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Table of Content

No.

Title
Experiment 1:

Summary/Abstract

Statement of Purpose or Objective

Theory

Equipment

Procedure

Data, Observations and Results

Analysis and Discussion

Conclusions

References
Experiment 2:

Summary/Abstract

Statement of Purpose or Objective

Theory

Equipment

Procedure

Data, Observations and Results

Analysis and Discussion

Conclusions

References

Experiment 1:

Page

1) Summary/Abstract:
This experiment was performed to compare the time constant of different types of
temperature measuring devices and to know the relationship between resistance and
temperature. Multiple thermometers were recorded at the same time with a constant
time step and tabulated to make the comparison.

2) Statement of Purpose or Objective:

- To compare the time constant of different type of temperature measuring devices


with reference to mercury filled thermometer (smallest time constant).
- To understand the relationship between resistance and temperature.

3) Theory:

Temperature is a measure of hotness. Together with a measure of thermal


mass of a body it gives an indication of the total thermodynamics energy that body
contains. There are many scales for the comparison of temperatures, the most
important is with their corresponding values for melting ice and boiling water (which
are common reference temperatures) being given in the table below:
Scale

Melting Ice

Boiling Water

Celsius (or Centigrade)

0 0C

100 0C

Fahrenheit

32 0F

212 0F

Kelvin (Absolute Scale)

273 K

373 K

The Liquid Filled Thermometer


This type of thermometer depends on the expansion of a liquid associated with an increase in
temperature. The most common type is the mercury-in-glass thermometer. This thermometer
consists of a capillary tube with a bulbous end. clean, dry mercury is introduced and the
thermometer heated to drive off the air. The end is then scaled leaving mercury and mercury
vapour only. On heating, the mercury expands relative to the glass container and a column is
pushed along the bore of the tube. A scale along the tube, calibrated in units of temperature,
gives a direct reading of temperature. The mercury-in-glass thermometer is an accurate device
but is very fragile and care should be exercised in use. This type of thermometer should not
be used in applications such as the food industry where mercury poisoning could occur in the
event of breakage.
The mercury may be replaced by other fluids according to the application. For example,
alcohol is cheaper and may be used at lower temperatures than mercury. A mercury-in-glass
thermometer is supplied with the Temperature Measurement Bench due to its stable and
accurate performance.
For accurate measurement of temperature using a liquid filled thermo meter, it is
important that the thermometer is immersed into the medium being measured by the correct
amount. The depth of immersion is usually stated on the stem of the thermo meter and defines
the condition under which calibration is maintained. The immersion depth may be partial or
total and is independent of filling or range.

The Vapour Pressure Manometer


For industrial applications, the liquid-in-glass thermometer is far from suitable due to
its fragility and the difficulty in reading. In these applications the glass is replaced by a metal
container and mechanical indication is substituted. One example of this type of thermometer
is the vapor pressure thermometer.
This consists of a metal bulb partially filled with fluid, which is connected to the
sensing element of a Bourdon gauge. The space above the fluid is filled with vapor of the
fluid, the pressure of which is display on the Bourdon gauge. The gauge is calibrated directly
in units of temperature corresponding to the equivalent, pressure of the vapor but calibration
is far from linear due to the pressure increasing more and more rapidly as the temperature
increases. For this reason, the vapor pressure thermometer is suitable only for operation over
short ranges of temperature and suffers from lack of sensitivity at low readings. In service, the
range should be selected so that the gauge remains within operational limits with the normal
operating point at approximately two thirds of fullscale reading.
Vapor pressure thermometers offer the advantage of remote reading. The thermometer
may be ordered with a metal capillary tube connecting the bulb to the gauge, permitting
remote operation over distances up to sixty meters. Correct orientation of the bulb and gauge
should be preserved f or ac- curate results. The vapor pressure thermometer supplied with the
bench has the Bourdon gauge connected directly to the stem for case of operation

