Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 39

The Teaching Profession

Teachers are the most responsible and important members of society because their
professional efforts affect the fate of the earth.- Helen Caldicott
We dont live in a vacuum. We live in a society. We are part of the society. Our society
influences us to the extent that we allow ourselves to be influenced by it. Our thoughts, values
and actions are somehow shaped by events and by people with whom we come in contact. We,
in turn, help shape society- its events, its people and its destiny.
John Donne said it in his song No man is an island. No man stands alone. We need one
another. In the context of your life as a teacher, we would say :No teacher is an island. No
teacher stands alone. Think of the many people who are helping you now become a teacher in
the near future. In fact, soon you will be called teacher in relation to a student , in the same
manner that your student will be called student in relation to you as teacher.
In this chapter, you will be made to realize the significant role that you will play in society. This
is perhaps one reason why many a time the teacher is blamed for the many ills in society. You
will also come to realize the demands it will exact from you for much is expected of you, the
teacher. It is, therefore , no joke to become one.
While teaching has many demands it also has its share of rewards. Great teachers recite a litany
of these rewards most of which are invisible to the eyes but are the most essential.
Your influence on your students and on other people with whom you work and live depends on
a great deal on your philosophy as a person and as a teacher. Your philosophy of life and your
philosophy of education serve as your window to the world and your compass in the sea of
life. Embedded in your personal philosophy are your principles and values that will determine
how you regard people, how you look at life as a whole. They govern and direct your lifestyle,
your thoughts, decisions, actions and your relationships with people and things.
In this chapter, you are expected to
A. Summarize at least seven philosophies of education and draw their implications to
B. Formulate your own philosophy of education
C. Discuss and internalize the foundational principles of morality
D. Accept continuing values of education as an integral part of your personal and
professional life
E. Clarify if you really value teaching
F. Explain teaching as a vocation, mission and profession
G. Embrace teaching as a vocation, mission and profession

Page 1

Lesson I
Your Philosophical Heritage
To philosophize is so essentially human-and in a sense to philosophize means living a truly
human life. J.Pieper
The Existential Question
We are heirs to a rich philosophical heritage. Passed on to us are a number of philosophies of
various thinkers who lived before us. These thinkers reflected on life in this planet. They
occupied themselves searching for answers to questions about human existence. These
essential questions come in different versions. What is life?Who am I?Why am I here?or
What am I living for?What is reality?Is the universe real?What is good to do?How should I
live life meaningfully? and the like. In the school context, these essential questions are: Why
do I teach?How should I teach? What is the nature of the learners?How do we learn?

An Exercise To Determine Your Educational Philosophy

Find out to which philosophy you adhere. To what extent does each statement apply to you?
Rate yourself 4 if you agree with the statement always,3 if you agree but not always,2 if you
agree sometimes and 1 if you dont agree at all.
1. There is no substitute for concrete experience in learning.
2. The focus of education should be the ideas that are relevant today
as when they were first conceived.
3. Teachers must not force their students to learn the subject matter
if it does not interest them.
4. Schools must develop students capacity to reason by stressing on
the humanities.
5. In the classroom, students must be encouraged to interact with one
another to develop social virtues such as cooperation and respect.
6. Students should read and analyze the Great Books, the creative
works of historys finest thinkers and writers.
7. Help students expand their knowledge by helping them apply their
previous experiences in solving new problems.
8. Our course of study should be general, not specialized, liberal, not
vocational, humanistic, not technical.
9. There is no universal, inborn human nature. We are born and exist

and then we ourselves freely determine our essence.

10. Human beings are shaped by their environment.
11. Schools should stress on the teaching of basic skills.
12. Change of environment can change a person.
13. Curriculum should emphasize on the traditional disciplines such
as Math, Natural Science, History, Grammar and Literature.
14. Teacher cannot impose meaning, students make meaning of what
they are taught.
15. Schools should help individuals accept themselves as unique
individuals and accept responsibility for their thoughts, feelings
and actions.
16. Learners produce knowledge based on their experience.
17. For the leaner to acquire the basic skills, he must go through the
rigor and discipline of serious study.
18. The teacher and the school head must prescribe what is most
important for the students to learn.
19. The truth shines in an atmosphere of genuine dialogue.
A learner must be allowed to learn at his own pace.
21. The learner is not a blank slate but brings past experiences and
cultural factors to learning situation.
22.The classroom is not a place where teachers pour knowledge into
empty minds of students.
23.The learner must be taught how to communicate his ideas and
24.To understand the message from his students, the teacher must
listen not only to what his students are saying but also to what
they are not saying.
25.An individual is what he chooses to become not dictated by his
Page 2

Interpreting your Scores

If you have 2 answers of 2/4 in numbers
1,3,5,7- you are more of a progressivist
2,4,6,8- you are more of a perennialist

9,15,20,25- you are more of an existentialist

10,12- you are more of a behaviorist
11,13,17,18- you are more of an essentialist
14,16,,21,22- you are more of a constructivist
19,23,24 you are more of a linguistic philosopher
If you have 2 scores of 4 in several of the 7 clusters, you
have an eclectic philosophy which means you put the
philosophies together. If your scores are less than 4, this
means that you are not very definite in your philosophy. Or
if your scores are less than 3 in most of the items, this
means your philosophy is quite vague.

After you have gotten an idea on the philosophy, let us

know more about them.


Why Teach?
This philosophy contends that teachers teach for learners to acquire basic knowledge,
skills and values. Teachers teach not to radically reshape society but rather to transmit the
traditional moral values and intellectual knowledge that students need to become model
What to Teach?
Essentialist programs are academically rigorous. The emphasis is on academic content
for students to learn the basic skills or the fundamental Rs-reading, writing, arithmetic, right
conduct- as these are essential to the acquisition of higher or more complex skills needed in
preparation for adult life. The essentialist curriculum includes the traditional disciplines such
as Math, Natural Science, History, Foreign Language and Literature. Essentialists frown upon
vocational courses or other courses with watered down academic content. The teachers and
administrators decide what is most important for the students to learn and place little
emphasis on student interests, particularly when they divert time and attention from the
academic curriculum
How to Teach
Essentialist teachers emphasize mastery of subject matter. They were expected to be
intellectual and moral models of their students. They are seen as fountain of information
and as paragon of virtue, if ever there is such a person. To gain mastery of basic skills, teachers
have to observe core requirements, longer school day, a longer academic year. With mastery
of academic content as primary focus, teachers rely on the use of prescribed textbooks, and
drill method and other methods that will enable them to cover as much academic content as
possible like the lecture method. There is a heavy stress on memorization and discipline.


Why Teach
Progressivist teachers teach to develop learners into becoming enlightened and
intelligent citizens of a democratic society. This group of teachers teaches learners so they may
live life fully now not to prepare them for adult life.
What to Teach
The progressivists are identified with need based and relevant curriculum. This is a
curriculum that responds to students needs and that relates to students personal lives and
Progressivists accept the impermanence of life and the inevitability of change. For the
progressivists, everything else changes. Change is the only thing that does not change. Hence,
progressivist teachers are more concerned with teaching the learners the skills to cope with
change. Instead of occupying themselves with teaching facts or bits of information that are
true today but become obsolete tomorrow, they would rather focus their teaching on the
teaching of skills or processes in gathering and evaluating information and in problem-solving.
The subjects that are given emphasis in progressivist schools are the Natural and Social

Sciences. Teachers expose students to many new scientific, technological and social
developments, reflecting the progressivist notion that progress and change are fundamental. In
addition, students solve problems in the classroom similar to those they will encounter outside
of the schoolhouse.

How to Teach

Progressivist teachers employ experiential methods. They believe that one learns by
doing. For John Dewey, the most popular advocate of progressivism, book learning is no
substitute for actual experience. One experiential teaching method that progressivist teachers
heavily rely on is the problem-solving method. This makes use of the scientific method. Other
hands-on-minds-on-hearts-on teaching methods used are field trips during which students
interact with nature or society. Teachers also stimulate students through thought-provoking
games and puzzles.
Page 4


Why Teach We are all rational animals. Schools should therefore, develop the students
rational and moral powers. According to Aristotle, if we neglect the students reasoning skills,
we deprive them of the ability to use their higher faculties to control their passions and
What to Teach- The perennialist curriculum is a universal one on the view that all human
beings possess the same essential nature. It is heavy on the humanities, on general education. It
is not a specialist curriculum but rather a general one. There is less emphasis on vocational and
technical education. Philosopher Mortimer Adler claims that the Great Books of ancient and
medieval as well as modern times are repository of knowledge and wisdom, a tradition of
culture which must initiate each generation. What the perrenialist teachers teach are lifted
from the Great Books.
How to Teach- The perennialist classrooms are centered around teachers. The teachers do
not allow the students interests or experience to substantially dictate what they teach. They
apply whatever creative techniques and others tried and true methods which are believed to be
most conducive to disciplining the students minds. Students engaged in Socratic dialogues or
mutual inquiry sessions to develop an understanding of historys most timeless concepts.

