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ENERGY EXPLORATION & EXPLOITATION Volume 25 Number 1 2007 pp. 3962

39

Energetic Analyses of the Combined Heat and Power


(CHP) System
Ozgur Balli a , Haydar Aras*,b
a

First Air Supply and Maintenances Center, TUAF, Eskisehir, Turkey


*, b
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering and Architecture Faculty,
Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey

ABSTRACT
This study deals with the energetic analysis of a combined heat and power
(CHP) system installed in Eskisehir City of Turkey. The mass and energy
balance relations are derived and applied to the components of CHP system and
overall CHP system. The performance characteristics of this CHP system are
evaluated in terms of energetic aspects. Considering total output energy, the
total energy efficiencies (electrical and thermal) of gas turbine cycle, heat
recovery steam generator(HRSG), steam cycle and CHP system are 95.3 %,
83.56 %, 76.7 % and 79.3 %, respectively. Based on total useful energy output
(excepting the stack gas, waste boiler loss, condenser line, medium pressure
steam collector energies), the total useful energy efficiencies of gas turbine
cycle, HRSG, steam cycle and CHP system are 82.3 %, 65.2 %, 18.5 % and
40.02 %, respectively.
Keywords: Combined Heat and Power System, Energy Balance, Energy
Analysis, Energy Efficiency.

INTRODUCTION
A development in the search for higher thermal efficiency for conventional power
plant has been the introduction of combined cycle plants (Khaliq and Kaushik, 2004).
The increase of the efficiency of conversion of chemical energy of the fuel is obtained
by the application of a gas-steam cycle (Zaporowski and Szczerbowski, 2003). As a
result, the efficiency of energy production can be increased from current levels that
range from 35 % to 55 % in the conventional power plants, to over 80 % in the
combined heat and power (CHP) systems (Rosen et al., 2005). The CHP system has
already become a well-known and substantial technology for power generation due to
its high efficiency in utilizing energy resources, low environmental emissions, short
duration of construction, low initial investment cost, low operation and maintenance
cost and flexibility of fuel selection, etc. Thus, the CHP systems are more attractive
and quite competitive in power market (Shin et al., 2002).
*

Corresponding Author. Tel.: +90 222 2393750/3386; fax: +90 222 2393613.
E-mail addresses: h_aras2002@yahoo.com, haras@ogu.edu.tr (H.Aras).

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Energetic Analyses of the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System

The successive energy crises have stimulated the study of more efficient ways or the
use of the available energy in fuels (Luz-Siveira et al., 2002). In the last 15 years, the
several CHP systems have been installed by the industrial sectors and government in
Turkey due to increasing in the demand electricity. One of these was installed in
Eskisehir city of Turkey. The installed characteristics of gas turbine and steam turbine
are given in Table 1(EEE, 2006). At ISO conditions (15 C ambient temperature, 60 %
relative humidity, and 101.325 kPa atmospheric pressure); the design electrical output,
heat rate, heat consumption, firing temperature, exhaust temperature and exhaust mass
flow values of gas turbine model PG 6551(B) of this system are 39120 (kW),
11330.7(kJ/kWh), 443483.6(kJ/h), 1104 C (1377.15K), 539 C (812.15K) and 143.26
kg/s with the lower heating value (LHV) of natural gas, respectively (Taylor and
Crabos, 2002).
At local conditions; the measurement data of gas turbine in years 2005 and 2006 are
given Table 2. However, the heat recovery steam generator produces 14.458kg/s, 64.9
high pressure steam and 2.950kg/s,
5.5 bar low pressure steam and the power
.
.
capacities of steam turbines ( WHPST/ WLPST) are 8378.15 kJ/s and 7501.85 kJ/s. All
utilized power in this system is 450 kJ/s (EEE, 2006). The mean values of
measurement data are used in this study.
The main goals of this study are (I) to determine the thermodynamic equations,
mass and energy balance relations of the CHP system. (II) To analyze the energy
efficiencies of gas turbine cycle, HRSG, steam cycle and CHP system (gas/steam
cycle).
THE CHP SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND ASSUMPTIONS
A schematic of the combined heat and power system (CHP) is given Figure 1. The
system consists of an air heater and cooler (AHC), an air compressor (AC), a
combustion chamber (CC), a gas turbine (GT), gas turbine electrical generator (G1), a
heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), two steam turbines (HPST/LPST) with sing
electrical generator (G2) and medium pressure steam collector (MPSC).

