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# INTRODUCTION &

## RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS: CONTINUOUS MOTION

Todays Objectives:
Students will be able to:
1. Find the kinematic quantities
(position, displacement, velocity,
and acceleration) of a particle
traveling along a straight path.

In-Class Activities:
Check Homework
Applications
Relations between s(t), v(t),
and a(t) for general
rectilinear motion.
Relations between s(t), v(t),
and a(t) when acceleration is
constant.
Concept Quiz
Group Problem Solving
Attention Quiz

1. In dynamics, a particle is assumed to have _________.
A) both translation and rotational motions
B) only a mass
C) a mass but the size and shape cannot be neglected

## D) no mass or size or shape, it is just a point

2. The average speed is defined as __________.
A) Dr/Dt

B) Ds/Dt

C) sT/Dt

## D) None of the above.

APPLICATIONS
The motion of large objects,
such as rockets, airplanes, or
cars, can often be analyzed
as if they were particles.
Why?
If we measure the altitude
of this rocket as a function
of time, how can we
determine its velocity and
acceleration?

APPLICATIONS
(continued)

## A sports car travels along a straight road.

Can we treat the car as a particle?
If the car accelerates at a constant rate, how can we
determine its position and velocity at some instant?

An Overview of Mechanics
Mechanics: The study of how bodies
react to forces acting on them.

## Statics: The study of

bodies in equilibrium.

Dynamics:
1. Kinematics concerned with
the geometric aspects of motion
2. Kinetics - concerned with
the forces causing the motion

## RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS: CONTINIOUS MOTION

(Section 12.2)
A particle travels along a straight-line path
defined by the coordinate axis s.
The position of the particle at any instant,
relative to the origin, O, is defined by the
position vector r, or the scalar s. Scalar s
can be positive or negative. Typical units
for r and s are meters (m) or feet (ft).
The displacement of the particle is
defined as its change in position.
Vector form: D r = r - r

Scalar form: D s = s - s

## The total distance traveled by the particle, sT, is a positive scalar

that represents the total length of the path over which the particle
travels.

VELOCITY
Velocity is a measure of the rate of change in the position of a particle.
It is a vector quantity (it has both magnitude and direction). The
magnitude of the velocity is called speed, with units of m/s or ft/s.
The average velocity of a particle during a
time interval Dt is
vavg = Dr / Dt
The instantaneous velocity is the time-derivative of position.
v = dr / dt
Speed is the magnitude of velocity: v = ds / dt

## Average speed is the total distance traveled divided by elapsed time:

(vsp)avg = sT / Dt

ACCELERATION
Acceleration is the rate of change in the velocity of a particle. It is a
vector quantity. Typical units are m/s2 or ft/s2.
The instantaneous acceleration is the time
derivative of velocity.
Vector form: a = dv / dt
Scalar form: a = dv / dt = d2s / dt2
Acceleration can be positive (speed
increasing) or negative (speed decreasing).
As the book indicates, the derivative equations for velocity and
acceleration can be manipulated to get
a ds = v dv

## SUMMARY OF KINEMATIC RELATIONS:

RECTILINEAR MOTION
Differentiate position to get velocity and acceleration.
v = ds/dt ;

a = dv/dt or a = v dv/ds

## Integrate acceleration for velocity and position.

Position:

Velocity:
v

dv = a dt or v dv = a ds

ds = v dt

vo

vo

so

so

## Note that so and vo represent the initial position and

velocity of the particle at t = 0.

CONSTANT ACCELERATION
The three kinematic equations can be integrated for the special case
when acceleration is constant (a = ac) to obtain very useful equations.
A common example of constant acceleration is gravity; i.e., a body
freely falling toward earth. In this case, ac = g = 9.81 m/s2 = 32.2 ft/s2

## downward. These equations are:

v

dv = a

dt

yields

v = vo + act

ds = v dt

yields

s = s o + v ot + (1/2) a c t 2

yields

2
v 2 = (vo ) + 2ac(s - so)

vo

so
v

o
s

v dv = ac ds
vo

so

10

EXAMPLE
Given: A particle travels along a straight line to the right
with a velocity of v = ( 4 t 3 t2 ) m/s where t is
in seconds. Also, s = 0 when t = 0.
Find: The position and acceleration of the particle
when t = 4 s.
Plan: Establish the positive coordinate, s, in the direction the
particle is traveling. Since the velocity is given as a
function of time, take a derivative of it to calculate the
acceleration. Conversely, integrate the velocity
function to calculate the position.

11

Solution:

EXAMPLE
(continued)

## 1) Take a derivative of the velocity to determine the acceleration.

a = dv / dt = d(4 t 3 t2) / dt =4 6 t
=> a = 20 m/s2 (or in the direction) when t = 4 s
2) Calculate the distance traveled in 4s by integrating the
velocity using so = 0:
s
t

## v = ds / dt => ds = v dt => ds = (4 t 3 t2) dt

so
o
=> s so = 2 t2 t3
=> s 0 = 2(4)2 (4)3 => s = 32 m ( or )

12

CONCEPT QUIZ
3 m/s

5 m/s

t=2s

t=7s

## 1. A particle moves along a horizontal path with its velocity

varying with time as shown. The average acceleration of the
particle is _________.
A) 0.4 m/s2
B) 0.4 m/s2
C) 1.6 m/s2
D) 1.6 m/s2
2. A particle has an initial velocity of 30 ft/s to the left. If it
then passes through the same location 5 seconds later with a
velocity of 50 ft/s to the right, the average velocity of the
particle during the 5 s time interval is _______.
A) 10 ft/s
B) 4 ft/s
C) 16 m/s
D) 0 ft/s

13

## GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING

Given: Ball A is released from rest
at a height of 40 ft at the
same time that ball B is
thrown upward, 5 ft from the
ground. The balls pass one
another at a height of 20 ft.
Find: The speed at which ball B was
thrown upward.
Plan: Both balls experience a constant downward acceleration
of 32.2 ft/s2 due to gravity. Apply the formulas for
constant acceleration, with ac = -32.2 ft/s2.