Why Teach- The main concern of the existentialists is to help students understand and
appreciate themselves as unique individuals who accept complete responsibility for their
thoughts, feelings and actions. Since existence precedes essence, the existentialist teachers

role is to help students define their own essence by exposing them to various paths they take in
life and by creating an environment in which they freely choose their own preferred way. Since
feeling is not divorced from reason in decision making, the existentialist demands the
education of the whole person, not just the mind.
What to teach- In an existentialist curriculum, students are given a wide variety of options
from which to choose. Students are afforded great latitude in their choice of subject matter.
The humanities, however, are given tremendous emphasis to provide students with vicarious
experiences that will help unleash their own creativity and self expression. For example, rather
than emphasizing historical events, existentialists focus upon the actions of historical
individuals, each of whom provides possible models for the students own behavior. Moreover,
vocational education is regarded more as a means of teaching students about themselves and
their potential than of earning a livelihood. In teaching art, existentialism encourages
individual creativity and imagination more than copying and imitating established models.
How to Teach- Existentialist methods focus on the individual. Learning is self-paced, self
directed. It includes a great deal of individual contact with the teacher, who relates to each
student openly and honestly. To help students know themselves and their place in society,
teachers employ values clarification strategy. In the use of such strategy, teachers remain nonjudgmental and take care not to impose their values on their students since values are personal.


Why Teach Behaviorist schools are concerned with the modification and shaping of
students behavior by providing for a favorable environment, since they believe that they are a
product of their environment. They are after students who exhibit desirable behavior in
What to Teach- Because behaviorists look at people and other animals as complex
combinations of matter that act only in response to internally or externally generated physical
stimuli, behaviorist teachers teach students to respond favorably to various stimuli in the
How to Teach- Behaviorist teachers ought to arrange environmental conditions so that
students can make the responses to stimuli. Physical variables like light, temperature,
arrangement of furniture, size and quantity of visual aids have controlled to get the desired
responses from learners. Teachers ought to make the stimuli clear and interesting to capture
and hold the learners attentions. They ought to provide appropriate incentives to reinforce
positive responses and weaken or eliminate negative ones.
Page 5


Why Teach To develop the communication skills of the learner because the ability to
articulate, to voice out the meanings and values of things that one obtains from his experience
of life and the world is the very essence of man. It is through his ability to express himself
clearly, to get his ideas across, to make known to others the values that he has imbibed, the
beauty that he has seen, the ugliness that he rejects and the truth that she has discovered.
Teachers teach to develop in the learner the skill to send messages clearly and receive messages

What to Teach- Learners should be taught to communicate clearly-how to send clear, concise
messages and how to receive and correctly understand messages sent. Communication takes
place in three ways- verbal, non verbal and paraverbal. Verbal component refers to the content
of our message, the choice and arrangement of our word. This can be oral or written. Non
verbal component refers to the message we send through our body language while paraverbal
component refers to how we say what we say-the tone , pacing and volume of our voices.
There is a need to teach learners to use language that is correct, precise, grammatical,
coherent, and accurate so that they are able to communicate clearly and precisely their
thoughts and feelings. There is need to help students expand their vocabularies to enhance
their communication skills. There is need to teach the learners how to communicate clearly
through non verbal means and consistently through para- verbal means.
There is need to caution the learners of the verbal and non verbal barriers to communication.
Teach them to speak as many languages as you can. The more languages one speaks, the better
he can communicate with the world. A multilingual has an edge over the monolingual or

How to Teach- The most effective way to teach language and communication is the
experiential way. Make them experience sending and receiving messages through verbal, non
verbal and para verbal manner. Teacher should make the classroom a place for the interplay of
minds and hearts. The teacher facilitates dialogue among learners and between him students
because in the exchange of words, there is also an exchange of ideas.

Why Teach- To develop intrinsically motivated and independent learners adequately equipped
with learning skills for them to be able to construct knowledge and make meaning of them.

What to Teach- The learners are taught how to learn. They are taught learning processes and
skills such as searching, critiquing and evaluating information, relating these pieces of
information, reflecting on the same, making meaning out of them, drawing insights, posing
questions, researching and constructing new knowledge out of these bits of information

How to Teach In the constructivist classroom, the teacher provides students with data or
experiences that allow them to hypothesize, predict, manipulate objects, pose questions,
research, investigate, imagine and invent. The constructivist classroom is interactive. It
promotes dialogical exchange of ideas among learners and between teacher and learners. The
teachers role is to facilitate this process. Knowledge isnt a thing that can be simply deposited
by the teacher into the empty minds of the learners. Rather, knowledge is constructed by
learners through an active, mental process of development; learners are the builders and

creators of meaning and knowledge. Their minds are not empty. Instead, their minds are full of
ideas waiting to be midwife by the teacher with his skillful facilitating skills.

We have a very rich philosophical heritage. But only seven
philosophies were discussed here: essentialism, progressivism, perennialism,
existentialism, behaviorism, linguistic philosophy and constructivism. The rest are
assigned to you as research work. The seven philosophies differ in their concepts of the
learner and values, in why do we teach (objectives), what should be taught
( curriculum) and how should the curriculum be taught ( teaching strategies).
However, there exist also some similarities among the philosophies. These you will see
more as you proceed to the activities.
Notes : Philosophy is your attitude, viewpoint, thinking, way of life, values or beliefs.
Linguistics is the study of language and how language works. Heritage is something
that you inherit.
Page 6

Test Your Understanding of the Philosophies

Test I. Directions :Answer each with a YES or NO. If your answer is NO, explain your answer in
a sentence.
_____1. Do essentialists aim to teach students to reconstruct society?
_____2. Is the model citizen of the essentialist the citizen who contributes to the re-building
of society?
_____3. Do the essentialist teachers give up teaching the basics if the students are not
_____4. Do the essentialist teachers frown on long academic calendar and core
_____1. Do the progressivist teachers look at education as a preparation for adult life?
_____2. Are the students interests and needs considered in a progressivist curriculum?
_____3. Does the progressivist curriculum focus mainly on facts and concepts?
_____4. Do the progressivist teachers strive to simulate in the classroom life in the outside
_____1. Are the perennialist teachers concerned with the studentss mastery of the
fundamental skills?
_____2. Do the perennialist teachers see the wisdom of ancient, medieval and modern
_____3. Is the perennialist curriculum geared towards specialization?
_____4. Do the perennialist teachers sacrifice subject matter for the students interests?
_____1. Is the existentialist teacher after students becoming specialist in order to
contribute to society?
_____2. Is the existentialist concerned with the education of the whole person?

_____3. Is the course of study imposed on students in the existentialist classroom?

_____4. Does the existentialist teacher make heavy use of the individualized approach?
_____1. Are behaviorists concerned with the modification of students behavior?
_____2. Do behaviorist teachers spend their time teaching their students on how to
respond favorably to various environmental stimuli?
_____3. Do behaviorist teachers believe that they have control over some variables that
affect learning?
_____4. Do behaviorist teachers believe that students are a product of their environment?
Linguistic Philosophy
_____1. Do linguistic philosophers promote the study of language?
_____2. Is the communication that linguistic philosophers encourage limited to verbal
language only?
_____3. Do linguistic philosophers prefer the teacher who dominates discussion to save
time to a teacher who encourages dialogue?
_____4. Is the curriculum of the linguistic philosopher open to learning of as many
languages like Mother Tongue as possible?
_____1. Does the constructivist agree to a teaching methodology of telling?
_____2. Do constructivists believe that students can construct knowledge?
_____3. Do constructivists approve of teaching learners skill to learn?
_____4. Do constructivists believe that meaning can be imposed?
Test II. A. Directions : Test your mastery. You may need to research further in order to gain
mastery. The first exercise in this lesson may help. ( an exercise to determine your
philosophy in life)
To which PHILOSOPHY does each theory of man belong?
A person :
__________1. Is a product of his environment.
__________2. Has no universal nature.
__________3. Has rational and moral powers.
__________4. Has no choice; he is determined by his environment.
__________5. Can choose what he can become.
__________6. Is a complex combination of matter that responds to physical stimuli.
__________7. Has no free will.
__________8. Has the same essential nature with others.
__________9. Is a rational animal.
__________10. First exists then defines himself.
__________11. Is a social animal who learns well through an active interplay with others.
__________12. Is a communicating being.
__________13. Is a maker of meaning.
__________14. Is a constructor of knowledge.