Figure 1. Schematic of CHP System

Unit

(MW)
(Bar)
(Bar)
(C)
(C)
(C)
(Bar)
(C)
(kg/s)

Station ID.
.
WG1
P2.1
P2.2
T2.2
T1
T2
P2
T4
.
mf

31 Jan
2005
34.2
18.5
23.25
24
1
306
9.2
561
2.72

Measurement Date
30 Apr 31 May
2005
2005
36.4
35
18.19
18.25
23.15
23.18
27
21
6
14
333
344
10.16
9.74
536
551
2.82
2.79
31 Jul
2005
33.5
18.28
23.15
32
19
346
9.4
536
2.74

31 Aug
2005
34
18.26
22.94
34
16
343
9.53
554
2.79

31 Mar
2006
36.6
18.5
22.96
34
10
337
10.08
546
2.96

34.950
18.330
23.105
28.667
11.000
334.833
9.685
547.333
2.803

Mean

Heat Recovery Steam Generator


15 December 2001
BABCOCK-WILCOX ESPANOLA
76
(Bar)
6
(Bar)
499 (C)
199 (C)
59360 (kg/s)
13760 (kg/s)

ENERGY EXPLORATION & EXPLOITATION Volume 25 Number 1 2007

Power Capacitiy
Fuel Pipeline Pressure
Combustion Inlet Fuel Pressure
Combustion Inlet Fuel Temp.
Compressor Inlet Temperature
Compressor Outlet Temperature
Compressor Outlet Pressure
Gas Turbine Outlet Tempereaute
Fuel Flow

Measurement Data

Steam Turbine
15 December 2001
ALSHTOM POWER
TM2-299/655
18.5 (MW)
11 (kV)
-

Table 2. The measurement data about gas turbine PG 6551 (B)

Gas Turbine
17 September 1998
GEC ALSHTOM
PG 6551 (B)
37 (MW)
11 (kV)
-

1:55 pm

Item
Startup Date
Manufacturer
Turbine Type
Power Capacity
Generator Voltage
HP Steam Pressure
LP Steam Presure
HP Steam Temperature
LP Steam Temperature
HP Steam Capacity
LP Steam Capacity

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Table 1. Installed information of CHP System

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Energetic Analyses of the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System

During this study, several assumptions were made. These are;


1. The CHP system operates in steady state condition.
2. The ideal gas principles are applied to air and combustion gas.
3. The combustion reaction is complete.
4. Air compressor, gas turbine, LP and HP steam turbines are considered adiabatic.
5. The energies of kinetic and potential are neglect.
6. The energetic analyses are made with the LHV of natural gas. The natural gas
compositions are taken from the average values of second and third data measured
by Arin and Akdemir (2002). The natural gas compositions are given on Table 3.
7. The fixed parameters about the system are listed Table 5.

Table 3. Natural gas composition (Arin and Akdemir, 2002)


Companent
CH4
C2H6
C3H8
C4H10
N2
Total

Volume(%)*
93.3401
00.2109
00.0290
00.0124
06.4076
100.00

Mass(%)
88.03918
00.25017
00.03736
00.01665
11.65664
100.00

LHV(kJ/kg)
50000
47525
46390
45775
44163.431

Table 4. Combustion gas composition


Companent
CO2
H2O
O2
N2
Total

Volume(%)
04.97729
09.93826
09.94657
75.13786
100.00000

Mass(%)
06.98044
06.01954
12.91227
74.08773
100.00000

Table 5. Fixed parameters of CHP system


Item
To
To

MGT, MEG
CC
MST
PCC,4-4HRSG
T4-4
T5
P
. 5
We,axu

Unit
(K)
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
(%)
(K)
(kPa)
(kj/s)