14

Solution:

(continued)

## 1) First consider ball A. With the origin defined at the ground,

ball A is released from rest ((vA)o = 0) at a height of 40 ft
((sA )o = 40 ft). Calculate the time required for ball A to drop to
20 ft (sA = 20 ft) using a position equation.
sA = (sA )o + (vA)o t + (1/2) ac t2
So,

15

Solution:

(continued)

## 2) Now consider ball B. It is throw upward from a height of 5 ft

((sB)o = 5 ft). It must reach a height of 20 ft (sB = 20 ft) at the
same time ball A reaches this height (t = 1.115 s). Apply the
position equation again to ball B using t = 1.115s.
sB = (sB)o + (vB)ot + (1/2) ac t2
So,

20 ft = 5 + (vB)o(1.115) + (1/2)(-32.2)(1.115)2
=> (vB)o = 31.4 ft/s

16

ATTENTION QUIZ
1. A particle has an initial velocity of 3 ft/s to the left at
s0 = 0 ft. Determine its position when t = 3 s if the
acceleration is 2 ft/s2 to the right.
A) 0.0 ft
C) 18.0 ft

B) 6.0 ft
D) 9.0 ft

## 2. A particle is moving with an initial velocity of v = 12 ft/s

and constant acceleration of 3.78 ft/s2 in the same direction
as the velocity. Determine the distance the particle has
traveled when the velocity reaches 30 ft/s.
A) 50 ft
C) 150 ft

B) 100 ft
D) 200 ft

17

18

## RECTILINEAR KINEMATICS: ERRATIC MOTION

Todays Objectives:

In-Class Activities:

## Students will be able to:

1. Determine position,
velocity, and acceleration
of a particle using graphs.

Check Homework
Applications
s-t, v-t, a-t, v-s, and a-s diagrams

Concept Quiz
Group Problem Solving

Attention Quiz

19

1. The slope of a v-t graph at any instant represents instantaneous
A) velocity.

B) acceleration.

C) position.

D) jerk.

## 2. Displacement of a particle in a given time interval equals the

area under the ___ graph during that time.
A) a-t

B) a-s

C) v-t

C) s-t

20

APPLICATION
In many experiments, a
velocity versus position (v-s)
profile is obtained.
If we have a v-s graph for the
tank truck, how can we
determine its acceleration at
position s = 1500 feet?

21

ERRATIC MOTION
(Section 12.3)
Graphing provides a good way to
handle complex motions that
would be difficult to describe
with formulas.
Graphs also provide a visual
description of motion and
reinforce the calculus concepts of
differentiation and integration as
used in dynamics.
The approach builds on the facts that slope and differentiation
are linked and that integration can be thought of as finding the
area under a curve.

22

S-T GRAPH
Plots of position vs. time can be
used to find velocity vs. time
curves. Finding the slope of the
line tangent to the motion curve at
any point is the velocity at that
point (or v = ds/dt).

## Therefore, the v-t graph can be

constructed by finding the slope at
various points along the s-t graph.

23

V-T GRAPH
Plots of velocity vs. time can be used to
find acceleration vs. time curves.
Finding the slope of the line tangent to
the velocity curve at any point is the
acceleration at that point (or a = dv/dt).
Therefore, the acceleration vs. time (or
a-t) graph can be constructed by
finding the slope at various points
along the v-t graph.
Also, the distance moved
(displacement) of the particle is the
area under the v-t graph during time Dt.

24

A-T GRAPH
Given the acceleration vs. time
or a-t curve, the change in
velocity (Dv) during a time
period is the area under the a-t
curve.
So we can construct a v-t graph
from an a-t graph if we know the
initial velocity of the particle.

25

A-S GRAPH
A more complex case is presented by
the acceleration versus position or a-s
graph. The area under the a-s curve
represents the change in velocity
(recall a ds = v dv ).
s2
(v1 vo) = a ds = area under the
s1
a-s graph
This equation can be solved for v1,
allowing you to solve for the velocity
at a point. By doing this repeatedly,
you can create a plot of velocity
versus distance.

26

V-S GRAPH
Another complex case is presented
by the velocity vs. distance or v-s
graph. By reading the velocity v at
a point on the curve and
multiplying it by the slope of the
curve (dv/ds) at this same point,
we can obtain the acceleration at
that point. Recall the formula
a = v (dv/ds).
Thus, we can obtain an a-s plot
from the v-s curve.

27

EXAMPLE
Given: The s-t graph for a sports car moving along a straight road.
Find: The v-t graph and a-t graph over the time interval shown.

## What is your plan of attack for the problem?

28

EXAMPLE (continued)
Solution: The v-t graph can be constructed by finding the slope
of the s-t graph at key points. What are those?
when 0 < t < 5 s;

## when 5 < t < 10 s; v5-10 = ds/dt = d(30t75)/dt = 30 m/s

v(m/s)
v-t graph
30
t(s)
5

10

29

EXAMPLE (continued)
Similarly, the a-t graph can be constructed by finding the slope
at various points along the v-t graph.
when 0 < t < 5 s;

a(m/s2)
a-t graph
6
t(s)
5

10

30

CONCEPT QUIZ

## 1. If a particle starts from rest and

accelerates according to the graph
shown, the particles velocity at
t = 20 s is

A) 200 m/s

B) 100 m/s

C) 0

D) 20 m/s

A) 10 s

B) 20 s

C) 30 s

D) 40 s

31

## Given: The v-t graph shown.

Find: The a-t graph, average
speed, and distance
traveled for the 0 - 90 s
interval.
Plan:
Find slopes of the v-t curve and draw the a-t graph.
Find the area under the curve. It is the distance traveled.
Finally, calculate average speed (using basic definitions!).

32

Solution:

(continued)

For 0 t 30

a(m/s)

a-t graph

1
30

90 t(s)

-0.5

33

## GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)

Now find the distance traveled:
Ds0-30 = v dt = (1/2) (30)2 = 450 m
Ds30-90 = v dt
= (1/2) (-0.5)(90)2 + 45(90) (1/2) (-0.5)(30)2 45(30)
= 900 m
s0-90 = 450 + 900 = 1350 m
vavg(0-90) = total distance / time
= 1350 / 90
= 15 m/s

34

ATTENTION QUIZ

## 1. If a car has the velocity curve shown, determine the time t

necessary for the car to travel 100 meters. v
A) 8 s

B) 4 s

C) 10 s

D) 6 s

75

6s

2. Select the correct a-t graph for the velocity curve shown.
a

a
t

A)

C)

B)

a
t

D)

t
t

35

36

CURVILINEAR MOTION:
GENERAL & RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS
Todays Objectives:
Students will be able to:
1. Describe the motion of a
particle traveling along a
curved path.
2. Relate kinematic quantities
in terms of the rectangular
components of the vectors.

In-Class Activities:
Check Homework
Applications
General Curvilinear Motion
Rectangular Components of
Kinematic Vectors
Concept Quiz
Group Problem Solving
Attention Quiz

37

1. In curvilinear motion, the direction of the instantaneous
velocity is always
A)
B)
C)
D)

## tangent to the hodograph.

perpendicular to the hodograph.
tangent to the path.
perpendicular to the path.

## 2. In curvilinear motion, the direction of the instantaneous

acceleration is always
A)
B)
C)
D)

## tangent to the hodograph.

perpendicular to the hodograph.
tangent to the path.
perpendicular to the path.

38

APPLICATIONS

## The path of motion of a plane can

be tracked with radar and its x, y,
and z coordinates (relative to a
point on earth) recorded as a
function of time.
How can we determine the velocity
or acceleration of the plane at any
instant?

