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Conceptual Problems

1

particles (protons and electrons); however, we rarely observe the effects of the

electrostatic force. Explain why we do not observe these effects.

Determine the Concept The net charge on large objects is always very close to

zero. Hence the most obvious force is the gravitational force.

2

A carbon atom can become a carbon ion if it has one or more of its

electrons removed during a process called ionization. What is the net charge on a

carbon atom that has had two of its electrons removed? (a) +e, (b) e, (c) +2e,

(d) 2e

Determine the Concept If two electrons are removed from a carbon atom, it will

have a net positive charge of +2e. (c ) is correct.

3

which you claim to disprove Coulombs law. You first run a rubber comb through

your dry hair, then use it to attract tiny neutral pieces of paper on the desk. You

then say Coulombs law states that for there to be electrostatic forces of

attraction between two objects, both objects need to be charged. However, the

paper was not charged. So according to Coulombs law, there should be no

electrostatic forces of attraction between them, yet there clearly was. You rest

your case. (a) What is wrong with your assumptions? (b) Does attraction between

the paper and the comb require that the net charge on the comb be negative?

Explain.

Determine the Concept

(a) Coulombs law is only valid for point particles. The paper bits cannot be

modeled as point particles because the paper bits become polarized.

(b) No, the attraction does not depend on the sign of the charge on the comb. The

induced charge on the paper that is closest to the comb is always opposite in sign

to the charge on the comb, and thus the net force on the paper is always

attractive.

4

You have a positively charged insulating rod and two metal spheres on

insulating stands. Give step-by-step directions of how the rod, without actually

touching either sphere, can be used to give one of the spheres (a) a negative

charge, and (b) a positive charge.

Chapter 21

(a) Connect the metal sphere to ground; bring the insulating rod near the metal

sphere and disconnect the sphere from ground; then remove the insulating rod.

The sphere will be negatively charged.

(b) Bring the insulating rod in contact with the metal sphere; some of the positive

charge on the rod will be transferred to the metal sphere.

(a) Two point particles that have charges of +4q and 3q are separated

by distance d. Use field lines to draw a visualization of the electric field in the

neighborhood of this system. (b) Draw the field lines at distances much greater

than d from the charges.

Determine the Concept (a) We can use the rules for drawing electric field lines

to draw the electric field lines for this system. Two field lines have been assigned

to each charge q. (b) At distances much greater than the separation distance

between the two charges, the system of two charged bodies will look like a

single charge of +q and the field pattern will be that due to a point charge of +q.

Eight field lines have been assigned to the single charge.

(a)

(b)

+ 4q

3q

+q

electrically attract another positively charged ball? Explain your answer.

Determine the Concept Yes. Because a metal sphere is a conductor, the

proximity of a positively charged ball (not necessarily a conductor), will induce a

redistribution of charges on the metal sphere with the surface nearer the positively

charged ball becoming negatively charged. Because the negative charges on the

metal sphere are closer to the positively charged ball than are the positive charges

on the metal sphere, the net force will be attractive.

to 10 needs to be fleshed out.

by dangling a small ball of crumpled aluminum foil on a string and bringing a

charged rod near the ball. The ball initially will be attracted to the rod, but once

they touch, the ball will be strongly repelled from it. Explain these observations.

Determine the Concept Assume that the rod has a negative charge. When the

charged rod is brought near the aluminum foil, it induces a redistribution of

charges with the side nearer the rod becoming positively charged, and so the ball

of foil swings toward the rod. When it touches the rod, some of the negative

charge is transferred to the foil, which, as a result, acquires a net negative charge

and is now repelled by the rod.

8

Two positive point charges that are equal in magnitude are fixed in

place, one at x = 0.00 m and the other at x = 1.00 m, on the x axis. A third positive

point charge is placed at an equilibrium position. (a) Where is this equilibrium

position? (b) Is the equilibrium position stable if the third particle is constrained

to move parallel with the x axis? (c) What about if it is constrained to move

parallel with the y axis? Explain.

Determine the Concept

(a) A third positive charge can be placed midway between the fixed positive

charges. This is the only location.

(b) Yes. The position identified in (a) is one of stable equilibrium. It is stable in

the x direction because, regardless of whether you displace the third positive

charge to the right or to the left, the net force acting on it is back toward the

midpoint between the two fixed charges.

(c) If the third positive charge is displaced in the y direction, the net force acting

on it will be away from its equilibrium position. Hence, the position midway

between the fixed positive charges is one of unstable equilibrium in the y

direction.

9

large wooden table by insulated stands. A positively charged rod is brought up

close to the surface of one of the spheres on the side opposite its point of contact

with the other sphere. (a) Describe the induced charges on the two conducting

spheres, and sketch the charge distributions on them. (b) The two spheres are

separated and then the charged rod is removed. The spheres are then separated far

apart. Sketch the charge distributions on the separated spheres.

Determine the Concept Because the spheres are conductors, there are free

electrons on them that will reposition themselves when the positively charged rod

is brought nearby.

Chapter 21

charged rod, the induced charge is

negative and near the rod. On the other

sphere, the net charge is positive and on

the side far from the rod. This is shown

in the diagram.

(b) When the spheres are separated and

far apart and the rod has been removed,

the induced charges are distributed

uniformly over each sphere. The charge

distributions are shown in the diagram.

+

+

+

+

+

+

10

Three point charges, +q, +Q, and Q, are placed at the corners of an

equilateral triangle as shown in Figure 21-33. No other charged objects are

nearby. (a) What is the direction of the net force on charge +q due to the other

two charges? (b) What is the total electric force on the system of three charges?

Explain.

Determine the Concept The forces

acting on point charge +q are shown in

the diagram. The force acting on point

charge +q due to point charge Q is

along the line joining them and directed

toward Q. The force acting on point

charge +q due to point charge +Q is

along the line joining them and directed

away from point charge +Q.

r

F+Q

+q

r

FQ

1

+Q

(a) Because point charges +Q and Q are equal in magnitude, the forces due to

these charges are equal and their sum (the net force on charge +q) will

be to the right. Note that the vertical components of these forces add up to zero.

(b) Because no other charged objects are nearby, the forces acting on this system

of three point charges are internal forces and the net force acting on the system is

zero .

11

A positively

charged particle is free to move in a region with an

r

electric field E . Which statements must be true?

(a)

r

The particle is accelerating in the direction perpendicular to E .

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

r

The particle is accelerating in the directionrof E .

The particle is moving in the direction of E .

The particle could be momentarily at rest.

r

The force on the particle is opposite the directionrof E .

The particle is moving opposite the direction of E .

r

(a) False. The only force acting on the particle is in the direction of E .

(b) True. Therelectrical force experienced by the particle is, by definition, in the

direction of E .

at rest.

(c) False. We dont know whether the particle is moving or momentarily

r

All we know is that the net force acting on it is in the direction of E .

(d) Possibly, Whether the particle is ever at rest depends on how it was initially

placed in the electric field.

on whether its initial velocity was

r That is, it depends

r

zero, in the direction of E , or opposite E . We do know that, if it is at any time at

rest, it will not stay at rest.

(e) False. By definition, the electric force acting on a positively charged particle in

an electric field is in the direction of the field.

(f) False. All we know for sure is that the electric rforce and, hence, the

acceleration of the particle, is in the direction of E . The particle could be moving

in the direction of the field, in the direction opposite the field, or it could be

momentarily at rest.

12

Four charges are fixed in place at the corners of a square as shown in

Figure 21-34. No other charges are nearby. Which of the following statements is

true?

(a)

(b)

(c)

r

Er is zero at the midpoints of all four sides of the square.

Er is zero at the center of the square.

E is zero midway between the top two charges and midway between the

bottom two charges.

r

Determine the Concept E is zero wherever the net force acting on a test charge

is zero.

(a) False. A test charge placed at these locations will experience a net force.

Chapter 21

(b) True. At the center of the square the two positive charges alone produce a net

electric field of zero, and the two negative charges alone also produce a net

electric field of zero. Thus, the net force acting on a test charge at the midpoint

of the square is zero.

(c) False. A test charge placed at either of these locations will experience a net

force.

13

[SSM] Two point particles that have charges of +q and 3q are

separated by distance d. (a) Use field lines to sketch the electric field in the

neighborhood of this system. (b) Draw the field lines at distances much greater

than d from the charges.

Determine the Concept (a) We can use the rules for drawing electric field lines

to draw the electric field lines for this system. In the field-line sketch weve

assigned 2 field lines to each charge q. (b) At distances much greater than the

separation distance between the two charges, the system of two charged bodies

will look like a single charge of 2q and the field pattern will be that due to a

point charge of 2q. Four field lines have been assigned to each charge q.

(a)

(b)

2q

14

Three equal positive point charges (each charge +q) are fixed at the

vertices of an equilateral triangle with sides of length a. The origin is at the

midpoint of one side the triangle, the center of the triangle on the x axis at x = x1

and the vertex opposite the origin is on the x axis at x = x2. (a) Express x1 and x2 in

terms of a. (b) Write an expression for the electric field on the x axis a distance x

from the origin on the interval 0 x < x2. (c) Show that the expression you

obtained in (b) gives the expected results for x = 0 and for x = x1.

Picture the Problem (a) We can use

the geometry of an equilateral triangle

to express x1 and x2 in terms of the side

a of the triangle. (b) The electric field

on the x axis a distance x from the

origin on the interval 0 x < x2 is the

superposition of the electric fields due

to the point charges q2, q3, and q4

located at the vertices of the triangle.

(a) Apply the Pythagorean theorem

to the triangle whose vertices are at

(0,0) , (0, 12 a ) , and ( x2 ,0) to obtain:

vertices are at (0,0 ) , (0, 12 a ) ,

and ( x1 ,0) , note that:

Substitute for tan 30 and evaluate x1:

(b) The electric field at P is the

superposition of the electric fields

due to the charges q2, q3, and q4:

Express the electric field at P due to

q2:

1

2

+ q3

30

P

x

x1

12 a

+ q2

x2

+q

x22 + ( 12 a ) = a 2 x2 =

2

3

6

1

2

r

r

r

r

E P = E 2 + E3 + E 4

(1)

r

kq

kq

E 2 = 2 2 r2, P = 3 2 r2, P

r2, P

r2, P

where

r2, P = (x x2 ) i = x 23 a i

and

r2, P = x2 x

r

Substituting for q2, r2, P , and r2,P

yields:

x1

x1 = 12 a tan 30

a

tan 30 =

x1 =

3

2

r

E2 =

kq

3

2

ax

3

2

kq

ax

(x

)

3

2

a i

Chapter 21

r

kq r

kq r

E 3 = 2 3 r3, P = 3 3 r3, P

r3, P

r3, P

where

r

r3, P = (x 0) i + (0 12 a ) j = x i 12 aj

q3:

and

(x 0)2 + (0 12 a )2

r3, P =

r

Substituting for q3, r3, P , and r3,P

r

E3 =

yields:

r

Proceed similarly for E 4 to obtain:

r

E4 =

kq

(x

(x

+ a

1

4

kq

+ a

1

4

2 32

= x 2 + 14 a 2

(x i aj )

2 32

1

2

(x i + aj )

1

2

r r

r

Substituting for E2 , E3 , and E4 in equation (1) and simplifying yields:

r

EP =

kq

3

2

ax

= kq

i +

1

3

2

ax

(x

kq

2

+ a

1

4

) (x

2

2 32

2x

2

+ 14 a

(x i aj )+

1

2

2 32

(x

kq

2

+ a

1

4

2 32

(x i + aj )

1

2

r

(c) Evaluating E P (0) yields:

r

kq

1

2(0)

i =

E P (0) = kq

+

i

2

32

2

2

1

3

23 a

4a

2 a

Note that, because the electric fields due to q3 and q4 cancel each other at the

origin and the resultant field is that due to q2, this is the expected result.

( ) ( )

r

Evaluate E P

( )

( a ) to obtain:

3

6

( a)

i = kq 3 + 3 i = 0

2

32

a 2 a 2

2

3

3

3

+ 14 a 2

6 a

2 a 6 a

Note that, because the point at the center of the equilateral triangle is equidistant

from the three vertices, the electric fields due to the charges at the vertices cancel

and this is the expected result.

r

EP

( a ) = kq

3

6

) (( )

3

6

r

A molecule has a dipole moment given by p . The molecule is

r

r

momentarily at rest with p making an angle with a uniform electric field E .

Describe the subsequent motion of the dipole moment.

15

Determine the Concept The dipole moment rotates back and forth in oscillatory

motion. The dipole moment gains angular speed as it rotates toward the direction

of the electric field, and loses angular speed as it rotates away from the direction

of the electric field.

True or false:

16

(a)

(b)

The electric field of a point charge always points away from the charge.

The electric force on a charged particle in an electric field is always in the

same direction as the field.

Electric field lines never intersect.

All molecules have dipole moments in the presence of an external electric

field.

(c)

(d)

to 23 is lacking. The first sentence in the

solution is irrelevant. The second is close

to being irrelevant. You need to show

how at least one of these is done. I would

avoid the field lines and just use

Coulombs law qualitatively.

(b) False. The direction of the electric force acting on a point charge depends on

the sign of the point charge.

(c) False. Electric field lines intersect any point in space occupied by a point

charge.

(d) True. An electric field partially polarizes the molecules; resulting in the

separation of their charges and the creation of electric dipole moments.

The dipole moments are oriented in various configurations as shown in Figure 2135. Determine the electric-field direction at each of the numbered locations.

Explain your answers.

Determine the Concept Figure 21-23 shows the electric field due to a single

dipole, where the dipole moment is directed toward the right. The electric field

due two a pair of dipoles can be obtained by superposing the two electric fields.

1

2

3

(a) down up

up

(b)

up

right left

(c) down up

up

(d) down up

up

Comment:

10

Chapter 21

18

Estimate the force required to bind the two protons in the He nucleus

together. HINT: Model the protons as point charges. You will need to have an

estimate of the distance between them.

Picture the Problem Because the nucleus is in equilibrium, the binding force

must be equal to the electrostatic force of repulsion between the protons.

Apply

F = 0 to a proton to obtain:

for Felectrostatic :

Fbinding Felectrostatic = 0

kq 2

kq 2

Felectrostatic = 0 Fbinding = 2

2

r

r

numerical values and evaluate Felectrostatic :

Fbinding =

(8.988 10

)(

m)

N m 2 / C 2 1.602 10 19 C

(10

15

0.2 kN

19

with fur to give the rod charge, and then placing the rod near an empty soda can

that is on its side (Figure 21-36). Explain why the can will roll toward the rod.

Determine the Concept Because the can is grounded, the presence of the

negatively charged plastic rod induces a positive charge on it. The positive

charges induced on the can are attracted, via the Coulomb interaction, to the

negative charges on the plastic rod. Unlike charges attract, so the can will roll

toward the rod.

20 Sparks in air occur when ions in the air are accelerated to a such a

high speed by an electric field that when they impact on neutral gas molecules the

neutral molecules become ions. If the electric field strength is large enough, the

ionized collision products are themselves accelerated and produce more ions on

impact, and so forth. This avalanche of ions is what we call a spark. (a) Assume

that an ion moves, on average, exactly one mean free path through the air before

hitting a molecule. If the ion needs to acquire approximately 1.0 eV of kinetic

energy in order to ionize a molecule, estimate the minimum strength of the

electric field required at standard room pressure and temperature. Assume that the

cross-sectional area of an air molecule is about 0.10 nm2. (b) How does the

strength of the electric field in (a) depend on temperature? (c) How does the

strength of the electric field in (a) depend on pressure?

answer to 27 is correct. I think the can is

grounded, so it becomes charged, not

polarized.

