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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM

I.

INTRODUCTION
Teachers are molders of the citizens of the nation and prepare the young to become

socially, morally upright citizens who do not only know their duties and responsibilities as
members of their society but are also builders of the future.
The role of the teacher in nation-building is immeasurable. This is the reason why
according to Henry Adams, an American editor of North American Review that A teacher
affects eternity; he can never tell where his influence stops.
In order to perform well his teaching job, the teacher possesses special qualities, abilities,
attitudes and skills. He is well organized and knows how to handle classroom routines. In
addition, he is a model to his pupils in appearance, in speech, and in character. Thus, the speech
or the way the teacher talks and how he stands or acts before his class is important in his
teaching job.
Nothing can ruin an otherwise good speech quicker than poor delivery. Public speaking
anxiety can often manifest itself as distracting habits that draw the audiences attention away
from the speakers presentation. The distracting gestures, sounds, and movements can be just as
damaging to an otherwise well written speech as verbal pauses. Rightful delivery manner of
speech must be considered. Adding and using such other flowering phrasal words repeatedly
undeniably bring a query to the listener.

Based on research studies, 93% of human communication is non-verbal. We do not


require and ought to tell the provider that character is embarrassed. We can write that his face is
flushed, his feet are shuffling, or he's fiddling with his shirt sleeves, showing not telling.
Definitely, ones gestures and movements should complement to the message, not to distract the
attention of the audience from it.
Speech and body mannerisms done by teachers are one visible reflection in the present
scenario of the educational system today. As regards to language teacher, it is beneficial and in
some other way is not.

Statement of the Problem


This study aimed to find out various effects of speech and body mannerisms used by
teachers in connection to acquisition of knowledge by the learners of the Grade 9 of Northern
Christian College Laboratory High School. It studied the views of the students with regard to this
matter.

It attempted to figure out to the students if these mannerisms are beneficial and

advantageous during the learning process of the students or not. It tried to answer the following
questions:
1. What are the different speech and body mannerisms of the teachers while teaching?
2. What are the reactions of the Grade 9 students towards their teachers mannerisms?
3. What are the effects of these mannerisms in the students acquisition of knowledge?

Significance of the Study


The researchers are very optimistic and confident that this paper will contribute to the
development and great change with regard to the teaching-learning process.
This paper is beneficial to the students and teachers. They will be motivated to become
wholesome in their part. With this they can take chances in order for them to cope up with these
mannerisms. They will be provided points to consider and this may serve as their guide for them
to improve for the betterment of the educational process. It caters also the parents in getting
information and for them to expect though. This research also provides the administrators to
think. It is an opportunity for them to plan to take a move with these mannerisms. It will give gist
to follow up and give prior attention to the teachers.

Definition of Terms
Mannerism excessive use of some distinctive, often affected, manner or style in art,
literature, speech, or behavior
Speech the act of communicating by speaking the spoken language.
Effect something brought about by a cause or agent; a result.
Learning the act, process, or experience of gaining knowledge or skill.
Gesture a movement made with a part of the body in order to express meaning
or emotion or to communicate an instruction.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study


The study is focused on the speech and mannerisms of teachers who are teaching Grade
9 of the Laboratory High School of Northern Christian College and how these affect the
acquisition of knowledge of the students. There are 6 teachers and 30 students who are involved
in this study.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter presents the related literature, books, articles, thesis and dissertations read
by the researchers that have bearing in this study.

Teachers Personality
Ryckman (2005) contends that investigators agree that personality is the dynamic and
organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her
cognitions, motivations and behavior in various situations. How a person thinks and acts and
how he/she projects himself/herself to others are results of the persons personality. It is common
knowledge that personality speaks of ones own identity and individuality. This includes personal
qualities that contribute to making the teacher do teaching tasks effectively. Included in these
qualities are the teachers grooming and neatness, dynamism and enthusiasm, voice modulation
and mannerisms. Such personal qualities inspire or motivate learners to be more involved in the
learning activities. These may also hinder learners learning as in a teachers mannerisms that are
distracting students focus. Tumampil (1999) also underscored the importance of using
appropriate attire as one component of the physical make-up in ones personality. Using the
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appropriate attire makes one feel more confident in teaching; ones attire also speaks of ones
personality and level of confidence.
This study underscores the personality of the teacher where mannerism lies. It focuses on
what mannerisms are commonly used and how it affects the students.