39

APPLICATIONS
(continued)
A roller coaster car travels down
a fixed, helical path at a constant
speed.

## How can we determine its

position or acceleration at any
instant?
If you are designing the track, why is it important to be
able to predict the acceleration of the car?

40

## GENERAL CURVILINEAR MOTION

(Section 12.4)
A particle moving along a curved path undergoes curvilinear motion.
Since the motion is often three-dimensional, vectors are used to
describe the motion.
A particle moves along a curve
defined by the path function, s.
The position of the particle at any instant is designated by the vector
r = r(t). Both the magnitude and direction of r may vary with time.
If the particle moves a distance Ds along the
curve during time interval Dt, the
displacement is determined by vector
subtraction: D r = r - r

41

VELOCITY
Velocity represents the rate of change in the position of a
particle.
The average velocity of the particle
during the time increment Dt is
vavg = Dr/Dt .
The instantaneous velocity is the
time-derivative of position
v = dr/dt .
The velocity vector, v, is always
tangent to the path of motion.
The magnitude of v is called the speed. Since the arc length Ds
approaches the magnitude of Dr as t0, the speed can be
obtained by differentiating the path function (v = ds/dt). Note
that this is not a vector!

42

ACCELERATION
Acceleration represents the rate of change in the
velocity of a particle.
If a particles velocity changes from v to v over a
time increment Dt, the average acceleration during
that increment is:
aavg = Dv/Dt = (v - v)/Dt
The instantaneous acceleration is the timederivative of velocity:
a = dv/dt = d2r/dt2
A plot of the locus of points defined by the arrowhead
of the velocity vector is called a hodograph. The
acceleration vector is tangent to the hodograph, but
not, in general, tangent to the path function.

43

## CURVILINEAR MOTION: RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS

(Section 12.5)
It is often convenient to describe the motion of a particle in
terms of its x, y, z or rectangular components, relative to a fixed
frame of reference.
The position of the particle can be
defined at any instant by the
position vector
r=xi+yj+zk .
The x, y, z components may all be
functions of time, i.e.,
x = x(t), y = y(t), and z = z(t) .
The magnitude of the position vector is: r = (x2 + y2 + z2)0.5
The direction of r is defined by the unit vector: ur = (1/r)r

44

## RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS: VELOCITY

The velocity vector is the time derivative of the position vector:
v = dr/dt = d(xi)/dt + d(yj)/dt + d(zk)/dt
Since the unit vectors i, j, k are constant in magnitude and
direction, this equation reduces to v = vx i + vy j + vz k

## where vx = x = dx/dt, vy = y = dy/dt, vz = z = dz/dt

The magnitude of the velocity
vector is
v = [(vx)2 + (vy)2 + (vz)2]0.5
The direction of v is tangent
to the path of motion.

45

## The acceleration vector is the time derivative of the

velocity vector (second derivative of the position vector):
a = dv/dt = d2r/dt2 = ax i + ay j + az k

## where ax = vx = x = dvx /dt, ay = vy = y = dvy /dt,

az = v z = z = dvz /dt
The magnitude of the acceleration vector is
a = [(ax)2 + (ay)2 + (az)2 ]0.5
The direction of a is usually
not tangent to the path of the
particle.

46

EXAMPLE
Given: The motion of two particles (A and B) is described by
the position vectors
rA = [3t i + 9t(2 t) j] m and
rB = [3(t2 2t +2) i + 3(t 2) j] m.
Find: The point at which the particles collide and their
speeds just before the collision.
Plan: 1) The particles will collide when their position
vectors are equal, or rA = rB .

## 2) Their speeds can be determined by differentiating

the position vectors.

47

EXAMPLE (continued)
Solution:
1) The point of collision requires that rA = rB,
so xA = xB and yA = yB .
Set the x-components equal: 3t = 3(t2 2t + 2)
Simplifying: t2 3t + 2 = 0
Solving:
t = {3 [32 4(1)(2)]0.5}/2(1)
=> t = 2 or 1 s
Set the y-components equal: 9t(2 t) = 3(t 2)
Simplifying:
3t2 5t 2 = 0
Solving: t = {5 [52 4(3)(2)]0.5}/2(3)
=> t = 2 or 1/3 s
So, the particles collide when t = 2 s (only common
time). Substituting this value into rA or rB yields
xA = xB = 6 m

and yA = yB = 0

48

EXAMPLE (continued)
2) Differentiate rA and rB to get the velocity vectors.

## vA = drA/dt = .xA i + yA j = [ 3 i + (18 18t) j ] m/s

At t = 2 s: vA = [ 3i 18 j ] m/s
vB = drB/dt = xB i + yB j = [ (6t 6) i + 3 j ] m/s

At t = 2 s: vB = [ 6 i + 3 j ] m/s
Speed is the magnitude of the velocity vector.
vA = (32 + 182) 0.5 = 18.2 m/s
vB = (62 + 32) 0.5 = 6.71 m/s

49

## 1. If the position of a particle is defined by

r = [(1.5t2 + 1) i + (4t 1) j ] (m), its speed at t = 1 s is
A) 2 m/s

B) 3 m/s

C) 5 m/s

D) 7 m/s

## 2. The path of a particle is defined by y = 0.5x2. If the

component of its velocity along the x-axis at x = 2 m is
vx = 1 m/s, its velocity component along the y-axis at this
position is
A) 0.25 m/s

B) 0.5 m/s

C) 1 m/s

D) 2 m/s

50

## GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING

Given: The velocity of the particle is
v = [ 16 t2 i + 4 t3 j + (5 t + 2) k] m/s.
When t = 0, x = y = z = 0.
Find: The particles coordinate position and the magnitude of
its acceleration when t = 2 s.
Plan:
Note that velocity vector is given as a function of time.
1) Determine the position and acceleration by
integrating and differentiating v, respectively, using
the initial conditions.
2) Determine the magnitude of the acceleration vector
using t = 2 s.

51

## GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)

Solution:
1) x-components:
Velocity known as:
x

Position:

## vx = x = dx/dt = (16 t2 ) m/s

dx = (16 t ) dt x = (16/3)t
2

= 42.7 m at t = 2 s

## Acceleration: ax = x = vx = d/dt (16 t2) = 32 t = 64 m/s2

2) y-components:
Velocity known as:
y

Position:

vy = y = dy/dt = (4 t3 ) m/s

dy = (4 t ) dt y = t
3

= (16) m at t = 2 s

52

3) z-components:

## Velocity is known as:

z

Position:

vz = z = dz/dt = (5 t + 2) m/s

dz = (5 t + 2) dt z = (5/2) t
0

+ 2t = 14 m at t=2s

## Acceleration: az = z = vz = d/dt (5 t + 2) = 5 m/s2

4) The position vector and magnitude of the acceleration vector
are written using the component information found above.
Position vector: r = [ 42.7 i + 16 j + 14 k] m.
Acceleration vector: a = [ 64 i + 48 j + 5 k] m/s2
Magnitude: a = (642 + 482 +52)0.5 = 80.2 m/s2

53

ATTENTION QUIZ
1. If a particle has moved from A to B along the circular path in
4s, what is the average velocity of the particle ?
y

A) 2.5 i m/s
B) 2.5 i +1.25j m/s

C) 1.25 i m/s

R=5m

x
B

D) 1.25 j m/s
2. The position of a particle is given as r = (4t2 i - 2x j) m.
Determine the particles acceleration.
A) (4 i +8 j ) m/s2

B) (8 i -16 j ) m/s2

C) (8 i) m/s2

D) (8 j ) m/s2

54

55

MOTION OF A PROJECTILE
Todays Objectives:
Students will be able to:
1. Analyze the free-flight
motion of a projectile.