The Bi-Metal Thermometer


Expansion of solids may be used to measure temperature but direct measurement is
impractical due to the very small movements involved. However, if two thin metal strips,

having different coefficients of linear expression, are mechanically fastened together, the
result is a strip which bends significantly when heated. This combination is called a Bi-metal
strip and the sensitivity may be increased by coiling the strip into a spiral. One end of the strip
is fixed to the case and a pointer is attached to the other end. Linear scale may be obtained by
suitable choice of metals.
This type of thermometer is very robust and has many applications throughout
industry where accuracy of measurement is not important.
The bi-metal thermometer supplied with the bench is mounted on the back-board and
gives a direct reading of ambient air temperature.
Resistance Thermometer
The resistance of a material changes with temperature. Resistance thermometer uses
this relationship in measuring the temperature. If high accuracy is required, the material used
in resistance thermometer is platinum. Nickel is used in general operation and monitoring.
Copper is also suitable but only in a restricted temperature range of approximately 250oC,
because copper tends to corrode more severely when subjected to oxidation.
Figure 3.1 shows the resistance change of the metals as a function of the temperature,
T. They have a positive temperature coefficient . For the purpose of comparison, a
resistance characteristics of a thermistor (NTC) was added, which runs much more nonlinearly, and in contrast to the metals, demonstrates a negative coefficient .
For small temperature ranges we may assume that linear relationships exist between
resistance and temperature. From figure 3.2 one can deduce the temperature-dependent
resistance ratio

R(T) caused by the resistance change R is:


R(T) = Ro + R

(1)

The rise of this function is m = R/T.


R = mT

Knowing that,

(2)

R(T) = Ro + R, thus:
R(T) = Ro + mT
= Ro (1 + m/Ro T)
T)

(3)

Ro (1 + R / Ro

Ro (1 + 1T)

where, 1 = R / Ro T

450
400
350
300

Ni
100

R/

250

Pt100

200
150

Cu100

100
50
0
-200

200

400

600

800

1000

T/ C

Figure 3.1

1 is the linear temperature coefficient of the resistive material. It provides the relative change in
resistance (R/ Ro) for a certain temperature change (T), for example 0.4% change in resistance

R(T)
R

Ro = R(To)

per degree.
Figure 3.2

From Figure 3.1 we can see that for large measurement ranges no linear relationship between
resistance R and temperature T can be assumed. In this case we must take into consideration,
apart from the linear temperature coefficient 1 , also the square temperature coefficients 2, and
for very large temperature changes T also the cubic temperature coefficients 3, and if necessary
the biquadratic value 4.

R(T) R

1T T
1

where, T T To

2 ...

(4)

Thermal Response

The thermal response of a thermometer to changes in temperature is probably the most


important characteristic to consider when selecting instrumentation for a particular
application.

A thermometer may be extremely accurate and stable in performance but totally


unsuitable for use in a dynamic situation, due to a time lag between system temperature
and thermometer reading.

The diagram below shows typical response curves f or a thermometer when step
changes in temperature are applied .

The response of the thermometer is defined by the time ta ken for the temperature
reading to change by 63.2% of the step change. For any thermometer, this time will be a
constant value irrespective of step change and is defined as the "time constant" f or the
thermometer. The time constant and response profile f or a thermometer will change if
the system is modified. For example, the speed of response of a thermometer will be
slowed down if it is protected from the system being measured by a thermometer. The
response will also be affected by the thermal contact between the thermometer and
pocket, fluid filling of the pocket resulting in a reduction in time constant.

The response of the thermometer is defined by the time taken f or the temperature reading to
change by 63.2% of the step change. For any thermometer, this time will be a constant value
irrespective of step change and is defined as the "time constant" f or the thermometer. The
time constant and response profile for a thermometer will change if the system is modified.
For example, the speed of response of a thermometer will be slowed down if it is protected
from the system being measured by a thermometer. The response will also be affected by the
thermal contact between the thermometer and pocket, fluid filling of the pocket resulting in a
reduction in time constant.

4) Equipment:
-

Type-K thermocouple
Pt 100 thermocouple
mV meter
Mains switch 240V AC
Stopwatch
ELCB/MCB
Heater switch
Blower switch and speed controller
Pt 100 temperature meter
Type K temperature meter
Bi-metallic thermometer
Vapour compression thermometer
Vacuum Flask
Hot water pot
Whirling psychrometer
Thermistor temperature meter
Mercury filled thermometer
Spirit filled thermometer

5) Procedure:
-

The 3 pin plug was plugged to the 220V AC main power supply. The power supply

was switched on.


