No.
Title
Experiment 1:
Summary/Abstract
Theory
Equipment
Procedure
Conclusions
References
Experiment 2:
Summary/Abstract
Theory
Equipment
Procedure
Conclusions
References
Experiment 1:
Page
1) Summary/Abstract:
This experiment was performed to compare the time constant of different types of
temperature measuring devices and to know the relationship between resistance and
temperature. Multiple thermometers were recorded at the same time with a constant
time step and tabulated to make the comparison.
3) Theory:
Melting Ice
Boiling Water
0 0C
100 0C
Fahrenheit
32 0F
212 0F
273 K
373 K
having different coefficients of linear expression, are mechanically fastened together, the
result is a strip which bends significantly when heated. This combination is called a Bimetal
strip and the sensitivity may be increased by coiling the strip into a spiral. One end of the strip
is fixed to the case and a pointer is attached to the other end. Linear scale may be obtained by
suitable choice of metals.
This type of thermometer is very robust and has many applications throughout
industry where accuracy of measurement is not important.
The bimetal thermometer supplied with the bench is mounted on the backboard and
gives a direct reading of ambient air temperature.
Resistance Thermometer
The resistance of a material changes with temperature. Resistance thermometer uses
this relationship in measuring the temperature. If high accuracy is required, the material used
in resistance thermometer is platinum. Nickel is used in general operation and monitoring.
Copper is also suitable but only in a restricted temperature range of approximately 250oC,
because copper tends to corrode more severely when subjected to oxidation.
Figure 3.1 shows the resistance change of the metals as a function of the temperature,
T. They have a positive temperature coefficient . For the purpose of comparison, a
resistance characteristics of a thermistor (NTC) was added, which runs much more nonlinearly, and in contrast to the metals, demonstrates a negative coefficient .
For small temperature ranges we may assume that linear relationships exist between
resistance and temperature. From figure 3.2 one can deduce the temperaturedependent
resistance ratio
(1)
Knowing that,
(2)
R(T) = Ro + R, thus:
R(T) = Ro + mT
= Ro (1 + m/Ro T)
T)
(3)
Ro (1 + R / Ro
Ro (1 + 1T)
where, 1 = R / Ro T
450
400
350
300
Ni
100
R/
250
Pt100
200
150
Cu100
100
50
0
200
200
400
600
800
1000
T/ C
Figure 3.1
1 is the linear temperature coefficient of the resistive material. It provides the relative change in
resistance (R/ Ro) for a certain temperature change (T), for example 0.4% change in resistance
R(T)
R
Ro = R(To)
per degree.
Figure 3.2
From Figure 3.1 we can see that for large measurement ranges no linear relationship between
resistance R and temperature T can be assumed. In this case we must take into consideration,
apart from the linear temperature coefficient 1 , also the square temperature coefficients 2, and
for very large temperature changes T also the cubic temperature coefficients 3, and if necessary
the biquadratic value 4.
R(T) R
1T T
1
where, T T To
2 ...
(4)
Thermal Response
The diagram below shows typical response curves f or a thermometer when step
changes in temperature are applied .
The response of the thermometer is defined by the time ta ken for the temperature
reading to change by 63.2% of the step change. For any thermometer, this time will be a
constant value irrespective of step change and is defined as the "time constant" f or the
thermometer. The time constant and response profile f or a thermometer will change if
the system is modified. For example, the speed of response of a thermometer will be
slowed down if it is protected from the system being measured by a thermometer. The
response will also be affected by the thermal contact between the thermometer and
pocket, fluid filling of the pocket resulting in a reduction in time constant.
The response of the thermometer is defined by the time taken f or the temperature reading to
change by 63.2% of the step change. For any thermometer, this time will be a constant value
irrespective of step change and is defined as the "time constant" f or the thermometer. The
time constant and response profile for a thermometer will change if the system is modified.
For example, the speed of response of a thermometer will be slowed down if it is protected
from the system being measured by a thermometer. The response will also be affected by the
thermal contact between the thermometer and pocket, fluid filling of the pocket resulting in a
reduction in time constant.
4) Equipment:

TypeK thermocouple
Pt 100 thermocouple
mV meter
Mains switch 240V AC
Stopwatch
ELCB/MCB
Heater switch
Blower switch and speed controller
Pt 100 temperature meter
Type K temperature meter
Bimetallic thermometer
Vapour compression thermometer
Vacuum Flask
Hot water pot
Whirling psychrometer
Thermistor temperature meter
Mercury filled thermometer
Spirit filled thermometer
5) Procedure:

The 3 pin plug was plugged to the 220V AC main power supply. The power supply
pot.
The small cap (on top of the hot water pot) was removed from the hot water pot.
The desirable temperature measuring device was chosen, and placed into the hot
water pot. The mercury filled thermometer was the reference temperature point.
The initial temperature reading was stated and recorded into the table.
The water heater was turned on.
The temperature reading was stated and recorded into the table every 2 minutes.
Step 9 was repeated until water boiled.
The experiment was repeated with different type of temperature measuring device.
Sample Calculation:
Time constant:
a) Mercury filled thermometer:
= Max temperature (oC) x 0.632
= 101oC x 0.632
= 63.832 oC
From the graph:
y = 6.0736x + 18.341
x = (63.832 18.341) / 6.0736
= 7.489 min
b) Bimetallic thermometer :
= Max temperature (oC) x 0.632
= 96oC x 0.632
= 60.672 oC
From the graph:
y = 5.756x + 10.484
x = (60.672 10.484) / 5.756
= 8.7192 min
c) Thermistor:
= Max temperature (oC) x 0.632
= 93.8oC x 0.632
= 59.281 oC
From the graph:
y = 5.684x + 20.57
x = (59.281 20.57) / 5.684
= 6.810 min
d) Pt 100:
= Max temperature (oC) x 0.632
= 100.4oC x 0.632
= 63.453 oC
e) Type K:
= Max temperature (oC) x 0.632
= 96.7oC x 0.632
= 61.111oC
f) Spirit Type :
= Max temperature (oC) x 0.632
= 96oC x 0.632
= 60.672oC
g) Vapour Pressure:
= Max temperature (oC) x 0.632
= 100oC x 0.632
= 63.2oC
 From the calculation of time constant, it shows that the mercury filled thermometer has the
smallest time constant which is 7.489 min.
 The temperature measuring device does not have the same value of temperature increment
because of different material was used in them.
 Time constant can be found by finding the xintercept in each of the following graph.
 Temperature is linearly proportional to the time.
8) Conclusion:
 The time constant of different type of temperature measuring devices with reference to
mercury filled thermometer was compared and verified.
 It was verified that mercury filled thermometer has the smallest time constant.
 The hypothesis of the experiment is that the resistance increase as the temperature increase.
 The results of the experiment support the hypothesis.
1) Summary/Abstract:
This experiment was performed to know the working principle, to find the sensitivity, and to
investigate the relation between voltage output and temperature of Type K Thermocouple.
The temperature and voltage were recorded at the same time with a constant time step and
tabulated to make the comparison.
3) Theory:
Thermistor
Thermistors consist of semiconducting polycrystalline material. In the production of
temperature sensors copper dioxide (CuO2) is preferred. It demonstrates a sever (nonlinear)
drop in resistance for an increase in temperature. It possesses a negative temperature
coefficient, which is the reason why these sensors are called NTC resistors.
If the CuO2 is mixed with the ingredients of a ferroelectric material (e.g. BaTi), the
temperature coefficient is initially negative only for low temperatures. After reaching a
threshold temperature the temperature coefficient becomes very strongly positive in a narrow
temperature range. For even higher temperatures the temperature coefficient reverts back to
negative. Because of the clearly delineated positive temperature coefficient range, these
sensors are called PTC resistors. They are mainly used for trigger purposes.
Features of NTC and PTC thermistors
NTC sensors possess a high sensitivity, which is easily 10 times higher than that of
metal resistance thermometers. The nonlinearity of NTCs and their broad manufacturers'
tolerances exclude them from use for precision instruments. In the temperature range between
60oC and +150oC they are frequently used in the area of household appliances and medical
technology because of their high sensitivity and corresponding simple circuitry.
The effect of NTCs, whereby the resistance lowers as the temperature increases, is explained
by the semiconductor mechanism. In semiconductors (as opposed to metal conductors) the
valency electrons have relatively strong bonds to the atomic nuclei of the crystal lattice. A
rise in temperature loosens this bond and more and more electrons enter into the conduction
band, where they are available for charge transport (i.e. for increased current), thus reducing
the ohmic resistance.
PTCs behave in the same manner below the threshold temperature. The resistance lies only
somewhat higher than for NTCs, because, due to the mixture of a ferroelectric material to the
semiconductor material an additional resistance of both components results (series
connection). However, with increasing temperature a strong increase in resistance is observed
within a narrow temperature range, which is caused so rapidly by the sudden cancelling of a
uniform orientation of all magnetic forces in the ferroelectric material. Through thermal
motion an amorphous crystal structure is produced, which results in a considerable
prolongation of the current paths, on which the electrons move through the PTC. If this
transition is completed, the resistance then drops again as the rise in temperature continues.
Thus the function R(T) of the PTC follows the characteristic of its semiconductor
components, supplemented by the characteristics of its ferroelectric components.
Temperature function and temperature coefficient of NTC thermometers
The resistance R(T) = RT of NTC materials can be described as a function of the
temperature using the following equation:
B/T
RT = Ae
(5)
The material constant B is given in Kelvin, e.g. B = 3800 K. The constant A gives the
resistance for infinitely high temperature. As the sensor cannot register this temperature, the
constant A cannot be used as a practical parameter. The requirements for practical application
can be better satisfied with the following dependency RT. For this the reference temperature
To = 20oC is used, for which the resistance has its nominal value Ro. Due to the fact that in
the above equation only A is unknown, the equation is then solved for A, which is inserted
into RT:
R(To) = Ro= Ae
B/To
B/To
A = Roe
(6)
RT = RoeB(1/T  1/To)
4) Equipment:

TypeK thermocouple
Pt 100 thermocouple
mV meter
Mains switch 240V AC
(7)
Stopwatch
ELCB/MCB
Heater switch
Blower switch and speed controller
Pt 100 temperature meter
Type K temperature meter
Bimetallic thermometer
Vapour compression thermometer
Vacuum Flask
Hot water pot
Whirling psychrometer
Thermistor temperature meter
Mercury filled thermometer
Spirit filled thermometer
5) Procedure:

The 3 pin plug was plugged to the 220V AC main power supply. The power supply
Sample Calculation:
From temperature against time graph equation:
y = 5.833x + 22.031
gradient, m = 5.833
From voltage against temperature graph equation:
y = 0.3239x 0.3447
gradient, m = 0.3239
8) Conclusion:
 The investigation of the working principle of Type K Thermocouple has been carried out.
 The sensitivity of the type K thermocouple was found and verified.
 The relation between voltage output and temperature was investigated.
 The hypothesis of the experiment is that temperature increases as time increases and voltage
increases as temperature increases. The results that was taken,support the hypothesis.
 Human error and parallax error may affect the reading of the data.
9) References:
 Internet:
http://www.atmos.washington.edu/~robwood/teaching/451/labs/Temperature_Lab.pdf
 ENGINEERING MEASUREMENT MESB333 2016 LAB. MANUAL
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