Value
298.15
101
98
99
97
5
2
396.05
103.20
450

R(kJ/kgK)
0.1889
0.4615
0.2598
0.2968
0.2944044

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The combustion gases result from the assumed complete reaction of natural gas in
Table 3 with 100% of excess air. After a stoichiometric balance of the combustion, the
mass and the volume compositions are given in Table 4. The gas constant, air/fuel mass
ratio and LHV are 0.2944044kJ/kgK, 42.528 and 44163.431kJ/kg individually. The
stoichiometric balance of this reaction is given following;

(1)

THERMODYNAMIC METHODOLOGY OF SYSTEM PARAMETERS


Using the measurement data and fixed assumption parameters for this system, the other
thermodynamic parameters, be not measured, are obtained from thermodynamic
equations. These are:
Resulting in a 42.528 air/fuel mass ratio for this system, the specific heat capacity
equation of combustion gases are determined as a composition of the equations of each
component in its mass percentage. Thus;

(2)
The specific heat capacity of air is a function of temperature (Moran and Shapiro,
1995);

(3)
Specific heat ratio of air and combustion gases (Cohen et al., 1989; Silvera and Tuna,
2003);

(4)

(5)

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Energetic Analyses of the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System

Temperature of air compressor outlet (Cohen et al., 1989; Silvera and Tuna, 2003);

(6)

Temperature of combustion gases in turbine inlet;

(7)

The enthalpy of air stream (i = 1,2) and the enthalpy of combustion gases
(j = 3,4,4,5) are calculated from Eqn.(8) and Eqn. (9), respectively (Silvera and Tuna,
2003; Cengel and Boles, 1996);
(8)

(9)
The air compressor and gas turbine works are obtained [Silvera and Tuna, 2003;
Cengel and Boles, 1996);
(10)

(11)

The fuel and air flow rates are calculated (Silvera and Tuna, 2003);

(12)
(13)

(14)

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The outlet pressures of combustion chamber and gas turbine, gas side inlet and outlet
pressures of HRSG are;
(15)

(16)

(17)
The inlet temperature of HRSG is determined from;
(18)
The pressure ratio of air compressor and gas turbine are calculated from Eqn (19) and
Eqn.(20).
(19)

(20)
If the mechanical shaft yield efficiencies (MGT,MEG,MST) of air compressor to gas
turbine, gas turbine to gas turbine electrical generator, steam turbines to electrical
generator
shaft are known, the mechanical shaft works of gas. turbine to air compressor
.
( WGTMS), gas turbine to gas
. turbine electrical generator ( WGTMS), steam turbines to
electrical generator shaft (WGTMS), net gas turbine and electrical generator works are
calculated from Eqn.(21-25).
(21)

(22)

(23)

(24)

(25)

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Energetic Analyses of the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System

MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE EQUATIONS OF SYSTEM COMPANENTS


General mass and Energy Balance Equations
A general balance for a quantity in a system may be written as,
Input +Generation-Output Consumption=Accumulation
Here input and output refer respectively to quantities entering and exiting through
system boundaries, generation and consumption refer to respectively to quantities
produced and consumed with in the system, and accumulation refers to build up (either
positive or negative) of quantity with in the system.
For a general steady-state, steady-flow process, the mass and energy balance
equation can be written in the rate form as;
(26)

(27)
.
Where E is the rate of net energy transfer in by heat, work and mass (Hepbasli, 2005).
Energy, being subject to a conservation law (neglecting nuclear reactions) can be
neither generated nor consumed. But, a proportion of total energy entering in a nonadiabatic system is not used by the system effectively. This quantity can be identified
as the waste energy output or energy loss resulting from heat or work loss. Eqn. (27)
can be written as following (Ozgener and Hepbasli, 2005);
(28)
The energy rate of air and steam (Cengel and Boles, 1996);
(29)
After the fuel become from the city distribution pipeline is heated, it is injected in the
combustion chamber of CHP system. The energy rate of injected fuel is calculated
from;
(30)

Mass and energy balance of CHP system components


The mass and energy balance equations for steady state, steady-flow process, and
constant-flow control volume systems are derived for CHP system and its components.
The mass and energy balances of CHP system components are given as following;
Compressor (AC):
(31)

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(32)
Fuel Line:
(33)
(34)
Combustion Chamber (CC):
(35)