In-Class Activities:

Check Homework
Applications
Kinematic Equations for
Projectile Motion

Concept Quiz
Group Problem Solving
Attention Quiz

56

1. The downward acceleration of an object in free-flight
motion is
A) zero.

C) 9.81 m/s2.

D) 9.81 ft/s2.

## 2. The horizontal component of velocity remains _________

during a free-flight motion.
A) zero

B) constant

C) at 9.81 m/s2

D) at 32.2 ft/s2

57

APPLICATIONS

## A good kicker instinctively knows at what angle, q, and initial

velocity, vA, he must kick the ball to make a field goal.
For a given kick strength, at what angle should the ball be
kicked to get the maximum distance?

58

APPLICATIONS
(continued)

## A basketball is shot at a certain angle. What parameters should

the shooter consider in order for the basketball to pass through
Distance, speed, the basket location, anything else ?

59

APPLICATIONS
(continued)

## A firefighter needs to know the maximum height on the wall

she can project water from the hose. What parameters would
you program into a wrist computer to find the angle, q, that
she should use to hold the hose?

60

MOTION OF A PROJECTILE

(Section 12.6)

## Projectile motion can be treated as two rectilinear motions, one in

the horizontal direction experiencing zero acceleration and the other
in the vertical direction experiencing constant acceleration (i.e.,
from gravity).
For illustration, consider the two balls on the
left. The red ball falls from rest, whereas the
yellow ball is given a horizontal velocity. Each
picture in this sequence is taken after the same
time interval. Notice both balls are subjected to
the same downward acceleration since they
remain at the same elevation at any instant.
Also, note that the horizontal distance between
successive photos of the yellow ball is constant
since the velocity in the horizontal direction is
constant.

61

## Since ax = 0, the velocity in the horizontal direction remains

constant (vx = vox) and the position in the x direction can be
determined by:
x = xo + (vox) t
Why is ax equal to zero (assuming movement through the air)?

62

## KINEMATIC EQUATIONS: VERTICAL MOTION

Since the positive y-axis is directed upward, ay = g.
Application of the constant acceleration equations yields:
vy = voy g t
y = yo + (voy) t g t2
vy2 = voy2 2 g (y yo)

## For any given problem, only two of these three equations

can be used. Why?

63

EXAMPLE I
Given: vo and
Find: The equation that defines
y as a function of x.
Plan: Eliminate time from the
kinematic equations.
Solution: Using

vx = vo cos

or

and
t =

vy = vo sin
x
vo cos

## y = (vo sin ) t g (t)2

By substituting for t:
y = (vo sin ) {

x
} g {
vo cos
2

x
}2
vo cos

64

EXAMPLE I
(continued)
Simplifying the last equation, we get:
y = (x tanq)

g x2
2vo2

(1 + tan2q)

## The above equation is called the path equation which

describes the path of a particle in projectile motion.
The equation shows that the path is parabolic.

65

EXAMPLE II
Given: Projectile is fired with vA=150 m/s
at point A.
Find: The horizontal distance it travels
(R) and the time in the air.

Plan:
Establish a fixed x, y coordinate system (in this solution,
the origin of the coordinate system is placed at A).
Apply the kinematic relations in x- and y-directions.

66

EXAMPLE II (continued)
Solution:
1) Place the coordinate system at point A.
Then, write the equation for horizontal motion.
+ xB = xA + vAx tAB
where xB = R, xA = 0, vAx = 150 (4/5) m/s
Range, R will be R = 120 tAB
2) Now write a vertical motion equation. Use the distance equation.
+ yB = yA + vAy tAB 0.5 g tAB2
where yB = 150, yA = 0, and vAy = 150(3/5) m/s
We get the following equation: 150 = 90 tAB + 0.5 ( 9.81) tAB2
Solving for tAB first, tAB = 19.89 s.
Then, R = 120 tAB = 120 (19.89) = 2387 m

67

CONCEPT QUIZ
1. In a projectile motion problem, what is the maximum
number of unknowns that can be solved?
A) 1

B) 2

C) 3

D) 4

## 2. The time of flight of a projectile, fired over level ground,

with initial velocity Vo at angle , is equal to?
A) (vo sin q)/g

68

y
x

## Given: A skier leaves the ski

jump ramp at qA = 25o
and hits the slope at B.
Find: The skiers initial speed vA.

Plan:
Establish a fixed x,y coordinate system (in this solution,
the origin of the coordinate system is placed at A).
Apply the kinematic relations in x and y-directions.

69

## GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING

(continued)
Solution:
Motion in x-direction:
Using xB = xA + vox(tAB) => (4/5)100 = 0 + vA (cos 25) tAB
tAB=

80
vA (cos 25)

88.27
vA

Motion in y-direction:
Using yB = yA + voy(tAB) g(tAB)2
88.27
64 = 0 + vA(sin 25) {
} (9.81) { 88.27 }2
vA
vA
vA = 19.42 m/s

70

ATTENTION QUIZ
1. A projectile is given an initial velocity
vo at an angle f above the horizontal.
The velocity of the projectile when it
hits the slope is ____________ the
initial velocity vo.
A) less than
C) greater than

B) equal to
D) None of the above.

## 2. A particle has an initial velocity vo at angle q with respect to the

horizontal. The maximum height it can reach is when
A) q = 30

B) q = 45

C) q = 60

D) q = 90

71

72

CURVILINEAR MOTION:
NORMAL AND TANGENTIAL COMPONENTS
Todays Objectives:
Students will be able to:
1. Determine the normal and
tangential components of
velocity and acceleration of a
particle traveling along a
curved path.

In-Class Activities:
Check Homework
Applications
Normal and Tangential
Components of Velocity and
Acceleration
Special Cases of Motion
Concept Quiz
Group Problem Solving
Attention Quiz

73

1. If a particle moves along a curve with a constant speed, then
its tangential component of acceleration is
A) positive.

B) negative.

C) zero.

D) constant.

