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Chapter 12 OneSlide

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- Solution Manual for Dynamics Engineering Mechanics 2nd Ed - Benson Tongue, Sheri Sheppard
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Todays Objectives:

Students will be able to:

1. Find the kinematic quantities

(position, displacement, velocity,

and acceleration) of a particle

traveling along a straight path.

In-Class Activities:

Check Homework

Reading Quiz

Applications

Relations between s(t), v(t),

and a(t) for general

rectilinear motion.

Relations between s(t), v(t),

and a(t) when acceleration is

constant.

Concept Quiz

Group Problem Solving

Attention Quiz

READING QUIZ

1. In dynamics, a particle is assumed to have _________.

A) both translation and rotational motions

B) only a mass

C) a mass but the size and shape cannot be neglected

2. The average speed is defined as __________.

A) Dr/Dt

B) Ds/Dt

C) sT/Dt

APPLICATIONS

The motion of large objects,

such as rockets, airplanes, or

cars, can often be analyzed

as if they were particles.

Why?

If we measure the altitude

of this rocket as a function

of time, how can we

determine its velocity and

acceleration?

APPLICATIONS

(continued)

Can we treat the car as a particle?

If the car accelerates at a constant rate, how can we

determine its position and velocity at some instant?

An Overview of Mechanics

Mechanics: The study of how bodies

react to forces acting on them.

bodies in equilibrium.

Dynamics:

1. Kinematics concerned with

the geometric aspects of motion

2. Kinetics - concerned with

the forces causing the motion

(Section 12.2)

A particle travels along a straight-line path

defined by the coordinate axis s.

The position of the particle at any instant,

relative to the origin, O, is defined by the

position vector r, or the scalar s. Scalar s

can be positive or negative. Typical units

for r and s are meters (m) or feet (ft).

The displacement of the particle is

defined as its change in position.

Vector form: D r = r - r

Scalar form: D s = s - s

that represents the total length of the path over which the particle

travels.

VELOCITY

Velocity is a measure of the rate of change in the position of a particle.

It is a vector quantity (it has both magnitude and direction). The

magnitude of the velocity is called speed, with units of m/s or ft/s.

The average velocity of a particle during a

time interval Dt is

vavg = Dr / Dt

The instantaneous velocity is the time-derivative of position.

v = dr / dt

Speed is the magnitude of velocity: v = ds / dt

(vsp)avg = sT / Dt

ACCELERATION

Acceleration is the rate of change in the velocity of a particle. It is a

vector quantity. Typical units are m/s2 or ft/s2.

The instantaneous acceleration is the time

derivative of velocity.

Vector form: a = dv / dt

Scalar form: a = dv / dt = d2s / dt2

Acceleration can be positive (speed

increasing) or negative (speed decreasing).

As the book indicates, the derivative equations for velocity and

acceleration can be manipulated to get

a ds = v dv

RECTILINEAR MOTION

Differentiate position to get velocity and acceleration.

v = ds/dt ;

a = dv/dt or a = v dv/ds

Position:

Velocity:

v

dv = a dt or v dv = a ds

ds = v dt

vo

vo

so

so

velocity of the particle at t = 0.

CONSTANT ACCELERATION

The three kinematic equations can be integrated for the special case

when acceleration is constant (a = ac) to obtain very useful equations.

A common example of constant acceleration is gravity; i.e., a body

freely falling toward earth. In this case, ac = g = 9.81 m/s2 = 32.2 ft/s2

v

dv = a

dt

yields

v = vo + act

ds = v dt

yields

s = s o + v ot + (1/2) a c t 2

yields

2

v 2 = (vo ) + 2ac(s - so)

vo

so

v

o

s

v dv = ac ds

vo

so

10

EXAMPLE

Given: A particle travels along a straight line to the right

with a velocity of v = ( 4 t 3 t2 ) m/s where t is

in seconds. Also, s = 0 when t = 0.

Find: The position and acceleration of the particle

when t = 4 s.

Plan: Establish the positive coordinate, s, in the direction the

particle is traveling. Since the velocity is given as a

function of time, take a derivative of it to calculate the

acceleration. Conversely, integrate the velocity

function to calculate the position.