(36)
Gas Turbine (GT):
(37)
(38)
Exhaust Duct [ED (4-4)]:
(39)

(40)
Gas turbine to air compressor mechanical shaft (GTMS):
(41)
Gas turbine to gas turbine electrical generator shaft (GTEGS):
(42)
Heat recovery steam generator (HRSG):
(43)

(44)

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Energetic Analyses of the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System

(45)
High pressure steam turbine (HPST):
(46)

(47)
Low pressure steam turbine (LPST):
(48)

(49)
Medium pressure steam collector line [MPSC (9-10)]:
(50)

(51)
High pressure pipe lines:
(52)

(53)
Low pressure pipe lines:
(54)

(55)
Gas turbine cycle (GTC):
(56)
(57)

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(58)
Steam cycle (STC):
(59)

(60)

(61)
Steam turbines to steam turbine electrical generator shaft (STEGS):
(62)
Combined heat and power system (CHP):
(63)

(64)

(65)
The recovered heat by HRSG (Luz-Silveira et al., 2002);
(66)
The recovered heat flux in the form of steam is calculated (Luz-Silveira et al., 2002);
(67)

The energetic efficiencies and other thermodynamic parameters


Before the energy
loss/waste energy output for each components
of CHP system is
.
.
this
section.
The total
denoted with ED, it is presented as the total waste output (TWE)in
.
.
energy input and total output product energy is identified as TEI and TEO, respectively.
The energetic analyses of thermal systems are well established methods in field of
thermal science and engineering and design of power systems (Marrero et al., 2002).
These are:
The total energy efficiency of system and its components can be defined as the ratio
of total energy output to total energy input, as follows;

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Energetic Analyses of the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System

(68)

The useful energy efficiency is obtained from the values of net useful products
(Ozgener et al., 2005: Ozgener and Hepbasli 2005). The medium pressure steam
collector steam produced by this system is not used or sold in order to contenting the
corrosion preventive chemical compounds. The useful energy efficiency of system and
its components may be written as the ratio of total useful energy output (excepting total
waste energy output: stack gas, condenser line, and medium pressure steam collector
steam energy) to total energy input such as;
(69)

The electrical efficiency of total output products is calculated from (Zaporowski and
Szczerbowski, 2003; Tuma et al., 1999);
(70)

The thermal efficiency of total output products is obtained from (Zaporowski and
Szczerbowski, 2003; Tuma et al., 1999);
(72)

The proportion of HRSG energy recovered from the combustion gas energy can passes
through the water/steam. The convert efficiency of HRSG can be defined as the ratio
of the recovered heat by HRSG to the recovered heat flux in the form of steam (LuzSilveira et al., 2002);
(73)

Van Gool (1997) stated that maximum improvement in the exergy efficiency for a
process or system can be achieved when the exergy loss is minimized. Consequently,
he suggested that it is useful to employ the concept of an exergetic improvement
potential when analyzing different processes. Similarly, the maximum improvement
in the energy efficiency for a process can be achieved when the waste energy output or
loss is minimized. The energetic improvement potential can be written as following;
(74)

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The several thermodynamic parameters such as the fuel depletion rate, relative
irreversibility and productivity lack are supposed to analysis the exergetic performance
evaluation of the thermal system (Xiang et al., 2004; Hepbasli, 2005; Ozgener et al.,
2005). Similarly, these parameters can be used to analysis the energetic performance
evaluation of thermal systems.
The fuel depletion rate can be written the ratio of the energy loss of ith component
to total energy inputs such as;
(75)

The relative loss factor can be defined the ratio of the energy loss of th component to
total waste (loss) energy outputs as;
(76)

(77)

The productivity lack can be obtained the ratio of the energy loss of th component to
total energy outputs (products) as following;
(78)

(79)

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Energetic Analyses of the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System

Table 6. Fluid, mass, pressure, temperature and energy properties of stations of


CHP system.
Station
0
1
2
2.1
2.2
3
4
4
5
0
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Fluid
Air
Air
Air
Fuel
Fuel
Combustion gas
Combustion gas
Combustion gas
Combustion gas
Water
Sub satureted water
Super heated steam
Super heated steam
Super heated steam
Satureted steam
Super heated steam
Satureted water
Sub satureted water
Super heated steam
Super heated steam