## 2. The normal component of acceleration represents

A) the time rate of change in the magnitude of the velocity.
B) the time rate of change in the direction of the velocity.
C) magnitude of the velocity.
D) direction of the total acceleration.

74

APPLICATIONS

## Cars traveling along a clover-leaf

interchange experience an
acceleration due to a change in
velocity as well as due to a change
in direction of the velocity.
If the cars speed is increasing at a
known rate as it travels along a
curve, how can we determine the
magnitude and direction of its total
acceleration?
Why would you care about the total acceleration of the car?

75

APPLICATIONS
(continued)
A roller coaster travels down a
hill for which the path can be
approximated by a function
y = f(x).
The roller coaster starts from rest
and increases its speed at a
constant rate.
How can we determine its velocity
and acceleration at the bottom?
Why would we want to know
these values?

76

## NORMAL AND TANGENTIAL COMPONENTS

(Section 12.7)
When a particle moves along a curved path, it is sometimes convenient
to describe its motion using coordinates other than Cartesian. When the
path of motion is known, normal (n) and tangential (t) coordinates are
often used.
In the n-t coordinate system, the
origin is located on the particle
(the origin moves with the
particle).
The t-axis is tangent to the path (curve) at the instant considered,
positive in the direction of the particles motion.
The n-axis is perpendicular to the t-axis with the positive direction
toward the center of curvature of the curve.

77

## NORMAL AND TANGENTIAL COMPONENTS

(continued)
The positive n and t directions are
defined by the unit vectors un and ut,
respectively.
The center of curvature, O, always
lies on the concave side of the curve.
The radius of curvature, r, is defined
as the perpendicular distance from
the curve to the center of curvature at
that point.
The position of the particle at any
instant is defined by the distance, s, along the curve from a
fixed reference point.

78

## VELOCITY IN THE n-t COORDINATE SYSTEM

The velocity vector is always
tangent to the path of motion
(t-direction).

## The magnitude is determined by taking the time derivative of

the path function, s(t).
v = v ut where v = .s = ds/dt
Here v defines the magnitude of the velocity (speed) and
ut defines the direction of the velocity vector.

79

## ACCELERATION IN THE n-t COORDINATE SYSTEM

Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity:
.
.
a = dv/dt = d(vut)/dt = vut + vut
.
Here v represents the change in
.
the magnitude of velocity and ut
represents the rate of change in
the direction of ut.
After mathematical manipulation,
the acceleration vector can be
expressed as:
.
a = v ut + (v2/r) un = at ut + an un.

80

## ACCELERATION IN THE n-t COORDINATE SYSTEM

(continued)
So, there are two components to the
acceleration vector:
a = at ut + an un

## The tangential component is tangent to the curve and in the

direction of increasing or decreasing velocity.
.
at = v or at ds = v dv
The normal or centripetal component is always directed
toward the center of curvature of the curve. an = v2/r
The magnitude of the acceleration vector is
a = [(at)2 + (an)2]0.5

81

## SPECIAL CASES OF MOTION

There are some special cases of motion to consider.
1) The particle moves along a straight line.
.
r
=> an = v2/r = 0 => a = at = v
The tangential component represents the time rate of change in
the magnitude of the velocity.
2) The particle moves along a curve at constant speed.
.
at = v = 0 => a = an = v2/r
The normal component represents the time rate of change in the
direction of the velocity.

82

## SPECIAL CASES OF MOTION (continued)

3) The tangential component of acceleration is constant, at = (at)c.
In this case,
s = so + vo t + (1/2) (at)c t2
v = vo + (at)c t
v2 = (vo)2 + 2 (at)c (s so)
As before, so and vo are the initial position and velocity of the
particle at t = 0. How are these equations related to projectile
motion equations? Why?
4) The particle moves along a path expressed as y = f(x).
The radius of curvature, r, at any point on the path can be
calculated from
[ 1 + (dy/dx)2 ]3/2
r = ________________
d2y/dx2

83

THREE-DIMENSIONAL MOTION
If a particle moves along a space
curve, the n and t axes are defined as
before. At any point, the t-axis is
tangent to the path and the n-axis
points toward the center of curvature.
The plane containing the n and t axes
is called the osculating plane.
A third axis can be defined, called the binomial axis, b. The
binomial unit vector, ub, is directed perpendicular to the osculating
plane, and its sense is defined by the cross product ub = ut un.
There is no motion, thus no velocity or acceleration, in the
binomial direction.

84

EXAMPLE
Given: A boat travels around a
circular path, r = 40 m, at a
speed that increases with
time, v = (0.0625 t2) m/s.
Find:

## The magnitudes of the boats

velocity and acceleration at
the instant t = 10 s.

Plan:
The boat starts from rest (v = 0 when t = 0).
1) Calculate the velocity at t = 10 s using v(t).
2) Calculate the tangential and normal components of
acceleration and then the magnitude of the
acceleration vector.

85

EXAMPLE (continued)
Solution:
1) The velocity vector is v = v ut , where the magnitude is
given by v = (0.0625t2) m/s. At t = 10s:
v = 0.0625 t2 = 0.0625 (10)2 = 6.25 m/s
.
2) The acceleration vector is a = atut + anun = vut + (v2/r)un.
.
Tangential component: at = v = d(.0625 t2 )/dt = 0.125 t m/s2
At t = 10s: at = 0.125t = 0.125(10) = 1.25 m/s2
Normal component: an = v2/r m/s2
At t = 10s: an = (6.25)2 / (40) = 0.9766 m/s2
The magnitude of the acceleration is
a = [(at)2 + (an)2]0.5 = [(1.25)2 + (0.9766)2]0.5 = 1.59 m/s2

86

1. A particle traveling in a circular path of radius 300 m has an
instantaneous velocity of 30 m/s and its velocity is
increasing at a constant rate of 4 m/s2. What is the
magnitude of its total acceleration at this instant?
A) 3 m/s2

B) 4 m/s2

C) 5 m/s2

D) -5 m/s2

## 2. If a particle moving in a circular path of radius 5 m has a

velocity function v = 4t2 m/s, what is the magnitude of its
total acceleration at t = 1 s?
A) 8 m/s

B) 8.6 m/s

C) 3.2 m/s

D) 11.2 m/s

87

## Given: A roller coaster travels along a

vertical parabolic path defined by
the equation y = 0.01x2. At point B,
it has a speed of 25 m/s, which is
increasing at the rate of 3 m/s2.

1.
2.
3.
4.

## Find: The magnitude of the roller coasters

acceleration when it is at point B.
Plan:
The change in the speed of the car (3 m/s2) is the
tangential component of the total acceleration.
Calculate the radius of curvature of the path at B.
Calculate the normal component of acceleration.
Determine the magnitude of the acceleration vector.