Test III. Synapse Strengtheners

A. We are interested in what is true. Our teaching methodologies are based on our quest for
truth. Likewise our teaching learning goals are based on what we value or what we
cherish as good. Identify what each philosophy considers as good, valuable and true.
Complete the table given below. The first one is done for you.
Theory of truth
to Theory of what is Goal of teaching
arrive at the truth valuable
and -learning
The universe is We must relate to Values
differ To help develop
real and is in the universe and from place to students
constant change interact
with place from time can adjust to a
from changing world
person to person and live with
scientifically and what
is others
considered good harmony
curriculum for one may not
on be
and another
learning such as
Test II. B Directions : With which philosophy do you associate the following quotations?
1. Education is life not a preparation for life Dewey
2. Man is nothing else but what he makes of himself. Sartre
3. Gripping and enduring interests frequently grow out of initial learning efforts that
are not appealing or attractive.
4. Give me a dozen healthy infants well informed and my own specified world to bring
them up in and I will guarantee to take anyone at random and train him to become
any type of specialist I might select-doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant, chief, and yes
even beggar man and thief regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities,
vocations and race of his ancestors. Watson
5. Existence precedes essence. Sartre
6. Life is what you make it. William Thackeray
7. Listening in dialogue is listening more to meaning than to words..In true listening, we
reach behind the words, see through them, to find the person who is being revealed.
Listening is a search to find the treasure of the true person as revealed verbally and
non verbally. John Powell
8. When a relationship is working, the act of communicating seems to flow relatively
effortlessly Chip Rose
Test II. C. Upon which philosophy is each program / practice anchored?
1. Back to the basics movement
2. Conduct of National Achievement Test to test acquisition of elementary/ secondary
learning competencies
3. Use of Great Books
4. Use of rewards and incentives

5. Use of simulation and problem solving method

6. Learners learning at their own pace
7. Mastery of the 3rs reading, writing and arithmetic
8. The traditional approach to education
9. Subject matter centered teaching
10. Student centered teaching
11. Authoritarian approach to teaching
12. Non authoritarian approach to teaching
13. Making meaning of what is taught
14. Understanding message through verbal, non verbal and paraverbal means
15. Asking learners to draw meaning from hat they are taught

Lesson II
Formulating your Philosophy of Education
Philosophy is vital only when the questions are mine and so is the struggle towards
W. Luijpen
You have been acquainted with various philosophies. With which do you identify
yourself? What is your personal philosophy of education? You are expected to
formulate it in this second lesson.
Your philosophy of education is your window to the world and compass in life.
Hence, it may be good to put that philosophy of education in writing. You surely have
one just as everybody has only that sometimes it is not well articulated. Your
philosophy of education is reflected in your dealings with students, colleagues, parents
and administrators. Your attitude towards problems and life as a whole has an
underlying philosophy. In this lesson, you will articulate your thoughts on how you
perceive the learner on what are the right values, on what and on how you must
therefore teach. If you articulate your philosophy of education, you will find yourself
more consistent in your dealings with other people, in your actions and decisions.
What does a philosophy of education contain or include? It includes your concept about
-the human person, the learner in particular and the educated person
-what is true and good and therefore must be taught
-how a learner must be taught in order to come close to the truth

Here is an example:
My Philosophy of education as a Grade School Teacher
I believe that every child
-has a natural interest in learning and is capable of learning
- is an embodied spirit
- can be influenced but not totally by his environment
- is unique and so comparing a child to other children has no basis
- does not have an empty mind, rather is full of ideas and it is my task to draw out these
I believe that there are unchanging values in changing times and these must be passed
on to every child by my modeling, value inculcation and value integration in my
I believe that my task as a teacher is to facilitate the development of every child to the
optimum and to the maximum by

Reaching out to all children without bias and prejudice towards the least of the
Making every child feel good and confident about him thru his experiences of
success in the classroom
Helping every child master the basic skills of reading, communicating in oral and
written form, arithmetic and computer skills
Teaching my subject matter with mastery so that every child will use his basic
skills to continue acquiring knowledge, skills and values for him to go beyond
basic literacy and basic numeracy
Inculcating or integrating the unchanging values of respect, honesty, love and
care for others regardless of race, ethnicity, nationality, appearance and
economic status in my lessons
Consistently practicing these values to serve as model for every child
Strengthening the value formation of every child thru hands-on-minds onhearts-on experiences inside and outside the classroom
Providing every child activities meant to develop the body, the mind and the
Page 9
It is important that you make explicit your philosophy of education. Your
philosophy of education is your window to the world and compass in life.
Your philosophy is your own thought and formulation, never formulated for you
by another that is why you were advised to begin stating it with the phrase I

believe. It is best to state it in the concrete not in the abstract like a theory
because this is your blue print to daily life.
Activity 1
Analyze the given example in your small group, then answer the following
1. Which of the philosophies studied in Lesson 1 are reflected in the given
2. What are the teachers concepts of the learner?
3. Who, according to the Grade School Teachers philosophy is the good and
educated person?
4. What is the teachers concept on values?
5. What does the teacher believe to be her primary task?
6. Do her concepts of the learner and the educated person match with how he
will go about his task of facilitating every childs full development?
7. You notice that the teachers thought on the learner, values and method of
teaching begin with the phrase I believe. Will it make a difference if the grade
school teacher wrote his philosophy of education in paragraph form using the
third person pronoun?

8. Why is ones philosophy of education said to be ones window to the world or

compass in life?

Page 10

Activity 2
Formulate your own personal philosophy of education. Do it well for this will
form part of your teaching portfolio which you will bring along with you when
you apply for a teaching job. Write it down here. Share it with the class after

Activity 3
A. Reflect on your own philosophy using the following questions as guide
1. with that educational philosophy:
-how will you treat your student?
-what will you teach?
-how will you teach?

2. From which philosophies that you have studied and researched did you
draw inspiration as you formulated your own philosophy of education?
3. Does this education philosophy of yours make a difference in your life?
4. What if you do not have a formulated philosophy of education at all?
5. Is your educational philosophy more of an abstract theory than a
blueprint to daily living?
6. Do you think your philosophy will change as you grow in knowledge?
B. Print your philosophy of education and include it in your teaching

Page 11

Lesson III
The Foundational Principles of Morality and YOU
When you carry out acts of kindness, you get a wonderful feeling inside. It is as though
something inside your body responds and says, yes, this is how I ought to feel.unknown
Someone once wrote of teachers: Even on your worst day on the job, you are still some
childrens best hope. Indeed society expects much from you, the teacher. Henry
Brooks Adams said it succinctly: A teacher affects eternity; he can never tell where his
influence stops.

For you to be able to cope with these expectations you should be anchored on a bedrock
foundation of moral and ethical principles. Let us begin this lesson by defining what
morality is.
What is morality?
As defined by one textbook author, morality refers to the quality of human acts by
which we call them right or wrong, good or evil. (Panizo, 1964) Your human action is
right when it conforms with the norm, rule or law of morality. Otherwise it is said to be
wrong. For instance, when Juan gets the pencil of Pedro without the latters
permission, Juans action is wrong because it is contrary to the norm, stealing is
wrong. A mans action, habit or character is good when it is not lacking of what is
natural to man, i.e., when it is in accordance with mans nature. For instance, it is not
natural for man to behave like a beast. He is man and unlike the beast, he has the
intellect and the free will. That intellect makes him capable thinking, judging and
reasoning. His free will gives him the ability to choose. Unlike the beast, he is not
bound by instincts. It is natural occurrence for beasts when a male dog meets a female
dog on the street and mate right there and then as they are not free but bound by their
instinct, like sexual instinct. But it is contrary to mans nature when a man and a
woman do as the dogs do. To do so is to go down to the level of the beast.
Meaning of foundational moral principle
What is meant by foundational moral principle? The word principle comes from the
Latin word princeps which means a beginning, a source. A principle is that on which
something is based, founded, originated, and initiated. It is likened to the foundation of
a building upon which all other parts stand. If we speak of light, the principle is the sun
because the sun is the body from which the light of this world originate. A foundational
moral principle is therefore the universal norm upon which all other principles on the
rightness or wrongness of an action are based. It is the source of morality.
Where is this foundational moral principle? It is contained in the natural law. Many
moralists, authors and philosophers may have referred to this fundamental moral
principle in different terms. But it may be acceptable to all believers and non believers
alike to refer to it as natural law.
What is the natural law? It is the law written in the hearts of men,(Romans 2:15). For
theists, it is mans share in the Eternal Law of God.(Panizo, 1964) St. Thomas defines it
as the light of natural reason, whereby we discern what is good and what is evil, an
imprint on us of the divine light.(Panizo 1964) . It is the law that says: Do good and
All men and women, regardless of race and belief, have a sense of this foundational
moral principle. It is ingrained in a mans nature. It is built into the design of human
nature and woven into the fabric of the normal human mind. We are inclined to do
what we recognize as good and avoid that which we recognize as evil.
Panizo says :Writings, customs and monuments of past and present generations point
out to this conclusion: that all peoples on earth, no matter how savage and illiterate,

have recognized a supreme law of divine origin commanding good and forbidding evil.
(Panizo 1964). The same thing was said by the Chinese philosopher, Mencius, long ago:
Page 12

All men have a mind which cannot bear (to see the suffering of others. If now men
suddenly see a child about to fall into a well, they will without exception experience a
feeling of alarm and distress. From this case we may perceive that he who lacks the
feeling of commiseration is not a man, that he who lacks a feeling of shame and dislike
is not a man, he who lacks a feeling of modesty and yielding is not a man and that he
who lacks a sense of right and wrong is not a man. Man has these four beginnings.
( FungYulan 1948,69-70)
The natural law that says Do good and avoid evil comes in different versions.
Kung-fu-tsu said the same when he taught: Do not do unto others what you do not like
others do unto you. This is also the Golden Rule of Christianity only that is written in
the positive form: Do to others what you like others do to you. Immanuel Kants
version is Act in such a way that your maxim can be the maxim for all. For Christians,
this Golden Rule is made more explicit through the Ten Commandments and the Eight
Beatitudes. These are summed up in the two great commandments, love God with all
your heart, with your entire mind, with all your strength and love your neighbor as
you love yourself. The Buddhists state this through the eightfold path. For the
Buddhists, they go do good when they (1) strive to know the truth; (2) resolve to resist
evil; (3) say nothing to hurt others; (4) respect life, morality, and property; (5) engage
in a job that does not injure others; (6) strive to free their mind of evil; (7) control their
feelings and thoughts, and (8) practice proper forms of concentration. (World Book
Encyclopedia, 1998) Buddha thought that hatred does not cease by hatred; hatred
ceases only by love. The Islamic Koran forbids lying, stealing, adultery, and murder
It also teaches honor for parents, kindness to slaves, protection for the orphaned and
the widowed, and charity to the poor. It teaches the virtues of faith in God, patience,
kindness, honesty, industry, honor, courage and generosity. It condemns mistrust,
impatience and cruelty. (World Book Encyclopedia,1998). Furthermore, the Muslims
abide by The Five Pillars of Islam: 1.prayer 2.self-purification by fasting 3. Fasting 4.
5. Pilgrimage to Mecca for those who can afford (www.
Teacher as a person of good moral character
As a laid down in the preamble of our Code of Ethics of Professional teachers,
teachers are duly licensed professionals who posses dignity and reputation with high
moral values as well as technical and professional competence. In the practice of their
profession, they strictly adhere to observe and practice this set of ethical and moral
principles, standard and values.
From the above preamble, the words moral values are mentioned twice, to
accentuate on the good moral character expected of you, the teacher. When are you of
good moral character? One Christian author describes four ways of describing good
moral character: 1) being fully human you have realize substantially your potential
as a human person, 2) being a loving person- you are caring in an unselfish and mature