.
m(kg/s)
0.000
119.219
119.219
2.803
2.803
122.022
122.022
122.022
122.022
0.000
14.458
14.458
14.458
5.650
5.650
8.808
11.755
2.950
2.950
2.950

P(kPa)
101.325
101.325
1066.266
1833.000
2296.000
1012.953
113.778
108.360
103.200
101.325
6980.000
6490.000
6460.000
2701.000
1790.000
396.900
75.900
580.000
550.000
530.000

T(K)
298.150
284.150
607.983
298.150
326.817
1205.789
820.483
804.074
396.050
298.150
358.350
772.250
764.250
505.850
505.850
438.150
365.251
355.750
469.350
463.950

.
E (kJ/s)
0.000
-1692.515
40277.105
123803.346
123824.99
162842.545
84353.183
81383.168
15773.863
0.000
3720.564
47849.185
47575.929
15323.535
10214.635
23615.129
23930.359
712.127
8080.758
8049.459

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


In this study, using the thermodynamic methodology with the measurement data (Table
2) and fixed parameters (Table 5), the unknown data are calculated. The temperature,
pressure, mass flow rate and energy rate for CHP system fluids are given in Table 6
according to their state numbers specified in Figure 1.
For system components, total energy rates (input, output and waste), energy
efficiency, improvement potential, fuel depletion rate, relative loss factor and
productivity lack are calculated, as listed Table 7. For gas turbine cycle, HRSG, steam
cycle and CHP system in form of total and useful output products; total energy rates
(input, output and waste), energy efficiency (electrical and thermal), improvement
potential, fuel depletion rate, relative loss factor and productivity lack are obtained, as
listed Table 8.

.
TWO(kJ/s)
1259.546
2970.014
14112.054
273.256
31.300
5108.900
856.523
713.265
491.494

1(%)
99.232
96.479
83.555
99.429
99.613
66.660
98.000
98.000
96.998
IP(kJ/s)
9.667
104.572
2320.667
1.561
0.121
1703.318
17.130
14.265
14.755

(%)
1.017
2.399
11.397
0.221
0.025
4.126
0.692
0.576
0.397

total(%)a
4.795
11.307
53.727
1.040
0.119
19.450
3.261
2.716
1.871

total(%)b
1.653
3.898
18.523
0.359
0.041
6.706
1.124
0.936
0.645

total(%)a total(%)a
1.250 2.478
2.948 5.843
14.007 27.763
0.271 0.538
0.031 0.062
5.071 10.051
0.850 1.685
0.708 1.403
0.488 0.967

: When relative loss factor and productivity lack are calculated, the total waste energy and total energy output of CHP system are considered.
: When relative loss factor and productivity lack are calculated, the total waste energy and total energy output of CHP system (useful) are considered.

.
TEO(kJ/s)
162842.545
81383.168
71703.806
47575.929
8049.459
10214.635
41969.620
34950.000
15880.000

1:55 pm

.
Component
TEI(kJ/s)
Combustion Chamber (CC) 164102.091
Exhaust duct(4-4)
84353.183
HRSG
85815.859
Pipeline(7-8)
47849.185
Pipeline(14-15)
8080.758
MPSC(9-10)
15323.535
GTMS
42826.143
GTEGS
35663.265
STEGS
16371.494

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Table 7. Total energy rates, efficiency and other thermodynamic properties of CHP system components. Component

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53

116333.168
100559.305
71703.806
55929.943
65798.857
15880
100748.857
50830

5799.303
21573.166
14112.054
29885.917
20017.003
69935.859
26266.305
76185.162

.
TWO
(kJ/s)
28.6
28.6

18.5
18.5
40.0
40.0

66.6
53.7
83.6
65.2
58.2

39.3

Efficiency (%)
e
th

95.3
82.3
83.6
65.2
76.7
18.5
79.3
40.0

1
275.372
3810.628
2320.667
10407.96
4669.072
56994.41
5431.783
45696.74

IP
(kJ/s)
4.684
17.422
11.397
24.136
16.166
56.48
21.212
61.526

(%)

useful
(%)b

22.079 7.612
82.133 28.317
53.727 18.523
113.780 39.228
76.208 26.274
266.257 91.797
100

- 100

total
(%)a

: When relative loss factor and productivity lack are calculated, the total waste energy and total energy output of CHP system are considered.
: When relative loss factor and productivity lack are calculated, the total waste energy and total energy output of CHP system (useful) are considered.