11

Picture the Problem We can use the definition of electric field to express E in

terms of the work done on the ionizing electrons and the distance they travel

between collisions. We can use the ideal-gas law to relate the number density of

molecules in the gas and the scattering cross-section to the mean free path

and, hence, to the electric field.

relate the work done on the electrons

by the electric field to the change in

their kinetic energy:

W = K = Fs

field we have:

F = qE

is the distance traveled by the electrons

between ionizing collisions with

nitrogen atoms.

related to the scattering cross-section

and the number density for air

molecules n:

Substitute for to obtain:

1

n

W=

n=

E=

qE

E =

nW

q

N

P

=

V kT

PW

qkT

(1)

(0.10 nm )101.325 10

N

(1.0 eV )1.602 10 19 J

2

eV

m

2.4 10 6 N/C

19

23 J

1.602 10 C 1.381 10

(300 K )

K

E=

E T 1

EP

12

Chapter 21

Charge

A plastic rod is rubbed against a wool shirt, thereby acquiring a charge

21

of 0.80 C. How many electrons are transferred from the wool shirt to the plastic

rod?

Picture the Problem The charge acquired by the plastic rod is an integral

number of electronic charges, that is, q = ne(e).

Relate the charge acquired by the

plastic rod to the number of

electrons transferred from the wool

shirt:

q = ne ( e ) ne =

evaluate ne:

ne =

q

e

0.80 C

1.602 10 19

C

electron

22

A charge equal to the charge of Avogadros number of protons

(NA = 6.02 1023) is called a faraday. Calculate the number of coulombs in a

faraday.

Picture the Problem One faraday = NAe. We can use this definition to find the

number of coulombs in a faraday.

Use the definition of a faraday to calculate the number of coulombs in a faraday:

)(

23

carbon?

[SSM]

Picture the Problem We can find the number of coulombs of positive charge

there are in 1.00 kg of carbon from Q = 6nCe , where nC is the number of atoms in

1.00 kg of carbon and the factor of 6 is present to account for the presence of 6

protons in each atom. We can find the number of atoms in 1.00 kg of carbon by

setting up a proportion relating Avogadros number, the mass of carbon, and the

molecular mass of carbon to nC. See Appendix C for the molar mass of carbon.

Express the positive charge in terms

of the electronic charge, the number

of protons per atom, and the number

of atoms in 1.00 kg of carbon:

Q = 6nC e

number of atoms in 1.00 kg of

carbon nC, to Avogadros number

and the molecular mass M of carbon:

N m

nC mC

nC = A C

=

M

NA M

Q=

13

6 N A mC e

M

atoms

19

6 6.022 10 23

(1.00 kg ) 1.602 10 C

mol

Q=

= 4.82 10 7 C

kg

0.01201

mol

24

Suppose a cube of aluminum which is 1.00 cm on a side accumulates a

net charge of +2.50 pC. (a)What percentage of the electrons originally in the

cube was removed? (b) By what percentage has the mass of the cube decreased

because of this removal?

Picture the Problem (a) The percentage of the electrons originally in the cube

that was removed can be found from the ratio of the number of electrons removed

to the number of electrons originally in the cube. (b) The percentage decrease in

the mass of the cube can be found from the ratio of the mass of the electrons

removed to the mass of the cube.

(a) Express the ratio of the electrons

removed to the number of electrons

originally in the cube:

Qaccumulated

N rem

e

=

N ini

N electrons N atoms

per atom

V

mcube

= Al cube

mAl atom

mAl atom

the ratio of the mass of the cube to

the mass of an aluminum atom:

N atoms =

molar mass divided by Avogadros

number:

mAl atom =

M Al

NA

(1)

14

Chapter 21

and simplify to obtain:

N atoms =

N rem

N ini

AlVcube

M Al

NA

AlVcube N A

M Al

Qaccumulated

e

=

AlVcube N A

N electrons

M Al

per atom

Qaccumulated M Al

N electrons AlVcube eN A

per atom

N rem

:

N ini

N rem

mol

=

g

N ini electrons

3

23 atoms

19

13

2.70 3 (1.00 cm ) 1.602 10 C 6.022 10

mol

atom

cm

1.99 10 15 %

(b) Express the ratio of the mass of

the electrons removed to the mass of

the cube:

=

mcube

AlVcube

removed is given by:

N rem =

Qaccumulated

e

mrem

=

mcube

=

mrem

=

mcube

Qaccumulated

melectron

e

AlVcube

Qaccumulated melectron

e AlVcube

mrem

:

mcube

(2.50 pC)(9.109 10 31 kg )

(1.602 10

19

C 2.70 3 1.00 cm 3

cm

5.26 10 19 %

15

25

During a process described by the photoelectric effect, ultra-violet

light can be used to charge a piece of metal. (a) If such light is incident on a slab

of conducting material and electrons are ejected with enough energy that they

escape the surface of the metal, how long before the metal has a net charge of

+1.50 nC if 1.00 106 electrons are ejected per second? (b) If 1.3 eV is needed to

eject an electron from the surface, what is the power rating of the light beam?

(Assume this process is 100% efficient.)

Picture the Problem (a) The required time is the ratio of the charge that

accumulates to the rate at which it is delivered to the conductor. (b) We can use

the definition of power to find the power rating of the light beam.

the charge that accumulates to the

rate at which it is delivered:

t =

q

q

=

I

dq dt

t =

1.50 nC

1h

= 9.363 10 3

electrons

C

3600 s

6

19

1.00 10

1.602 10

s

electron

= 2.60 h

(b) The power rating of the light

beam is the rate at which it delivers

energy:

P=

the product of the energy per

electron, the electron current (that is,

the number of electrons removed per

unit time), and the elapsed time:

for P and simplifying yields:

E

t

E = E per

electron

P=

E per

electron

I electron t

I electron t

= E per

electron

I electron

eV

1.602 10 -19

P = 1.3

eV

electron

J

electrons

13

1.00 10 6

= 2.1 10 W

s

16

Chapter 21

Coulombs Law

A point charge q1 = 4.0 C is at the origin and a point charge q2 = 6.0

26

C is on the x-axis at x = 3.0 m. (a) Find the electric force on charge q2. (b) Find

the electric force on q1. (c) How would your answers for Parts (a) and (b) differ if

q2 were 6.0 C?

Picture the Problem We can find the electric forces the two charges exert on

each by applying Coulombs law and Newtons 3rd law. Note that

r1, 2 = i because the vector pointing from q1 to q2 is in the positive x direction.

The diagram shows the situation for Parts (a) and (b).

r

F2,1

r

F1, 2

x, m

q2 = 6.0 C

q1 = 4.0 C

r

kq q

F1, 2 = 12 2 r1, 2

r1, 2

the force that q1 exerts on q2:

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F1, 2 :

r

(8.988 109 N m 2 /C2 )(4.0 C)(6.0 C) i =

F1, 2 =

(3.0 m )2

(24 mN ) i

r

r

(b) Because these are action-andF2,1 = F1, 2 = (24 mN ) i

reaction forces, we can apply

Newtons 3rd law to obtain:

(c) If q2 is 6.0 C, the force between q1 and q2 is attractive and both force

vectors are reversed:

r

8.988 109 N m 2 /C 2 (4.0 C)( 6.0 C)

F1, 2 =

i = (24 mN ) i

(3.0 m )2

and

r

r

F2,1 = F1, 2 =

(24 mN ) i

27

[SSM] Three point charges are on the x-axis: q1 = 6.0 C is at

x = 3.0 m, q2 = 4.0 C is at the origin, and q3 = 6.0 C is at x = 3.0 m. Find the

electric force on q1.

17

r

Picture the Problem q2 exerts an attractive electric force F2,1 on point charge q1

r

and q3 exerts a repulsive electric force F3,1 on point charge q1. We can find the net

electric force on q1 by adding these forces (that is, by using the superposition

principle).

r

F3,1

r

2 F2,1 -1

q1 = 6.0 C

q2 = 4.0 C

x, m

q3 = 6.0C

r

r

r

F1 = F2,1 + F3,1

q1:

r

kq q

F2,1 = 12 2 i

r2,1

q1:

r

kq q

F3,1 = 12 3 i

r3,1

r kq q

kq q

F1 = 12 2 i 12 3 i

r2,1

r3,1

( )

q

q

= k q1 22 23 i

r2,1 r3,1

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F1 :

r

4.0 C

6.0 C

i = 1.5 10 2 N i

2

2

(3.0 m ) (6.0 m )

28

A 2.0 C point charge and a 4.0 C point charge are a distance L

apart. Where should a third point charge be placed so that the electric force on

that third charge is zero?

Picture the Problem The third point charge should be placed at the location at

which the forces on the third point charge due to each of the other two point

charges cancel. There can be no such place except on the line between the two

point charges. Denote the 2.0 C and 4.0 C point charges by the numerals 2 and

4, respectively, and the third point charge by the numeral 3. Assume that the

2.0 C point charge is to the left of the 4.0 C point charge, let the +x direction be

to the right. Then the 4.0 C point charge is located at x = L.

in 36 nd 37.

18

Chapter 21

equilibrium to the third point charge:

point charge to the 4.0 C point

charge be x, express the force that

the 4.0 C point charge exerts on the

third point charge:

The force that the 2.0 C point

charge exerts on the third charge is

given by:

Substitute in equation (1) to obtain:

r

r

F4,3 + F2,3 = 0

or

F4,3 = F2,3

F4,3 =

F2,3 =

kq3 q 4

(L x )2

kq3 q 2

x2

kq3 q 4

kq3 q 2

x2

(L x )

or, simplifying,

q4

q

= 22

2

(L x ) x

2

this equation explicitly as a quadratic

equations yields:

Use the quadratic formula to obtain:

(1)

x 2 + 2 Lx L2 = 0

x=

2 L 4 L2 + 4 L2

= L 2L

2

The root corresponding to the negative sign between the terms is extraneous

because it corresponds to a position to the left of the 2.0 C point charge and is,

therefore, not a physically meaningful root. Hence the third point charge should

be placed between the point charges and a distance equal to 0.41L away from the

2.0-C charge.

A 2.0 C point charge and a 4.0 C point charge are a distance L

29

apart. Where should a third point charge be placed so that the electric force on

that third charge is zero?

Picture the Problem The third point charge should be placed at the location at

which the forces on the third point charge due to each of the other two point

charges cancel. There can be no such place between the two point charges.

Beyond the 4.0 C point charge, and on the line containing the two point charges,

the force due to the 4.0 C point charge overwhelms the force due to the 2.0 C

point charge. Beyond the 2.0 C point charge, and on the line containing the two

19

point charges, however, we can find a place where these forces cancel because

they are equal in magnitude and oppositely directed. Denote the 2.0 C and 4.0

C point charges by the numerals 2 and 4, respectively, and the third point charge

by the numeral 3. Let the +x direction be to the right with the origin at the

position of the 2.0 C point charge and the 4.0 C point charge be located at

x = L.

Apply the condition for translational

equilibrium to the third point charge:

point charge to the 2.0 C point

charge be x, express the force that

the 4.0 C point charge exerts on the

third point charge:

The force that the 2.0 C point

charge exerts on the third point

charge is given by:

Substitute for F4,3 and F2,3 in

equation (1) to obtain:

Substituting q 4 = 2q 2 and rewriting

this equation explicitly as a quadratic

equations yields:

Use the quadratic formula to obtain:

r

r

F4,3 + F2,3 = 0

or

F4,3 = F2,3

F4,3 =

F2,3 =

(1)

kq3 q 4

(L + x )2

kq3 q 2

x2

kq3 q 4

(L + x )

kq3 q 2

q4

q

= 22

2

2

x

(L + x ) x

x 2 2 Lx L2 = 0

x=

2 L 4 L2 + 4 L2

= L 2L

2

The root corresponding to the positive sign between the terms is extraneous

because it corresponds to a position to the right of the 2.0 C point charge and is,

therefore, not a physically meaningful root. Hence the third point charge should

be placed a distance equal to 0.41L from the 2.0-C charge on the side away

from the 4.0-C charge.

Three point charges, each of magnitude 3.00 nC, are at separate

30

corners of a square of edge length 5.00 cm. The two point charges at opposite

corners are positive, and the third point charge is negative. Find the electric force

exerted by these point charges on a fourth point charge q4 = +3.00 nC at the

remaining corner.

20

Chapter 21

Picture the Problem The configuration of the point charges and the forces on the

fourth point charge are shown in the figure as is a coordinate system. From the

figure it is evident that the net force on the point charge q4 is along the diagonal of

the square and directed away from point charge q3. We can apply Coulombs law

r

r

r

to express F1, 4 , F2, 4 and F3, 4 and then add them (that is, use the principle of

superposition of forces) to find the net electric force on point charge q4.

y, cm

5.00

r

F1, 4

q2 = 3.00 nC

r

F3, 4

0 q = 3.00 nC

3

point charge q4:

Express the force that point charge

q1 exerts on point charge q4:

q4 = 3.00 nC

r

F2, 4

q1 = 3.00 nC

5.00

x , cm

r

r

r

r

F4 = F1, 4 + F2, 4 + F3, 4

(1)

r

kq q

F1, 4 = 12 4 j

r1, 4

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F1, 4 :

r

3.00 nC

N m2

j = 3.236 10 5 N j

(3.00 nC )

F1, 4 = 8.988 109

2

2

C

(0.0500 m )

q2 exerts on point charge q4:

r

kq q

F2, 4 = 22 4 i

r2, 4

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F2, 4 :

r

3.00 nC

N m2

i = 3.236 105 N i

(3.00 nC )

F2, 4 = 8.988 109

2

2

C

(0.0500 m )

21

r

kq q

F3, 4 = 32 4 r3, 4 , where r3, 4 is a unit

r3, 4

exerts on point charge q4:

r

r

r

r3, 4 = r3,1 + r1, 4

r

r

r

Express r3, 4 in terms of r3,1 and r1, 4 :

= (0.0500 m ) i + (0.0500 m ) j

r

Convert r3, 4 to r3, 4 :

r

r

(0.0500 m ) i + (0.0500 m ) j = 0.707 i + 0.707 j

r3, 4 = r3, 4 =

r3, 4

(0.0500 m )2 + (0.0500 m )2

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F3, 4 :

N m2

3.00 nC

( 3.00 nC )

F3, 4 = 8.988 109

2

0.0500 2 m

) (

0.707 i + 0.707 j

= 1.14 10 5 N i 1.14 10 5 N j

r

Substitute numerical values in equation (1) and simplify to find F4 :

r

F4 = 3.24 10 5 N j + 3.24 10 5 N i 1.14 10 5 N i 1.14 10 5 N j

= 2.10 10 5

) (

) (

N )i + (2.10 10 N ) j

) (

This result tells us that the net force is 2.97 105 N along the diagonal in the

direction away from the 3.0 nC charge.

31

A point charge of 5.00 C is on the y axis at y = 3.00 cm, and a second

point charge of 5.00 C is on the y axis at y = 3.00 cm. Find the electric force

on a point charge of 2.00 C on the x axis at x = 8.00 cm.