manner with yourself, other people and God 3) Being a virtuous person- you have
acquired good habits and attitudes and you practice them consistently in your daily life
and 4) being a morally mature person- you have reached a level of development
emotionally, socially, mentally, spiritually appropriate to your developmental stage.
(Cosgrave, William, rev. ed.2004, 78-79). In short, you are on the right track when you
strive to develop your potential, you love and care for yourself and make this love flow
to others, you lead a virtuous life, and as you advance in age you also advance in your
emotional, social, intellectual and spiritual life.
The foundational moral principle is Do good; avoid evil. This is contained in
the natural law. The natural law is engraved in the heart of every man and woman. We
have in us the sense to do the good that we ought to do and to avoid the evil that we
ought to avoid. This foundational moral principle of doing good and avoiding evil is
expressed in many other ways by different people. The famous Chinese philosopher,
Kung-fu-tzu taught the same principle when he said: Do not do unto others what you do
not like others do to you. Immanuel Kant taught the same: Act in such a way that same
moral principle in their Eightfold Path. The Muslims have this foundational moral
principle laid down in their Koran and the Five Pillars. For the Christians, the Bible
shows the way to the good life- the Ten Commandments and the Eight Beatitudes. The
Ten Commandments and the Eight Beatitudes are summarized in the two great
commandments of love for God and love for neighbor.
Our act is moral when it is in accordance with our human nature. Our act is
immoral when it is contrary to our human nature. Our intellect and free will make us
different from and above the beast.
As a teacher, you are expected to be a person of good moral character. You are a
person of good moral character when you are 1. Human 2. Loving 3. Virtuous 4.

Page 13

Test your understanding

A. Directions: Answer the following with a Yes or No. If your answer is No,
explain your answer.
_____1. Is morality for persons and animals?
_____2. Is the natural law known only by the learned?
_____3. Did the primitive people have a sense of the natural law?
_____4. Is an animalistic act of man moral?
_____5. Is it right to judge a dog to be immoral if it defecates right there in your
_____6. Is the foundational moral principle sensed only by believers?
_____7. Is the foundational moral principle very specific?
_____8. Is the foundational moral the basis of more specific moral principles?
_____9. Is the foundational moral principle so called because it is the basic of all
moral principle?

_____10. Are the Ten Commandments for Christians more specific moral
principles of the foundational moral principle?
_____11. Is the natural law literarily engraved in every human heart?
_____12. Are the Five Pillars of Islam reflective of the natural law?
_____13. Is the Buddhists Eightfold Path in accordance with the natural law?
_____14. Is the Golden rule for Christians basically the same with Kung-fu-tsus
Reciprocity rule?
B. Directions: Answer the following in a sentence or two.
1. To be moral is to be human. What does this mean?
2. Why is morality only for persons?
3. What do the following tell you about the natural law?
Ancient philosophers and dramatists had already mentioned the natural
law. Sophocles, for instance, in the drama Antigone, spoke of the
unwritten statutes of heaven which are not of today or yesterday but from
all time and no man knows when they were first put forth.
Cicero wrote: True law is right reason in agreement with nature; it is of
universal application, unchanging and everlasting.
Lawless license or promiscuity is not common among primitive peoples.
According to Fr. Vanoverberg, a Belgian anthropologist of the CICM
congregation, the Negritos of Northern Luzon have excellent moral
standards especially with regard to honesty and sexual matters although
their power of abstraction is so low that they can hardly count beyond 5.
( Panizo, 1964 )
C. Journal Entry
1.Do good; avoid evil is the foundational moral principle. List at least 5 good
things that you have to do as a teacher and 5 evil things you have to avoid
2. The Golden Rule for Christians is : Do to others what you would like others
do to you.Give a concrete application of the Golden Rule as you relate to a
learner, to a fellow teacher, to a parent or any member of the community and
to your superiors, members of the community and to your superiors.
e.g. Speak well of your fellow teacher just as you want your fellow teacher to
speak well of you .

Values Formation and YOU
Education in values means the cultivation of affectivity, leading the educand through the exposure to an
experience of value and of the valuable. R. Aquino
As mentioned in Lesson 3, to be moral is to be human. Living by the right values humanizes. The
question that may raise at this point is : Is there such a thing as right, unchanging and universal value? Is
a right value for me also a right value for you? Are the values that we, Filipinos , consider as right also

considered by the Japanese, the Americans or the Spaniards as right values? Or are values dependent on
time, place and culture?
There are two varied answers to this question, depending on the camp where you belong. If you belong to
the idealist group, there are unchanging and universal values. The values of love, care and concern for
our fellowmen are values for all people regardless of time and space. They remain unchanged amidst
changing times. There are called transcendent values, transcendent because they are beyond changing
times, beyond space and people. They remain to be a value even if no one values them. They are accepted
as value everywhere. On the other hand, the relativists claim that there are no universal and unchanging
values. They assert that values are dependent on time and place. The values that our forefathers believed
in are not necessarily the right values for the present. What the British consider as values are not
necessarily considered values by Filipinos.
In this lesson, our discussion on values formation is based on the premise that there are transcendent
values. Most Filipinos if not all believe in a transcendental being whom we call by different names,
Bathala, Apo Dios, Kabunian, Allah, and the like.
Values are taught not caught
Another essential question we have to tackle is: Are values caught or taught? Our position is that
values are both taught and caught. If they are not taught because they are merely caught, then there is
even no point in proceeding to write and discuss your values formation as a teacher here. Values are also
caught. We may not be able to hear our fathers advice Do not smoke because what he does (he himself
smokes) speaks louder that what he says. The living examples of good men and women at home, school
and society have far greater influence on our value formation than those well prepared lectures on values
excellently delivered by experts who may sound like empty gongs and clanging cymbals.
Values have cognitive, affective and behavioral dimensions
Values have a cognitive dimension. We must understand the value that we want to acquire. We
need to know why we have to value such. This is the heart of conversion and values formation. We need
to know how to live by that value. These are the concepts that ought to be taught. Values are in the
affective domain of objectives. In themselves they have an affective dimension. For instance, it is not
enough to know what honesty is or why one should be honest. One has to feel something towards honesty,
be moved towards honesty as preferable to dishonesty. ( Aquino 1990) Values also have a behavioral
dimension. In fact, living by value is the true acid test if we really value a value like honesty.

Value formation includes formation in the cognitive, affective and behavioral aspects
Your value formation as teacher will necessarily include the three dimensions. You have to grow
in knowledge and in wisdom and in your sensitivity and openness to the variety of value experiences in
life. ( Aquino 1990) you have to be open to and attentive in your value lessons in Ethics and Religious
Education. Take active part in value sessions like fellowships, recollections organized by your church
group or associations. Since values are also caught, help yourself by reading the biographies of heroes,
great teachers and saints ( for the Catholics) and other inspirational books. (it is observed that less and
less teachers read printed materials other than their textbooks). Your lessons in history, religion and
literature are replete with opportunities for inspiring ideals. Associate with model teachers. If possible,
avoid the yeast of those who will not exert a very good influence. Take the sound advice from
Desiderata: Avoid loud and aggressive persons; they are vexations to the spirit. Join community

immersions where you can be exposed to people from various walks of life. These will broaden your
horizon, increase your tolerant level and sensitize you to life values. These will help you to fly high and
see far to borrow the words of Richard Bach in his book, Jonathan Livingston Seagull.
Value formation is a training of the intellect and will
Your value formation in essence is a training of your intellect and will, your cognitive and rational
appetitive powers, respectively. Your intellect discerns a value and presents it to the will as a right or
wrong value. Your will wills to act on the right values and wills to avoid the wrong value presented by
your intellect. As described St. Thomas Aquinas, The intellect proposes and the will disposes.
It is clear that nothing is willed unless it is first known. Thought must precede the deliberation of
the will. An object is willed as it is known by the intellect and proposed to the will as desirable and good.
Hence the formal and adequate object of the will is good as apprehended by the intellect. (William Kelly,
1965)These statements underscore the importance
of the training of your intellect.
Your intellect must clearly present a positive value to be a truly a positive value to the will not as one that
is apparently positive but in the final analysis is a negative value. In short, your intellect must be
enlightened by what is true.
It is therefore, necessary that you develop your intellect in its three functions, namely:formation
of ideas, judgment and reasoning. (William Kelly, 1965) it is also equally necessary that you develop
your will so you will be strong enough to act on the good and avoid the bad that your intellect presents.
How can your will be trained to desire strongly desirable and act on it? William Kelly explains it
very simply:
Training of the will must be essentially self training. The habit of yielding to impulse results in the
enfeeblement of self-control. The power of inhibiting urgent desire, of concentrating attention on more
remote good, of reinforcing the higher but less urgent motives undergoes a kind of atrophy through
disuse. Habitually yielding to any vice, while it does not lessen mans responsibility , does diminish his
ability or resist temptation. Likewise , the more frequently man restrains impulse, checks inclination,
persists against temptation and steadily aims at virtuous living, the more does he increase his self control
and therefore his freedom, to have a strong will means to have control of the will, to be able to direct it
despite all contrary impulses.
Virtuous versus vicious life and their effect on the will
In short, a virtuous life strengthens you to live by the right values and life a life of abundance and
joy while a vicious life leads you to perdition and misery. Warning! Then never to give way to a vice!
Instead develop worthwhile hobbies. Cultivate good habits. If you recall, in the fourth chapter, we said a
moral person is one who leads a virtuous life. Panizo claims virtue involves a habit, a constant effort to
do things well in spite of obstacles and difficulties. A virtue is no other than a good habit. You get used
to doing good that you will be stronger to resist evil. So, start and continue doing and being good!