11

Solution:

EXAMPLE

(continued)

a = dv / dt = d(4 t 3 t2) / dt =4 6 t

=> a = 20 m/s2 (or in the direction) when t = 4 s

2) Calculate the distance traveled in 4s by integrating the

velocity using so = 0:

s

t

so

o

=> s so = 2 t2 t3

=> s 0 = 2(4)2 (4)3 => s = 32 m ( or )

12

CONCEPT QUIZ

3 m/s

5 m/s

t=2s

t=7s

varying with time as shown. The average acceleration of the

particle is _________.

A) 0.4 m/s2

B) 0.4 m/s2

C) 1.6 m/s2

D) 1.6 m/s2

2. A particle has an initial velocity of 30 ft/s to the left. If it

then passes through the same location 5 seconds later with a

velocity of 50 ft/s to the right, the average velocity of the

particle during the 5 s time interval is _______.

A) 10 ft/s

B) 4 ft/s

C) 16 m/s

D) 0 ft/s

13

Given: Ball A is released from rest

at a height of 40 ft at the

same time that ball B is

thrown upward, 5 ft from the

ground. The balls pass one

another at a height of 20 ft.

Find: The speed at which ball B was

thrown upward.

Plan: Both balls experience a constant downward acceleration

of 32.2 ft/s2 due to gravity. Apply the formulas for

constant acceleration, with ac = -32.2 ft/s2.

14

Solution:

(continued)

ball A is released from rest ((vA)o = 0) at a height of 40 ft

((sA )o = 40 ft). Calculate the time required for ball A to drop to

20 ft (sA = 20 ft) using a position equation.

sA = (sA )o + (vA)o t + (1/2) ac t2

So,

15

Solution:

(continued)

((sB)o = 5 ft). It must reach a height of 20 ft (sB = 20 ft) at the

same time ball A reaches this height (t = 1.115 s). Apply the

position equation again to ball B using t = 1.115s.

sB = (sB)o + (vB)ot + (1/2) ac t2

So,

20 ft = 5 + (vB)o(1.115) + (1/2)(-32.2)(1.115)2

=> (vB)o = 31.4 ft/s

16

ATTENTION QUIZ

1. A particle has an initial velocity of 3 ft/s to the left at

s0 = 0 ft. Determine its position when t = 3 s if the

acceleration is 2 ft/s2 to the right.

A) 0.0 ft

C) 18.0 ft

B) 6.0 ft

D) 9.0 ft

and constant acceleration of 3.78 ft/s2 in the same direction

as the velocity. Determine the distance the particle has

traveled when the velocity reaches 30 ft/s.

A) 50 ft

C) 150 ft

B) 100 ft

D) 200 ft

17

18

Todays Objectives:

In-Class Activities:

1. Determine position,

velocity, and acceleration

of a particle using graphs.

Check Homework

Reading Quiz

Applications

s-t, v-t, a-t, v-s, and a-s diagrams

Concept Quiz

Group Problem Solving

Attention Quiz

19

READING QUIZ

1. The slope of a v-t graph at any instant represents instantaneous

A) velocity.

B) acceleration.

C) position.

D) jerk.

area under the ___ graph during that time.

A) a-t

B) a-s

C) v-t

C) s-t

20

APPLICATION

In many experiments, a

velocity versus position (v-s)

profile is obtained.

If we have a v-s graph for the

tank truck, how can we

determine its acceleration at

position s = 1500 feet?

21

ERRATIC MOTION

(Section 12.3)

Graphing provides a good way to

handle complex motions that

would be difficult to describe

with formulas.

Graphs also provide a visual

description of motion and

reinforce the calculus concepts of

differentiation and integration as

used in dynamics.

The approach builds on the facts that slope and differentiation

are linked and that integration can be thought of as finding the

area under a curve.

22

S-T GRAPH

Plots of position vs. time can be

used to find velocity vs. time

curves. Finding the slope of the

line tangent to the motion curve at

any point is the velocity at that

point (or v = ds/dt).

constructed by finding the slope at

various points along the s-t graph.

23

V-T GRAPH

Plots of velocity vs. time can be used to

find acceleration vs. time curves.

Finding the slope of the line tangent to

the velocity curve at any point is the

acceleration at that point (or a = dv/dt).

Therefore, the acceleration vs. time (or

a-t) graph can be constructed by

finding the slope at various points

along the v-t graph.