88

## GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING

(continued)

Solution:
1) The tangential component of acceleration is the rate of
.
increase of the roller coasters speed, so at = v = 3 m/s2.
2) Determine the radius of curvature at point B (x = 30 m):
dy/dx = d(0.01x2)/dx = 0.02x, d2y/dx2 = d (0.02x)/dx = 0.02
At x =30 m, dy/dx = 0.02(30) = 0.6, d2y/dx2 = 0.02
=> r =

[1+(dy/dx)2]3/2
d2y/dx2

= [1 + (0.6)2]3/2/(0.02) = 79.3 m

## 3) The normal component of acceleration is

an = v2/r = (25)2/(79.3) = 7.881 m/s2
4) The magnitude of the acceleration vector is
a = [(at)2 + (an)2]0.5 = [(3)2 + (7.881)2]0.5 = 8.43 m/s2

89

ATTENTION QUIZ
1. The magnitude of the normal acceleration is
A) proportional to radius of curvature.
B) inversely proportional to radius of curvature.
C) sometimes negative.
D) zero when velocity is constant.
2. The directions of the tangential acceleration and velocity are
always
A) perpendicular to each other. B) collinear.
C) in the same direction.

D) in opposite directions.

90

91

## CURVILINEAR MOTION: CYLINDRICAL COMPONENTS

Todays Objectives:
Students will be able to:
1. Determine velocity and
acceleration components
using cylindrical
coordinates.

In-Class Activities:
Check Homework
Applications
Velocity Components
Acceleration Components
Concept Quiz
Group Problem Solving
Attention Quiz

92

1. In a polar coordinate system, the velocity
vector can
.
. be
.
written as v = vrur + vu = rur + rquq. The term q is called
A) transverse velocity.

C) angular velocity.

D) angular acceleration.

## 2. The speed of a particle in a cylindrical coordinate system is

.
B) rq

.
A) r
C)

.
.
(rq)2 + (r)2

D)

.
.
.
(rq)2 + (r)2 + (z)2

93

APPLICATIONS
The cylindrical coordinate
system is used in cases
where the particle moves
along a 3-D curve.
In the figure shown, the box
slides down the helical ramp.
How would you find the
boxs velocity components to
know if the package will fly
off the ramp?

94

CYLINDRICAL COMPONENTS
(Section 12.8)

## We can express the location of P in polar coordinates as r = r ur.

Note that the radial direction, r, extends outward from the fixed
origin, O, and the transverse coordinate, q, is measured counterclockwise (CCW) from the horizontal.

95

## VELOCITY in POLAR COORDINATES)

The instantaneous velocity is defined as:
v = dr/dt = d(rur)/dt
dur
.
v = rur + r
dt
Using the chain rule:
dur/dt = (dur/dq)(dq/dt)
.
We can prove that dur/d
. q = u so dur/dt = qu
.
Therefore: v = rur + rqu

## Thus, the velocity vector has two components:

r,
.
called the radial component, and rq called the
transverse component. The speed of the particle at
any given instant is the sum of the squares of both
components or
v=

.
.
(r q )2 + ( r )2

96

## ACCELERATION (POLAR COORDINATES)

The instantaneous acceleration is defined as:

.
.
a = dv/dt = (d/dt)(rur + rqu)
After manipulation, the acceleration can be
expressed as
..
.
..
..
a = (r rq 2)ur + (rq + 2rq)u
.
..
The term (r rq 2) is the radial acceleration
or ar .
..
The term (rq + 2rq) is the transverse
acceleration or aq .
.. . .
.2 2
..
The magnitude of acceleration is a = (r rq ) + (rq + 2rq) 2
..

97

CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES

## If the particle P moves along a space

curve, its position can be written as
rP = rur + zuz
Taking time derivatives and using
the chain rule:
Velocity:

.
.
.
vP = rur + rqu + zuz

..
.. .
..
..
Acceleration: aP = (r rq2)ur + (rq + 2rq)u + zuz

98

EXAMPLE
Given: A car travels along acircular path.
.
r = 300 ft, q = 0.4 (rad/s),
..
Find: Velocity and acceleration
Plan: Use the polar coordinate system.
Solution:
..
.
. ..
r = 300 ft, r = r = 0, and q = 0.4 (rad/s), q = 0.2 (rad/s2)
Substitute in the equation
. for velocity
.
v = r ur + rq u = 0 ur + 300 (0.4) u
v = (0)2 + (120)2 = 120 ft/s

99

EXAMPLE
(continued)
Substitute in the equation for acceleration:
.. . .
.
..
a = (r rq 2)ur + (rq + 2rq)u
a = [0 300(0.4)2] ur + [300(0.2) + 2(0)(0.4)] u
a = 48 ur + 60 u ft/s2
a = ( 48)2 + (60)2 = 76.8 ft/s2

100

CONCEPT QUIZ
.
1. If r is zero for a particle, the particle is
A) not moving.

..

A) zero.

B) r .

.
C) rq 2.

. .
D) 2rq .

101

## GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING

Given: The cars speed is constant at
1.5 m/s.
Find: The cars acceleration (as a
vector).
Plan:
Hint: The tangent to the ramp at any point is at an angle
12
f = tan-1(
) = 10.81
2(10)
Also, what is the relationship between f and q?
Plan: Use cylindrical coordinates. Since r is constant, all
derivatives of r will be zero.

102

## GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)

Solution: Since r is
has 2 components:
. constant, the velocity only
.
vq = rq = v cos f and vz = z = v sin f
.
v cosf
Therefore: q = (
r
..
q = 0
.
vz = z = v sinf = 0.281 m/s
..
z = 0
.
..
r = r = 0
.
.. . .
..
..
2
a = (r rq )ur + (rq + 2rq)u + zuz
.
a = (-rq 2)ur = -10(0.147)2ur = -0.217ur m/s2

103

ATTENTION QUIZ
1. The radial component of velocity of a particle moving in a
circular path is always
A) zero.
B) constant.
C) greater than its transverse component.
D) less than its transverse component.

## 2. The radial component of acceleration of a particle moving in

a circular path is always
A) negative.
B) directed toward the center of the path.
C) perpendicular to the transverse component of acceleration.
D) All of the above.

104

105

## ABSOLUTE DEPENDENT MOTION ANALYSIS OF

TWO PARTICLES

Todays Objectives:
Students will be able to:
1. Relate the positions, velocities,
and accelerations of particles
undergoing dependent motion.

In-Class Activities:
Check Homework
Applications
Define Dependent Motion
Develop Position, Velocity,
and Acceleration
Relationships
Concept Quiz
Group Problem Solving
Attention Quiz

106

1. When particles are interconnected by a cable, the motions
of the particles are ______
A) always independent.

B) always dependent.

## 2. If the motion of one particle is dependent on that of

another particle, each coordinate axis system for the
particles _______
A) should be directed along the path of motion.
B) can be directed anywhere.
C) should have the same origin.
D) None of the above.