Max Schelers hierarchy of values

Max Scheler outlined a hierarchy( ladder) of values. Our hierarchy of values is shown in our
preferences and decisions. For instance, you may prefer to absent from class because you want to attend
the annual barrio fiesta where you are the star because of your ability to sing and dance. Another one
may prefer just the opposite by missing the fiesta (anyway, she can have all the fiestas after studies) and
attends class. Aquino 1990 presents Schelers hierarchy of values arranged from the lowest to the highest
as shown below.
Pleasure values- the pleasure against the unpleasant
-the agreeable against the disagreeable

-sensual feelings
-experiences of pleasure or pain
Vital values values pertaining to the well being either of the individual or of the community
-health, vitality, values of vital feeling, capability, excellence
Spiritual values- values independent of the whole sphere of the body and of the environment
-grasped in spiritual acts of preferring loving and hate
-aesthetic values :beauty against ugliness
-values of right and wrong
-values of pure knowledge
Values of the Holy-appear only in regard to objects intentionally given as absolute objects
-belief, adoration, bliss
Based on Schelers hierarchy of values, the highest values are those that directly pertain to the
Supreme Being while the lowest values are those that pertain to the sensual pleasures. We act and
live well if we stick to Schelers hierarchy of values, i.e. give greater preference to the higher
values. We will live miserably if we distort Schelers hierarchy of values, like for instance when we
subordinate spiritual values to pleasure values. We act well when we give up the pleasure of
drinking excessive alcohol for the sake of our health. But while we take care of our health,
Christians will say, we bear in mind that we do not live by bread alone, but also by the word that
comes from the mouth of God. (Luke 4:4) life is more than food and the body more that
clothing.LUKE 12:23 Our concerns must go beyond the caring of our bodily health. As we
learned in Lesson 1, man is an embodied spirit and so we also need to be concerned with matters
of the spirit like appreciation of what is right and what is beautiful. The saints have been raised to
the pedestal and are worthy of the veneration of the faithful because they gave up their life for the
faith in the Holy One. San Lorenzo Ruiz the first Filipino saint spurned offers of liberty and life
for his faith in God. Having done so, he affirmed the absolute superiority of the Holy. We also
know of Albert Schweitzer, the much honored physician, missionary and musician who because of
his deep reverence for life spent many years extending humanitarian assistance by treating
thousands and thousands of sick people during his medical mission in Africa. He also built the
hospital and leper colony for the less unfortunate in Africa. We cannot ignore Blessed Mother
Teresa of Calcutta, India who chose to leave a more comfortable life in the convent in order to
devote her life bathing, consoling and picking up the dying outcasts in the streets of Calcutta out
of genuine love and compassion.
Outside the Catholic Church, we, too can cite several whose lives were focused on matters of the
spirit more than the body. At this point, we cite Mahatma Gandhi the great political and spiritual
leader of India, who passionately fought discrimination with his principles of truth, non violence
and courage. His non violent resistance to the British rule in India led to the independence of
India in 1947. We do not forget Helen Keller who, despite her being blind, traveled to developing
and war ravaged countries to improve the condition of the blind like her for them to live a
meaningful life. Of course, we do not forget
Dr. Jose Rizal, our national hero and Benigno Aquino Jr. and all other heroes of our nation who
gave up their lives for the freedom that we now enjoy and many more for you to talk about at the
end of this chapter.
Values Clarification

After introducing transcendent values, let me introduce you to the process of

value clarification. In a pluralistic society, we cant help but face the value
confusion and value contradictions of our times. When we do not know what we
really value or when we are not clear on what we really value, we end up
lukewarm or uncommitted to a value. The advocates of value clarification assert
that we must clarify what we really value. The term value is reserved for those
individual beliefs, attitudes and activities that satisfy the
criteria:1.freely chosen 2. Chosen from among alternatives 3. Chosen after due
reflection 4. Prized and cherished 5. Publicly affirmed 6. Incorporated into actual
behavior 7 acted upon repeatedly in ones life.
This means that if you value honesty you have chosen it freely from among
alternatives and after considering its consequences. You prize it and you are
proud of it and so you are not ashamed for others to know that you value it. You
practice and live by honesty and have made it your habit to act and live honestly.

Test your Understanding:

1. Do we have such a thing as unchanging values in these changing times?
2. What do we mean when we say transcendent values are independent of time,
space, and people?
3. Should values be taught? Why?
4. What are the three dimensions of value and value formation? Explain each.
5. Value formation is training of the intellect and the will. What does the
training consist of?
6. What is the effect of good habit (virtue) and bad habit (vice) on thee will?
7. Which is the lowest value in Schelers value hierarchy? Highest?
8. Based on Schelers hierarchy of values, what is a life well lived?
9. According to advocates of value clarification, how can you test if a value is
really your value?

Lesson 5
Teaching as Your Vocation, Mission and Profession
One looks back with appreciation to the brilliant teachers, but with gratitude to those who touched our
human feelings. Carl Jung
Etymology of the word VOCATION

Vocation comes from the Latin word vocare which means a call. Based on the etymology of the
word, vocation, therefore, means a call. If there is a call, there must be a caller and someone who is
called. There must also be a response. For Christians, the Caller is God Himself. For our brother and
sister Muslims, Allah. Believers in the Supreme Being will look at this voiceless call to have a vertical
dimension. For non- believers, the call is also experienced but this may be viewed solely along a
horizontal dimension. It is like a man calling another man, never a Superior being calling man.
The Christians among you realize that the Bible is full of stories of men and women who who
called by God to do something not for themselves but for other. We know of Abraham, the first one called
by God, to become the father of great nation, the nation of Gods chosen people. We recall Moses who was
called while in Egypt to lead Gods chosen people out of Egypt in order to free them from slavery. In the
New Testament, we know of Mary who was also called by God to become the mother of the Savior, Jesus
Christ in Islam, we are familiar with Muhammad, the last of the prophets to be called by Allah, to spread
the teaching Allah. All of them responded positively to gods call. Buddha must have also heard the call to
abandon his royal life in order to sick the answer to the problem on suffering.
Teaching as your vocation
Perhaps you never dreamt to become a teacher! But here you are now preparing to become one!
How did it happen? From the eyes of those who believed, it was God who called you here for you to teach,
just as God called Abraham, Moses, and Mary, of the Bible. Like you, these biblical figures did not also
understand the events surrounding their call. But in their great faith, they answered YES. Mary said:
Behold the handmaid of the Lord. Be it done to me according to your word. (Of course, it is difficult
explaining your call to teach as Gods call for one who, in the first place, denies Gods existence, for this is
a matter of faith.) The fact that you are now in the Collage of Teacher Education signifies that you
positively responded to the call to teach. Right? May this YES response remain a YES and become even
firmer through the years. Can you believe it? Better believe it!
Etymology of the word mission
Teaching is also a mission. The word mission comes from the Latin word mission
which means to send. You are called to be a teacher and you are sent into the world to accomplish a
mission , to teach. The Websters New Collegiate Dictionary defines mission as a task assigned. You are
sent to accomplish an assigned task.