Also, the distance moved

(displacement) of the particle is the

area under the v-t graph during time Dt.

24

A-T GRAPH

Given the acceleration vs. time

or a-t curve, the change in

velocity (Dv) during a time

period is the area under the a-t

curve.

So we can construct a v-t graph

from an a-t graph if we know the

initial velocity of the particle.

25

A-S GRAPH

A more complex case is presented by

the acceleration versus position or a-s

graph. The area under the a-s curve

represents the change in velocity

(recall a ds = v dv ).

s2

(v1 vo) = a ds = area under the

s1

a-s graph

This equation can be solved for v1,

allowing you to solve for the velocity

at a point. By doing this repeatedly,

you can create a plot of velocity

versus distance.

26

V-S GRAPH

Another complex case is presented

by the velocity vs. distance or v-s

graph. By reading the velocity v at

a point on the curve and

multiplying it by the slope of the

curve (dv/ds) at this same point,

we can obtain the acceleration at

that point. Recall the formula

a = v (dv/ds).

Thus, we can obtain an a-s plot

from the v-s curve.

27

EXAMPLE

Given: The s-t graph for a sports car moving along a straight road.

Find: The v-t graph and a-t graph over the time interval shown.

28

EXAMPLE (continued)

Solution: The v-t graph can be constructed by finding the slope

of the s-t graph at key points. What are those?

when 0 < t < 5 s;

v(m/s)

v-t graph

30

t(s)

5

10

29

EXAMPLE (continued)

Similarly, the a-t graph can be constructed by finding the slope

at various points along the v-t graph.

when 0 < t < 5 s;

a(m/s2)

a-t graph

6

t(s)

5

10

30

CONCEPT QUIZ

accelerates according to the graph

shown, the particles velocity at

t = 20 s is

A) 200 m/s

B) 100 m/s

C) 0

D) 20 m/s

A) 10 s

B) 20 s

C) 30 s

D) 40 s

31

Find: The a-t graph, average

speed, and distance

traveled for the 0 - 90 s

interval.

Plan:

Find slopes of the v-t curve and draw the a-t graph.

Find the area under the curve. It is the distance traveled.

Finally, calculate average speed (using basic definitions!).

32

Solution:

(continued)

For 0 t 30

a(m/s)

a-t graph

1

30

90 t(s)

-0.5

33

Now find the distance traveled:

Ds0-30 = v dt = (1/2) (30)2 = 450 m

Ds30-90 = v dt

= (1/2) (-0.5)(90)2 + 45(90) (1/2) (-0.5)(30)2 45(30)

= 900 m

s0-90 = 450 + 900 = 1350 m

vavg(0-90) = total distance / time

= 1350 / 90

= 15 m/s

34

ATTENTION QUIZ

necessary for the car to travel 100 meters. v

A) 8 s

B) 4 s

C) 10 s

D) 6 s

75

6s

2. Select the correct a-t graph for the velocity curve shown.

a

a

t

A)

C)

B)

a

t

D)

t

t

35

36

CURVILINEAR MOTION:

GENERAL & RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS

Todays Objectives:

Students will be able to:

1. Describe the motion of a

particle traveling along a

curved path.

2. Relate kinematic quantities

in terms of the rectangular

components of the vectors.

In-Class Activities:

Check Homework

Reading Quiz

Applications

General Curvilinear Motion

Rectangular Components of

Kinematic Vectors

Concept Quiz

Group Problem Solving

Attention Quiz

37

READING QUIZ

1. In curvilinear motion, the direction of the instantaneous

velocity is always

A)

B)

C)

D)

perpendicular to the hodograph.

tangent to the path.

perpendicular to the path.

acceleration is always

A)

B)

C)

D)

perpendicular to the hodograph.

tangent to the path.

perpendicular to the path.

38

APPLICATIONS

be tracked with radar and its x, y,

and z coordinates (relative to a

point on earth) recorded as a

function of time.

How can we determine the velocity

or acceleration of the plane at any

instant?

39

APPLICATIONS

(continued)

A roller coaster car travels down

a fixed, helical path at a constant

speed.

position or acceleration at any

instant?

If you are designing the track, why is it important to be

able to predict the acceleration of the car?