107

APPLICATIONS
The cable and pulley system shown
can be used to modify the speed of
the mine car, A, relative to the speed
of the motor, M.
It is important to establish the
relationships between the various
motions in order to determine the
power requirements for the motor
and the tension in the cable.
For instance, if the speed of the cable (P) is known because we
know the motor characteristics, how can we determine the
speed of the mine car? Will the slope of the track have any

108

APPLICATIONS
(continued)
Rope and pulley arrangements
are often used to assist in lifting
heavy objects. The total lifting
force required from the truck
depends on both the weight and
the acceleration of the cabinet.
How can we determine the
acceleration and velocity of
the cabinet if the acceleration
of the truck is known?

109

## DEPENDENT MOTION (Section 12.9)

In many kinematics problems, the motion of one object will
depend on the motion of another object.
The blocks in this figure are
connected by an inextensible cord
wrapped around a pulley.
If block A moves downward along
the inclined plane, block B will
move up the other incline.
The motion of each block can be related mathematically by
defining position coordinates, sA and sB. Each coordinate axis is
defined from a fixed point or datum line, measured positive along
each plane in the direction of motion of each block.

110

DEPENDENT MOTION
(continued)

## In this example, position

coordinates sA and sB can be
defined from fixed datum lines
extending from the center of
the pulley along each incline
to blocks A and B.
If the cord has a fixed length, the position coordinates sA
and sB are related mathematically by the equation
sA + lCD + sB = lT
Here lT is the total cord length and lCD is the length of cord
passing over the arc CD on the pulley.

111

DEPENDENT MOTION
(continued)
The velocities of blocks A and B
can be related by differentiating
the position equation. Note that
lCD and lT remain constant, so
dlCD/dt = dlT/dt = 0
dsA/dt + dsB/dt = 0

=>

vB = -vA

## The negative sign indicates that as A moves down the incline

(positive sA direction), B moves up the incline (negative sB
direction).
Accelerations can be found by differentiating the velocity
expression. Prove to yourself that aB = -aA .

112

## DEPENDENT MOTION EXAMPLE

Consider a more complicated
example. Position coordinates (sA
and sB) are defined from fixed
datum lines, measured along the
direction of motion of each block.
Note that sB is only defined to the
center of the pulley above block
B, since this block moves with the
pulley. Also, h is a constant.
The red colored segments of the cord remain constant in length
during motion of the blocks.

113

## DEPENDENT MOTION EXAMPLE (continued)

The position coordinates are related by
the equation
2sB + h + sA = lT
Where lT is the total cord length minus
the lengths of the red segments.
Since lT and h remain constant
during the motion, the velocities and
accelerations can be related by two
successive time derivatives:
2vB = -vA and 2aB = -aA
When block B moves downward (+sB), block A moves to the left
(-sA). Remember to be consistent with your sign convention!

114

## DEPENDENT MOTION EXAMPLE (continued)

This example can also be worked
by defining the position coordinate
for B (sB) from the bottom pulley
The position, velocity, and
acceleration relations then become
2(h sB) + h + sA = lT
and

2vB = vA

2aB = aA

Prove to yourself that the results are the same, even if the sign
conventions are different than the previous formulation.

115

## DEPENDENT MOTION: PROCEDURES

These procedures can be used to relate the dependent motion of
particles moving along rectilinear paths (only the magnitudes of
velocity and acceleration change, not their line of direction).
1. Define position coordinates from fixed datum lines,
along the path of each particle. Different datum lines can
be used for each particle.
2. Relate the position coordinates to the cord length.
Segments of cord that do not change in length during the
motion may be left out.
3. If a system contains more than one cord, relate the
position of a point on one cord to a point on another
cord. Separate equations are written for each cord.
4. Differentiate the position coordinate equation(s) to relate
velocities and accelerations. Keep track of signs!

116

EXAMPLE
Given: In the figure on the left, the
cord at A is pulled down
with a speed of 2 m/s.
Find: The speed of block B.
Plan:

## There are two cords involved

in the motion in this example.
There will be two position
equations (one for each cord).
Write these two equations,
combine them, and then
differentiate them.

117

EXAMPLE (continued)
Solution:
1) Define the position coordinates from a fixed datum line. Three
coordinates must be defined: one for point A (sA), one for block B
(sB), and one for block C (sC).
Define the datum line through the top
pulley (which has a fixed position).
sA can be defined to the point A.
sB can be defined to the center of the
pulley above B.
sC is defined to the center of pulley C.
All coordinates are defined as positive
down and along the direction of motion
of each point/object.

118

EXAMPLE (continued)
2) Write position/length equations for
each cord. Define l1 as the length of
the first cord, minus any segments of
constant length. Define l2 in a similar
manner for the second cord:
Cord 1: sA + 2sC = l1
Cord 2: sB + (sB sC) = l2
3) Eliminating sC between the two
equations, we get
sA + 4sB = l1 + 2l2
4) Relate velocities by differentiating this expression. Note that l1 and l2
are constant lengths.
vA + 4vB = 0 => vB = 0.25vA = 0.25(2) = 0.5 m/s
The velocity of block B is 0.5 m/s up (negative sB direction).

119

CONCEPT QUIZ
1. Determine the speed of block B.
A) 1 m/s

B) 2 m/s

C) 4 m/s

## 2. Two blocks are interconnected by a

cable. Which of the following is
correct ?
y
A) vA= - vB

B) (vx)A= - (vx)B

120

## GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING

Given: In this pulley system, block A is
moving downward with a speed
of 4 ft/s while block C is
moving up at 2 ft/s.
Find: The speed of block B.
Plan:
All blocks are connected to a single cable, so only one
position/length equation will be required. Define
position coordinates for each block, write out the
position relation, and then differentiate it to relate the
velocities.

121

## GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING

(continued)

Solution:
1) A datum line can be drawn through the upper, fixed, pulleys
and position coordinates defined from this line to each block
(or the pulley above the block).
2) Defining sA, sB, and sC as shown,
the position relation can be written:
sA + 2sB + sC = l
3) Differentiate to relate velocities:
vA + 2vB + vC = 0
4 + 2vB + (-2) =0
vB = -1 ft/s
The velocity of block B is 1 ft/s up (negative sB direction).

122

ATTENTION QUIZ
1. Determine the speed of block B when
block A is moving down at 6 ft/s while
block C is moving down at 18 ft/s .
A) 24 ft/s

B) 3 ft/s

C) 12 ft/s

D) 9 ft/s

vC=18 ft/s

vA=6 ft/s

## 2. Determine the velocity vector of

block A when block B is moving
downward with a speed of 10 m/s.
j
A) (8i + 6j) m/s

vB=10 m/s

i

123

124

## RELATIVE-MOTION ANALYSIS OF TWO PARTICLES

USING TRANSLATING AXES
Todays Objectives:
Students will be able to:
1. Understand translating
frames of reference.
2. Use translating frames of
reference to analyze relative
motion.