Teaching as your mission

Teaching is your mission means it is the task entrusted to you in this world. If it is your assigned
task then youve got to prepare yourself for it. From now on, you cannot take your studies for granted.
Your four years of pre service preparation will equip you with the knowledge, skills and attitude to
become an effective teacher. However, never commit the mistake of culminating your mission
preparation at the end of the four year pre service education. You have embarked in a mission that calls

for a continuing professional education. As the saying goes, once a teacher , forever a student. More is
said of continuing professional education in the Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers in Chapter 5)
Flowing from your uniqueness , you are expected to contribute to the betterment of this world in
your own unique way. Your unique and most significant contribution to the humanization of life on
earth is in the field where you are prepared for- teaching.
What exactly is the mission to teach? Is it merely to teach the child the fundamental skills or basic
Rs of reading, writing, arithmetic and right conduct? Is it to help the child master the basic skills so he
can continue acquiring higher level skills in order to become a productive member of the society? Is it to
deposit facts and other information into the empty minds of students to be withdrawn during quizzes
and tests? Or is it to midwife the birth of ideas latent in the minds of students? Is it to facilitate the
maximum development of his /her potential not only for himself but also for others? In the words of
Alfred North Whitehead, is it to help the child become the man of culture and of expertise? Or is it to
provide opportunities for a childs growth and to remove hampering influences as Bertrand Russel put
Recall the various philosophies in Lesson 1 and you can add more to those enumerated. To teach is
to do all of these and more! To teach is to influence every child entrusted in your care to become better
and happier because life becomes more meaningful. To teach is to help the child become more human.
A letter given by a private school principal to her teachers on the first day of a new school year
may make crystal clear for you your humanizing mission in teaching.
Dear Teacher :
I am a survivor of a concentration camp.
My eyes saw what no man should witness:
-Gas chamber built by learned engineers
- children poisoned by educated physicians
-infants killed by trained nurses
- woman and babies shot and burned by high school and college graduates
So, I am suspicious of education. My request is : Help your students become human. Your
efforts must never produce learned monsters, skilled psychopaths and Eichmanns.
Reading, writing, arithmetic are important only if they serve to make our children more human.
Mission accomplished! This is what a soldier tells his superior after he has accomplished his
assigned mission. Can we say the same when we meet our Superior face to face?
Some teachers regard teaching as just a job. Others see it as their mission. Whats the difference?
Read teaching : Mission and or a Job?

Teaching: Mission and/or a Job?
If you are doing it only because you are paid for it, its a job
If you are doing it not only for the pay but also for service, its a mission
If you quit because your boss or colleague criticized you, its a job
If you keep on teaching out of love, its a mission
If you teach because it does not interfere with your other activities, its a job
If you are committed to teaching even if it means letting go of other activities, its a mission
If you quit because no one praises or thanks you for what you do, its a job

If you remain teaching even though nobody recognized your efforts, its a mission
Its hard to get excited about a teaching job
Its almost impossible not to get excited about a mission
If our concern is success, it is a job
If our concern is success plus faithfulness, its a mission
An average school is filled by teachers doing their teaching job
A great school is filled with teachers involved in a mission of teaching
Teaching like engineering, nursing, accounting and the like is a profession. A teacher is like
an engineer, a nurse and accountant is a professional. What the distinguishing marks of a professional
teacher? Former Chairperson of the Professional Regulation Commission, Hon. Hermogeners P. Pobre
in his pithy address in a national convention of educators remarked : the term professional is one of the
most exalted in the English language, denoting as it does, long and arduous years of preparation, a
striving for excellence , a dedication to the public interest and commitment to moral and ethical values.
Teaching as your profession
Why does a profession require long and arduous years of preparation and a striving for
excellence? Because the end goal of a profession is service and as we have heard many times we cannot
give what we do not have. We can give more if we have more. His Holiness Pope Paul VI affirmed this
thought when he said :Do more , have more in order to be more, continuing professional education is a
must. For us teachers, continuing professional education is explicit in our professionalization law and
our Code of professional ethics.
Our service to the public as a professional turns out to be dedicated and committed only
when our moral, ethical and religious values serve as our bedrock foundation. The same moral, ethical
and religious convictions inspire us to embrace continuing professional education.
If you take teaching as your profession, this means that you must be willing to go through a long
period of preparation and a continuing professional development. You must strive for excellence, commit
yourself to moral , ethical and religious values and dedicate yourself to public service.
The PWEDE NA mentality versus excellence
The striving for excellence as another element of a profession brings us to our PWEDE NA
mentality which is inimical to excellence. This mentality is expressed in other ways like TALAGANG
GANYAN YAN , WALA na tayong magawa.all indicators of defeatism and resignation to mediocrity. If
we stick to this complacent mentality excellence eludes us. In the world of work, whether here or abroad,
only the best and the
brightest make it all. At this time, you must have heard that with the rigid selection of teacher applicants
done by DEPEd, only few make it. The mortality rate in the Licensure Examination for Teachers for the
past ten years is glaring evidence that excellence is very much wanting of our teacher graduates. If we
remain true to our calling and mission as a professional teacher, we may have no choice but to take the
endless and the less travelled road to excellence.
Teaching and a life of meaning
Want to give your life a meaning? Want to live a purpose driven life? Spend it passionately in
teaching, the noblest profession. Consider what Dr. Josette T. Biyo, the first Asian teacher to win the

Intel Excellence in Teaching Award in an international competition, said in a speech delivered before a
selected group of teachers, superintendents, DepEd officials and consultants to wit:
Teaching may not be a lucrative position. It cannot guarantee financial security. It even means
investing your personal time, energy and resources. Sometimes it means disappointments, heartaches
and pains. But touching the hearts of people and opening the minds of children can give you joy and
contentment which money could not buy. These are the moments I teach for. These are the moments I
live for.

You Are A Teacher
If I speak interestingly, effectively and well
But do not understand my students
I am a\ noisy gong or a clanging cymbal
If I know all the methods and techniques of teaching
If I have complete faith that they will work
So that I use them completely
But think only of the materials or techniques
Instead of how they can help my students
I count for nothing
If I go the second mile in my teaching
Give up many activities
But do it without understanding
It does no good
Love is patient, very kind
Love is not jealous; it does not put on airs
It is never tyrannic, never
Yet does insist on truth
It does not become angry
It is not resentful

Love always expect the best of others

It is gladdened when they live up to these expectations
Slow to lose faith when they do not
It will bear anything
Hope for anything
Endure anything
This kind of love will never fail
It there are teaching methods, they will change
If there are curricula they will be revised
For our knowledge is imperfect
And our teaching is imperfect
And we are always looking for better ways
Which an infinite God has placed ahead of us
When I began to teach, I fumbled and failed
Now I have put away some of my childish ways
At present I am learning bit by bit
But if I keep on seeking, I shall at last understand
As all along I myself have been understood
So faith, hope and love endure
These are the great three
But the greatest of them is love
Chapter II
Lesson 2
The 21st Century Teacher
-Brenda B. Corpuz PhD
-Gloria G. Salandanan, PhD
If we teach today as we taught yesterday we rob our children of tomorrow- John Dewey
The 21st Century Skills
To remain relevant and interesting, the teacher must possess 21 st century skills. The 21st century
skills can be categorized into four(4) namely: 1) communication skills 2) learning and innovation skills 3)
information , media and technology skills and 4) life and career skills. A teacher must possess them in
order to survive in this 21st century and be able to contribute to the development of the 21 st century
Under each of these four clusters of the 21 st century skills are specific skills. Effective
communication skills include 1) teaming 2) collaboration 3) interpersonal skills 4) local, national and
global orientedness and 5) interactive communication.
The learning and innovation skills are the 3Cs namely 1)creativity 2) curiosity 3) critical thinking
problem solving skills and 4) risk taking.
Life and career skills embrace 1) flexibility and adaptability 2) leadership and responsibility 3)
social and cross cultural skills 4) initiative and self direction 5)productivity and accountability and 6)
ethical , moral and spiritual values.
Information, media and technology skills are 1) visual and information literacies
2) media
literacy 3) basic, scientific, economic and technological literacies and 4) multicultural literacy.
The first three (3) categories of life skills are self explanatory. The last category ( information,
media and technology skills) needs further explanation. They are explained below.
Visual literacy is the ability to interpret, make meaning from information presented in the form of
an image. It is also the ability to evaluate, apply or create conceptual visual representation.

Information literacy is the ability to identify what information is needed, identify the best sources
of information for a given need, locate those sources, evaluate the sources critically and share that
information. Information literacy is most essential in the conduct of research.
Media literacy is the ability to critically analyze the messages that inform, entertain and sell to us
every day. Its the ability to bring critical thinking skills to bear on all forms of media asking pertinent
questions about whats there and noticing whats not there. It is the ability to question what lies behind
media productions-the motives, the money , the values and the ownership and to be aware of how these
factors influence content of media production.
Scientific literacy encompasses written, numerical and digital literacy as they pertain to
understanding science, its methodology, observations and theories. Scientific literacy is the knowledge
and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision making,
participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity.
Economic literacy is the ability to apply basic economic concepts in situations relevant to ones life.
It is about cultivating a working knowledge of the economic way of thinking-understanding tradeoffs,
recognizing the importance of incentives. It encompasses a familiarity with fundamental economic
concepts such as market forces or how the monetary system works.
What is technological literacy? The US Department of Education (1996) defined technology
literacy as computer skills and the ability to use computer and other technology to improve learning,
productivity and performance.
Page 30
Technological literacy is the ability to responsibly use appropriate technology to
- Communicate
- Solve problems
- Access, manage, integrate, evaluate, design and create information to improve learning in all
subject areas
- Acquire life -long knowledge and skills in the 21st century
Another way of grouping the 21st century skills is shown below
-Ways of thinking. Creativity, critical thinking, problem solving, decision making and learning
- Ways of working. Communication and collaboration
- Tools for working. Information and communications technology (ICT) and information literacy
- Skills for living in the world. Citizenship, life and career and personal and social responsibility
Relate these 21st century skills to the characteristics of the 21 st century educator presented in the
graphic organizer below

Learning and
Innovation Skills

Communication Skills

21st century
Life and Career Skills

Info, Media and

Technology Skills

Are all 21st century skills reflected by the characteristics of the 21 st century teacher? If not, feel
free to add to the graphic organizer.