40

(Section 12.4)

A particle moving along a curved path undergoes curvilinear motion.

Since the motion is often three-dimensional, vectors are used to

describe the motion.

A particle moves along a curve

defined by the path function, s.

The position of the particle at any instant is designated by the vector

r = r(t). Both the magnitude and direction of r may vary with time.

If the particle moves a distance Ds along the

curve during time interval Dt, the

displacement is determined by vector

subtraction: D r = r - r

41

VELOCITY

Velocity represents the rate of change in the position of a

particle.

The average velocity of the particle

during the time increment Dt is

vavg = Dr/Dt .

The instantaneous velocity is the

time-derivative of position

v = dr/dt .

The velocity vector, v, is always

tangent to the path of motion.

The magnitude of v is called the speed. Since the arc length Ds

approaches the magnitude of Dr as t0, the speed can be

obtained by differentiating the path function (v = ds/dt). Note

that this is not a vector!

42

ACCELERATION

Acceleration represents the rate of change in the

velocity of a particle.

If a particles velocity changes from v to v over a

time increment Dt, the average acceleration during

that increment is:

aavg = Dv/Dt = (v - v)/Dt

The instantaneous acceleration is the timederivative of velocity:

a = dv/dt = d2r/dt2

A plot of the locus of points defined by the arrowhead

of the velocity vector is called a hodograph. The

acceleration vector is tangent to the hodograph, but

not, in general, tangent to the path function.

43

(Section 12.5)

It is often convenient to describe the motion of a particle in

terms of its x, y, z or rectangular components, relative to a fixed

frame of reference.

The position of the particle can be

defined at any instant by the

position vector

r=xi+yj+zk .

The x, y, z components may all be

functions of time, i.e.,

x = x(t), y = y(t), and z = z(t) .

The magnitude of the position vector is: r = (x2 + y2 + z2)0.5

The direction of r is defined by the unit vector: ur = (1/r)r

44

The velocity vector is the time derivative of the position vector:

v = dr/dt = d(xi)/dt + d(yj)/dt + d(zk)/dt

Since the unit vectors i, j, k are constant in magnitude and

direction, this equation reduces to v = vx i + vy j + vz k

The magnitude of the velocity

vector is

v = [(vx)2 + (vy)2 + (vz)2]0.5

The direction of v is tangent

to the path of motion.

45

velocity vector (second derivative of the position vector):

a = dv/dt = d2r/dt2 = ax i + ay j + az k

az = v z = z = dvz /dt

The magnitude of the acceleration vector is

a = [(ax)2 + (ay)2 + (az)2 ]0.5

The direction of a is usually

not tangent to the path of the

particle.

46

EXAMPLE

Given: The motion of two particles (A and B) is described by

the position vectors

rA = [3t i + 9t(2 t) j] m and

rB = [3(t2 2t +2) i + 3(t 2) j] m.

Find: The point at which the particles collide and their

speeds just before the collision.

Plan: 1) The particles will collide when their position

vectors are equal, or rA = rB .

the position vectors.

47

EXAMPLE (continued)

Solution:

1) The point of collision requires that rA = rB,

so xA = xB and yA = yB .

Set the x-components equal: 3t = 3(t2 2t + 2)

Simplifying: t2 3t + 2 = 0

Solving:

t = {3 [32 4(1)(2)]0.5}/2(1)

=> t = 2 or 1 s

Set the y-components equal: 9t(2 t) = 3(t 2)

Simplifying:

3t2 5t 2 = 0

Solving: t = {5 [52 4(3)(2)]0.5}/2(3)

=> t = 2 or 1/3 s

So, the particles collide when t = 2 s (only common

time). Substituting this value into rA or rB yields

xA = xB = 6 m

and yA = yB = 0

48

EXAMPLE (continued)

2) Differentiate rA and rB to get the velocity vectors.

