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Deyneslyn Princess C.

Claro
Bsed-2a

SIMPLE APPREHENSION
The term apprehension implies an act of conceiving the object. Its nature
necessitates the use of the five senses such as sense of touch, smell, sight, hear, and
taste.
Simple apprehension is defined as a mental act of conceiving something without
affirming or denying anything about it. Here , by the act of conceiving we mean the
process whereby awareness of something is being done. The same process results in
the formulation of an idea or concept.

CONCEPT
It is defined as a mental image which is created by the mind on process of conceiving
the object. It is attained through the process called abstraction. The word abstraction
was derived from the latin word abstrahere which means `to separates` or to move
away.

Abstractionis

defined as a mental process whereby the mind

separates the essentials features of an object from the non-essential ones.


By

essential featureswe mean those without which certain

object will cease to manifest it self. For instance, we take `man` as an example. Its
essential features are the body and the soul. If we separate one of these from the
entity called man chances are it will eventually cease to exist.

Non-essential features, on the other hand, are those


features that are not substantial in the strictest sense, yet they are added to the very
essence of the object.

FORMATION OF CONCEPT

It is said that no idea or concept is created by any means but only through the
used of the senses. Ergo , knowledge begins with the senses. This argument is
manifested in the philosophy of Jhon Locke (1632-1714) who claimed that human
mind is to be likend to a blank tablet or photographic plate. For him, concept is
sensorialy derived. David Hume(1711-1776), on the other hand, has stated
that concepts are copies of simple sensations and the ore complex ones are created
from the conglomeration of simple sensations or from complex impressions. Hence,
after the senses have conceived the object it produce a sensible image of the thing
which is called a phantasm.Phantasmis defined as a sensible image
produced by the sense in the absence o the object. Concept is the representation of
the thing in the mind. The mind creates a duplicate of something that has been
conceived.

CLASSIFICATION OF CONCEPT
There are many classifications of concepts. Bachhubber (1996) had
mentioned in his book at least four of these kind. These are 1) the first intention or
the second intention, 2) the concrete or the abstract, 3) the absolute or the
connotative and 4) the positive or the negative.

FIRST CLASSIFICATION
1.

FIRST INTENTION ->is a concerned by which we know a thing

independent of our mind. For example, cat has four legs. The concept `cat` is taken
as an animal with four legs, a reality that exist outside of mans analytical mind.
Through sheer knowing this concept is created.
2.SECOND INTENTION->is a concept by which was conceive a thing in
reality in so far as themind knows or understands it. For example. Japan is the land
of the rising sun. Here , Japan is understood to be the place of the rising sun in so far
as the mind.

SECOND CLASSIFICATION

1.CONCRETE-> is a concept which creates a form and a subject in the


mind. For example: The concepts intelligent, black and loyal were taken as concrete
in so far as they expressed individual subjects like student, dress and servant.
2.ABSTRACT->is aconcrete endowed with for only. Example are

the

concepts like intelligence, black, less or loyalty. These concept do not manifest any
subject in the mind.

THIRD CLASSIFICATION
1.ABSOLUTE-> is a concept that manifest itself to the mind as a substance
and as independent reality. For example, man , people , God , society , flower , table ,
chair , student, and others . Incidentally , all abstract concepts are considered
absolute like intelligence , mankind , eternity , highness , and others.
2.CONNOTATIVE->is a concept that manifests itself to yhe mind as an
accident connected to a substance. The common examples of connotative concepts
are adjectives like kind
person , beautiful
dress, etc. Some nouns like
communicator , debator , orator and others can be considered also as connotative
concepts for they also manifesting the same character as the adjectives. The only
difference is that they already contain substances. Like for example, communicator
it means a person who communicates . Here , the concept person is the
substance and who communicates becomes the accident.

FOURTH CLASSIFICATION
1.POSSITIVE->is a concept that manifests an object to the mind
according to what it is or what it is made of. For example, The ball is round . This
example presents to the mind a thing called ball and this ball is round. It is an
essential ball and this ball is round. For this is what positive concept expresses.
2.NEGATIVE->is a concept that manifests an object to the mind according
to what its is not or what it is made of. All negative concept are described in a
negative form. Like , Man is not a brute. The concept presented in this premises is
negative because it expresses an object that lacks something , namely, its
bruteness.

THE TERMS
Any word can be considered as a term in so far as it manifests a meaning or
character to the mind. But not all words can be considered as terms because some
words do not contain meanings or significations and they can never be considered as
either subjects or predicates of a proposition like interjections, articles, linking
verbs ,prepositions and others. It is safer to say that all terms are words but not all
words are terms.

CLASSIFICATIONS OF TERMS
The used of terms vary according to the extent of their meaning or signification.
They maybe similar in meanings even though they were used in several occasions or
they maybe different or if not , they may have partly difference or partly similarity in
meanings , here, we speak of univocal, equivocal, or analogous terms.
1.UNIVOCAL->Terms are univocal if they exhibit similarity in meaning or
signification, even though they are used in at least two occasions.
Ex. Francis is bacon is a philosopher
Frederich Nietzsche is a philosopher
2.EQUIVOCAL->Terms maybe considered equivocal if they exhibit difference in
meaning or signification whenever they are used in at least two occasions.
Ex. Her lover gave her a ring.
The bells ring.
a.Spelling Alone->Some terms are similar in spelling but the manner of
pronouncing them are entirely different. Consequently , their meanings are also
different.
b.Sound alone->in some instances terms maybe the same in pronunciation or
utterances but their spellings remained to be different as well as their meanings.
c.Both sound and spelling-> Some terms may have similarity in sound and
spelling but still their meanings remained to be different.

3.ANALOGOUS->Terms are analogous if they express partly the same and partly
different meanings when used in at least two occasions. Proportionality and
attribution, we mean that some resemblance in meanings and used of terms are
evident.
1. Ex. orange (a fruit ) and orange (color)
These two terms are related to one another by virtue of their proportionality and
attributions. For the same reason, that the name of the fruit which is orange was
taken from its own color which is also orange.
2. land (ground) and land (to set down)
To set down (to land) a ship will entail o place to set the ship down. This is where the
proportionality and attribution of the two different terms will come in.