It was ensured that the MCB/EL CB was switched on.
The main power supply for the apparatus was switched on.
The water was poured into a hot water pot. The water level was at least half of the

pot.
The small cap (on top of the hot water pot) was removed from the hot water pot.
The desirable temperature measuring device was chosen, and placed into the hot

water pot. The mercury filled thermometer was the reference temperature point.
The initial temperature reading was stated and recorded into the table.
The water heater was turned on.
The temperature reading was stated and recorded into the table every 2 minutes.
Step 9 was repeated until water boiled.

The experiment was repeated with different type of temperature measuring device.

Sample Calculation:
Time constant:
a) Mercury filled thermometer:
= Max temperature (oC) x 0.632
= 101oC x 0.632
= 63.832 oC
From the graph:
y = 6.0736x + 18.341
x = (63.832 18.341) / 6.0736
= 7.489 min
b) Bi-metallic thermometer :
= Max temperature (oC) x 0.632
= 96oC x 0.632
= 60.672 oC
From the graph:
y = 5.756x + 10.484
x = (60.672 10.484) / 5.756
= 8.7192 min

c) Thermistor:
= Max temperature (oC) x 0.632
= 93.8oC x 0.632
= 59.281 oC
From the graph:
y = 5.684x + 20.57
x = (59.281 20.57) / 5.684
= 6.810 min

d) Pt 100:
= Max temperature (oC) x 0.632
= 100.4oC x 0.632
= 63.453 oC
e) Type K:
= Max temperature (oC) x 0.632
= 96.7oC x 0.632
= 61.111oC
f) Spirit Type :
= Max temperature (oC) x 0.632
= 96oC x 0.632
= 60.672oC
g) Vapour Pressure:
= Max temperature (oC) x 0.632
= 100oC x 0.632
= 63.2oC

7) Analysis and Discussion:

- From the calculation of time constant, it shows that the mercury filled thermometer has the
smallest time constant which is 7.489 min.
- The temperature measuring device does not have the same value of temperature increment
because of different material was used in them.
- Time constant can be found by finding the x-intercept in each of the following graph.
- Temperature is linearly proportional to the time.

8) Conclusion:
- The time constant of different type of temperature measuring devices with reference to
mercury filled thermometer was compared and verified.
- It was verified that mercury filled thermometer has the smallest time constant.
- The hypothesis of the experiment is that the resistance increase as the temperature increase.
- The results of the experiment support the hypothesis.

1) Summary/Abstract:

This experiment was performed to know the working principle, to find the sensitivity, and to
investigate the relation between voltage output and temperature of Type K Thermocouple.
The temperature and voltage were recorded at the same time with a constant time step and
tabulated to make the comparison.

2) Statement of Purpose or Objective:


To investigate the working principle of Type K Thermocouple

To find the sensitivity of the type K thermocouple


To investigate the relation between voltage output and temperature

3) Theory:
Thermistor
Thermistors consist of semi-conducting polycrystalline material. In the production of
temperature sensors copper dioxide (CuO2) is preferred. It demonstrates a sever (non-linear)
drop in resistance for an increase in temperature. It possesses a negative temperature
coefficient, which is the reason why these sensors are called NTC resistors.
If the CuO2 is mixed with the ingredients of a ferroelectric material (e.g. BaTi), the
temperature coefficient is initially negative only for low temperatures. After reaching a
threshold temperature the temperature coefficient becomes very strongly positive in a narrow
temperature range. For even higher temperatures the temperature coefficient reverts back to
negative. Because of the clearly delineated positive temperature coefficient range, these
sensors are called PTC resistors. They are mainly used for trigger purposes.
Features of NTC and PTC thermistors
NTC sensors possess a high sensitivity, which is easily 10 times higher than that of
metal resistance thermometers. The non-linearity of NTCs and their broad manufacturers'
tolerances exclude them from use for precision instruments. In the temperature range between
-60oC and +150oC they are frequently used in the area of household appliances and medical
technology because of their high sensitivity and corresponding simple circuitry.
The effect of NTCs, whereby the resistance lowers as the temperature increases, is explained
by the semiconductor mechanism. In semi-conductors (as opposed to metal conductors) the
valency electrons have relatively strong bonds to the atomic nuclei of the crystal lattice. A
rise in temperature loosens this bond and more and more electrons enter into the conduction
band, where they are available for charge transport (i.e. for increased current), thus reducing
the ohmic resistance.
PTCs behave in the same manner below the threshold temperature. The resistance lies only
somewhat higher than for NTCs, because, due to the mixture of a ferroelectric material to the
semiconductor material an additional resistance of both components results (series
connection). However, with increasing temperature a strong increase in resistance is observed