122132.471
122132.471
85815.859
85815.859
85815.859
85815.859
127015.162
127015.162

Gas Turbine Cycle


Gas Turbine Cycle(useful)
HRSG
HRSG(useful)
Steam Cycle
Steam Cycle(useful)
CHP Cycle
CHP Cycle (useful)

.
TEO
(kJ/s)

useful
(%)b

5.756 11.409
21.413121.413
14.007 14.007
29.664 29.664
19.868 39.380
69.416 137.588
26.071 - 149.882

total
(%)a

54

.
TEI

1:55 pm

Cycle/Item

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Table 8. The total energy rates, efficiency and other thermodynamic properties of the gas turbine cycle, HRSG, steam cycle and CHP
system in form of total and useful output products.

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The efficiencies of gas turbine cycle, HRSG, steam cycle and CHP system are
obtained according to total energy outputs and total useful energy outputs and given in
Table 8. Figure 2a and 2b shows an energy flow diagram of gas turbine cycle in the
form of total and useful energy outputs to illustrate the energy balance, noting that loss
of gas turbine to electrical generator shaft(GTEGS), gas turbine to air compressor
shaft(GTMS), combustion chamber(CC), exhaust duct[ED(4-4)], stack gases of gas
turbine cycle account for 0.584 %, 0.701 %, 1.031 %, 2.432 % and 12.915 % of total
energy input in gas turbine respectively. The remaining 82.3 % are utilized effectively.

Fig 2a. Energy flow diagram of the gas turbine cycle based on the energy input of
gas turbine (considering total products)

Fig 2b. Energy flow diagram of the gas turbine cycle based on the energy input of
gas turbine (considering useful products)

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Energetic Analyses of the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System

The convert efficiency of HRSG is obtained 73.45 %. Figure 3a and 3b shows an


energy flow diagram of HRSG in the form of total and useful energy outputs to
illustrate the energy balance, noting that loss of boundary and stack gases of gas HRSG
account for 16.44 % and 18.38 % of total energy input in HRSG. The remaining 65.2
% are utilized effectively.

Fig 3a. Energy flow diagram of the HRSG based on the energy input of gas turbine
(considering total products)

Fig 3b. Energy flow diagram of the HRSG based on the energy input of gas turbine
(considering useful products)

Figure 4a shows an energy flow diagram of Steam Cycle in the form of total energy
outputs to illustrate the energy balance, noting that loss of pipeline(14-15), pipeline(78), steam turbine electrical generator shaft (STEGS), medium pressure steam collector
line[MPSC(9-10)] and HRSG boundary, account for 0.0365 %, 0.318 %, 0.573 %,

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5.953 % and 16.445 % of total energy input in HRSG. The total steam cycle efficiency
is 76.674 %. The MPSC steam for process produced by this system is not used or sold
in order to contenting the corrosion preventive chemical compounds. The energies of
MPSC steam, condenser line (12) and stack gas subtract from the total energy
products, the only electrical power energy remains as total useful energy. In this
situation, the total loss of HRSG accounts for 81.469 % of total energy input in HRSG.
The remaining 18.504 % are utilized effectively. The energy flow diagram of Steam
Cycle in form of useful energy is illustrated in Figure 4b.

