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Cerebellar ataxia

Position sense loss (stamping)

Distal weakness (slapping)
Proximal weakness (waddling)
Apraxia of gait
Gait pattern
Apropulsive gait

Antalgic gait

Ataxic gait

Bouncing gait

Broad-based gait
Childhood gait

Festinant or shuffling

Hallux limitus gait

High-steppage gait

Normal gait
Rheumatoid gait

Scissors gait

Typical of someone who pronates excessively during the stance phase of gait
Characteristically inefficient gait pattern; subject does not achieve supination at
toe off
Typical of the elderly
Characteristically shows loss of gait fluidity and ease of movement, due to foot
pain, generalized pain and disability
Typical of someone with cerebellar pathology
Characteristically an uncoordinated gait pattern
Shows dyssynergy (loss of smoothly coordinated voluntary movements),
dysrhythmia (abnormal timing and coupling of movements), dysmetria (the
inability to gauge distance, speed, strength and velocity of movements)
This results in a wide-based gait with a slow, jerky and irregular cadence,
variability of stride length and foot placement from step to step, numerous
postural adjustments and easy loss of balance
Typical of someone with ankle equinus
Characteristically shows early heel off (lift) due to soft-tissue contracture of
Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius complex, shortened stride length, external
hip rotation, extended knee extension throughout the stance phase, abductory
twist of heel and forefoot, excessive pronation, elongated propulsive phase,
forefoot subluxation and medial column collapse

Typical of a child aged 2-6 years

Characteristically shows developmental knock knee, abdomen less prominent
than the toddler gait; foot type approaches the adult form with a more evident
medial longitudinal arch
Typical of someone with Parkinson's disease
Characteristically shows difficulty in initiating gait; rapid, short, shuffling steps
once mobile, with loss of arm swing, stooped stance, propulsion and retropulsion (small backward steps)
Typical of someone with functional or actual reduced dorsiflexion at the first
metatarsophalangeal joint
Characteristically shows reduced heel lift, obligatory pronation about the
longitudinal axis of the metatarsal joint, leading to abductory twist and
increased abducted angle of gait, internal tibial torsion, internal rotation and
increased transverse plane motion at knee, internal hip rotation, forward pelvic
tilt and increased lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis and a forward tilt of the
cervical spine
Typical of someone with foot drop and/or distal sensory neuropathy
Characteristically shows increased hip and knee flexion during the swing phase
of gait in order for the foot, which is plantarflexed at the ankle, to clear the

Typical of someone with rheumatoid disease

Characteristically shows an antalgic pattern with reduced gait velocity due to
shortened stride length and reduced cadence, with an increased double-support
phase and reluctance to load the forefoot and altered velocity of the centre of
pressure profile
Typical of someone with cerebral palsy
Characteristically shows spasticity of hip flexors and adductors, with

Spasticity /

Toddler gait

hyperreflexia and clonus, internal hip rotation, contraction of the knee flexors
leading to toe walking and cavovarus foot deformity
Spasticity: more pronounced in extensor muscles, +/- weakness,
causes stiff & jerky walking. Toes & shoes scuffed, catching
level ground. Pace shortens, narrow base maintained. Clonus
may occur.
Hemiparesis: Weak leg is circumducted & drags.
Parkinsons disease muscular rigidity throughout extensors &
flexors. Power preserved but pace shortens & slows to a shuffle,
base remains narrow. A stoop & diminished arm swinging
become apparent.
Typical of a 12-15-month-old child who has just begun to walk
Characteristically shows a broad-based gait, with apparent flat foot and bow
legs, partially flexed knees, lordosis and bulging of the abdomen, forward tilt of
the body, arms extended sideways at the shoulders and/or the arms lifted up