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What is Naphtha?
Naphtha is the first petroleum product produced during the distillation process and subsequently upgraded to make
the major components of gasoline. Virgin or straight-run Naphtha is the largest source of Naphtha in most
petroleum refineries. The virgin Naphtha is often further distilled into two streams:

a virgin light Naphtha with an IFP of about 30 C and a FBP of about 145 C contains most (but not all) of
the hydrocarbons with 6 or less carbon atoms.

a virgin heavy Naphtha with an IFP of about 140 C and a FBP of about 205 C contains most (but not
all) of the hydrocarbons with more than 6 carbon atoms.

Virgin heavy Naphtha is usually processed in a catalytic reformer because the light naphtha has molecules with 6
or less carbon atoms and lower molecular weight hydrocarbons which are not useful as high-octane gasoline
blending components.

Another sources:
Light naphtha is the fraction boiling between 30C and 90C and consists of molecules with 56 carbon atoms.
Heavy naphtha boils between 90C and 200C and consists of molecules with 612 carbons.

The first unit process in a petroleum refinery is the crude oil distillation unit. The overhead liquid distillate from that
unit is called virgin or straight-run naphtha and that distillate is the largest source of naphtha in most petroleum
refineries. The naphtha is a mixture of many different hydrocarbon compounds. It has an initial boiling point (IBP) of
about 35 C and a final boiling point (FBP) of about 200 C, and it contains paraffin, naphthene (cyclic paraffins)
and aromatic hydrocarbons ranging from those containing 4 carbon atoms to those containing about 10 or 11
carbon atoms.

Naphtha's Unique Composition


Worldwide, there are hundreds of different petroleum crude oil sources, each with their own unique composition.
There are also hundreds of petroleum refineries worldwide, each designed to process either a specific crude oil or
specific types of crude oils. Because of this individuality, it is virtually impossible to provide a definitive, single
definition of the word Naphtha. Each refinery produces its own Naphtha with its own unique initial and final boiling
points, and other compositional characteristics. Therefore, Naphtha is a generic term rather than a specific term.
Naphtha is a general term that has been used for over two thousand years to refer to flammable liquid hydrocarbon
mixtures. Mixtures labelled naphtha have been produced from natural gas condensates, petroleum distillates, and
the distillation of coal tar and peat. It is used differently in different industries and regions to refer to gross products
like crude oil or refined products such as kerosene.

MARIA POPA

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MARIA POPA

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Paraffinic (or light) naphthas


The main application for paraffinic ("light") naphthas is as feedstock in the petrochemical production of olefins. This
is also the reason they are sometimes referred to as "light distillate feedstock" or LDF. (These naphtha types may
also be called "straight run gasoline" (SRG) or "light virgin naphtha" (LVN).)
When used as feedstock in petrochemical steam crackers, the naphtha is heated in the presence of water vapor
and the absence of oxygen or air until the hydrocarbon molecules fall apart. The primary products of the
cracking process are olefins (ethylene / ethene, propylene / propene and butadiene) and aromatics (benzene
and toluene). These are used as feedstocks for derivative units that produce plastics (polyethylene and
polypropylene, for example), synthetic fiber precursors (acrylonitrile), and industrial chemicals (glycols, for
instance).
Heavy naphthas
The "heavy" naphthas can also be used in the petrochemical industry, but they are more often used as feedstock
for refinery catalytic reformers where they convert the lower octane naphtha to a higher octane product
called reformate. Alternative names for these types are "straight run benzene" (SRB) or "heavy virgin naphtha"
(HVN).
Additional applications
Naphthas are also used in other applications, such as:

in the production of gasoline.

in industrial solvents and cleaning fluids

an oil painting medium

the sole ingredient in the home cleaning fluid Energine, which has been discontinued. You can purchase
this type of naphtha at any hardware store.

an ingredient in shoe polish

an ingredient in some lighter fluids for wick type lighters such as Zippo lighters.

an adulterant to petrol

a fuel for portable stoves and lanterns, sold in North America as white gas or Coleman fuel.

historically, as a probable ingredient in Greek fire (together with grease, oil, sulfur, and naturally occurring
saltpeter from the desert)

a fuel for fire spinning, fire juggling, or other fire performance equipment which creates a brighter and
cleaner yet shorter burn.

to lightly wear the finish off guitars when preparing "relic" instruments.

to remove oil from the aperture blades of camera lenses, which if present can slow the movement of the
blades, leading to overexposure.

MARIA POPA

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Dupa cum se poate vedea mai sus Nafta este primul produsul petrolier extras n timpul procesului de
distilare i ulterior imbunatatit pentru a produce componentele majore ale benzinei. Virgin Nafta sau de
distilare este cea mai mare surs de Nafta n majoritatea rafinriilor de petrol. Virgin Nafta este de multe
ori separata n dou fluxuri:

Nafta Usoara

Nafta Grea
In Romania Nafta este o benzina de distilatie primara, cu intervalul de fierbere 40-180
grade Celsius, incluzand de asemenea fractia usoara de n-pentan de la fractionarea
gazelor din rafinarie.
Gazolina este un amestec de propan-50%, butani-30% si pentani-20%, etanul nefiind
separat, ca urmare a faptului ca aceasta operatiune este mai greoaie, din punct de vedere
al costurilor.

MARIA POPA