Fig 4a. Energy flow diagram of the steam cycle based on its energy
input.(considering total products)

Fig 4b. Energy flow diagram of the steam cycle based on its energy input
(considering useful product)

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Energetic Analyses of the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System

Figure 5a shows an energy flow diagram of CHP Cycle in the form of total energy
outputs to illustrate the energy balance, noting that loss of pipeline(14-15), pipeline(78), STEGS, GTEGS, GTMS, CC, ED(4-4), MPSC(9-10) and HRSG boundary,
account for 0.0246 %, 0.215 %, 0.387 %, 0.562 %, 0.674 %, 0.992 %, 2.338 %, 4.022
% and 11.11 % of total energy input in CHP system. The total CHP cycle efficiency
is 79.31 %. The energies of MPSC process steam, condenser line (12) and stack gases
subtract from the total energy products, the only electrical power energy remains as
total useful energy. In this situation, the total loss of CHP Cycle accounts for 59.98 %
of total energy input in CHP system. The remaining 40.02 % are utilized effectively.
The energy flow diagram of CHP Cycle in form of useful energy is illustrated in Figure
5b.

Fig 5a. Energy flow diagram of the CHP cycle based on its energy inputs
(considering total products)

Fig 5b. Energy flow diagram of the CHP cycle based on its energy inputs
(considering useful products)

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CONCLUSION
This study presents a comprehensive energy analysis of Combined Heat and Power
(CHP) system and its essential such as air compressor, combustion chamber, gas
turbine, HRSG, high and low pressure steam turbines, medium pressure steam
collector ( to process steam), pipe lines and electrical generators. The assessments of
energy analysis are the first law efficiency, electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency,
improvement potential, fuel depletion rate, relative loss and productivity lack factor.
Some specific conclusions can be summarized;
Considering the total output products, the first law efficiency of CHP system is
79.31 %.
Considering the total useful output product that is only electrical power, the first
law efficiency of CHP system is 40.02 %. The MPSC steam for process
produced by this system is not used or sold in order to contenting the corrosion
preventive chemical compounds. The reasons of degreasing efficiency, the
energies of stack gas, MPSC and condenser line steam are abstracted from total
energy outputs.
The values of temperature, pressure, mass and energy rates of the extracted
steam from HPST are 505.85K, 2701kPa, 5.65 kg/s and 15323.535 kg/s
respectively. In the future, a medium pressure steam turbine will be installed to
this system for increasing the efficiency of CHP system.
NOMENCLATURE
C. P
E.
ED
h
IP
LHV
m.
MPSC
P
Pr
R
T.
TEI
.
TEO
.
T.WE
W

: Specific heat capacity on constant pressure (kJ / kg.K)


: Energy rate (kJ / s)
: Waste/loss energy rate (kJ / s)
: Enthalpy (C,K)
: Improvement potential (kJ / s)
: Low heating value of fuel (kJ / g)
: Mass rate (kg / s)
: Medium pressure steam collector
: Pressure (kPa,bar)
: Pressure ratio
: Universal gas constant (kJ / kg.K)
: Temperature (C,K)
: Total energy input (kJ / s)
: Total energy output (kJ / s)
: Total waste energy (kJ / s)
: Work, power rate (kJ / s)

Greek Letters

: Relative loss factor (%)


: Productivity lack (%)
: First law efficiency (%)

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Energetic Analyses of the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System

CE
e
MEG
MET
MST
th


P
T

: Energy converts efficiency (%)


: Electrical efficiency (%)
: Mechanical yield efficiency of gas turbine to electrical generator
shaft (%)
: Mechanical yield efficiency of gas turbine to compressor shaft (%)
: Mechanical yield efficiency of steam turbines to electrical
generator shaft (%)
: Thermal efficiency (%)
: Fuel depletion rate (%)
: Specific heat ratio (%)
: Pressure drop ratio (%)
: Temperature drop ratio (%)

Subscrips
0
ac
cc
CHE
CHP
ED
f
G1
G2
gt
gtc
GTMS
GTEGS:
HPST
HRSG
in
LPST
out
RHS
RH
sc
STEGS
th

: Dead/environment state
: Air compressor
: Combustion chamber
: Chemical
: Combine heat and Power system
: Exhaust Duct
: Fuel
: Gas turbine electrical generator
: Steam turbine electrical generator
: Gas turbine
: Gas turbine cycle
: Gas turbine to air compressor mechanical shaft
: Gas turbine to electrical generator shaft
: High pressure steam turbine
: Heat recovery steam generator
: Input
: Low pressure steam turbine
: Output
: Recovered heat flux in form of steam
: Recovered heat
: Steam cycle
: Steam turbine to electrical generator shaft
: Thermal

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