At t = 2 s: vA = [ 3i 18 j ] m/s

vB = drB/dt = xB i + yB j = [ (6t 6) i + 3 j ] m/s

At t = 2 s: vB = [ 6 i + 3 j ] m/s

Speed is the magnitude of the velocity vector.

vA = (32 + 182) 0.5 = 18.2 m/s

vB = (62 + 32) 0.5 = 6.71 m/s

49

r = [(1.5t2 + 1) i + (4t 1) j ] (m), its speed at t = 1 s is

A) 2 m/s

B) 3 m/s

C) 5 m/s

D) 7 m/s

component of its velocity along the x-axis at x = 2 m is

vx = 1 m/s, its velocity component along the y-axis at this

position is

A) 0.25 m/s

B) 0.5 m/s

C) 1 m/s

D) 2 m/s

50

Given: The velocity of the particle is

v = [ 16 t2 i + 4 t3 j + (5 t + 2) k] m/s.

When t = 0, x = y = z = 0.

Find: The particles coordinate position and the magnitude of

its acceleration when t = 2 s.

Plan:

Note that velocity vector is given as a function of time.

1) Determine the position and acceleration by

integrating and differentiating v, respectively, using

the initial conditions.

2) Determine the magnitude of the acceleration vector

using t = 2 s.

51

Solution:

1) x-components:

Velocity known as:

x

Position:

dx = (16 t ) dt x = (16/3)t

2

= 42.7 m at t = 2 s

2) y-components:

Velocity known as:

y

Position:

vy = y = dy/dt = (4 t3 ) m/s

dy = (4 t ) dt y = t

3

= (16) m at t = 2 s

52

3) z-components:

z

Position:

vz = z = dz/dt = (5 t + 2) m/s

dz = (5 t + 2) dt z = (5/2) t

0

+ 2t = 14 m at t=2s

4) The position vector and magnitude of the acceleration vector

are written using the component information found above.

Position vector: r = [ 42.7 i + 16 j + 14 k] m.

Acceleration vector: a = [ 64 i + 48 j + 5 k] m/s2

Magnitude: a = (642 + 482 +52)0.5 = 80.2 m/s2

53

ATTENTION QUIZ

1. If a particle has moved from A to B along the circular path in

4s, what is the average velocity of the particle ?

y

A) 2.5 i m/s

B) 2.5 i +1.25j m/s

C) 1.25 i m/s

R=5m

x

B

D) 1.25 j m/s

2. The position of a particle is given as r = (4t2 i - 2x j) m.

Determine the particles acceleration.

A) (4 i +8 j ) m/s2

B) (8 i -16 j ) m/s2

C) (8 i) m/s2

D) (8 j ) m/s2

54

55

MOTION OF A PROJECTILE

Todays Objectives:

Students will be able to:

1. Analyze the free-flight

motion of a projectile.

In-Class Activities:

Check Homework

Reading Quiz

Applications

Kinematic Equations for

Projectile Motion

Concept Quiz

Group Problem Solving

Attention Quiz

56

READING QUIZ

1. The downward acceleration of an object in free-flight

motion is

A) zero.

C) 9.81 m/s2.

D) 9.81 ft/s2.

during a free-flight motion.

A) zero

B) constant

C) at 9.81 m/s2

D) at 32.2 ft/s2

57

APPLICATIONS

velocity, vA, he must kick the ball to make a field goal.

For a given kick strength, at what angle should the ball be

kicked to get the maximum distance?

58

APPLICATIONS

(continued)

the shooter consider in order for the basketball to pass through

the basket?

Distance, speed, the basket location, anything else ?

59

APPLICATIONS

(continued)

she can project water from the hose. What parameters would

you program into a wrist computer to find the angle, q, that

she should use to hold the hose?

60

MOTION OF A PROJECTILE

(Section 12.6)

the horizontal direction experiencing zero acceleration and the other

in the vertical direction experiencing constant acceleration (i.e.,

from gravity).

For illustration, consider the two balls on the

left. The red ball falls from rest, whereas the

yellow ball is given a horizontal velocity. Each

picture in this sequence is taken after the same

time interval. Notice both balls are subjected to

the same downward acceleration since they

remain at the same elevation at any instant.

Also, note that the horizontal distance between

successive photos of the yellow ball is constant

since the velocity in the horizontal direction is

constant.

61

constant (vx = vox) and the position in the x direction can be

determined by:

x = xo + (vox) t

Why is ax equal to zero (assuming movement through the air)?

62

Since the positive y-axis is directed upward, ay = g.

Application of the constant acceleration equations yields:

vy = voy g t

y = yo + (voy) t g t2

vy2 = voy2 2 g (y yo)

can be used. Why?