Page 31

Lesson 3
School and Community Relations
It takes a village to raise a child African proverb
The school and the community are the mainsprings of effective and powerful forces that
can create a wholesome climate for mutual gains and betterment. They can forge a kind of
partnership where both are willing to share information as well as responsibilities to the best
interest of the children while in school. Likewise when dealing with members of the community.
Parents from the community are ready to offer much- needed assistance in terms of resources
while teachers are equally committed to spend time, effort and expertise in serving the school
children. Ensuring strong alliance is guaranteed to foster sound academic practices in the school,
civic mindedness and public accountability in the community. A positive affiliation is an
overwhelming bond that all stakeholders are willing to be part of.
In recognition of the tremendous benefits that school and community residents stand to
experience and enjoy some teaming up will be suggested.

A. The Teachers, Parents and the Community

Parents are the first teachers in the home. They are responsible for the development
of values, attitudes and habits that will be needed as their children associate with the
classmates in school. Such inculcations are likewise beneficial when they work and play
with neighbors and the community at large.
Teachers in the schools continue to enrich the students experiences at home, thus
strengthening the valuable, personal traits and characteristics initially developed. In the
end, the contrived attention and efforts of both custodians are accorded
acknowledgement and recognition by members of the community.
The members of the community, in addition to the parents, include the local
government units , the non-government agencies, civic organizations and all the
residents. They are highly motivated to participate in the school activities and projects
that will likewise redound to the uplifting of the moral and quality of life in their own
1. Difficulties
Teachers are endowed with a caring and compassionate attitude that are expressed
in their love and unending sacrifice in guiding the young. Despite conscious effort,
children experience difficulties and problems regarding:
a. Ability to accomplish assignments
b. Irregular attendance
c. Study habits in school
d. Negative attitudes
e. Problem with self discipline
2. Solutions
The best way to thresh out causes and come up with solutions is to conduct a
dialogue wherein parents may be invited to drop by the school or the teacher may
pay a visit to their home.
Page 32
a. A calm and friendly face-to-face exchange of observations could straighten some
disturbing interactions ending with a promise of undertaking remediation in
both quarters.
b. Positive attitudes of kindheartedness and patience are developed through
c. Regularity in attendance and doing daily assignments need strong motivation
and encouragement from both sides.
d. Letters and praises to parents for outstanding performances build confidence
and strengthen determination to continue the good work.
e. Interesting lessons never fail to motivate students to be present everyday for an
enjoyable participation in them
f. Extremes of behavior need detailed consideration of past experiences in school
and at home
3. Values developed
Values and strong inclinations are instilled starting from the home and are
developed further in the school. Some of the most desirable are
a. Respect for elders and for the rights of others
b. Cooperation
c. Willingness to share
d. Deep sense of responsibility and

e. Persistence
Students exhibiting exemplary traits must be given due recognition. Awards
conferred upon responsible and well-behaved students set examples that are
4. Interests
Special interest and innate talents noticed at a young age such as heightened
prosperity for music and drama, athletics and the arts must be attended to by
sensitive mentors and guardians in order to provide them with continued
opportunities to attain full realization of their natural gifts.
B. School and Community
The school is usually located at the center of the town or city. As such, it is subjected to
daily scrutiny by the members of their community. Seeing their students at play or
work, personnel busy with everyday tasks and teachers with the usual eyeful watch,
everyone passing by witnessing such would feel proud of their school. The community
would in turn show their gratitude and appreciation by keeping their schools
surroundings clean and comfortable for their children and by sharing resources
whenever needed.
1. Collaborative relationships
a. The school officials actively participate in community projects such as literacy
assistance project for out-of-school children and house campaign for healthful
b. The municipal/city officials are likewise ready to provide help not only in
improving the physical facilities of the school but also paying the salaries of
teachers who for the moment do not have teacher items. There are a number of
school-board-paid teachers in the country.
Page 33
During historic celebrations in both places, participation by each is easily elicited
with such positive and civic consciousness activities enjoyed by the school and
the community, a strong feeling of togetherness becomes evident.
2. Organized associations
Schools have organized Parent- Teacher Associations (formerly referred to as
Parents Teachers and Community Associations ) with the officers coming from both
their members. They undertake projects and activities aimed at promoting a
harmonious and enjoyable relationship among themselves. Regular meetings are
conducted to discuss activities that are intended to improve /assist conditions
prevailing in both. A strong spirit of cooperation is exhibited as well as sharing of
expertise and material resources. Representations during town or school affairs
create strong ties among the members, thus helping hands are volunteered in times
of needs.
The Brigada Eskwela is another example of collaboration among school, parents
and community. Brigada Eskwela conducted at the beginning of the school year is
now institutionalized at the Department of Education and has resulted to strong
partnership of the school with the community. This is DepEds National Schools
Maintenance Week meant to help schools prepare for the opening of classes with the
assistance of education stakeholder by repairing and cleaning public schools
nationwide. Brigada Eskwela aims to revive the bayanihan spirit among Filipinos by
engaging the participation of education stakeholders in the community.

With the implementation

of School-Based Management (SBM) the School
Governing Council ( SGC) per school has been organized. The School Governing
Council ( SGC) is more than the PTA in the sense that the SGC shares in the task of
policy making in the school with the school head leading.
3. Public Safety, Beautification and Cleanliness
Peace and order, safety in public conveyances and compliance with ordinances
afford ample protection and disciplinary measures deserved by all. Beautification of
the community through tree planting in every household and cleanliness through
proper waste disposal are voluntarily undertaken by both, thus creating a
disciplined and wholesome community.
4. Values exhibited
Outstanding school personnel as well as barangay officials are honored. This serves
as a motivation for both parties and their followers to continue with their
commendable practice. Values of nationalism and unity are developed through the
examples demonstrated by the school and government officials. Respect for
authority and self- discipline are modeled for the young to follow.
5. Instructional Centers and Materials
The community can serve as rich sources of instructional materials. The clean
rivers, town library, factories and other industrial establishment could be learning
centers for field trips. Recreational areas and concert halls offer enjoyable
entertainment for all. The parks and beaches become relaxation areas for school
children together with the teachers and families. Professionals and practitioners
from the community can be invited as resource speakers during the observance of
significant school rites.
Page 34
Lesson 4
Linkages and Networking with Organizations
We cannot live for ourselves alone. Our lives are connected by a thousand invisible threads, and
along these sympathetic threads and along these sympathetic fibers, our actions run as causes and
return to us as results.
The school and its community, in collaboration with public and private institutions and
organizations are indeed inseparable if they are to create an impact on the lives of the students
and members of the community they are committed to serve. Various groups from both are very
willing to join forces in pursuing mutually beneficial and productive programs and projects for
the good interest of all. All that is needed are well-defined plans and creative efforts aimed at
establishing close affiliations between
and among them. Such interrelationships will be
characterized by reciprocity and genuine sharing of responsibilities, thus ensuring valuable gains
and attainment of educational objectives. Harnessing the tremendous influence and expertise both
of groups will be able to extend is definitely a laudable step towards promoting the desired
proficiency of the teaching force in the school as well as the efficiency in the services of some
associated organizations.
The school can enjoy linkages and networking activities with international, national and local
organizations in the community for mutual benefits and assistance needed.

The first step is for the school to prepare a list of projects and activities it plans to undertake
including the much -needed assistance in terms of human and material resources then determine
the institutions and organizations with parallel objectives and services. A joint scheme could be
worked out with higher education institutions offering degrees along the same line such as teacher
DepEd schools and laboratories for Field Study courses and practice teaching hence the exposure
of future teachers to the reality of teaching.
A network system could be designed incorporating the strength and availability of services
and expertise from both or among the group. The schools could also benefit immensely from
agencies whose mission includes corporate social responsibility. With the help of said
organizations, the school can fully realize its objective of delivering quality educational services
for the countrys youth. As the networking plan progresses, the enormous contribution of all the
willing partners deserve the communitys commendation and patronage. Linkages also termed
interconnections with institution functioning along the same mission are intended to serve
members of both sides according to their respective needs, interest and objectives. They create
bonds together to solicit support and assistance for purposeful activities which could be facilitated
faster and better considering the doubling of energy and resources. Following are some working
linkages between schools nationwide and associations/centers with local offices manned by a
complete set of officials and active members.

