivamente la
sintaxis del idioma ingls, JI elimina,
de modo radical, las tediosas reglas
gre, natica es. Este moderno enfoque lingst"co induce, asimismo, a pensar en
inqs desde el principio, lo cual es
de importancia medular en el aprendizaje de idiomas. en este caso el de
Shakespeare.

EDITORIAL

r.

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