63

EXAMPLE I

Given: vo and

Find: The equation that defines

y as a function of x.

Plan: Eliminate time from the

kinematic equations.

Solution: Using

vx = vo cos

or

and

t =

vy = vo sin

x

vo cos

By substituting for t:

y = (vo sin ) {

x

} g {

vo cos

2

x

}2

vo cos

64

EXAMPLE I

(continued)

Simplifying the last equation, we get:

y = (x tanq)

g x2

2vo2

(1 + tan2q)

describes the path of a particle in projectile motion.

The equation shows that the path is parabolic.

65

EXAMPLE II

Given: Projectile is fired with vA=150 m/s

at point A.

Find: The horizontal distance it travels

(R) and the time in the air.

Plan:

Establish a fixed x, y coordinate system (in this solution,

the origin of the coordinate system is placed at A).

Apply the kinematic relations in x- and y-directions.

66

EXAMPLE II (continued)

Solution:

1) Place the coordinate system at point A.

Then, write the equation for horizontal motion.

+ xB = xA + vAx tAB

where xB = R, xA = 0, vAx = 150 (4/5) m/s

Range, R will be R = 120 tAB

2) Now write a vertical motion equation. Use the distance equation.

+ yB = yA + vAy tAB 0.5 g tAB2

where yB = 150, yA = 0, and vAy = 150(3/5) m/s

We get the following equation: 150 = 90 tAB + 0.5 ( 9.81) tAB2

Solving for tAB first, tAB = 19.89 s.

Then, R = 120 tAB = 120 (19.89) = 2387 m

67

CONCEPT QUIZ

1. In a projectile motion problem, what is the maximum

number of unknowns that can be solved?

A) 1

B) 2

C) 3

D) 4

with initial velocity Vo at angle , is equal to?

A) (vo sin q)/g

68

y

x

jump ramp at qA = 25o

and hits the slope at B.

Find: The skiers initial speed vA.

Plan:

Establish a fixed x,y coordinate system (in this solution,

the origin of the coordinate system is placed at A).

Apply the kinematic relations in x and y-directions.

69

(continued)

Solution:

Motion in x-direction:

Using xB = xA + vox(tAB) => (4/5)100 = 0 + vA (cos 25) tAB

tAB=

80

vA (cos 25)

88.27

vA

Motion in y-direction:

Using yB = yA + voy(tAB) g(tAB)2

88.27

64 = 0 + vA(sin 25) {

} (9.81) { 88.27 }2

vA

vA

vA = 19.42 m/s

70

ATTENTION QUIZ

1. A projectile is given an initial velocity

vo at an angle f above the horizontal.

The velocity of the projectile when it

hits the slope is ____________ the

initial velocity vo.

A) less than

C) greater than

B) equal to

D) None of the above.

horizontal. The maximum height it can reach is when

A) q = 30

B) q = 45

C) q = 60

D) q = 90

71

72

CURVILINEAR MOTION:

NORMAL AND TANGENTIAL COMPONENTS

Todays Objectives:

Students will be able to:

1. Determine the normal and

tangential components of

velocity and acceleration of a

particle traveling along a

curved path.

In-Class Activities:

Check Homework

Reading Quiz

Applications

Normal and Tangential

Components of Velocity and

Acceleration

Special Cases of Motion

Concept Quiz

Group Problem Solving

Attention Quiz

73

READING QUIZ

1. If a particle moves along a curve with a constant speed, then

its tangential component of acceleration is

A) positive.

B) negative.

C) zero.

D) constant.

A) the time rate of change in the magnitude of the velocity.

B) the time rate of change in the direction of the velocity.

C) magnitude of the velocity.

D) direction of the total acceleration.

74

APPLICATIONS

interchange experience an

acceleration due to a change in

velocity as well as due to a change

in direction of the velocity.

If the cars speed is increasing at a

known rate as it travels along a

curve, how can we determine the

magnitude and direction of its total

acceleration?

Why would you care about the total acceleration of the car?

75

APPLICATIONS

(continued)

A roller coaster travels down a

hill for which the path can be

approximated by a function

y = f(x).

The roller coaster starts from rest

and increases its speed at a

constant rate.

How can we determine its velocity

and acceleration at the bottom?

Why would we want to know

these values?