Picture the Problem The configuration of the point charges and the forces on

point charge q3 are shown in the figure as is a coordinate system. From the

geometry of the charge distribution it is evident that the net force on the 2.00 C

point charge is in the negative y direction. We can apply Coulombs law to

r

r

express F1,3 and F2,3 and then add them (that is, use the principle of superposition

22

Chapter 21

y, cm

3.00

q1 = 5.00 C

3.00

r

F2,3

q3 = 2.00C

8.00

x , cm

r

F1,3

q2 = 5.00C

q3 is given by:

The force that point charge q1 exerts

on point charge q3 is:

r

r

r

F3 = F1,3 + F2,3

r

F1,3 = F cos i F sin j

F is given by:

N m2

(5.00 C )(2.00 C )

8.988 10 9

C 2

kq1 q3

F= 2 =

= 12.32 N

r

(0.0300 m )2 + (0.0800 m )2

and

3.00 cm

= 20.56

8.00 cm

= tan 1

The force that point charge q2 exerts

on point charge q3 is:

r

r

Substitute for F1,3 and F2,3 and

simplify to obtain:

r

F2,3 = F cos i F sin j

r

F3 = F cos i F sin j F cos i

F sin j

= 2 F sin j

r

evaluate F3 :

r

F3 = 2(12.32 N )sin 20.56 j

= (8.65 N ) j

23

32

A point particle that has a charge of 2.5 C is located at the origin. A

second point particle that has a charge of 6.0 C is at x = 1.0 m, y = 0.50 m. A

third point particle, and electron, is at a point with coordinates (x, y). Find the

values of x and y such that the electron is in equilibrium.

Picture the Problem The positions of the point particles are shown in the

diagram. It is apparent that the electron must be located along the line joining the

two point particles. Moreover, because it is negatively charged, it must be closer

to the particle with a charge of 2.5 C than to the particle with a charge of

6.0 C, as is indicated in the figure. We can find the x and y coordinates of the

electrons position by equating the two electrostatic forces acting on it and solving

for its distance from the origin. We can use similar triangles to express this radial

distance in terms of the x and y coordinates of the electron.

y, m

q1 = 6.0C

0.50

xe

ye

r e

F1,e

r

F2,e

satisfied if the electron is to be in

equilibrium:

F1, e = F2, e

the origin to the electron, express the

magnitude of the force that the

particle whose charge is q1 exerts on

the electron:

F1,e =

(r +

F2,e =

k q2 e

that the particle whose charge is q2

exerts on the electron:

Substitute and simplify to obtain:

x, m

q2 = 2.5 C 1.0

(r +

kq1e

1.25 m

r2

q1

1.25 m

q2

r2

24

Chapter 21

6

simplify to obtain:

(r +

r = 2.036 m

1.25 m

2.5

r2

and

r = 0.4386 m

Because r < 0 is unphysical, well

consider only the positive root.

Use the similar triangles in the

diagram to establish the proportion

involving the y coordinate of the

electron:

ye

2.036 m

y e = 0.909 m

=

0.50 m 1.12 m

diagram to establish the proportion

involving the x coordinate of the

electron:

xe

2.036 m

xe = 1.82 m

=

1.0 m 1.12 m

position are:

33

A point particle that has a charge of 1.0 C is located at the origin; a

second point particle that has a charge of 2.0 C is located at x = 0, y = 0.10 m;

and a third point particle that has a charge of 4.0 C is located at x = 0.20 m,

y = 0. Find the total electric force on each of the three point charges.

Picture the Problem Let q1 represent the charge of the point particle at the

origin, q2 the charge of the point particle at (0, 0.10 m), and q3 the charge of the

point particle at (0.20 m, 0). The following diagram shows the forces acting on

each of the point particles. Note the action-and-reaction pairs. We can apply

Coulombs law and the principle of superposition of forces to find the net force

acting on each of the point particles.

F3,2

y, m

0.10

q2 = 2.0 C

F1,2

F2,1

q1 = 1.0 C

F3,1

F1,3

q3 = 4.0 C

x, m

0.20

F2,3

point particle whose charge is q1:

Express the force that the point

particle whose charge is q2 exerts on

the point particle whose charge is q1:

r

r

r

F1 = F2,1 + F3,1

r

r

kq2 q1

kq2 q1 r2,1 kq2 q1 r

F2,1 = 2 r2,1 = 2

= 3 r2,1

r2,1

r2,1 r2,1

r2,1

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F2,1 :

r

N m2

(2.0 C )

F2,1 = 8.988 109

2

C

(0.10 m )3

particle whose charge is q3 exerts on

the point particle whose charge is q1:

r

kq q r

F3,1 = 33 1 r3,1

r3,1

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F3,1 :

N m2

(4.0 C )

F3,1 = 8.988 109

2

C

(0.20 m )3

r

Substitute to find F1 :

r

F1 =

(0.90 N ) i + (1.8 N ) j

25

26

Chapter 21

point particle whose charge is q2:

r

r

r

F2 = F3, 2 + F1, 2

r

r

= F3, 2 F2,1

r

= F3, 2 (1.80 N ) j

r

r

because F1, 2 and F2,1 are action-and-

reaction forces.

Express the force that the point

particle whose charge is q3 exerts on

the point particle whose charge is q2:

r

kq q r

F3, 2 = 33 2 r3, 2

r3, 2

kq3 q 2

( 0.20 m ) i + (0.10 m ) j

r33, 2

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F3, 2 :

r

N m2

(4.0 C )

F3, 2 = 8.988 109

2

C

(0.224 m )3

= ( 1.28 N ) i + (0.640 N ) j

Find the net force acting on the point particle whose charge is q2:

r

r

F2 = F3, 2 (1.80 N ) j = ( 1.28 N ) i + (0.640 N ) j (1.80 N ) j

=

( 1.3 N ) i (1.2 N ) j

r

r

r

r

Noting that F1,3 and F3,1 are an action-and-reaction pair, as are F2,3 and F3, 2 ,

express the net force acting on the point particle whose charge is q3:

r

r

r

r

r

F3 = F1,3 + F2,3 = F3,1 F3, 2 = (0.899 N ) i ( 1.28 N ) i + (0.640 N ) j

=

(0.4 N ) i (0.64 N ) j

34

and a point particle that has a charge q is located at x = 4.00 cm, y = 0. The

electric force on a point particle that has a charge of 2.00 C at x = 8.00 cm, y = 0

is (19.7 N) i. When this 2.00-C charge is repositioned at x = 17.8 cm, y = 0, the

electric force on it is zero. Determine the charge q.

27

Picture the Problem Let q1 represent the charge of the point particle at the origin

and q3 the charge of the point particle initially at (8.00 cm, 0) and later positioned

at (17.8 cm, 0). The diagram shows the forces acting on the point particle whose

charge is q3 at (8.00 cm, 0). We can apply Coulombs law and the principle of

superposition of forces to find the net force acting on each of the point particles.

y

q3 = 2.00 C

F2,3

q

q1 = 5.00 C

4.00

F1,3

x, cm

8.00

r

r

r

F2 (8.00 cm,0) = F1,3 + F2,3

particle whose charge is q2 when it is

at (8.00 cm, 0):

kq1q3 r

kqq r

r1,3 + 3 3 r2,3

3

r1,3

r2,3

q r

q r

= kq3 31 r1,3 + 3 r2,3

r2,3

r1,3

5.00 C

q

(0.0800 m ) i +

(0.0400 m )i

3

3

(0.0400 m )

(0.0800 m )

q = 3.00 C

on q2 when it is at (17.8 cm, 0).

35 [SSM] Five identical point charges, each having charge Q, are

equally spaced on a semicircle of radius R as shown in Figure 21-37. Find the

force (in terms of k, Q, and R) on a charge q located equidistant from the five

other charges.

Picture the Problem By considering the symmetry of the array of charged point

particles, we can see that the y component of the force on q is zero. We can apply

Coulombs law and the principle of superposition of forces to find the net force

acting on q.

28

Chapter 21

point charge q:

r

r

r

Fq = FQ on x axis, q + 2 FQ at 45, q

due to the point charge Q on the x

axis:

r

kqQ

FQ on x axis,q = 2 i

R

q due to the point charges at 45:

r

kqQ

2FQ at 45,q = 2 2 cos 45i

R

2 kqQ

=

i

2

2 R

r

Substitute for FQ on x axis,q and

r

2FQ at 45,q to obtain:

r

kqQ

2 kqQ

Fq = 2 i +

i

2

R

2 R

=

kqQ

1 + 2 i

R2

equilateral tetrahedron, with three H+ ions forming the base and an N3 ion at the

apex of the tetrahedron. The length of each side is 1.64 1010 m. Calculate the

electric force that acts on each ion.

Picture the Problem Let the H+ ions be in the x-y plane with H1 at (0, 0, 0), H2 at

a a 3

(a, 0, 0), and H3 at ,

,0 . The N3 ion, with charge q4 in our notation, is

2 2

a a

2

where a =1.64 1010 m. To simplify our calculations

,a

then at ,

2

3

2 3

2

2

well set ke a = C = 8.56 109 N . We can apply Coulombs law and the

principle of superposition of forces to find the net force acting on each ion.

z

a

1

2

q1

1

2

a

x

q4 a , a , a 2

2 2 3

1

2

q2

a a 3

,

2 2 ,0

(a,0,0)

q3

charge q1:

r

r

r

r

F1 = F2,1 + F3,1 + F4,1

r

Find F2,1 :

r

kq q

F2,1 = 12 2 r2,1 = C i = Ci

r2,1

r

Find F3,1 :

r

kq q

F3,1 = 32 1 r3,1

r3,1

( )

a

a 3

j

0 i + 0

2

2

=C

a

1

3

= C i +

j

2

2

29

30

Chapter 21

Noting that the magnitude of point charge q4 is three times that of the other point

r

charges and that it is negative, express F4,1 :

a

a

a 2

k

j + 0

0 i + 0

r

2

2 3

3

F4,1 = 3Cr4,1 = 3C

2

2

2

a a a 2

+

+

2 2 3 3

a a a 2

k

j+

i +

1 1 2

2 2 3 3

k

= 3C

= 3C i +

j +

a

2 2 3 3

r

Substitute in the expression for F1 to

obtain:

Express the condition that the

molecule is in equilibrium:

r

Solve for and evaluate F4 :

r

1

3

F1 = Ci C i +

j

2

2

1 1 2

k

+ 3C i +

j +

2 2 3 3

= C 6k

r

r

r

F2 = F3 = F1 = C 6k

r r

r

r

F1 + F2 + F3 + F4 = 0

r

r r

r

r

F4 = F1 + F2 + F3 = 3F1

= 3C 6k

37

[SSM] A point charge of 4.0 C is at the origin. What are the

magnitude and direction of the electric field on the x axis at (a) x = 6.0 m and

(b) x = 10 m? (c) Sketch the function Ex versus x for both positive and negative

r

values of x. (Remember that Ex is negative when E points in the x direction.)

Picture the Problem Let q represent the point charge at the origin and use

r

Coulombs law for E due to a point charge to find the electric field at x = 6.0 m

and 10 m.

(a) Express the electric field at a

point P located a distance x from a

point charge q:

31

r

kq

E (x ) = 2 rP,0

x

N m2

8.988 109

(4.0 C)

r

C 2

E (6.0 m ) =

i = (1.0 kN/C ) i

(6.0 m )2

r

(b) Evaluate E at x = 10 m:

N m2

8.988 10 9

(4.0 C )

r

C 2

E ( 10 m ) =

i =

(10 m )2

( )

( 0.36 kN/C) i

500

Ex (kN/C)

250

-250

-500

-2

-1

x (m)

38

Two point charges, each +4.0 C, are on the x axis; one point charge is

at the origin and the other is at x = 8.0 m. Find the electric field on the x axis at

(a) x = 2.0 m, (b) x = 2.0 m, (c) x = 6.0 m, and (d) x = 10 m. (e) At what point on

the x axis is the electric field zero? (f) Sketch Ex versus x for 3.0 m < x < 11 m.

Picture the Problem Let q represent the point charges of +4.0 C and use

r

Coulombs law for E due to a point charge and the principle of superposition for

fields to find the electric field at the locations specified.

32

Chapter 21

Noting that q1 = q2, use Coulombs law and the principle of superposition to

express the electric field due to the given charges at point P a distance x from the

origin:

r

r

r

kq

kq 2

E (x ) = E q1 ( x ) + E q2 (x ) = 21 rq1 ,P +

r

x

(8.0 m x )2 q2 ,P

1

1

= kq1 2 rq1 ,P +

r

2 q2 , P

(8.0 m x )

x

1

= 36 kN m 2 /C 2 rq1 ,P +

r

2 q2 , P

(8.0 m x )

x

( )

( )

( 9.4 kN/C ) i

()

( )

(8.0 kN/C ) i

()

( )

( 8.0 kN/C ) i

()

()

r

1

1

i +

i =

E ( 2.0 m ) = 36 kN m 2 /C

2

2

(10 m )

(2.0 m )

r

(b) Evaluate E at x = 2.0 m:

r

1

1

E (2.0 m ) = 36 kN m 2 /C

i +

i =

2

2

(6.0 m )

(2.0 m )

r

(c) Evaluate E at x = 6.0 m:

r

1

1

E (6.0 m ) = 36 kN m 2 /C

i +

i =

2

2

(2.0 m )

(6.0 m )

r

(d) Evaluate E at x = 10 m:

r

1

1

E (10 m ) = 36 kN m 2 /C

i +

i =

2

2

(2.0 m )

(10 m )

r

E (4.0 m ) = 0

(9.4 kN/C) i

33

100

75

25

Ex ( kN m /C)

50

0

-25

-50

-75

-100

-3

-2

-1

10

11

x (m)

39

When a 2.0-nC point charge is placed at the origin, it experiences an

electric force of 8.0 104 N in the +y direction. (a) What is the electric field at

the origin? (b) What would be the electric force on a 4.0-nC point charge placed

at the origin? (c) If this force is due to the electric field of a point charge on the y

axis at y = 3.0 cm, what is the value of that charge?

Picture the Problem We can find the electric field at the origin from its

r

r

definition and the electric force on a point charge placed there using F = qE . We

can apply Coulombs law to find the value of the point charge placed at y = 3 cm.

(a) Apply the definition of electric

field to obtain:

r

r

F (0,0) 8.0 10 4 N j

E (0,0 ) =

=

q0

2.0 nC

= 4.0 10 5 N/C j

(b) The force on a point charge in an

electric field is given by:

r

r

F (0,0 ) = qE (0,0 )

= ( 4.0 nC )(400 kN/C ) j

=

( 1.6 mN ) j

kq( 4.0 nC )

j = ( 1.60 mN ) j

(0.030 m )2

( )

8.0 104 N?

34

Chapter 21

q=

(1.60 mN )(0.030 m )2

(8.988 109 N m 2 /C 2 )(4.0 nC)

= 40 nC

40

The electric field near the surface of Earth points downward and has a

magnitude of 150 N/C. (a) Compare the magnitude of the upward electric force

on an electron with the magnitude of the gravitational force on the electron.

(b) What charge should be placed on a ping pong ball of mass 2.70 g so that the

electric force balances the weight of the ball near Earths surface?

Picture the Problem We can compare the electric and gravitational forces acting

on an electron by expressing their ratio. Because the ping pong ball is in

equilibrium under the influence of the electric and gravitational forces acting on

it, we can use the condition for translational equilibrium to find the charge that

would have to be placed on it in order to balance Earths gravitational force on it.

(a) Express the magnitude of the

electric force acting on the electron:

Fe = eE

gravitational force acting on the

electron:

Fg = me g

Fe eE

=

Fg mg

evaluate Fe/Fg:

Fe

1.602 10 19 C (150 N/C )

=

Fg

9.109 10 31 kg 9.81m/s 2

)

)(

= 2.69 10

12

or

Fe =

(2.69 10 )F

12

factor of 2.691012.