within a narrow temperature range, which is caused so rapidly by the sudden cancelling of a
uniform orientation of all magnetic forces in the ferroelectric material. Through thermal
motion an amorphous crystal structure is produced, which results in a considerable
prolongation of the current paths, on which the electrons move through the PTC. If this
transition is completed, the resistance then drops again as the rise in temperature continues.
Thus the function R(T) of the PTC follows the characteristic of its semiconductor
components, supplemented by the characteristics of its ferroelectric components.
Temperature function and temperature coefficient of NTC thermometers
The resistance R(T) = RT of NTC materials can be described as a function of the
temperature using the following equation:
B/T

RT = Ae

(5)

The material constant B is given in Kelvin, e.g. B = 3800 K. The constant A gives the
resistance for infinitely high temperature. As the sensor cannot register this temperature, the
constant A cannot be used as a practical parameter. The requirements for practical application
can be better satisfied with the following dependency RT. For this the reference temperature
To = 20oC is used, for which the resistance has its nominal value Ro. Due to the fact that in
the above equation only A is unknown, the equation is then solved for A, which is inserted
into RT:
R(To) = Ro= Ae

B/To
-B/To

A = Roe

(6)

Substitute (6) into equation (5)

RT = RoeB(1/T - 1/To)

4) Equipment:
-

Type-K thermocouple
Pt 100 thermocouple
mV meter
Mains switch 240V AC

(7)

Stopwatch
ELCB/MCB
Heater switch
Blower switch and speed controller
Pt 100 temperature meter
Type K temperature meter
Bi-metallic thermometer
Vapour compression thermometer
Vacuum Flask
Hot water pot
Whirling psychrometer
Thermistor temperature meter
Mercury filled thermometer
Spirit filled thermometer

5) Procedure:
-

The 3 pin plug was plugged to the 220V AC main power supply. The power supply

was switched on.


It was ensured that the MCB/EL CB was switched on.
The main power supply for the apparatus was switched on.
The water was poured into a hot water pot. The water level was at least half of the pot.
The small cap (on top of the hot water pot) was removed from the hot water pot.
Type K thermocouple was connected to port 1 and was placed into the hot water pot.
The selector switch was being switched to 1.
The temperature meter voltage output port was connected to the digital mV meter.
The values from Type K temperature meter and mV meter was stated into a table.
The water heater was turned on.
The temperature reading and the voltage reading was recorded for every 5oC interval.

Step 11 was repeated until the water boiled.


The graph of meter output voltage against temperature was plotted.
The findings and the function of the temperature displaying meter voltage output was
discussed.

Sample Calculation:
From temperature against time graph equation:
y = 5.833x + 22.031
gradient, m = 5.833
From voltage against temperature graph equation:
y = 0.3239x 0.3447
gradient, m = 0.3239

7) Analysis and Discussion:


- Both graphs are linear. Therefore, we can say that temperature increases as time increases
and voltage increases as temperature increases.
- Temperature is linearly proportional to time
-Voltage is linearly proportional to temperature. Therefore, resistance is linearly proportional
to temperature.

8) Conclusion:
- The investigation of the working principle of Type K Thermocouple has been carried out.
- The sensitivity of the type K thermocouple was found and verified.
- The relation between voltage output and temperature was investigated.
- The hypothesis of the experiment is that temperature increases as time increases and voltage
increases as temperature increases. The results that was taken,support the hypothesis.

- Human error and parallax error may affect the reading of the data.

9) References:
- Internet:
http://www.atmos.washington.edu/~robwood/teaching/451/labs/Temperature_Lab.pdf
- ENGINEERING MEASUREMENT MESB333 2016 LAB. MANUAL