Usage of Gesture by Teachers


Gesture is often used in teaching context (Flevares & Perry 2011; Goldin-Meadow, Kim
& Singer, 1999; Neill 1992), and when used in this context, gesture promotes learning. Children
are more likely to profit from instruction when the instruction includes gesture than when it does
not (Church, Aymen-Nolley, & Estrade, 2004; et. al).
The gestures teachers produce during instruction could facilitate learning by helping
children understand the words that accompany those gestures. Presenting information in more
than one modality in generally associated with learning (Mayer & Moreno, 1998) and listeners
are often able to grasp the message conveyed in a speakers words when that message is also
conveyed in gestures than when it is conveyed only in speech (Goldin-Meadow et al., 1999;
Goldin-Meadow & Singer, 2003; Kelly, Barr, Church,&Lynch, 1999; Thompson&Massaro,
1986,1994).
We hypothesize that teachers use gestures to ground (cf. Glenberg & Robertson, 1999;
Lakoff & Nez, 2001) their instructional language, that is, to link their words with real-world,
physical referents such as objects, actions, diagrams, or other inscriptions. This grounding may
make the information conveyed in the verbal channel more accessible to students. We suggest
that, by providing gestural grounding where appropriate, teachers scaffold students
comprehension of instructional language, and in so doing, foster students learning of lesson

content. Thus, gestural grounding may be one means by which teachers scaffold students
understanding.
If teachers are sensitive to this grounding function of gesture, they should vary their use
of gesture, using more gestures during parts of the lesson for which students need greater
scaffolding. There are at least three types of circumstances in which greater scaffolding is likely
to be needed. First, greater scaffolding is likely to be needed when new instructional material is
introduced. As the material becomes more familiar, the scaffolding is no longer necessary, and it
can fade away without consequences for students understanding. Second, greater scaffolding
is likely to be needed for material that is more complex or more abstract. For material that is
uncomplicated and concrete, scaffolding may not be necessary. Third, scaffolding may increase
in response to students questions. Based on these ideas, we can derive three specific predictions
about gesture frequency during instruction:
First, teachers should use gestures more frequently when they introduce new material
than when they cover familiar material. Second, teachers should use gesture more frequently
when they speak about material that is more complex. Third, teachers should use gestures more
frequently in response to students utterances than prior to students utterances. The purpose of
the present study was to investigate a teachers use of gesture in naturalistic classroom
communication, with a focus on the role of gestures in grounding verbal content. In so doing, we
outline a technique for analyzing video of classroom instruction. We expected that the teacher
would regularly use gesture to ground her verbal utterances. Further, we predicted that the
teacher would vary her use of grounding in an effort to scaffold students understanding.
Specifically, we predicted that she would produce more gestures when introducing new material,

when talking about aspects of the lesson content that are more complex, and when responding to
students questions and comments (Alibali, Nathan In press in R. Goldman, et. Al.).

Contribution of Gesture in Learning


Producing gesture has been found to be associated with learning in no imitative contexts.
For example, children who are at a transitional point in acquiring a task produce gestures that
differ from the gestures they produce when not at a transitional point; in particular, their gestures
convey information not found anywhere in their speech. As another example, children produce
more substantive gestures when they are asked to reason about objects than when asked to
merely describe those objects (i.e., when they are asked to think deeply about a task; Alibali,
Kita, & Young, 2000). Finally, children who express their budding knowledge in gesture as they
learn a task are more likely to retain their new knowledge than children who do not use gesture
in this way (Alibali & Goldin-Meadow, 1993).

Teachers Gestures as a Means of Scaffolding Students Understanding


During classroom instruction, teachers often attempt to scaffold students understanding
of lesson content. But how is this scaffolding achieved? One obvious possibility is that teachers
adjust the ways in which they communicate information relevant to the lesson. Surprisingly,
relatively little is known about how teachers vary their communicative behavior in order to
scaffold student understanding. However, video technology has greatly increased the range of

behaviors that can come under rigorous study. Using video analysis techniques, we examined a
teachers use of verbal and gestural forms of communication.
In this paper, we consider the possibility that teachers use spontaneous hand and arm
gestures along with their speech in an effort to scaffold students understanding. Previous
research has documented that teachers do indeed use gestures in classroom settings (Flevares &
Perry, 2001; et.al), as well as in tutorial settings. However, previous studies of teachers gestures
have not directly examined gesture as a form of scaffolding.
Studies conducted in non-educational settings have demonstrated that listeners do in fact
glean information from speakers gestures (Kendon, 1994, for a review).
Speakers gestures facilitate listeners comprehension of the accompanying speech, particularly
when the verbal message is ambiguous (Thompson & Massaro, 1994), highly complex, or
degraded in some way. Based on this prior work, it seems likely Alibali & Nathan 3 that
students comprehension of lesson content may also be aided by teachers gestures.
Gestures may be particularly important in classroom settings because students
comprehension is often challenged by instructional discourse that presents new concepts and
uses unfamiliar terms. In addition, classrooms are often noisy, with multiple individuals speaking
at once. Under such circumstances, gesture may play a particularly important role in
comprehension.