(b) Letting the upward direction be

positive, apply the condition for

static equilibrium to the ping pong

ball to obtain:

Fe Fg = 0

or

qE mg = 0 q =

mg

E

has been replaced by a ping pong ball

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate q:

q=

(2.70 10

)(

kg 9.81 m/s 2

150 N/C

35

= 0.177 mC

41

[SSM] Two point charges q1 and q2 both have a charge equal to

+6.0 nC and are on the y axis at y1 = +3.0 cm and y2 = 3.0 cm respectively.

(a) What is the magnitude and direction of the electric field on the x axis at

x = 4.0 cm? (b) What is the force exerted on a third charge q0 = 2.0 nC when it is

placed on the x axis at x = 4.0 cm?

Picture the Problem The diagram shows the locations of the point charges q1 and

r

q2 and the point on the x axis at which we are to find E . From symmetry

r

considerations we can conclude that the y component of E at any point on the x

axis is zero. We can use Coulombs law for the electric field due to point charges

and the principle of superposition for fields to find the field at any point on the x

r

r

axis and F = qE to find the force on a point charge q0 placed on the x axis at

x = 4.0 cm.

y, cm

3.0 q1 = 6.0 nC

r

4.0

x , cm

r

Eq1

3.0 q2 = 6.0 nC

component of the electric field due

to one point charge as a function of

the distance r from either point

charge to the point of interest:

r

kq

E x = 2 cos i

r

r

Express E x for both charges:

r

kq

E x = 2 2 cos i

r

36

Chapter 21

Substitute for cos and r, substitute numerical values, and evaluate to obtain:

r

kq 0.040 m 2kq(0.040 m )

E (4.0 cm )x = 2 2

i=

i

r

r

r3

2 8.988 10 9 N m 2 /C 2 (6.0 nC )(0.040 m )

=

i

3 2

(0.030 m )2 + (0.040 m )2

= (34.5 kN/C )i = (35 kN/C ) i

electric field at x = 4.0 cm is:

r

r

(b) Apply F = qE to find the force

on a point charge q0 placed on the

x axis at x = 4.0 cm:

35 kN/C @ 0

r

F = (2.0 nC )(34.5 kN/C )i

=

(69 N )i

42

A point charge of +5.0 C is located on the x axis at x = 3.0 cm, and

a second point charge of 8.0 C is located on the x axi at x = +4.0 cm. Where

should a third charge of +6.0 C be placed so that the electric field at the origin is

zero?

Picture the Problem If the electric field at x = 0 is zero, both its x and y

components must be zero. The only way this condition can be satisfied with point

charges of +5.0 C and 8.0 C on the x axis is if the point charge +6.0 C is

also on the x axis. Let the subscripts 5, 8, and 6 identify the point charges and

r

their fields. We can use Coulombs law for E due to a point charge and the

principle of superposition for fields to determine where the +6.0 C point charge

should be located so that the electric field at x = 0 is zero.

Express the electric field at x = 0 in

terms of the fields due to the point

charges of +5.0 C, 8.0 C, and

+6.0 C:

Substitute for each of the fields to

obtain:

r

r

r

r

E (0 ) = E5 C + E 8 C + E6 C

=0

kq5

kq

kq

r + 26 r6 + 28 r8 = 0

2 5

r5

r6

r8

or

kq5 kq6 kq8

i + 2 i + 2 i =0

r52

r6

r8

( )

( )

Divide out the unit vector i to

obtain:

q5 q6 q8

=0

r52 r62 r28

obtain:

8

5

6

2

=0

2

r

(3.0 cm ) 6 (4.0 cm )2

r6 = 2.4 cm

37

43

A 5.0-C point charge is located at x = 4.0 m, y = 2.0 m and a

12-C point charge is located at x = 1.0 m, y = 2.0 m. (a) Find the magnitude and

direction of the electric field at x = 1.0 m, y = 0. (b) Calculate the magnitude and

direction of the electric force on an electron that is placed at x = 1.0 m, y = 0.

Picture the Problem The diagram shows the electric field vectors at the point of

r

interest P due to the two point charges. We can use Coulombs law for E due to

r

point charges and the superposition principle for electric fields to find E P . We

r

r

can apply F = qE to find the force on an electron at (1.0 m, 0).

y, m

q2 = 12 C

2

1

2

1

P

x, m

E1

E2

(1.0 m, 0) due to the point

charges q1 and q2:

q1 = 5.0 C

r

r

r

E P = E1 + E 2

38

Chapter 21

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate E1 :

r

kq

8.988 10 9 N m 2 /C 2 ( 5.0 C ) ( 5.0 m ) i + (2.0 m ) j

E1 = 2 1 r1,P =

2

2

r1,P

(5.0 m )2 + (2.0 m )2

(5.0 m ) + (2.0 m )

= 1.55 10 3 N/C 0.928 i + 0.371 j

)(

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate E 2 :

r

kq

8.988 10 9 N m 2 /C 2 (12 C ) ( 2.0 m ) i + ( 2.0 m ) j

E 2 = 2 2 r2,P =

2

2

r2,P

(2.0 m )2 + (2.0 m )2

(2.0 m ) + (2.0 m )

= 13.5 10 3 N/C 0.707 i 0.707 j

)(

r

r

r

Substitute for E1 and E 2 and simplify to find E P :

r

E P = (1.44 kN/C ) i + ( 0.575 kN/C ) j + ( 9.54 kN/C ) i + ( 9.54 kN/C ) j

= ( 8.10 kN/C ) i + ( 10.1kN/C ) j

r

The magnitude of EP is:

EP =

= 13 kN/C

r

The direction of E P is:

10.1kN/C

= 230

8.10 kN/C

E = tan 1

10.1 kN/C

is the

calculator for tan 1

8.10 kN/C

reference angle and must be increased

by 180 to yield E.

(b) Express and evaluate the force on an electron at point P:

)[

r

r

F = qEP = 1.602 1019 C ( 8.10 kN/C) i + ( 10.1kN/C ) j

= 1.30 1015 N i + 1.62 1015 N j

) (

r

Find the magnitude of F :

F=

(1.30 10

15

39

N ) + (1.62 10 15 N )

2

= 2.1 10 15 N

r

Find the direction of F :

1.62 10 15 N

= 51

15

1.3 10 N

F = tan 1

44

Two equal positive charges q are on the y axis; one point charge is at

y = +a and the other is at y = a. (a) Show that on the x axis the x component of

the electric field is given by Ex = 2kqx/(x2 + a2)3/2. (b) Show that near the origin,

where x is much smaller than a, Ex 2kqx/a3. (c) Show that for values of x much

larger than a, Ex 2kq/x2. Explain why a person might expect this result even

without deriving it by taking the appropriate limit.

Picture the Problem The diagram shows the locations of point charges q1 and q2

r

and the point on the x axis at which we are to find E . From symmetry

r

considerations we can conclude that the y component of E at any point on the x

axis is zero. We can use Coulombs law for the electric field due to point charges

and the principle of superposition of fields to find the field at any point on the x

axis. We can establish the results called for in Parts (b) and (c) by factoring the

radicand and using the approximation 1 + 1 whenever << 1.

y

a

q1 = q

r

P

x

Eq

q2 = q

electric field due to the point charges

at y = a and y = a as a function of

the distance r from either charge to

point P:

r

kq

E x = 2 2 cos i

r

40

Chapter 21

r

kq x

2kqx

2kqx

E x = 2 2 i = 3 i =

2

r r

r

x + a2

2kqx

=

i

2

2 3 2

x +a

r

The magnitude of E x is:

Ex =

Ex

32

(x

2kqx

2

+ a2 )

32

2kqx

(a )

2 32

2kqx

a3

(c) For x >> a, the charges separated by a would appear to be a single charge of

2kq

magnitude 2q. Its field would be given by Ex = 2 .

x

Factor the radicand to obtain:

For a << x, 1 +

a2

1 and:

x2

a 2

Ex = 2kqx x 2 1 + 2

x

[ ]

Ex = 2kqx x 2

3 2

3 2

2kq

x2

45

4.0-C point charge is located at x = 2.0 m, y = 2.0 m. (a) Find the magnitude

and direction of the electric field at x = 3.0 m, y = 1.0 m. (b) Find the magnitude

and direction of the force on a proton placed at x = 3.0 m, y = 1.0 m.

Picture the Problem The diagram shows the electric field vectors at the point of

r

interest P due to the two point charges. We can use Coulombs law for E due to

r

point charges and the superposition principle for electric fields to find E P . We can

r

r

apply F = qE to find the force on a proton at (3.0 m, 1.0 m).

y, m

q2 = 5.0 C

2

P

E1

E2

x, m

21

q1 = 4.0 C

22

r

r

r

E P = E1 + E 2

(3.0 m, 1.0 m) due to the point

charges q1 and q2:

r

Evaluate E1 :

r

kq

8.988 10 9 N m 2 /C 2 ( 4.0 C ) ( 5.0 m ) i + (3.0 m ) j

E1 = 2 1 r1,P =

2

2

r1.P

(5.0 m )2 + (3.0 m )2

(5.0 m ) + (3.0 m )

= ( 1.06 kN/C) 0.857 i + 0.514 j = (0.907 kN/C) i + ( 0.544 kN/C) j

r

Evaluate E 2 :

r

kq

8.988 10 9 N m 2 /C 2 (5.0 C ) ( 4.0 m ) i + ( 2.0 m ) j

E 2 = 2 2 r2,P =

2

2

r2,P

(4.0 m )2 + (2.0 m )2

(4.0 m ) + (2.0 m )

= (2.25 kN/C) 0.894 i 0.447 j = ( 2.01kN/C) i + ( 1.01kN/C) j

r

Substitute and simplify to find E P :

r

E P = (0.908 kN/C) i + ( 0.544 kN/C) j + ( 2.01kN/C) i + ( 1.01kN/C) j

= ( 1.10 kN/C) i + ( 1.55 kN/C) j

r

The magnitude of E P is:

EP =

= 1.9 kN/C

41

42

Chapter 21

r

The direction of E P is:

1.55 kN/C

= 235

1.10 kN/C

E = tan 1

1.55 kN/C

is the

calculator for tan 1

1.10 kN/C

reference angle and must be increased

by 180 to yield E.

(b) Express and evaluate the force on a proton at point P:

)[

r

r

F = qE P = 1.602 10 19 C ( 1.10 kN/C) i + ( 1.55 kN/C) j

= 1.76 10 16 N i + 2.48 10 16 N j

) (

r

The magnitude of F is:

F=

( 1.76 10

16

) + ( 2.48 10

2

r

The direction of F is:

16

= 3.0 10 16 N

2.48 10 16 N

= 235

16

1.76 10 N

F = tan 1

returned by your calculator for

2.48 10 16 N

is the reference

tan 1

16

1.76 10 N

angle and must be increased by 180 to

yield E.

46

Two positive point charges, each having a charge Q, are on the y axis,

one at y = +a and the other at y = a. (a) Show that the electric field strength on

the x axis is greatest at the points x = a 2 and x = a 2 by computing Ex/x

and setting the derivative equal to zero. (b) Sketch the function Ex versus x using

your results for Part (a) of this problem and the fact that Ex is approximately

2kqx/a3 when x is much smaller than a and Ex is approximately 2kq/x2 when x is

much larger than a,.

Picture the Problem In Problem 44 it is shown that the electric field on the x

axis, due to equal positive charges located at (0, a) and (0,a), is given by

E x = 2kqx x 2 + a 2

3 2

(a) Evaluate

43

E x

to obtain:

x

[(

3 2

3 2

E x

d

d

2kqx x 2 + a 2

=

= 2kq

x x2 + a2

x

dx

dx

3 2

3 2

d 2

= 2kq x

x + a2

+ x2 + a2

dx

5 2

3

(2 x ) + x 2 + a 2 3 2

= 2kq x x 2 + a 2

2

= 2kq 3 x 2 x 2 + a 2

Set this derivative equal to zero for

extreme values:

Solving for x yields:

5 2

+ x2 + a2

3 2

3x 2 x 2 + a 2

x=

5 2

+ x2 + a2

3 2

=0

a

2

2kq = 1 and a = 1

0.4

0.2

Ex

0.0

-0.2

-0.4

-10

-5

10

47

[SSM] Two point particles, each having a charge q, sit on the base of

an equilateral triangle that has sides of length L as shown in Figure 21-38. A third

point particle that has a charge equal to 2q sits at the apex of the triangle. Where

must a fourth point particle that has a charge equal to q be placed in order that the

electric field at the center of the triangle be zero? (The center is in the plane of

the triangle and equidistant from the three vertices.)

44

Chapter 21

Picture the Problem The electric field of the 4th charged point particle must

cancel the sum of the electric fields due to the other three charged point particles.

By symmetry, the position of the 4th charged point particle must lie on the vertical

centerline of the triangle. Using trigonometry, one can show that the center of an

equilateral triangle is a distance L 3 from each vertex, where L is the length of

the side of the triangle. Note that the x components of the fields due to the base

charged particles cancel each other, so we only need concern ourselves with the y

components of the fields due to the charged point particles at the vertices of the

triangle. Choose a coordinate system in which the origin is at the midpoint of the

base of the triangle, the +x direction is to the right, and the +y direction is upward.

y

q3 = 2 q

r

E2

L

q4 60

q1

satisfied if the electric field at the

center of the triangle is to be zero:

r

E1

3

60 q 2

r

E3

i =1 to 4

=0

r r r

r

Substituting for E1 , E 2 , E3 , and E 4 yields:

k (q )

L

k (q )

k (2q ) kq

cos 60 j

j+ 2 j=0

cos 60 j +

2

2

y

L

L

3

3

y=

L

3

45

The positive solution corresponds to the 4th point particle being a distance

L 3 above the base of the triangle, where it produces the same strength and

same direction electric field caused by the three charges at the corners of the

triangle. So the charged point particle must be placed a distance L 3 below the

midpoint of the triangle.

Two point particles, each having a charge equal to q, sit on the base of

48

an equilateral triangle that has sides of length L as shown in Figure 21-38. A third

point particle that has a charge equal to 2q sits at the apex of the triangle. A fourth

point particle that has charge q is placed at the midpoint of the baseline making

the electric field at the center of the triangle equal to zero. What is the value of

q? (The center is in the plane of the triangle and equidistant from all three

vertices.)

Picture the Problem The electric field of 4th charge must cancel the sum of the

electric fields due to the other three charges. Using trigonometry, one can show

that the center of an equilateral triangle is a distance L 3 from each vertex,

where L is the length of the side of the triangle. The distance from the center point

of the triangle to the midpoint of the base is half this distance. Note that the x

components of the fields due to the base charges cancel each other, so we only

need concern ourselves with the y components of the fields due to the charges at

the vertices of the triangle. Choose a coordinate system in which the origin is at

the midpoint of the base of the triangle, the +x direction is to the right, and the +y

direction is upward.

y

q3 = 2 q

r

E2

L

q1

r

E4

60

r

E3

r

E1

L

60 q 2

q4 = q '

satisfied if the electric field at the

center of the triangle is to be zero:

i =1 to 4

=0

solution should either show the center is a

distance L/sqrt(3) from the verticies or

state that using trig it can be shown?

46

Chapter 21

r r r

r

Substituting for E1 , E 2 , E3 , and E 4 yields:

k (q )

L

k (q )

k (2q )

kq'

j+

j=0

cos 60 j +

cos 60 j

2

2

2

L

L

L

3

3

2 3

q' =

1

4

and the other is at y = a. The electric field at the origin is zero. A test charge q0

placed at the origin will therefore be in equilibrium. (a) Discuss the stability of

the equilibrium for a positive test charge by considering small displacements from

equilibrium along the x axis and small displacements along the y axis. (b) Repeat

Part (a) for a negative test charge. (c) Find the magnitude and sign of a charge q0

that when placed at the origin results in a net force of zero on each of the three

charges.

