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INDIAN URBAN ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE AN

OVERVIEW AND NEED FOR INNOVATION

Rathnakara Reddy K.B

Civil Engineer #Highways #urban Infrastructure #PPP

Presentation Outline
aComponents of Urban Road infrastructure
aCurrent state of our Road infrastructure?
aWhy pressure on Urban Road infrastructure?
aHow to build Sustainable infrastructure?

Components of Urban Road


Infrastructure
aUrban Road Infrastructure includes all types of
roads including arterial/collector/residential
streets, elevated corridors, interchanges
aAlso includes pavements, footpaths, cycle
tracks, junctions and their associated
components
aAlso includes, traffic furniture, signals, control
rooms, transit centers, etc.,

Current State of Urban Road


Infrastructure
aCurrent Infrastructure is insufficient or Bad to Worst
aNo Planning, either for present or Future
aHigher Demand, lower investments
aSubstandard quality, Poor construction
aLack of participation from Public

Traffic Chaos

Traffic Jam in Delhi, India

Traffic Jam in Chennai, India

Traffic Jam in Gurgaon, India

And in Mumbai

Pedestrian Facilities?
aUrban Roads Must also accommodate Pedestrians
along With vehicles
aBut do They?

No Footpath

Narrow Footpath

Wide Footpaths?

Utilities?
aUrban Roads Must also accommodate utility lines
below or within the RoW
aYes, They do But How?

Storm Water management?


aWhat does it mean?
aIts left to natures fury?????

Poor pavement Condition?


aWe know no better?

Why Do Urban Infra faces Problem?


aBecause more and more people
relocate to cities and towns.
aPressure on resources and social
services eg. Roads, water, Power,
Telecom, housing, health, education,
etc.

A large number of people are


attracted to urban areas
aThe availability of jobs
aBetter infrastructure roads, water,
electricity etc.
aAvailability of social services
health, education, recreation, postal
services and police stations.
aA wide variety of entertainment and
night life facilities

Urbanization: the Global and


Indian Scenario
9 Urbanization -a global reality, world population turning
urban
9 Rapid urbanization - a developing nation syndrome
9 2010s - urbanization in the India: 30% (Rate of
urbanization:
2.4% annual rate of change (2010-15
est.)
9 Year 2011- 3.6 billion (360 crore) people lived in urban
settlements
9Year 2050 - 6.3 billion (630 crore) people would live in
urban areas

World Population Rural-Urban


Ratio-2011

TotalWorldPopulation2011 6.97billionor697croreappx.

48%

RURAL

52%

URBAN

Global Rise in Urbanization

80
67.2%

70
60
50

51.6%

53.9%

2010

2015

59.9%

40
30
20
10
0
2030

2050

Concentration of World Urban


Population

9 Year 2025-2050 - China and India will account for 32% of


global urban population
9 Year 2050 - India 0.9 billion or 90 crore urban population
9 China: Rate of Urbanization- 41% present, 52% by 2015, 65%
by 2030 (Source: Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)
9 India: Rate of Urbanization - 31% till 2011 (As per Census
2011)
9 Year 2050 - India will add 875 million or 87.5 crore to its
cities, will be 50% of the total population in 2050.

Rising Rate of Urbanization in India

60.0
50.0
40.0
30.0

32.8
30.9
29.2

34.8

37.2

39.8

42.6

45.6

48.7

51.7 %

20.0
10.0

2050

2045

2040

2035

2030

2025

2020

2015

2010

2005

Rural - Urban Population in India 2011


TotalPopulation:1241million,Rural:853million,
Urban:388million,2011
31%
URBAN

69%

RURAL

Cities and Megacities


9 Size of population the basis of defining cities, varies country to
country
9 Megacity: Urban agglomerations with at least 10 million (1 crore)
inhabitants
9 23 megacities in the world (till 2011), likely to increase to 37 by
2025
9 Tokyo the biggest megacity of the world, population: 37.2 million
(3.72 crore, in 2011) expected to remain number one even in
2025
9 Out of the present 23 megacities 3 are Indian: Delhi 22.7
million (2.27
crore), Mumbai 19.7 million (1.97 crore), and
Kolkata - 14.4 million (1.44 crore) (2011)
9By 2025 out of 37 megacities, 22 will be Asian
9 USA will have only 3, New York, Los Angeles and Chicago

The Divergent Indian Urban


Landscape

Rural-urban coexistence - a discernible characteristic of urbanization in India

Urbanization of poverty - an inevitable socio - economic process following the growth of cities

Urbanization of poverty - an inevitable socio - economic process following the growth of cities

Urban Transportation

Means of transportation also indicates the gap between urban poor and affluent. But such means of transportation
coexist with the high-tech regardless.