Physiological Explanation of Gesture


Gestures are defined by Iverson and Thal (1998) as actions produced with the intent to
communicate and are typically expressed using fingers, hands, and arms, but can also include
facial features (e.g. lip smacking for eating) and body motions (e.g. bouncing for horsie).

Gestures appear very early in infancy. The jury is out on exactly when these gestures reliably
show themselves. However, one study that was conducted by Meltzoff & Moore, 1983,
evaluated infants 0.7 to 71 hours after birth and found that infants were able to imitate facial
expressions specific to open/closing mouth, and sticking their tongue out. Researchers
hypothesize that this form of imitative gesture means that language will later be built. Early
developing gestures have themselves deeply rooted into imitative learning. Human children learn
communication through example. Communication, by definition, is the process of transferring
information from one entity to another. Communication processes are sign-mediated interactions
between at least two agents which share a repertoire of signs and semiotic rules (Wikipedia,
2010). Children observe activities around them and process large quantities of information
through their senses. They track, gaze, see, and watch their environment and the interactions
people have within that environment. Children use visual information to imitate what has been
stored in their brains. More reliable communicative gestures are documented around 7-9 months
(Carpenter et al., 1998). Some examples include open-handed reaching, reaching up to indicate
they want to be held, pushing objects away in protest, and arm flailing.

Forms of mannerism are some termed as pulling your earlobe, stroking your chin, saying
'right' after every sentence, right? Mannerisms are those quirky little things people do or say facial expressions, gestures, certain phrases and manner of speech - that define their personality.
Although similar mannerisms can be observed in more than one person, they're always just
slightly differently used, to make them unique; for example, one person may stroke their chin
whilst thinking, another whilst saying something wryly amusing, another when they are nervous
or anxious.

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Famous mannerisms conclude like Anne Robinson (English TV presenter) looking over
her glasses. Prince Charles turning his sovereign ring. Michael Foot (former labour party leader)
sweeping back his hair. Zoe Ball (English DJ and TV presenter) saying 'er..' after every sentence,
and Homer Simpson...D'oh!
Some nice mannerisms...
...Or not. Mannerisms can be very endearing, for example, a loved one stroking his/her
partners' hair, or a child cuddling his/her security blanket; however, what is endearing to one
person can be very irritating to another...

Annoying mannerisms are mannerisms that can be extremely annoying to other people,
and can even elicit disgust and horror, e.g picking your nose...and eating what you find there.
Mannerisms can become so habituated that they are performed unconsciously; the nose-picker
may not be aware of the origin of other's disgust, and may observe and wonder at the
mannerisms exhibited by others...nervous pulling at the earlobe, for example.

Negative part of mannerism is interconnected with speaking. Public speakers are usually
very aware of exhibiting mannerisms; teachers in particular live in fear of being more
entertaining than instructional. Children can be very cruel, and may keep scoreboards of their
teacher's mannerisms, which can be very off-putting and distracting:- (So the square root of
twelve is...Sir, Sir, you scratched your nose AGAIN!!)
Getting rid of mannerisms is uneasy. When a person has noted a mannerism in them, they
will usually try to modify their behavior, but it can be difficult - some mannerisms are ingrained

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and built up by many years of usage. Asking a friend to hit you over the head with a plank of
wood whenever you 'do' your mannerism can be a good deterrent as can asking your friend to
give you some chocolate when you haven't 'done' your mannerism for a while . But be warned mannerisms are part of what makes you, and might possibly be missed by your friends and
family!

Figure 1. Research Paradigm showing the relationship between the speech and mannerisms
of the teachers and their effects on the acquisition of knowledge by the students.

Independent Variable

Speech and mannerisms of


the teachers
Dependent Variable

Acquisition of knowledge and


skills by the students

Based on the literature read, there is an effect of teachers speech and mannerisms on the
acquisition of knowledge by the students.

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CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the research design, locale of the study, participants, data collecting
instrument and data collecting process and the analysis and interpretation of the data gathered.