Picture the Problem We can determine the stability of the equilibrium in Part (a)

and Part (b) by considering the forces the equal point charges q at y = +a and

y = a exert on the test charge when it is given a small displacement along either

the x or y axis. (c) The application of Coulombs law in Part (c) will lead to the

magnitude and sign of the charge that must be placed at the origin in order that a

net force of zero is experienced by each of the three point charges.

(a) Because Ex is in the x direction, a positive test charge that is displaced from

(0, 0) in either the +x direction or the x direction will experience a force pointing

away from the origin and accelerate in the direction of the force. Consequently,

the equilibrium at (0,0) is unstable for a small displacement along the x axis.

If the positive test charge is displaced in the direction of increasing y (the +y

direction), the charge at y = +a will exert a greater force than the charge at

y = a, and the net force is then in the y direction; i.e., it is a restoring force.

Similarly, if the positive test charge is displaced in the direction of decreasing y

(the y direction), the charge at y = a will exert a greater force than the charge at

y = a, and the net force is then in the y direction; i.e., it is a restoring force.

Consequently, the equilibrium at (0,0) is stable for a small displacement along the

y axis.

(b) Following the same arguments as in Part (a), one finds that, for a negative test

charge, the equilibrium is stable at (0,0) for displacements along the x axis and

unstable for displacements along the y axis.

(c) Express the net force acting on the

charge at y = +a:

Fq at y=+ a =

q0 = 14 q

47

kqq0

kq 2

+

=0

a2

(2a )2

Remarks: In Part (c), we could just as well have expressed the net force

acting on the charge at y = a. Due to the symmetric distribution of the

charges at y = a and y = +a, summing the forces acting on q0 at the origin

does not lead to a relationship between q0 and q.

50 Two positive point charges +q are on the y axis at y = +a and y = a. A

bead of mass m and charge q slides without friction along a taut thread that runs

along the x axis. Let x be the position of the bead. (a) Show that for x << a, the

bead experiences a linear restoring force (a force that is proportional to x and

directed toward the equilibrium position at x = 0) and therefore undergoes simple

harmonic motion. (b) Find the period of the motion.

Picture the Problem In Problem 44 it is shown that the electric field on the x

axis, due to equal positive point charges located at (0, a) and (0,a), is given by

Ex = 2kqx x 2 + a 2

3 2

(a) Express the force acting on the

bead when its displacement from the

origin is x:

Factor a2 from the denominator to

obtain:

For x << a:

harmonic oscillator:

Obtain k from our result in Part (a):

Fx = qE x =

Fx =

(x

2kq 2 x

2

+ a2

32

2kq 2 x

x2

a 2 + 1

a

32

2kq 2

x

a3

That is, the bead experiences a linear

restoring force.

Fx =

T = 2

k' =

m

k'

2kq 2

a3

48

Chapter 21

obtain:

T = 2

m

ma 3

=

2

2kq 2

2kq 2

a3

51

[SSM] The acceleration of a particle in an electric field depends on

q/m (the charge-to-mass ratio of the particle). (a) Compute q/m for an electron.

(b) What is the magnitude and direction of the acceleration of an electron in a

uniform electric field that has a magnitude of 100 N/C? (c) Compute the time it

takes for an electron placed at rest in a uniform electric field that has a magnitude

of 100 N/C to reach a speed of 0.01c. (When the speed of an electron approaches

the speed of light c, relativistic kinematics must be used to calculate its motion,

but at speeds of 0.01c or less, non-relativistic kinematics is sufficiently accurate

for most purposes.) (d) How far does the electron travel in that time?

Picture the Problem We can use Newtons second law of motion to find the

acceleration of the electron in the uniform electric field and constant-acceleration

equations to find the time required for it to reach a speed of 0.01c and the distance

it travels while acquiring this speed.

your text to compute e/m for an

electron:

1.602 10 19 C

e

=

me 9.109 10 31 kg

relate the acceleration of the electron

to the electric field:

a=

evaluate a:

a=

Fnet eE

=

me me

(1.602 10

C (100 N/C )

9.109 10 31 kg

19

= 1.76 1013 m/s 2

The direction of the acceleration of an electron is opposite the electric field.

(c) Using the definition of

acceleration, relate the time required

for an electron to reach 0.01c to its

acceleration:

t =

v 0.01c

=

a

a

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate t:

t =

49

= 0.1704 s

1.759 1013 m/s 2

= 0.2 s

(d) Use a constant-acceleration

equation to express the distance

the electron travels in a given

time interval:

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate x:

x = vi t + 12 a (t )

2

x = 12 a(t )

x =

1

2

(1.759 10

13

m/s 2 (0.1704 s )

= 0.3 m

52

The acceleration of a particle in an electric field depends on the

charge-to-mass ratio of the particle. (a) Compute q/m for a proton, and find its

acceleration in a uniform electric field that has a magnitude of 100 N/C. (b) Find

the time it takes for a proton initially at rest in such a field to reach a speed of

0.01c (where c is the speed of light). (When the speed of an electron approaches

the speed of light c, relativistic kinematics must be used to calculate its motion,

but at speeds of 0.01c or less, non-relativistic kinematics is sufficiently accurate

for most purposes.)

Picture the Problem We can use Newtons second law of motion to find the

acceleration of the proton in the uniform electric field and constant-acceleration

equations to find the time required for it to reach a speed of 0.01c and the

distance it travels while acquiring this speed.

(a) Use data found at the back of

your text to compute e/m for an

electron:

e

1.602 10 19 C

=

m p 1.673 10 27 kg

relate the acceleration of the

electron to the electric field:

a=

evaluate a:

= 9.58 10 7 C/kg

a=

Fnet eE

=

mp mp

(1.602 10

C (100 N/C )

1.673 10 27 kg

19

= 9.576 10 9 m/s 2

= 9.58 10 9 m/s 2

50

Chapter 21

field.

(b) Using the definition of

acceleration, relate the time required

for an electron to reach 0.01c to its

acceleration:

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate t:

t =

v 0.01c

=

a

a

t =

= 0.3 ms

9.576 10 9 m/s 2

53

An electron has an initial velocity of 2.00 106 m/s in the +x direction.

r

It enters a region that has a uniform electric field E = (300 N/C) j . (a) Find the

acceleration of the electron. (b) How long does it take for the electron to travel

10.0 cm in the x direction in the region that has the field? (c) Through what angle,

and in what direction, is the electron deflected while traveling the 10.0 cm in the x

direction?

Picture the Problem The electric force acting on the electron is opposite the

direction of the electric field. We can apply Newtons second law to find the

electrons acceleration and use constant acceleration equations to find how long it

takes the electron to travel a given distance and its deflection during this interval

of time. Finally, we can use the pictorial representation to obtain an expression for

the angle through which the electron is deflected while traveling 10.0 cm in the x

direction.

r

E = (300 N/C) j

m, e

r

v = (2.00 10 6 m/s ) i

y

(a) Use Newtons second law to

relate the acceleration of the electron

first to the net force acting on it and

then the electric field in which it

finds itself:

Substitute numerical values and

r

evaluate a :

51

r

r

r Fnet eE

=

a=

me

me

r

1.602 10 19 C

(300 N/C) j

a=

9.109 10 31 kg

= 5.276 1013 m/s 2 j

)

) j

x

0.100 m

=

= 50.0 ns

v x 2.00 10 6 m/s

distance in the x direction to the

electrons speed in the x direction:

t =

electron is deflected as it travels a

horizontal distance x is given by:

y

x

where y is its vertical deflection.

Using a constant-acceleration

equation, relate the vertical

deflection of the electron to its

acceleration and the elapsed time:

y = 12 a y (t )

= tan 1

a y (t )2

1 a y (t )2

= tan 1

2x

x

yields:

= tan 1 2

evaluate :

= tan

2(10.0 cm )

= 33.4

Because the acceleration of the electron

is downward and it was moving

horizontally initially, it is deflected

downward .

54

r

E = 1.50 10 10 N/C j . After the electron has traveled a vertical distance of

1.0 m, what is its speed? (Do not neglect the gravitational force on the electron.)

62.

52

Chapter 21

Picture the Problem Because the electric field is in the y direction, the force it

exerts on the electron is in the +y direction. Applying Newtons second law to the

electron will yield an expression for the acceleration of the electron in the y

direction. We can then use a constant-acceleration equation to relate its speed to

its acceleration and the distance it has traveled.

Apply

= ma y to the electron to

FE Fg = ma y

obtain:

eE mg = ma y

ay =

to relate the speed of the electron to

its acceleration and the distance it

travels:

v y2 = v02 + 2a y y

vy:

eE

g

m

v 2y = 2a y y v y = 2a y y

eE

v y = 2

g y

m

)(

v y = 2

9.81 m/s 2 1.0 10 6 m

31

9.109 10 kg

= 5.8 mm/s

55

A 2.00-g charged particle is released from rest in a region that has a

r

uniform electric field E = (300 N/C) i . After traveling a distance of 0.500 m in

this region, the particle has a kinetic energy of 0.120 J. Determine the charge of

the particle.

Picture the Problem We can apply the work-kinetic energy theorem to relate the

change in the objects kinetic energy to the net force acting on it. We can express

the net force acting on the charged body in terms of its charge and the electric

field.

Using the work-kinetic energy

theorem, express the kinetic energy

of the object in terms of the net force

acting on it and its displacement:

W = K = Fnet x

charged particle to the electric field:

Fnet = qE

K = K f K i = qEx

53

or, because Ki = 0,

K f = qEx

evaluate q:

q=

q=

Kf

Ex

0.120 J

(300 N/C)(0.500 m )

= 800 C

56

A charged particle leaves the origin with a speed of 3.00 106 m/s at

r

an angle of 35 above the x axis. A uniform electric field given by E = E0 j exists

throughout the region. Find E0 such that the particle will cross the x axis at

x = 1.50 cm if the particle is (a) an electron, and (b) a proton.

Picture the Problem We can use constant-acceleration equations to express the x

and y coordinates of the particle in terms of the parameter t and Newtons second

law to express the constant acceleration in terms of the electric field. Eliminating

t will yield an equation for y as a function of x, q, and m that we can solve for Ey.

the particle as functions of time:

relate the acceleration of the particle

to the net force acting on it:

x = (v cos ) t

and

y = (v sin )t 12 a y t 2

ay =

Fnet, y

m

qE0

m

equation to obtain:

y = (v sin )t

between the two equations to

obtain:

y = (tan )x

qE 0 2

t

2m

qE0

x2

2mv 2 cos 2

54

Chapter 21

data to obtain:

E0 =

mv 2 sin 2

qx

) mq

10

) 9.109

1.602 10

(a) Substitute for the mass and

charge of an electron and

evaluate E0:

(b) Substitute for the mass and

charge of a proton and evaluate E0:

E0 =

q(0.0150 m )

31

kg

C

19

= 3.2 kN/C

27

.673 10

)11.602

10

19

kg

C

= 5.9 MN/C

57

[SSM] An electron starts at the position shown in Figure 21-39 with

an initial speed v0 = 5.00 106 m/s at 45 to the x axis. The electric field is in the

+y direction and has a magnitude of 3.50 103 N/C. The black lines in the figure

are charged metal plates. On which plate and at what location will the electron

strike?

Picture the Problem We can use constant-acceleration equations to express the x

and y coordinates of the electron in terms of the parameter t and Newtons second

law to express the constant acceleration in terms of the electric field. Eliminating

t will yield an equation for y as a function of x, q, and m. We can decide whether

the electron will strike the upper plate by finding the maximum value of its y

coordinate. Should we find that it does not strike the upper plate, we can

determine where it strikes the lower plate by setting y(x) = 0. Ignore any effects of

gravitational forces.

the electron as functions of time:

the acceleration of the electron to the

net force acting on it:

x = (v0 cos )t

and

y = (v0 sin )t 12 a y t 2

ay =

Fnet, y

me

eE y

me

Substitute in the y-coordinate

equation to obtain:

y = (v0 sin )t

the two equations to obtain:

y ( x ) = (tan )x

extrema:

eE y

dy

= tan

x'

dx

me v02 cos 2

eE y

2me

55

t2

eE y

x 2 (1)

= 0 for extrema

Solve for x to obtain:

x' =

to obtain ymax:

mev02 sin 2

(See remark below.)

2eE y

ymax =

me v02 sin 2

2eE y

y max =

2(1.602 10 C )(3.50 10 N/C )

31

19

Because the plates are separated by 2 cm, the electron does not strike the upper

plate.

To determine where the electron will

strike the lower plate, set y = 0 in

equation (1) and solve for x to

obtain:

x=

me v02 sin 2

eE y

x=

(1.602 10 C)(3.50 10 N/C)

31

19

4.1cm

show that it is a maximum we need to show that d2y/dx2, evaluated at x, is

negative. A simple alternative is to use your graphing calculator to show that

the graph of y(x) is a maximum at x. Yet another alternative is to recognize

that, because equation (1) is quadratic and the coefficient of x2 is negative, its

graph is a parabola that opens downward.

56

Chapter 21

58

An electron that has a kinetic energy equal to 2.00 1016 J is moving

to the right along the axis of a cathode-ray tube as shown in Figure 21-40. An

r

electric field E = 2.00 10 4 N/C j exists in the region between the deflection

r

plates; and no electric field ( E = 0 ) exists outside this region. (a) How far is the

electron from the axis of the tube when it exits the region between the plates?

(b) At what angle is the electron moving, with respect to the axis, after exiting the

region between the plates? (c) At what distance from the axis will the electron

strike the fluorescent screen?

Picture the Problem The trajectory of the electron while it is in the electric field

is parabolic (its acceleration is downward and constant) and its trajectory, once it

is out of the electric field is, if we ignore the small gravitational force acting on it,

linear. We can use constant-acceleration equations and Newtons second law to

express the electrons x and y coordinates parametrically and then eliminate the

parameter t to express y(x). We can find the angle with the horizontal at which the

electron leaves the electric field from the x and y components of its velocity and

its total vertical deflection by summing its deflections over the first 4 cm and the

final 12 cm of its flight.

x(t ) = v0t

equation, express the x and y

coordinates of the electron as

functions of time:

and

y (t ) = v0, y t + 12 a y t 2

Because v0,y = 0:

x(t ) = v0t

(1)

and

y (t ) = 12 a y t 2

Using Newtons second law, relate

the acceleration of the electron to the

electric field:

Substituting for a y gives:

equations (1) and (2) to obtain:

ay =

Fnet eE y

=

me

me

y (t ) =

y(x ) =

eE y

2me

t2

eE y

2mev02

(2)

x2 =

eE y

4K

x2

Substitute numerical values and evaluate y(4 cm):

y (0.04 m ) =

(1.602 10

19

)(

(

= 6.40 mm

4 2.00 10 16 J

is moving, with respect to the axis,

after exiting the region between

the plates is given by:

vy

v

= tan 1 y

v

x

v0

= tan 1

v y = v0, y + a y t

Using a constant-acceleration

equation, express vy as a function

of the electrons acceleration and

its time in the electric field:

F

eE x

v y = a y t = net, y t = y

me

me v0

eE y x

eE x

= tan 1 y

2

2K

me v0

= tan 1

)(

(

= 17.8

2 2.00 10 16 J

= tan 1

displacement of the electron:

ytotal = y4 cm + y12 cm

distances traveled to the screen

after leaving the region between

the plates to the horizontal and

vertical components of its

velocity:

x = v0 t

to obtain:

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate y:

and

y = v y t

vy

y =

v0

x = (tan )x

57

58

Chapter 21

evaluate ytotal:

= 4.47 cm

That is, the electron will strike the

fluorescent screen 4.47 cm below the

horizontal axis.