Rapid Transportation

Cities articulate their infrastructural needs with the demographic, social and economic
changes, replace the old systems and reinvent the new.

Rapid Transportation

The megacity infrastructure is often a mix of need and urban aspiration. Also essential for
the sustenance and growth of new economic model.

How can it be Addressed?


aPolicy
aPlanning
aExecution
aMaintenance
aEnforcement

Policy Level Changes


aDefinition of a City or Urban center?
aService Level Indicators to monitor the
health and well being of a city
aLimit the size of cities by setting
boundaries and controlling population size

Rank

Country

Motor vehicles per


1000 people

Motor vehicles per


1000 people

Motor vehicles per


1000 people

Rank

1,263

100

Algeria

114

150

Kenya

24

Country

Rank

Country

San Marino

Monaco

899

102

Namibia

107

151

Vietnam

23

United States

797

103

Turkmenistan

106

152

Benin

22

Liechtenstein

750

104

Armenia

103

152

Senegal

22

Iceland

745

105

Azerbaijan

101

153

Cambodia

21

Luxembourg

739

105

Cape Verde

101

153

Zambia

21

Australia

717

107

Honduras

95

154

Laos

20

New Zealand

712

107

Guyana

95

154

Cote d'Ivoire

20

9
10
11

Malta
Italy
Guam

693
679
677

109

El Salvador

94

155

India

18

110

Swaziland

89

155

Pakistan

18

12

Puerto Rico

635

111

China

83

156

Cameroon

14

13

Greece

624

112

Bahamas

81

156

Gabon

14

14

Finland

612

113

Hong Kong

77

157

Mali

14

15

Canada

607

114

Samoa

77

16
17

Spain
Japan

593
591

115

Sri Lanka

76

166

18

Norway

584

116

Peru

73

Solomon
Islands

117

Syria

73

167

19

Austria

578

So Tom and
Prncipe

118

Mongolia

72

167

Togo

Policy Level Changes


a Land use Control
a Road hierarchy System
a Parking Policy
a Integration with Mass Rapid
Transportaion

Planning Level Changes


aPlan and design the infrastructure by
considering future demands
aHave adequate RoW for Roads
aBuild number of lanes proportion to the
traffic demand

Planning Level Changes


aProvide utilities like Water, sewege, power
and telecom through utility corridors or
dedicated spaces
aUtilities must be designed for the future
demand so that no relaying or digging all
the time
aUse IT/GIS/GPS applications for
monitoring the utility lines

Planning Level Changes


aBus Bays and waiting Lanes
aReduction of Junctions
aWidening of busy roads/Elevated
Corridors
aOn street Parking Control

Roadway Components
Component

Current Practice

Best Practice

Carriageway

Upgraded from paths

Design as per future traffic


requirements

Footpath

If space available

Design as per pedestrian


volume forecast and based on
abutting land use

Utilities

Dig and place everywhere

Proper utility corridors and


ducts

Entry/Exit

Whoever asks and


everywhere

Must be based on traffic


planning

Street lighting

Bulbs fitted to electric poles

Design based on lux levels

Streetscape

Ended with British Rule

Must be included

RoW

Based on 40 feet, 80 feet

Must be calculated considering


all the above

Planned Utility Laying

Execution Level Changes


aQuality of Construction
aEnsure least disturbance to traffic
aProper construction management
aNo Time overrun and
aNo Cost Overrun
aCare for environment and pollution

Maintenance Level Changes


aEvery Civil structure has a life and needs
maintenance
aMaintenance is must and dont treat it as
a cost
aDevelop proper maintenance plan
aEnsure dedicated funds are estimated and
budgeted

Maintenance Level Changes


aUse IT applications for coordinating
maintenance and even predicting
`RIS
`HDM-4

Enforcement Level Changes


aEnsure strong enforcement for rule
breakers
aInfrastructure is a nations asset
aStrict penalties for violators

If youre willing to cut off a school bus while a school bus is


picking up a child, youre literally one of the worst drivers in
New York City,
Councilman David Greenfield (D-Brooklyn)

Policy

Enforce
ment

Mainten
ance

Good
Urban
Roads

Planning

Implemen
tation

We must be generous enough to have fun at ourselves

THANK YOU

THANK YOU

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