1. International Linkages
a. Pi Lambda Theta
Pi Lambda Theta is an international honor society ad professional association of women educators.
Based in its main office in Michigan, chapters are located in different universities nationwide. The
only chapter outside the US is the Philippine Area chapter. Established in the country more than 3
decades ago, its main project is ETP ( Excellence in Teaching Project) started in 1997 in coordination
with Metrobank Foundation. It supports 15 third year BSE/BEE students until they graduate. It also
honors outstanding student teachers from Colleges of Education. The president and some members of
the association attend a biennium hosted by chapters abroad during their term. Page 35
The 3 day convention tackles current issues , advances and trends in teacher education
which are discussed among the local members upon their return. The local chapter
hosted twice ( 1997 and 1999) a study tour and an initiation rites with members from
abroad in attendance.
b. INNOTECH is the center for training educational leaders from Southeast region under
the SEAMEO organization. It conducts training programs to upgrade the competencies
of teachers from the region in all disciplines. One of its projects is to update teachers
knowledge and skills in implementing alternative learning systems. It has prepared a
comprehensive framework on peace and multi-cultural diversity.
c. World Council for Curriculum and Instruction (WCCI) has a local chapter which
recently hosted a 3 day international congress with the international President,
officials and members from the main office together with the members from different
countries in attendance. The council holds conferences in different member countries
annually which is participated in by members of the local chapter.
d. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) is a membership
organization that develops programs, products and services essential to the way
educators learn, teach and lead. Founded in 1943, ASCD ( formerly the Association for
Supervision and Curriculum Development) is an educational leadership organization
dedicated to advancing best practices and policies for the success of each learner. It has
150,000 members in more than 145 countries who are professional educators from all
levels and subject areas-superintendents, supervisors, principals, teachers, professors of
education and school board members. It is a nonprofit, non partisan membership

organization that provides expert and innovative solutions in professional development,

capacity building and educational leadership essential to the way educators learn, teach
and lead. Should you wish to apply for membership, visit www.ascd.org
2. National and Local Linkages
a. Linkages could be established between universities and colleges offering identical
degrees. Cross enrolment for subjects needed for graduation is allowed.
b. Joint researches could be conducted by two or three universities depending on their
respective expertise. The dissemination of findings for other universities in the area is a
big help.
B. Networking
1. Networking with Professional Organizations
A network is a grid/web whose members actively demonstrate how they can work
together to attain common objectives, undertake innovative practices and update
members regarding breakthrough in different disciplines. Such network composed of
several colleges of different universities bind themselves for a common goal.
Some examples could serve as models
a. Consortium among Universities and Colleges
1. Taft Consortium- The universities that make up the consortium are St. Paul
University(Manila) St.Scholastica College, Philippine Normal University,
Philippine Christian University and De La Salle University. The Science teachers
from each college met regularly for discussions on best practices. At one time,
they wrote a book which was used by their respective students. The registrars
may undergo training sessions together. The interest clubs convene members for
a presentation where the participants are from the five institutions. Each
university serves as a host during important celebrations wherein the faculty
and students enjoy academic as well as recreational activities.
2. The Mediola Consortium -It is composed of San Beda College, Centro Escolar
University , San Sebastian Collge and Holy Spirit College.
Page 36
Chapter III
On Becoming A Global Teacher
-Purita P. Bilbao, Ed.D
Being world-class does not mean going internationally and showing our best out there. Being world class
is a passion and commitment to our profession; being world class is giving our best to teaching. Being
world class starts right inside the classroom. --- Condrado de Quiros
Our world has been called a global village. Satellite communications make possible television,
telephone and documents transmitted through fax and electronic mails across thousands of miles in
thousands of seconds. Our students can view global warfare in the Middle East, famine in Africa,
industrial pollution in Europe or industrial breakthrough in Korea or Japan through a world wide web of
the information highway.
Global education poses variety of goals ranging from increased knowledge about the peoples of the
world to resolutions of global problems, from increased fluency in foreign languages to the development
of more tolerant attitudes towards other cultures and peoples. Global education embraces todays
challenges as national borders are opened. It paves the way for borderless education to respond to the
needs of educating children of the world they are entering. It offers new curricular dimensions and
possibilities, current scientific and technological breakthroughs for completely new frontiers in education.
Contemporary curricula respond to the concept of this global village. The increased use of
technology in the classroom, the incorporation of the changing realities of our worlds society and the

ease of mobility of peoples of the world have become a challenge to your preparation as prospective
Hence, future teachers like you should prepare to respond to these multiple challenges. To become
global teacher you should be equipped with a wider range of knowledge of the various educational
systems outside the country; master skills and competencies which can address global demands and
possess attitudes and values that are acceptable to multicultural communities. When you are able to
satisfy these benchmark requirements then you can safely say you have prepared well to be a great
teacher of the world.
As future teachers, think globally, but act locally. You can be a global teacher by being the best
teacher in your school.
Objectives of the Chapter:
1. Gain clear understanding of what a global teacher is in context of global education
2. Enrich your insights on global education by analyzing and comparing the education of selected
countries of the world
3. Describe multicultural diversity as an element of global education and the role of the teacher in
addressing diversity among learners
4. Identify opportunities in teacher exchange programs for the development of world class
5. Describe global application of technology in the classroom
Page 37

Lesson 1
Global Education and the Global Teacher
Benchmarking is learning the best from the best practices of the worlds best
educational systems.
Lesson 1 will introduce the general concept of global education and define the global
teacher. This introductory lesson will give you a clear perspective of how you would become
that global teacher. After understanding the two concepts, you will be able to prepare
yourself for the succeeding lessons.
How do you prepare yourself as teachers for a challenging task of making learners
of today live meaningful lives tomorrow? As you prepare your children for their future,
teachers need to explore what the future holds. Teachers have to envision creative,
innovative ways to prepare diverse learners in their own cultural context without forgetting
that they live in a global village.
To compete globally would mean to prepare teachers who are capable of changing
lifelong education needs. How do you prepare for these needs? What are the emerging
technologies that will shape the future? How can we use our technologies for best learning
advantage? What will be the jobs of the future and how should curricula be shaped to
prepare students for their future?
You will be teaching in the Flat World or One Planet Schoolhouse. These two
terms imply global education as a result of shrinking world due to access in technology. The
internet globalizes communication by allowing users from around the world to connect to
one another.
Global Education

Global education has been best described by two definitions:

UNESCO defines global education as a goal to become aware of the educational conditions
or lack of it, in developing countries worldwide and aim to educate all peoples to a certain
world standards.
Another definition is that global education is a curriculum that is international in
scope which prepares todays youth around the world to function in one world environment
under teachers who are intellectually, professionally and humanistically prepared.
The United Nations entered into an agreement to pursue six (6) goals to achieve
some standards of education in place by 2015 worldwide. To achieve global education, the
UN sets the following goals
1. Expand early childhood care education
2. Provide free and compulsory primary education for all
3. Promote learning and life skills for young and adult
4. Increase adult literacy by 50%
5. Achieve gender parity by 2005 , gender equality by 2015 and
6. Improve quality of education
In 2000, the Philippines committed itself to the above EFA 2015 Goals at the World
Education Forum in Dakar
James Becker (1982) defined global education as an effort to help individual learners to see
the world as a single and global system and to see themselves as a participant in that
system. It is a school curriculum that has a worldwide standard of teaching and learning.
This curriculum prepares learners in an international marketplace with a world view of
international understanding. In his article Goals of Global Education, Becker
emphasized that global education incorporated into the curriculum and educational
experiences of each student a knowledge and empathy of cultures of the nation of the
Page 38
Likewise students are encouraged to see the world as a whole, learn various cultures to
make them better relate and function effectively within various cultural groups.
Thus to meet the various global challenges of the future, the 21 st Century Learning Goals
have been established as bases of various curricula worldwide. These learning goals
21st century content emerging content areas such as global awareness financial, economic,
business and entrepreneurship literacy, civic literacy, health and awareness
learning and thinking skills, critical thinking and problem solving skills, communication,
creativity and innovation, collaboration, contextual learning, information and media
ICT literacy, using technology in the context of learning so students know how to learn
life skills, leadership, ethics , accountability , personal responsibility , self direction and
21st century assessment, authentic assessment that measure the areas of learning
Global education is all about diversity, understanding the differences and teaching the
different cultural groups in order to achieve the goals of global education as presented by
the United Nations. It is educating all peoples in the world from the remote and rugged
rural villages in developing countries to the slum areas of urbanized countries to the highly
influential and economically stable societies of the world. Global education addresses the
need of the smallest schools to the largest classrooms in the world. It responds to borderless
education that defies distance and geographical location.
Thus global education provides equal opportunity and access to knowledge and learning
tools which are the basic rights of every child in the global community

Are our pre service teachers prepared to provide global education in their respective future
school assignments? Are you preparing yourselves to become a global teacher?
Global teacher
Looking back at the concept of global education how do we define now a global teacher? Is
this teacher somebody who teaches abroad? Is this person teaching anywhere in the world
and is able to teach the 21st century learning goals? These are some of the fundamental
questions which should be answered in order to understand who a global teacher is.
A global teacher is a competent teacher who is armed with enough skills, appropriate
attitude and universal values to teach students with both time tested as well as modern
technologies in education in any place in the world. He or she is someone who thinks and
acts both locally and globally with worldwide perspectives right in the communities where
he or she is situated.
More specifically, a global Filipino teacher should have the following qualities and
characteristics in addition to knowledge, skills and values
understands how this world is interconnected
recognizes that the world has rich variety of ways of life
has a vision of the future sees what the future would be for him and the students
must be creative and innovative
must understand, respect and be tolerant of the diversity of cultures
must believe and take action for education that will sustain the future
must be able to facilitate digitally mediated learning
must have depth of knowledge
must possess good communication (for Filipino teachers to be multi lingual)
And lastly but most importantly
must possess the competencies of a professional teacher as embodied in the National
Competency -Based Standards for Teachers (NCBTS)
Page 39
The need for global teachers is on the rise in several countries worldwide. Even developed
countries are in dire need of competent teachers who will man the countries rural and
urban classrooms. This is true with our neighboring countries like Singapore, Cambodia
and Thailand. The regional data of the United Nations show the numbers of teaching posts
needed by 2015.
The table shows the teaching posts needed by 2015, which you may avail of, if you are
Regions of the World
Arab States
Central and Eastern Europe

Number of New Teaching Positions needed b

by the thousands