Dipoles

59

Two point charges, q1 = 2.0 pC and q2 = 2.0 pC, are separated by

4.0 m. (a) What is the magnitude of the dipole moment of this pair of charges?

(b) Sketch the pair and show the direction of the dipole moment.

Picture the Problem We can use its definition to find the dipole moment of this

pair of charges.

dipole moment to obtain:

r

r

p = qL

and

p = (2.0 pC )(4.0 m )

= 8.0 10 18 C m

oriented

as shown to the right, then

r

p is to the right; pointing from the

negative charge toward the positive

charge.

r

p

+q

60

A dipole of moment 0.50 enm is placed in a uniform electric field that

has a magnitude of 4.0 104 N/C. What is the magnitude of the torque on the

dipole when (a) the dipole is aligned with the electric field, (b) the dipole is

transverse to (perpendicular to) the electric field, and (c) the dipole makes an

angle of 30 with the direction of the electric field? (d) Defining the potential

energy to be zero when the dipole is transverse to the electric field, find the

potential energy of the dipole for the orientations specified in Parts (a) and (c).

Picture the Problem The torque on an electric dipole in an electric field is given

r r

r r r

by = p E and the potential energy of the dipole by U = p E .

torque on a dipole moment in a

uniform electric field:

r r r

= p E = pE sin

where is the angle between the

electric dipole moment and the electric

field.

59

(0) = pE sin 0 = 0

(b) Evaluate for = 90:

(c) Evaluate for = 30:

(d) Using its definition, express the

potential energy of a dipole in an

electric field:

r r

U = p E = pE cos

Evaluate U for = 0:

U (30) = (0.50 e nm ) 4.0 10 4 N/C cos 30 = 2.8 10 24 J

General Problems

[SSM] Show that it is only possible to place one isolated proton in

61

an ordinary empty coffee cup by considering the following situation. Assume the

first proton is fixed at the bottom of the cup. Determine the distance directly

above this proton where a second proton would be in equilibrium. Compare this

distance to the depth of an ordinary coffee cup to complete the argument.

Picture the Problem Equilibrium of the second proton requires that the sum of

the electric and gravitational forces acting on it be zero. Let the upward direction

be the +y direction and apply the condition for equilibrium to the second proton.

Apply

proton:

= 0 to the second

r r

Fe + Fg = 0

or

kqp2

h2

mp g = 0 h =

kqp2

mp g

more than 5 in high, so I changed mug to

cup.

Comment: At close distances, protons

will bind together by the strong nuclear

force. This question confuses students.

Comment: To the best of my

knowledge, Helium-2 does not exist.

60

Chapter 21

N m2

8.988 10 9

1.602 10 19 C

2

C

h=

1.673 10 27 kg 9.81 m/s 2

(

)(

12 cm 5 in

This separation of about 5 in is greater than the height of a typical coffee cup.

Thus the first proton will repel the second one out of the cup and the maximum

number of protons in the cup is one.

62

Point charges of 5.00 C, +3.00C, and +5.00 C are located on the

x axis at x = 1.00 cm, x = 0, and x = +1.00 cm, respectively. Calculate the

electric field on the x axis at x = 3.00 cm and at x = 15.0 cm. Are there any points

on the x axis where the magnitude of the electric field is zero? If so, where are

those points?

Picture the Problem The locations of the point charges q1, q2 and q3 and the

points P1 and P2 at which we are to calculate the electric field are shown in the

r

diagram. From the diagram it is evident that E along the axis has no y

r

component. (a) We can use Coulombs law for E due to a point charge and the

r

superposition principle for electric fields to find E at points P1 and P2. (b) To

decide whether there are any points on the x axis where the magnitude of the

electric field is zero we need to consider the intervals (identified on the following

pictorial representation) I (x < 1.00 cm), II ( 1.00 cm < x < 0), III (0 < x < 1.00

cm), and IV (1.00 cm < x). Throughout interval II, the three electric fields are in

the same direction and so they cannot add up to zero. Throughout interval IV, the

electric-field strength due to the positive charge at x = 1.00 cm is larger than the

electric-field strength due to the negative charge at x = 1.00 cm. The fields due

to the positive charges at x = 0 and x = 1.00 cm both point in the +x direction, so

the resultant field throughout this interval must also point in the +x direction.

Hence we can narrow our search for points on the x axis where the magnitude of

the electric field is zero to intervals I and III. Setting the resultant electric-field

strength on the x axis equal to zero throughout these intervals and solving the

resulting quadratic equations will identify the desired points. Sketching the

electric field vectors in intervals I and III will help you get the signs of the terms

in the quadratic equations right.

of 76 the ISM solution is invalid. I get

solutions at x = -6.95 cm and +4.17 cm

q2

1.00

=5

q3

q1

=

5.0

=3

.00

.00

C

0

C

P1

1.00

3.00

P2

15.0

x, cm

l

rva

l

rva

e

Int

e

Int

l

rva

l

rva

e

Int

e

Int

IV

III

II

r

r

r

r

E P1 = E q1 + E q2 + E q3

r11 , r21 , and r31 represent the

q1, q2, and q3, respectively, express

the electric field at P1 due to the

three charges:

i+ 2 i+ 2 i

r112

r21

r31

q q

q

= k 12 + 22 + 23 i

r11 r21 r31

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate E P1 :

r

5.00 C

3.00 C

5.00 C

+

+

E P1 = 8.988 10 9 N m 2 /C 2

i

2

2

2

(4.00 cm ) (3.00 cm ) (2.00 cm )

= 1.14 10 8 N/C i

r

r

r

r

E P2 = E q1 + E q2 + E q3

r12 , r22 , and x32 represent the

distances from P2 to point charges

q1, q2, and q3, respectively, express

the electric field at P2 due to the

three charges:

q

q

q

= k 21 + 22 + 23 i

r12 r22 r32

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate E P2 :

r

5.00 C

3.00 C

5.00 C

E P2 = 8.988 109 N m 2 /C 2

+

+

i

2

2

2

(16.0 cm ) (15.0 cm ) (14.0 cm )

= 1.74 106 N/C i

61

62

Chapter 21

Applying Coulombs law for electric fields and the superposition of fields in

interval I yields:

5.00 C

[x ( 1.00 cm )]

3.00 C

5.00 C

=0

2

x

(x 1.00 cm )2

where k has been divided out and x is in the interval defined by x < 0. The root

of this equation that is in the interval x < 1.00 cm is x = 6.95 cm .

Applying Coulombs law for electric fields and the superposition of fields in

interval III yields:

5.00 C

[x ( 1.00 cm )]

3.00 C

5.00 C

=0

2

x

(1.00 cm x )2

The root of this equation that is in the interval 0 < x < 1.00 cm is x = 0.417 cm

63

Point charges of 5.00 C and +5.00 C are located on the x axis at

x = 1.00 cm and x = +1.00 cm, respectively. (a) Calculate the electric field

strength at x = 10.0 cm. (b) Estimate the electric field strength at x = 10.00 cm by

modeling the two charges as an electric dipole located at the origin and using

E= 2kp x

Part (a), and explain the reason for the difference between the two results.

C

.00

=5

q2

q1

=

5.0

Picture the Problem Let the point of interest (x = 10.0 cm) be identified as point

r

P. In Part (a) we can use Coulombs law for E due to a point charge and the

superposition principle to find the electric field strength at P. In Part (b) we can

use Equation 21-10 with p = 2aq to estimate the electric field strength at P.

1.00 0 1.00

P

10.0

x, cm

many changes.

(a) Express the electric field at P as

the sum of the fields due to the point

charges located at x = 1.00 cm and

x = 1.00 cm:

63

r

r

r

E P = E q1 + E q2

=

kq

1

2

1.00 cm P

i +

kq

2

2

1.00 cm P

q

q

= k 2 1

+ 2 2 i

x1.00 cm P x1.00 cm P

r

Substitute numerical values and evaluate E P :

r

N m 2 5.00 C

5.00 C

+

E P = 8.988 10 9

i = 1.83 10 6 N/C i

2

2

2

C

(11.00 cm ) (9.00 cm )

and

E P = 1.83 10 6 N/C

(b) The electric field strength due to a

dipole is given by Equation 21-10:

Because p = 2qa , where 2a is the

separation of the charges that

constitute the dipole, E is also given

by:

E=

2kp

x

E=

4kqa

x

N m2

(5.00 C )(1.00 cm )

4 8.988 10 9

C 2

EP =

= 1.80 10 6 N/C

3

10.0 cm

The exact and estimated values of E P agree to within 2%. This difference is due to

the fact that the separation of the two charges of the dipole is 20% of the distance

from the center of the dipole to point P.

A fixed point charge of +2q is connected by strings to point charges of

64

+q and +4q, as shown in Figure 21-41. Find the tensions T1 and T2.

Picture the Problem The electrostatic forces between the charges are responsible

for the tensions in the strings. Well assume that these are point charges and

apply Coulombs law and the principle of the superposition of forces to find the

tension in each string.

64

Chapter 21

net force on the charge +q:

Substitute and simplify to obtain:

net force on the charge +4q:

Substitute and simplify to obtain:

T1 = F2 q + F4 q

T1 =

kq(2q ) kq(4q )

3kq 2

+

=

d2

d2

(2d )2

T2 = Fq + F2 q

T2 =

9kq 2

+

=

d2

d2

(2d )2

65

[SSM] A positive charge Q is to be divided into two positive point

charges q1 and q2. Show that, for a given separation D, the force exerted by one

charge on the other is greatest if q1 = q2 = 12 Q.

Picture the Problem We can use Coulombs law to express the force exerted on

one charge by the other and then set the derivative of this expression equal to zero

to find the distribution of the charge that maximizes this force.

force that either charge exerts on the

other:

F=

q2 = Q q1

F=

set this derivative equal to zero for

extreme values:

dF

k d

[q1 (Q q1 )]

= 2

dq1 D dq1

q1 = 12 Q q2 = Q q1 = 12 Q

kq1q2

D2

kq1 (Q q1 )

D2

k

[q1 ( 1) + Q q1 ]

D2

= 0 for extrema

To determine whether a maximum or

a minimum exists at q1 = 12 Q ,

65

d 2F

k d

[Q 2q1 ]

=

dq12 D 2 dq1

evaluate this derivative at q1 = 12 Q :

k

( 2)

D2

< 0 independently of q1.

=

q1 = q2 = 12 Q maximizes F .

66

A point charge Q is located on the x axis at x = 0, and a point charge

4Q is located at x = 12.0 cm. The electric force on a point charge of 2 .00C is

zero if that charge is placed at x = 4.00 cm, and is 126 N in the +x direction if

placed at x = 8.00 cm. Determine the charge Q.

Picture the Problem We can apply Coulombs law and the superposition of

forces to relate the net force acting on the charge q = 2.00 C to x. Because Q

divides out of our equation when F(x) = 0, well substitute the data given for

x = 8.00 cm.

Using Coulombs law, express the

net electric force on q as a function

of x:

F (x ) =

Q=

kqQ

kq(4Q )

+

2

x

(12.0 cm x )2

F (x )

4

kq 2 +

2

(12.0 cm x )

x

Q=

126 N

= 2.99 C

1

4

9

2

2

8.988 10 N m /C (2.00 C )

+

2

2

(8.00 cm ) (4.00 cm )

67

200 C. (a) If the two particles repel each other with a force of 80 N, what is the

charge on each of the two particles? (b) If the two particles attract each other with

a force of 80 N, what are the charges on the two particles?

Picture the Problem Knowing the total charge of the two point particles, we can

use Coulombs law to find the two combinations of charge that will satisfy the

condition that both are positive and hence repel each other. If the particles attract

each other, then there is just one distribution of charge that will satisfy the

conditions that the force is attractive and the sum of the two charges is 200 C.

66

Chapter 21

the repulsive electric force each

particle exerts on the other:

F=

charge and q1:

q 2 = Q q1

F=

quadratic equation gives:

kq1q2

r12, 2

=

r12, 2

r12, 2

q12 Qq1 +

Fr12, 2

k

=0

q12 (200 C )q1 +

or

(80 N )(0.60 m )2

8.988 10 9 N m 2 /C 2

=0

graphing calculator to obtain:

q1 = 1.8 10 5 C

and

q 2 = Q q1 = 1.8 10 4 C

the attractive electric force each

particle exerts on the other:

F =

kq1q2

r12, 2

Solve this quadratic equation to

obtain:

q1 = 1.5 10 5 C

and

q 2 = Q q1 = 2.1 10 4 C

68

A point particle that has charge +q and unknown mass m is released

r

from rest in a region that has a uniform electric field E that is directed vertically

67

downward. The particle hits the ground at a speed v = 2 gh , where h is the initial

height of the particle. Find m in terms of E, q, and g.

coordinate system shown in the

diagram and let Ug = 0 where y = 0.

Well let our system include the point

particle and Earth. Then the work done

on the point particle by the electric

field will change the energy of the

system. The diagram summarizes what

we know about the motion of the point

particle. We can apply the work-energy

theorem to our system to relate the

work done by the electric field to the

change in its energy.

Using the work-energy theorem,

relate the work done by the electric

field to the change in the energy of

the system:

y

0

v0 = 0

m,+q

y0 = h

r

E

Ug = 0

y1 = 2 gh

y1 = 0

Welectric = K + U g

field

= K 1 K 0 + U g,1 U g,0

or, because K1 = Ug,1 = 0,

Welectric = K 1 U g,1

field

field

= 12 m 2 gh

Solving for m yields:

m=

mgh = mgh

qE

g

69

21-42). A charge q1 = 5.00 107 C is placed on one end of the rod, and a charge

q2 = q1 is placed a distance d = 10.0 cm directly below it. (a) What is the force

exerted by q2 on q1? (b) What is the torque (measured about the rotation axis) due

to that force? (c) To counterbalance the attraction between the two charges, we

hang a block 25.0 cm from the pivot as shown. What value should we choose for

the mass of the block? (d) We now move the block and hang it a distance of

25.0 cm from the balance point, on the same side of the balance as the charge.

Keeping q1 the same, and d the same, what value should we choose for q2 to keep

this apparatus in balance?

68

Chapter 21

Picture the Problem We can use Coulombs law, the definition of torque, and

the condition for rotational equilibrium to find the electrostatic force between the

two charged bodies, the torque this force produces about an axis through the

center of the rod, and the mass required to maintain equilibrium when it is located

either 25.0 cm to the right or to the left of the mid-point of the rod.

(a) Using Coulombs law, express

the electric force between the two

charges:

F=

kq1q2

d2

F=

(8.988 10

)(

N m 2 / C 2 5.00 10 7 C

(0.100 m )2

rotation axis) due to the force F is:

= Fl

evaluate :

= (0.2247 N )(0.500 m )

= 0.1124 N m = 0.112 N m ,

counterclockwise.