76

(Section 12.7)

When a particle moves along a curved path, it is sometimes convenient

to describe its motion using coordinates other than Cartesian. When the

path of motion is known, normal (n) and tangential (t) coordinates are

often used.

In the n-t coordinate system, the

origin is located on the particle

(the origin moves with the

particle).

The t-axis is tangent to the path (curve) at the instant considered,

positive in the direction of the particles motion.

The n-axis is perpendicular to the t-axis with the positive direction

toward the center of curvature of the curve.

77

(continued)

The positive n and t directions are

defined by the unit vectors un and ut,

respectively.

The center of curvature, O, always

lies on the concave side of the curve.

The radius of curvature, r, is defined

as the perpendicular distance from

the curve to the center of curvature at

that point.

The position of the particle at any

instant is defined by the distance, s, along the curve from a

fixed reference point.

78

The velocity vector is always

tangent to the path of motion

(t-direction).

the path function, s(t).

v = v ut where v = .s = ds/dt

Here v defines the magnitude of the velocity (speed) and

ut defines the direction of the velocity vector.

79

Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity:

.

.

a = dv/dt = d(vut)/dt = vut + vut

.

Here v represents the change in

.

the magnitude of velocity and ut

represents the rate of change in

the direction of ut.

After mathematical manipulation,

the acceleration vector can be

expressed as:

.

a = v ut + (v2/r) un = at ut + an un.

80

(continued)

So, there are two components to the

acceleration vector:

a = at ut + an un

direction of increasing or decreasing velocity.

.

at = v or at ds = v dv

The normal or centripetal component is always directed

toward the center of curvature of the curve. an = v2/r

The magnitude of the acceleration vector is

a = [(at)2 + (an)2]0.5

81

There are some special cases of motion to consider.

1) The particle moves along a straight line.

.

r

=> an = v2/r = 0 => a = at = v

The tangential component represents the time rate of change in

the magnitude of the velocity.

2) The particle moves along a curve at constant speed.

.

at = v = 0 => a = an = v2/r

The normal component represents the time rate of change in the

direction of the velocity.

82

3) The tangential component of acceleration is constant, at = (at)c.

In this case,

s = so + vo t + (1/2) (at)c t2

v = vo + (at)c t

v2 = (vo)2 + 2 (at)c (s so)

As before, so and vo are the initial position and velocity of the

particle at t = 0. How are these equations related to projectile

motion equations? Why?

4) The particle moves along a path expressed as y = f(x).

The radius of curvature, r, at any point on the path can be

calculated from

[ 1 + (dy/dx)2 ]3/2

r = ________________

d2y/dx2

83

THREE-DIMENSIONAL MOTION

If a particle moves along a space

curve, the n and t axes are defined as

before. At any point, the t-axis is

tangent to the path and the n-axis

points toward the center of curvature.

The plane containing the n and t axes

is called the osculating plane.

A third axis can be defined, called the binomial axis, b. The

binomial unit vector, ub, is directed perpendicular to the osculating

plane, and its sense is defined by the cross product ub = ut un.

There is no motion, thus no velocity or acceleration, in the

binomial direction.

84

EXAMPLE

Given: A boat travels around a

circular path, r = 40 m, at a

speed that increases with

time, v = (0.0625 t2) m/s.

Find:

velocity and acceleration at

the instant t = 10 s.

Plan:

The boat starts from rest (v = 0 when t = 0).

1) Calculate the velocity at t = 10 s using v(t).

2) Calculate the tangential and normal components of

acceleration and then the magnitude of the

acceleration vector.

85

EXAMPLE (continued)

Solution:

1) The velocity vector is v = v ut , where the magnitude is

given by v = (0.0625t2) m/s. At t = 10s:

v = 0.0625 t2 = 0.0625 (10)2 = 6.25 m/s

.

2) The acceleration vector is a = atut + anun = vut + (v2/r)un.

.

Tangential component: at = v = d(.0625 t2 )/dt = 0.125 t m/s2

At t = 10s: at = 0.125t = 0.125(10) = 1.25 m/s2

Normal component: an = v2/r m/s2

At t = 10s: an = (6.25)2 / (40) = 0.9766 m/s2

The magnitude of the acceleration is

a = [(at)2 + (an)2]0.5 = [(1.25)2 + (0.9766)2]0.5 = 1.59 m/s2

86

1. A particle traveling in a circular path of radius 300 m has an

instantaneous velocity of 30 m/s and its velocity is

increasing at a constant rate of 4 m/s2. What is the

magnitude of its total acceleration at this instant?