Research Design
The ranking method was used in interpreting the data gathered. The researchers
distributed checklists to the students and it was then analyzed and interpreted.

Locale of the Study


The study was carried out at the Northern Christian College Laboratory High School,
Laoag City.
Northern Christian College Laboratory High School is located in Brgy. 5 Ablan Ave.
Laoag City. Laoag City is a city in the Province of Ilocos Norte, Philippines. It is the capital of

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Ilocos Norte, and the provinces political, commercial, and industrial center and where the
commercial airport is located. The Cordillera Central Mountain Ranges is located at the east and
the South China at its west is its geographical boundaries.

Population and Sampling


The researchers went to the class of the Grade 9 at the Auditorium 303 and asked
permission from Ms. Winnie Aganon, the class adviser for them to float their questionnaires.
There were 30 respondents in this study.
The Instrument- Questionnaire
The checklist comprised of three things, first is about the different speech and body
mannerisms of the teachers while teaching. The second is about the reaction of the students
towards their teachers speech and body mannerisms and the last talks about the effects of these
mannerisms in the students acquisition of knowledge.

Data Gathering Procedure


First, a checklist was set to determine the effects of speech and body mannerisms of
teachers on students learning. Checklists were given after being printed and photocopied. Thirty
students were asked to answer the checklist. After that, the researchers collected the entire
checklist given to the students for the tallying of the data results. The data was analyzed and then
interpreted by the researchers.

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Analysis and Interpretation of the Data Gathered


Based on the ranking method used by the researchers, there is an effect of the teachers
speech and mannerisms to the acquisition of knowledge by the learners.

CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This section presents the analysis and interpretation of the data gathered by the
researchers. The researchers made a checklist to determine what mannerisms are having by the
respondents teachers.

Table 1. Teachers Who Uses Mannerism

Body mannerisms

Total

Rank

Picking of the nose

26

18

29

22

19

23

137

15

Putting the hand on


the pocket

11

15

21

17

13

18

95

Touching the hair

29

10

13

26

22

109

movements

19

14

12

17

20

19

101

Biting the lips

13

16

16

24

12

90

Blinking of the eyes

14

21

15

76

Too

much

hand

Speech mannerism

Total

Rank

Aaaaahhaaahhh

26

22

24

20

21

25

138

Uhhmmmuuhmm

23

19

24

19

21

27

133

Okay!

30

27

18

26

23

21

145

Right!

23

17

13

22

28

13

116

LEGEND:
ABCDEF - Teachers

Table 1 show the different speech and body mannerisms of the teachers of Grade 9 while
teaching, how many students checked on the different speech and body mannerisms of their
teachers and the rank of these mannerisms. According to the data, the most used body mannerism
is the picking of nose, followed by touching the hair, too much hand movements, putting the
hand on the pocket, biting the lips and the least used body mannerism which is blinking of the
eyes.

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In the speech mannerisms, based on the table, the word okay! Is often used by the
teachers while teaching. It is followed by aaaaaahhhaaahhh, uuhhmmmmuuhhmm and the
least used speech mannerism which is right! It is therefore generalized that almost all of the
teachers of the Grade 9 uses most of the speech and body mannerisms.

Table 2. Students Reaction on the Mannerism Being Used.


Options

Frequency

Boredom

26

Disappointment

23

Annoy

11

None

Table 2 shows the emotion felt by the students when their teachers use mannerism.
According to the result, most students feel bored whenever their teacher is doing his/her
mannerism. Others also feel disappointed and annoyed while others ignore or dont mind this
kind of distractions.

Table 3. Greatest Effect of the Mannerism on the Student.


Options

Frequency

I am destructed

27

It lessens my interest

29

It will always remind me of that teacher

30

I concentrate on the mannerism not on the lecture

26

I became self-conscious

24
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Table 3 deals with the great effects of mannerisms on the part of the students. The result
speaks that most of the students feel distracted whenever their teachers do their own kind of
mannerisms. Their distraction will eventually lead in lessening their interest in the discussion.
Through the presented data, it is therefore generalized that most of the students tend to
remember the teacher who uses mannerism in class. This is according to the results of the
greatest effect of mannerisms on the students learning and education. These kinds of
mannerisms tend to divert their attention from the discussion to the mannerisms used by the
teachers. Considering the type of learner a person, it differs and it is varied. Thus, it will always
affect students learning.
CHAPTER V
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter of the paper summarized the findings of the study and presents the
conclusions, and the recommendations of the researchers based on the data gathered.