(c) Apply

center of

the rod

= 0 to the rod:

evaluate m:

mgl' = 0 m =

m=

gl'

0.1124 N m

9.81m/s 2 (0.250 m )

= 0.04583 kg = 45.8 g

(d) Apply

center of

the rod

= 0 to the rod:

+ mgl' = 0

Fl + mgl' = 0

d 2 mgl'

kq1q2'

q

'

=

+

mg

l

'

=

0

2

d2

kq1l

where q is the required charge.

q 2' =

(8.988 109 N m 2 / C 2 )(5.00 10 7 C)(0.500 m )

5.00 10 7 C

69

70

Two 3.0-C point charges are located at x = 0, y = 2.0 m and at x = 0,

y = 2.0 m. Two other point charges, each with charge equal to Q, are located at

x = 4.0 m, y = 2.0 m and at x = 4.0 m, y = 2.0 m (Figure 21-43). The electric

field at x = 0, y = 0 due to the presence of the four charges is (4.0 103 N/C) i .

Determine Q.

Picture the Problem The field at (0, 0) produced by the two 3.0 C charges is

zero. Thus the entire field at (0, 0) is due to the two point charges whose charges

are Q. Let the numeral 1 refer to the point charge in the 1st quadrant and the

numeral 2 to the point charge in the 4th quadrant. We can use Coulombs law for

the electric field due to a point charge and the superposition of forces to express

the field at the origin and use this equation to solve for Q.

Express the electric field at the origin due to the point charges Q:

r

r

r

kQ

kQ

E (0,0 ) = E1 + E 2 = 2 r1, 0 + 2 r2, 0

r1, 0

r2, 0

kQ

( 4.0 m ) i + ( 2.0 m ) j + kQ3 ( 4.0 m ) i + (2.0 m ) j = (8.0 m3 )kQ i

r3

r

r

= E i

Express r in terms of the coordinates

(x, y) of the point charges:

r = x2 + y2

Ex =

evaluate Q:

(8.0 m )kQ .

r3

(8.0 m )kQ

(x

+ y2

3 2

E x2 + y2

Q= x

k (8.0 m )

3 2

Q=

(8.988 10 9 N m 2 /C 2 )(8.0 m )

3 2

= 5.0 C

71

[SSM] Two point charges have a total charge of 200 C and are

separated by 0.600 m. (a) Find the charge of each particle if the particles repel

each other with a force of 120 N. (b) Find the force on each particle if the charge

on each particle is 100 C.

70

Chapter 21

Picture the Problem Let the numeral 1 denote one of the point charges and the

numeral 2 the other. Knowing the total charge on the two spheres, we can use

Coulombs law to find the charge on each of them. A second application of

Coulombs law when the spheres carry the same charge and are 0.600 m apart

will yield the force each exerts on the other.

the repulsive force each point

charge exerts on the other:

F=

charge and q1:

q 2 = Q q1

F=

kq1q2

r12, 2

kq1 (Q q1 )

r12, 2

120 N =

(8.988 10

)[

N m 2 /C 2 (200 C ) q1 q12

(0.600 m )2

equation:

graphing calculator to obtain:

are:

the repulsive force each point charge

exerts on the other when

q1 = q2 = 100 C:

F=

kq1q2

r12, 2

F = (8.988 10 9 N m 2 /C 2 )

(100 C)2

(0.600 m )2

= 250 N

71

72

Two point charges have a total charge of 200 C and are separated by

0.600 m. (a) Find the charge of each particle if the particles attract each other with

a force of 120 N. (b) Find the force on each particle if the charge on each particle

is 100 C.

Picture the Problem Let the numeral 1 denote one of the point charges and the

numeral 2 the other. Knowing the total charge on the two point charges, we can

use Coulombs law to find the charge on each of them. A second application of

Coulombs law when the particles carry the same charge and are 0.600 m apart

will yield the electric force each exerts on the other.

the attractive electric force each

point charge exerts on the other:

F =

charge and q1:

q 2 = Q q1

F =

equation gives:

q12 Qq1

kq1q2

r12, 2

kq1 (Q q1 )

r12, 2

r12, 2 F

k

=0

(0.600 m )2 (120 N )

8.988 10 9 N m 2 /C 2

=0

or

2

q + ( 200 C ) q1 4805 (C ) = 0

2

1

graphing calculator to obtain:

the repulsive electric force each

point charge exerts on the other

when q1 = q2 = 100 C:

q1 = 21.7 C

and

q2 = Q q1 = 222 C

F=

kq1q2

r12, 2

72

Chapter 21

) (100 C)

F = 8.988 10 9 N m 2 /C 2

(0.600 m )2

= 250 N

73

A point charge of 3.00 C is located at the origin; a point charge of

4.00 C is located on the x axis at x = 0.200 m; a third point charge Q is located

on the x axis at x = 0.320 m. The electric force on the 4.00-C charge is 240 N in

the +x direction. (a) Determine the charge Q. (b) With this configuration of three

charges, at what location(s) is the electric field zero?

=4

=

3.0

.00

0

C

Picture the Problem (a) We can use Coulombs law for point charges and the

superposition of forces to express the net electric force acting on q2 and then solve

this equation to determine the charge Q. (b) To identify the location(s) at which

the electric field is zero, well need to systematically examine the resultant

electric fields in the intervals I, II, III, and IV identified below on the pictorial

representation. Drawing the electric field vectors in each of these intervals will

help you get the signs of the terms in the field equations right.

q2

q1

Interval I

Q

0.320

0

Interval II

the electric force on the particle

whose charge is 4.00-C:

0.200

Interval III

x,m

Interval IV

r

r

r

F2 = F1, 2 + FQ , 2

=

( )

kq1q2 kQq2

i + 2 i

r12, 2

rQ , 2

q

Q

= kq2 21 2 i = F2 i

r1, 2 rQ , 2

Solving for Q yields:

q

F

Q = rQ2, 2 21 2

r1, 2 kq2

240 N

2 3.00 C

Q = (0.120 m )

= 97.2 C

2

9

2

2

(0.200 m ) (8.988 10 N m /C )(4.00 C )

solution is cavilier about the region in

which the electric field is zero. Just to

say by inspection is little help to those

who do not know how to go about the

process.

73

(b) Applying Coulombs law for electric fields and the superposition of fields in

interval I yields:

3.00 C

(x 0)

4.00 C

(x 0.200 m )

97.2 C

(x 0.320 m )2

=0

where k has been divided out and x is in the interval defined by x < 0. The roots of

this equation are at x = 0.170 m and x =0.220 m. Neither of these are in interval I.

Applying Coulombs law for electric fields and the superposition of fields in

interval II yields:

3.00 C

(x 0)

4.00 C

(x 0.200 m )

97.2 C

(x 0.320 m )2

=0

x = 0.220 m. The second and third of these are in interval II.

Applying Coulombs law for electric fields and the superposition of fields in

interval III yields:

3.00 C

(x 0)

4.00 C

(x 0.200 m )

97.2 C

(x 0.320 m )2

=0

The roots of this equation are at x = 0.0649 m and x = 0.0454 m. Neither of these

are in interval III.

Applying Coulombs law for electric fields and the superposition of fields in

interval IV yields:

3.00 C

(x 0)

4.00 C

(x 0.200 m )

97.2 C

(x 0.320 m )2

=0

The roots of this equation are at x = 0.170 m and x = 0.220. Neither of these are in

interval IV.

Summarizing, the electric field is zero

at two locations in interval II:

Two point particles, each of mass m and charge q, are suspended from

74

a common point by threads of length L. Each thread makes an angle with the

vertical as shown in Figure 21-44. (a) Show that q = 2 L sin (mg k ) tan

where k is the Coulomb constant. (b) Find q if m = 10.0 g, L = 50.0 cm, and

= 10.0.

74

Chapter 21

particle is in static equilibrium under

r

the influence of the tension T , the

r

gravitational force Fg , and the electric

r

force FE . We can use Coulombs law to

relate the electric force to the charge on

each particle and their separation and

the conditions for static equilibrium to

relate these forces to the charge on each

particle.

equilibrium to the point particle

whose free-body diagram is shown

above:

Eliminate T between these

equations to obtain:

r

T

r

Fe

r

r

Fg = m g

Fx = FE T sin =

kq 2

T sin = 0

r2

and

Fy = T cos mg = 0

tan =

separation of the spheres r to the

length of the pendulum L:

Substitute for r to obtain:

kq 2

mg tan

q = r

2

mgr

k

r = 2L sin

q = 2 L sin

mg tan

k

8.988 10 9 N m 2 /C 2

= 0.241 C

75

the angle that each string makes with the vertical if q = 0.75 C? (b) What is the

angle that each string makes with the vertical if one particle has a charge of

0.50 C, the other has a charge of 1.0 C?

Picture the Problem Each sphere is in

static equilibrium under the influence

r

of the tension T , the gravitational

r

r

force Fg , and the electric force Fe . We

r

T

electric force to the charge on each

sphere and their separation and the

conditions for static equilibrium to

relate these forces to the charge on each

sphere.

(a)Apply the conditions for static

equilibrium to the charged sphere:

r

Fe

r

r

Fg = m g

Fx =Fe T sin =

kq 2

T sin = 0

r2

and

Fy =T cos mg = 0

Eliminate T between these equations

to obtain:

tan =

kq 2

mgr 2

r = 2L sin

74, relate the separation of the

spheres r to the length of the

pendulum L:

Substitute for r to obtain:

tan =

kq 2

4mgL2 sin 2

or

sin 2 tan =

kq 2

4mgL2

sin 2 tan =

(8.988 10

N m 2 /C 2 (0.75 C )

= 5.73 10 3

2

2

4(0.010 kg ) 9.81 m/s (1.5 m )

9

sin tan

and

3 5.73 10 3

(1)

75

76

Chapter 21

= 0.179 rad = 10

sin 2 tan =

(8.988 10

N m 2 /C 2 (0.50 C )(1.0 C )

= 5.09 10 3 3

2

2

4(0.010 kg ) 9.81 m/s (1.5 m )

9

76

Four point charges of equal magnitude are arranged at the corners of a

square of side L as shown in Figure 21-45. (a) Find the magnitude and direction

of the force exerted on the charge in the lower left corner by the other three

charges. (b) Show that the electric field at the midpoint of one of the sides of the

square is directed along that side toward the negative charge and has a magnitude

8q

1

.

E given by E = k 2 1

L 5 5

Picture the Problem Let the origin be

at the lower left-hand corner and

designate the point charges as shown in

the diagram. We can apply Coulombs

law for point charges to find the forces

exerted on q1 by q2, q3, and q4 and

superimpose these forces to find the net

force exerted on q1. In Part (b), well

use Coulombs law for the electric field

due to a point charge and the

superposition of fields to find the

electric field at point P(0, L/2).

express the net force exerted on q1:

Apply Coulombs law to express

r

F2,1 :

y

L

q2 = q

q3 = +q

E2

E1

P (0, L / 2)

E3

L 2

E4

F2,1

q1 = +q

F3,1

q4 = q

F4,1

r

r

r

r

F1 = F2,1 + F3,1 + F4,1

r

kq q

kq q r

F2,1 = 22 1 r2,1 = 23 1 r2,1

r2,1

r2,1

=

k ( q )q

kq 2

L j = 2 j

3

L

L

Apply Coulombs law to express

r

F4,1 :

r

kq q

kq q r

F4,1 = 42 1 r4,1 = 43 1 r4,1

r4,1

r4,1

=

r

F3,1 :

2

k ( q )q

= kq i

L

i

L3

L2

r

kq q

kq q r

F3,1 = 32 1 r3,1 = 33 1 r3,1

r3,1

r3,1

kq 2

L i L j

23 2 L3

kq 2

= 3 2 2 i + j

2 L

=

r

Use Coulombs law to express E1 :

kq 2

1

1

i+ j

2

L 2 2

r

r

r

r

r

E P = E1 + E 2 + E 3 + E 4

r kq

kq L

E1 = 2 1 r1, P = 3

r1, P

r1, P 2

=

r

Use Coulombs law to express E 2 :

r kq 2

kq 2

kq 2

F1 = 2 j 3 2 2 i + j + 2 i

L

L

2 L

2

2

kq

kq

= 2 i + j 3 2 2 i + j

L

2 L

express the resultant field at point

P:

kq L 4kq

j = 2 j

3

L 2 L

2

r

kq

k ( q ) L

E 2 = 2 2 r2, P = 3 j

r2, P

r2, P 2

=

kq L 4kq

j = 2 j

3

L 2 L

2

(1)

77

78

Chapter 21

r

Use Coulombs law to express E 3 :

r

kq

kq

L

E 3 = 2 3 r3, P = 3 Li j

2

r3, P

r3, P

=

r

Use Coulombs law to express E 4 :

8kq 1

i j

53 2 L2

2

r

kq

k ( q )

L

E 4 = 2 4 r4, P = 3 Li + j

2

r4, P

r4, P

=

8kq 1

i

2

53 2 L2

r

1

4kq

4kq

8kq

E P = 2 j + 2 j + 3 2 2 i

2

L

L

5 L

j + 8kq i 1

32 2

2

5 L

j = k 8q 1 1 j

L2 5 5

77

[SSM] Figure 21-46 shows a dumbbell consisting of two identical

small particles, each of mass m, attached to the ends of a thin (massless) rod of

length a that is pivoted at its center. The particles carry charges of +q and q, and

r

the dumbbell is located in a uniform electric field E . Show that for small values

of the angle between the direction of the dipole and the direction of the electric

field, the system displays a rotational form of simple harmonic motion, and obtain

an expression for the period of that motion.

Picture the Problem We can apply Newtons second law in rotational form to

obtain the differential equation of motion of the dipole and then use the small

angle approximation sin to show that the dipole experiences a linear

restoring torque and, hence, will experience simple harmonic motion.

Apply

= I to the dipole:

and:

Express the moment of inertia of the

dipole:

d 2

dt 2

where is negative because it acts in

such a direction as to decrease .

pE sin = I

pE = I

I = 12 ma 2

d 2

dt 2

Relate the dipole moment of the

dipole to its charge and the charge

separation:

Substitute for p and I to obtain:

79

p = qa

1

2

ma 2

d 2

= qaE

dt 2

or

d 2

2qE

=

2

dt

ma

the differential equation for a simple

harmonic oscillator with angular

frequency = 2qE ma .

2

harmonic oscillator:

T=

obtain:

T = 2

ma

2qE

78

r

and E = (600 N/C ) i . The dumbbell is initially at rest and makes an angle of 60

with the x axis. The dumbbell is then released, and when it is momentarily aligned

with the electric field, its kinetic energy is 5.00 103 J. Determine the magnitude

of q.

Picture the Problem We can apply conservation of energy and the definition of

the potential energy of a dipole in an electric field to relate q to the kinetic energy

of the dumbbell when it is aligned with the field.

the initial potential energy of the

dumbbell to its kinetic energy when

it is momentarily aligned with the

electric field:

K + U = 0

or, because Ki = 0,

(1)

K + U = 0

where K is the kinetic energy when it is

aligned with the field.

80

Chapter 21

energy of the dumbbell as it aligns

with the electric field in terms of its

dipole moment, the electric field,

and the angle through which it

rotates:

U = U f U i

obtain:

K + qaE (cos 60 1) = 0

q=

K

aE (1 cos 60)

evaluate q:

q=

5.00 10 3 J

(0.300 m )(600 N/C)(1 cos 60)

= pE cos f + pE cos i

= qaE (cos 60 1)

= 56 C

79

[SSM] An electron (charge e, mass m) and a positron (charge +e,

mass m) revolve around their common center of mass under the influence of their

attractive coulomb force. Find the speed v of each particle in terms of e, m, k, and

their separation distance L.