In-Class Activities:
Check Homework,
Applications
Relative Position, Velocity and
Acceleration
Vector & Graphical Methods
Concept Quiz
Group Problem Solving
Attention Quiz

125

1. The velocity of B relative to A is defined as
A) vB vA .

B) vA vB .

C) vB + vA .

D) vA + vB .

## 2. Since two dimensional vector addition forms a triangle,

there can be at most _________ unknowns (either
magnitudes and/or directions of the vectors).
A) one

B) two

C) three

D) four

126

APPLICATIONS
When you try to hit a
moving object, the position,
velocity, and acceleration of
the object all have to be
You are smarter than you
thought!
Here, the boy on the ground is at d = 10 ft when the girl in
the window throws the ball to him.
If the boy on the ground is running at a constant speed of 4
ft/s, how fast should the ball be thrown?

127

APPLICATIONS (continued)
When fighter jets take off or
land on an aircraft carrier,
the velocity of the carrier
becomes an issue.

## If the aircraft carrier is underway with a forward velocity of 50

km/hr and plane A takes off at a horizontal air speed of 200
km/hr (measured by someone on the water), how do we find the
velocity of the plane relative to the carrier?
How would you find the same thing for airplane B?
How does the wind impact this sort of situation?

128

## RELATIVE POSITION (Section 12.10)

The absolute position of two
particles A and B with respect to
the fixed x, y, z reference frame are
given by rA and rB. The position of
B relative to A is represented by
rB/A = rB rA

Therefore, if rB = (10 i + 2 j ) m
and

rA = (4 i + 5 j ) m,

then

rB/A = (6 i 3 j ) m.

129

RELATIVE VELOCITY
To determine the relative velocity of B
with respect to A, the time derivative of
the relative position equation is taken.
vB/A = vB vA
or
vB = vA + vB/A

## In these equations, vB and vA are called absolute velocities

and vB/A is the relative velocity of B with respect to A.
Note that vB/A = - vA/B .

130

RELATIVE ACCELERATION
The time derivative of the relative
velocity equation yields a similar
vector relationship between the
absolute and relative accelerations
of particles A and B.
These derivatives yield: aB/A = aB aA
or
aB = aA + aB/A

131

SOLVING PROBLEMS
Since the relative motion equations are vector equations,
problems involving them may be solved in one of two ways.
For instance, the velocity vectors in vB = vA + vB/A could be
written as two dimensional (2-D) Cartesian vectors and the
resulting 2-D scalar component equations solved for up to
two unknowns.
Alternatively, vector problems can be solved graphically by
use of trigonometry. This approach usually makes use of the
law of sines or the law of cosines.
Could a CAD system be used to solve these types of problems?

132

## LAWS OF SINES AND COSINES

Since vector addition or subtraction forms
a triangle, sine and cosine laws can be
applied to solve for relative or absolute
velocities and accelerations. As a review,
their formulations are provided below.

C
b

a
B

A
c

Law of Sines:

a
sin A

Law of Cosines:

b
sin B

c
sin C

a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2 bc cos A
2
2
b = a + c 2 ac cos B
2
2
2
c = a + b 2 ab cos C
2

133

EXAMPLE
Given:

vA = 650 km/h
vB = 800 km/h

Find:

vB/A

Plan:
a) Vector Method: Write vectors vA and vB in Cartesian
form, then determine vB vA
b) Graphical Method: Draw vectors vA and vB from a
common point. Apply the laws of sines and cosines to
determine vB/A.

134

EXAMPLE (continued)
Solution:
a) Vector Method:
vA = (650 i ) km/h
vB = 800 cos 60 i 800 sin 60 j
= ( 400 i 692.8 j) km/h
vB/A = vB vA = (1050 i 692.8 j) km/h
vB /A =

## (1050)2 +(692.8)2 = 1258 km/h

q = tan-1(

692.8
) = 33.4
1050

135

EXAMPLE (continued)
b) Graphical Method:
Note that the vector that measures the tip of B relative to A is vB/A.

vA
120

vB

vB/A

Law of Cosines:
(vB/A)2 = (800) 2 + (650) 2 (800) (650) cos 120
vB/A = 1258 km/h
Law of Sines:
vB/A
sin(120 )

vA
sin q

or q = 33.4

136

CONCEPT QUIZ
1. Two particles, A and B, are moving in
the directions shown. What should be
the angle q so that vB/A is minimum?
A) 0

B) 180

C) 90

D) 270

ft
vB = 4 s

B
A

vA = 3 ft s

## 2. Determine the velocity of plane A with respect to plane B.

A) (400 i + 520 j ) km/hr
B) (1220 i - 300 j ) km/hr
30

## C) (-181 i - 300 j ) km/hr

D) (-1220 i + 300 j ) km/hr

137

## GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING

Given: vA = 30 mi/h
vB = 20 mi/h
aB = 1200 mi/h2
aA = 0 mi/h2
Find:

vB/A
aB/A

Plan:

138

## GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING

Given: vA = 30 mi/h
vB = 20 mi/h
aB = 1200 mi/h2
aA = 0 mi/h2
Find:

vB/A
aB/A

## Plan: Write the velocity and acceleration vectors for A and B

and determine vB/A and aB/A by using vector equations.
Solution:
The velocity of B is:
vB = 20 sin(30) i + 20 cos(30) j = (10 i + 17.32 j) mi/h

139

## GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (solution continued)

The velocity of A is:
vA = 30 i (mi/h)

## The relative velocity of B with respect to A is (vB/A):

vB/A = vB vA = (10i + 17.32j) (30i) = (20 i + 17.32 j) mi/h
or

vB/A =

q = tan-1(

17.32
) = 40.9
20

140

## GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (solution continued)

The acceleration of B is:
aB = (at)B + (an)B = [ 1200 sin(30) i +1200 cos(30) j]
2
2
+ [ ( 20 ) cos(30) i +(20 ) sin(30) j]
0.3
0.3
aB = 554.7 i +1706 j (mi/h2)

## The acceleration of A is zero : aA = 0

The relative acceleration of B with respect to A is:
aB/A = aB aA = 554.7 i +1706 j (mi/h2)
aA/B =

## (554.7)2 + (1706)2 = 1790 mi/h2

b = tan-1(1706 / 554.7) = 72

141

ATTENTION QUIZ
1. Determine the relative velocity of particle B with respect to
particle A.
y
A) (48i + 30j) km/h
B) (- 48i + 30j ) km/h
C) (48i - 30j ) km/h
D) (- 48i - 30j ) km/h

vB=100 km/h

30
A

vA=60 km/h

## 2. If theta equals 90 and A and B start moving from the same

point, what is the magnitude of rB/A at t = 5 s?
ft
A) 20 ft
vB = 4 s
q
B) 15 ft
B
C) 18 ft
D) 25 ft
A
vA = 3 ft s

142

143