Summary of Findings
The study shows the fact in the usage of mannerisms of teacher during discussion, the top
body and speech mannerisms repeatedly used by teachers, the students reactions on their
teachers mannerism, and the effect of mannerism in the learning process of students.
The results of the study show that the teachers of the Grade 9 of Northern Christian
College Laboratory High School are using mannerisms in instruction. Some repeatedly body and
speech mannerisms, according to the result, intend to distract and annoy the students. With

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regard to the result of the reaction, the mannerisms of teachers are not beneficial to their learning
process.
Answers of the respondents reflect their unpleasant behavior toward these mannerisms.
With regard to it, they make count on the number of times being enacted, talk to friends, laugh
and spread rumor.
Findings also indicate the greatest effect of these mannerisms of teachers to the students.
Based on the data, they will always remember the teacher. Students are destructed and they will
just concentrate to the mannerisms instead of the lecture, these matters will eventually affect the
students performance inside the classroom.

Conclusion
Number of teachers is becoming a primary encouragement in childrens existence, and in
some ways they may be the openly vigorous grown individuals that some children may
encounter during the day. And now, the part will focus on the importance of teaching style in
creating a positive environment in which student confidence is fostered.
Indeed, speakers gesticulations facilitate listeners comprehension of the supplementary
speech, predominantly when the verbal message is ambiguous. In addition, classrooms are
frequently noisy, with numerous individuals speaking at once. Under such circumstances, gesture
may play a particularly significant part in understanding. With this, virtues are developed greatly,
not only in the part of the teacher but students as well. And so; still we must advocate the usage
of this gift bestowed by the Creator.

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Every coin has two faces- positive and negative. Be positive in viewing this mannerism.
But I know you will find the truest significant someday somehow.

Recommendations
Based on the data gathered on the research study, the researchers suggest teachers to now
the effects of their too much usage of gestures in instruction. Knowing this fact will surely give
them a point to consider. It will provide them an overview for them to consider in the
forthcoming days. Researchers also suggest the students to take the mannerisms in the most
positive way. They must inculcate that this also promote good learning. Students must also be
considerate enough because these gestures whether be body or speech will help the teacher in
expressing the idea.
The researchers also recommend that the students must increase their virtues of optimism
and consideration for everything will still be revealed.
There is not a taste, a mannerism, or a human act which is not revealing.
-Jean-Paul Sarte

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CURRICULUM VITAE

Name:

Joan Alexis Pancho Maltezo

Address:

Brgy. 56 A Bacsil North Laoag City

Birthday:

March 26, 1989

Age:

25

Motto:

Everything Happens for a Reason.

Educational Background

Elementay:

Bacsil Elementary School

1995 2001

Secondary:

Ilocos Norte National High School

2001 2005

Tertiary:

Northern Christian College

2011 2014

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CURRICULUM VITAE

Name:

Rose Anne Duldulao Cario

Address:

Brgy. 2 San Agustin Sarrat, Ilocos Norte

Birthday:

August 27, 1992

Age:

22

Motto:

Do not worry about people not knowing you, but strive to be worth
knowing.

Educational Background

Elementary:

Sarrat North Central Elementary School

1999 2005

Secondary:

Sarrat National High School

2005 - 2009

Tertiary:

Northern Christian College

2011 2014

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CURRICULUM VITAE

Name:

Nicola Jayne Benemerito Rocero

Address:

Pob. 2 Pagudpud, Ilocos Norte

Birthday:

June 11, 1991

Age:

23

Motto:

Live life to the fullest because you only live once.

Educational Background

Elementary:

Pagudpud Central Elementary School

1998 2004

Secondary:

St. Jude High School

2004 2008

Tertiary:

Northern Christian College

2012 present

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CURRICULUM VITAE

Name:

Reycel Joy Agbayani Martin

Address:

Brgy. 12 Namoroc Vintar, Ilocos Norte

Birthday:

November 2, 1987

Age:

26

Motto:

Try and try until you succeed.

Educational Background

Elementary:

Namoroc Mabambanag Elementary School

1994 2000

Secondary:

Ilocos Norte National High School

2000 2004

Tertiary:

Northern Christian College

2012 present

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CURRICULUM VITAE

Name:

Wilberg Isiah Carnate Barriga

Address:

Brgy. 1 Adams, Ilocos Norte

Birthday:

October 14, 1993

Age:

21

Motto:

Life is like a wheel, it goes round and round .

Educational Background

Elementary:

Adams Central Elementary School

2000 2006

Secondary:

Adams National High School

2006 2010

Tertiary:

Northern Christian College

2011 present

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