Picture the Problem The forces the electron and the proton exert on each other

constitute an action-and-reaction pair. Because the magnitudes of their charges

are equal and their masses are the same, we find the speed of each particle by

finding the speed of either one. Well apply Coulombs force law for point

charges and Newtons second law to relate v to e, m, k, and their separation

distance L.

the positron to obtain:

Solving for v gives:

ke 2

v2

ke 2

=m1

= 2mv 2

2

L

L

2 L

v=

ke 2

2mL

80

placed in a uniform electric field E that is directed vertically upward. The bob

has a charge of 8.0 C. Ther period of the pendulum is 1.2 s. What is the

magnitude and direction of E ?

Picture the Problem Because the

period of this pendulum is 60% of the

period (2.006 s) of a simple pendulum

with an uncharged bob, we know that

the bob must be experiencing an

additional downward force (in the

direction of the gravitational force).

Because the electric force acting on the

negatively-charged bob is downward,

the electric field must be upward. We

can find the magnitude of the electric

field by apply Newtons second law in

rotational form to the simple pendulum.

Doing so will lead us to the equation of

motion for the pendulum and from this

equation we can obtain an expression

relating its period to the magnitude of

E. Knowing the pendulums period in

the absence of the electric field will

allow us to derive an expression for E

from the ratio of the two periods.

negative, apply P = I P to the

pendulum bob to obtain:

L

r

T

L sin

r r

Fe = qE

(mg + qE ) L sin = I P

( mg + qE ) L sin = mL2

equilibrium, sin :

mL2

d 2

dt 2

d 2

= (mg + qE ) L

dt 2

or

d 2 mg + qE

+

=0

dt 2

mL

This is the equation of simple

harmonic motion with:

2 =

by:

T' =

the period of the simple pendulum

would be:

m, q

r

r

Fg = m g

mg + qE

mL

T = 2

= 2

L

g

mL

mg + qE

d 2

,

dt 2

81

82

Chapter 21

equations by the first and simplifying

yields:

T

=

T'

mL

mg + qE

= 1+

E=

L

g

mg + qE

mg

qE

mg

mg T

1

q T'

Noting that the period of the simple pendulum in the absence of the electric field

is 2.006 s, substitute numerical values and evaluate E:

E=

8.0 C

1.2 s

vertically inside a narrow, frictionless cylinder (Figure 21-47). At the bottom of

the cylinder is a point charge Q having the same sign as q. (a) Show that the

particle whose mass is m will be in equilibrium at a height y0 = (kqQ/mg)1/2.

(b) Show that if the particle is displaced from its equilibrium position by a small

amount and released, it will exhibit simple harmonic motion with angular

frequency = (2g/y0)1/2.

Picture the Problem We can use Coulombs force law for point particles and the

condition for translational equilibrium to express the equilibrium position as a

function of k, q, Q, m, and g. In Part (b) well need to show that the displaced

point charge experiences a linear restoring force and, hence, will exhibit simple

harmonic motion.

(a) Apply the condition for

translational equilibrium to the

particle:

kqQ

mg = 0 y0 =

y 02

acts on the particle when it is

displaced a distance y from its

equilibrium position:

F=

kqQ

( y 0 + y )

kqQ

y 02

kqQ

kqQ

F 2

2

y 0 + 2 y 0 y

y0

kqQ

mg

83

2 y 0 ykqQ

2 y 0 ykqQ

2ykqQ

=

4

3

y 0 + 2 y 0 y

y 03

y

y 04 1 + 2

y0

F =

Substitute for

kqQ

and simplify to

y02

kqQ

= mg

y02

F =

2mg

y

y0

obtain:

Apply Newtons second law to

the displaced particle to obtain:

2mg

d 2 y

=

y

2

dt

y0

or

d 2 y 2 g

+

y = 0

dt 2

y0

the differential equation of simple

harmonic motion with =

2 g y0 .

82 Two neutral

r molecules on the x axis attract each other. Each molecule

has a dipole moment p , and these dipole moments are on the +x axis and are

separated by a distance d. Derive an expression for the force of attraction in terms

of p and d.

Picture the Problem We can relate the force of attraction that each molecule

exerts on the other to the potential energy function of either molecule

using F = dU dx. We can relate U to the electric field at either molecule due to

the presence of the other through U = pE. Finally, the electric field at either

molecule is given by E = 2kp x 3 .

Express the force of attraction

between the dipoles in terms of the

spatial derivative of the potential

energy function of p1:

F =

the dipole p1:

U 1 = p1 E1

where E1 is the field at p1 due to p2.

dU 1

dx

(1)

84

Chapter 21

at p1 due to p2:

2kp2

x3

where x is the separation of the dipoles.

U1 =

differentiate with respect to x:

F =

x = d to obtain:

F=

E1 =

2kp1 p 2

x3

d 2kp1 p2 6kp1 p2

=

dx

x 3

x4

6kp 2

d4

x = 12 a. (a) Obtain an expression for the electric field on the y axis as a function

of y. (b) A bead of mass M, which has a charge q, moves along the y axis on a thin

frictionless taut thread. Find the electric force that acts on the bead as a function

of y and determine the sign of q such that this force always points away from the

origin. (c) The bead is initially at rest at the origin. If it is given a slight nudge in

the +y direction, how fast will the bead be traveling the instant the net force on it

is a maximum? (Assume any effects due to gravity are negligible.)

Picture the Problem (a) We can use Coulombs law for the electric field due to a

point charge and superposition of fields to find the electric field at any point on

the y axis. (b) Using the definition of electric field will yield an expression for the

electric force that acts on the bead. In Part (c) we can set dFy dy = 0 to find the

value of y that maximizes Fy and then use the work-kinetic energy theorem

(integrating Fy from 0 to this extreme value will yield an expression for the work

done on the bead during this displacement) to find the speed of the bead when the

force acting on it is a maximum.

P

r2, P

r

r1, P

q1 = Q

q2 = Q

12 a

m,q

x

1

2

r

r

r

E y = E1 + E 2

electric field due to a point charge

and superposition of fields, to

express the field at point P on the y

axis:

kq1

kq

r1, P + 2 2 r2, P

2

r1, P

r2, P

r1, P

r1, P =

given by:

r1, P

12 ai + yj

r1, P

and

r2, P =

r2, P

r2, P

1

2

ai + yj

r2, P

2

Substituting for q1, q2, r1, P , r2, P and r1, P = r2,P = y 2 + ( 12 a )

12

yields:

r

kQ 1 ai + yj kQ 12 ai + yj kQ 1 kQ

Ey = 2 2

+

=

2 ai + yj + 3

r2 r

r3

r1, P

r1, P

r2, P

2, P

2, P

1, P

[y

kQ

2

+ ( a)

1

2

2 32

(yj )+

[y

kQ

2

+ ( a)

bead to its charge and the electric

field:

theorem to the bead as it moves from

the origin to the location at which Fy

is a maximum to obtain:

Solving for vf yields:

the bead moves from the origin to

ymax (the y coordinate of the point at

which Fy is a maximum) is given by:

1

2

2 32

(yj ) =

[y

2kQy

2

r

r

F = qE y =

+ a

1

4

[y

2 32

2kqQy

2

+ 14 a 2

( ai + yj )

1

2

32

r

where q must be positive if F always

points away from the origin.

Wnet y = K = K f K i

or, because Ki = 0,

Wdone by Fy = 12 Mvf2

vf =

2Wdone by Fy

Wdone by Fy =

y max

[y

2kqQy

2

+ ( 12 a )

2 3 2

dy

85

86

Chapter 21

simplifying yields:

The condition that Fy is a maximum

is:

dFy

differentiation and solving for the

critical value ymax yields:

y max =

dy

for vf to obtain:

[y

+ ( 12 a )

2 32

[y

d

y

dy y 2 + ( 12 a )2

+ ( a)

32

2 32

1

2

dy

=0

4kqQ

M

2 2

dy

y

2

y + ( a)

Substitute for

[y

+ ( a)

1

2

2 32

dy

a

2 2

vf =

ymax

2 2

negative value because the bead is

given a nudge in the +y direction.

2 2

4kqQ

m

vf =

vf =

1

2

32

dy

0.367

a

4kqQ 0.367

kqQ

= 1.21

M a

aM

initially is at rest. When the proton is released, it speeds away because of the

repulsion that it experiences due to the charge on the gold nucleus. What is the

protons speed a large distance (assume to be infinity) from the gold nucleus?

(Assume the gold nucleus remains stationary.)

Picture the Problem The work done by the electric field of the gold nucleus

changes the kinetic energy of the proton. We can apply the work-kinetic energy

theorem to derive an expression for the speed of the proton as a function of its

r

distance from the gold nucleus. Because the repulsive Coulomb force Fe varies

r r

with distance, well have to evaluate Fe dr in order to find the work done on the

proton by this force.

Apply the work-kinetic energy

theorem to the proton to obtain:

87

r

Wnet = Fe dr = K

r0

ke(79e )

or, because Fe dr =

dr and

r2

r0

r0

Ki = 0,

dr 1

= 2 mp vf2

2

r

r0

79ke 2

Evaluating the integral yields:

79ke

1

= 12 mp vf2

79ke 2 =

r

r

r0

0

vf =

158ke 2

158k

=e

mp r0

mp r0

vf = 1.602 10 19 C

N m2

158 8.988 10 9

C 2

= 1.48 10 7 m/s

1.673 10 27 kg 1.00 10 13 m

) (

)(

doubly ionized helium nuclei (also known as alpha particles) at a gold foil. He

discovered that virtually all of the mass of an atom resides in an extremely

compact nucleus. Suppose that during such an experiment, an alpha particle far

from the foil has an initial kinetic energy of 5.0 MeV. If the alpha particle is

aimed directly at the gold nucleus, and the only force acting on it is the electric

force of repulsion exerted on it by the gold nucleus, how close will it approach the

gold nucleus before turning back? That is, what is the minimum center-to-center

separation of the alpha particle and the gold nucleus?

Picture the Problem The work done by the electric field of the gold nucleus

changes the kinetic energy of the alpha particleeventually bringing it to rest. We

can apply the work-kinetic energy theorem to derive an expression for the

r

distance of closest approach. Because the repulsive Coulomb force Fe varies with

r

r

distance, well have to evaluate Fe dr in order to find the work done on the

alpha particles by this force.

Comment: What????

88

Chapter 21

theorem to the alpha particle to

obtain:

Wnet =

rmin

r

dr = K

or, because

rmin

rmin

r r

k (2e )(79e )

F

d

r

=

e

r 2 dr and

Kf = 0,

158ke

rmin

dr

= Ki

r2

rmin

158ke

1

= Ki

158ke 2 =

r

rmin

rmin =

158ke 2

Ki

N m2

1.602 10 19 C

158 8.988 10 9

2

C

=

1.602 10 19 J

5.0 Mev

eV

rmin

= 4.6 10 14 m

electron, a charged polystyrene microsphere is released in still air in a known

vertical electric field. The charged microsphere will accelerate in the direction of

the net force until it reaches terminal speed. The charge on the microsphere is

determined by measuring the terminal speed. During one such experiment, the

microsphere has radius of r = 5.50 107 m, and the field has a magnitude

E = 6.00 104 N/C. The magnitude of the drag force on the sphere is given by

FD = 6rv, where v is the speed of the sphere and is the viscosity of air

( = 1.8 105 Ns/m2). Polystyrene has density 1.05 103 kg/m3. (a) If the

electric field is pointing down and the polystyrene microsphere is rising with a

terminal speed of 1.16 104 m/s, what is the charge on the sphere? (b) How

many excess electrons are on the sphere? (c) If the direction of the electric field is

reversed but its magnitude remains the same, what is the new terminal speed?

diagram shows the forces acting on the

microsphere of mass m and having an

excess charge of q = Ne when the

electric field is downward. Under

terminal-speed conditions the sphere is

in equilibrium under the influence of

r

r

the electric force Fe , its weight mg, and

r

the drag force Fd . We can apply

Newtons second law, under terminalspeed conditions, to relate the number

of excess charges N on the sphere to its

mass and, using Stokes law, find its

terminal speed.

(a) Apply Newtons second law to the

microsphere to obtain:

obtain:

r

Fe

m, Ne

r

mg

r

Fd

Fe mg Fd = ma y

or, because ay = 0,

Fe mg Fd, terminal = 0

qE Vg 6rvt = 0

or, because q = Ne,

NeE 43 r 3 g 6rvt = 0

Ne =

4

3

r 3 g + 6rv t

E

(1)

Substitute numerical values and evaluate 6rvt :

3

4

3

)(

)(

Substitute numerical values in

equation (1) and evaluate Ne:

Ne =

7.18 10 15 N + 2.16 10 14 N

6.00 10 4 N / C

= 4.8 10 19 C

(b) Divide the result in (a) by e to

obtain:

N=

4.80 10 19 C

= 3

1.602 10 19 C

89

90

Chapter 21

the electric force is downward and

the application of Fy = ma y to the

bead yields:

Fd, terminal Fe mg = 0

or

6rv t NeE 43 r 3 g = 0

vt =

NeE + 43 r 3 g

6r

3

N

kg

m

C

m

s

vt =

6 1.8 10 5 Pa s 5.50 10 7 m

)(

= 0.19 mm/s

experiment used to determine the charge on the electron. During the experiment, a

switch is used to reverse the direction of the electric field without changing its

magnitude, so that one can measure the terminal speed of the microsphere both as

it is moving upward and as it is moving downward. Let vu represent the terminal

speed when the particle is moving up, and vd the terminal speed when moving

down. (a) If we let u = vu + vd, show that q = 3ru E , where q is the

microspheres net charge. For the purpose of determining q, what advantage does

measuring both vu and vd have over measuring only one terminal speed?

(b) Because charge is quantized, u can only change by steps of magnitude N,

where N is an integer. Using the data from Problem 86, calculate u.

Picture the Problem The free body

diagram shows the forces acting on the

microsphere of mass m and having an

excess charge of q = Ne when the

electric field is downward. Under

terminal-speed conditions the sphere is

in equilibrium under the influence of

r

r

the electric force Fe , its weight mg, and

r

the drag force Fd . We can apply

Newtons second law, under terminalspeed conditions, to relate the number

of excess charges N on the sphere to its

mass and, using Stokes law, to its

terminal speed.

r

Fe

m, Ne

r

mg

r

Fd

(a) Apply Newtons second law to

the microsphere when the electric

field is downward:

Substitute for Fe and Fd, terminal to

obtain:

Fe mg Fd = ma y

or, because ay = 0,

Fe mg Fd, terminal = 0

qE mg 6rvu = 0

or, because q = Ne,

NeE mg 6rvu = 0

vu =

electric force is downward and the

application of Newtons second law

to the microsphere yields:

Solve for vd to obtain:

91

NeE mg

6r

(1)

Fd, terminal Fe mg = 0

or

6rvd NeE mg = 0

vd =

NeE + mg

6r

(2)

u = v u + vd =

qE

+

=

=

6 r

6 r

3 r

3 r

Measuring both vu and vd has the advantage that you dont need to know the mass

of the microsphere.

(b) Letting u represent the change

in the terminal speed of the

microsphere due to a gain (or loss)

of one electron we have:

Noting that v will be the same

whether the microsphere is moving

upward or downward, express its

terminal speed when it is moving

upward with N electronic charges on

it:

Express its terminal speed upward

when it has N + 1 electronic charges:

u = v N +1 v N

vN =

NeE mg

6r

vN +1 =

(N + 1)eE mg

6r

92

Chapter 21

u =

=

evaluate u:

u =

(N + 1)eE mg NeE mg

6r

6r

eE

6r

(1.602 10

6 (1.8 10

= 52 m/s

19

)(

C 6.00 10 4 N/C

5

Pa m 5.50 10 7 m

)(

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