A) 3 m/s2

B) 4 m/s2

C) 5 m/s2

D) -5 m/s2

velocity function v = 4t2 m/s, what is the magnitude of its

total acceleration at t = 1 s?

A) 8 m/s

B) 8.6 m/s

C) 3.2 m/s

D) 11.2 m/s

87

vertical parabolic path defined by

the equation y = 0.01x2. At point B,

it has a speed of 25 m/s, which is

increasing at the rate of 3 m/s2.

1.

2.

3.

4.

acceleration when it is at point B.

Plan:

The change in the speed of the car (3 m/s2) is the

tangential component of the total acceleration.

Calculate the radius of curvature of the path at B.

Calculate the normal component of acceleration.

Determine the magnitude of the acceleration vector.

88

(continued)

Solution:

1) The tangential component of acceleration is the rate of

.

increase of the roller coasters speed, so at = v = 3 m/s2.

2) Determine the radius of curvature at point B (x = 30 m):

dy/dx = d(0.01x2)/dx = 0.02x, d2y/dx2 = d (0.02x)/dx = 0.02

At x =30 m, dy/dx = 0.02(30) = 0.6, d2y/dx2 = 0.02

=> r =

[1+(dy/dx)2]3/2

d2y/dx2

= [1 + (0.6)2]3/2/(0.02) = 79.3 m

an = v2/r = (25)2/(79.3) = 7.881 m/s2

4) The magnitude of the acceleration vector is

a = [(at)2 + (an)2]0.5 = [(3)2 + (7.881)2]0.5 = 8.43 m/s2

89

ATTENTION QUIZ

1. The magnitude of the normal acceleration is

A) proportional to radius of curvature.

B) inversely proportional to radius of curvature.

C) sometimes negative.

D) zero when velocity is constant.

2. The directions of the tangential acceleration and velocity are

always

A) perpendicular to each other. B) collinear.

C) in the same direction.

D) in opposite directions.

90

91

Todays Objectives:

Students will be able to:

1. Determine velocity and

acceleration components

using cylindrical

coordinates.

In-Class Activities:

Check Homework

Reading Quiz

Applications

Velocity Components

Acceleration Components

Concept Quiz

Group Problem Solving

Attention Quiz

92

READING QUIZ

1. In a polar coordinate system, the velocity

vector can

.

. be

.

written as v = vrur + vu = rur + rquq. The term q is called

A) transverse velocity.

B) radial velocity.

C) angular velocity.

D) angular acceleration.

.

B) rq

.

A) r

C)

.

.

(rq)2 + (r)2

D)

.

.

.

(rq)2 + (r)2 + (z)2

93

APPLICATIONS

The cylindrical coordinate

system is used in cases

where the particle moves

along a 3-D curve.

In the figure shown, the box

slides down the helical ramp.

How would you find the

boxs velocity components to

know if the package will fly

off the ramp?

94

CYLINDRICAL COMPONENTS

(Section 12.8)

Note that the radial direction, r, extends outward from the fixed

origin, O, and the transverse coordinate, q, is measured counterclockwise (CCW) from the horizontal.

95

The instantaneous velocity is defined as:

v = dr/dt = d(rur)/dt

dur

.

v = rur + r

dt

Using the chain rule:

dur/dt = (dur/dq)(dq/dt)

.

We can prove that dur/d

. q = u so dur/dt = qu

.

Therefore: v = rur + rqu

r,

.

called the radial component, and rq called the

transverse component. The speed of the particle at

any given instant is the sum of the squares of both

components or

v=

.

.

(r q )2 + ( r )2

96

The instantaneous acceleration is defined as:

.

.

a = dv/dt = (d/dt)(rur + rqu)

After manipulation, the acceleration can be

expressed as

..

.

..

..

a = (r rq 2)ur + (rq + 2rq)u

.

..

The term (r rq 2) is the radial acceleration

or ar .

..

The term (rq + 2rq) is the transverse

acceleration or aq .

.. . .

.2 2

..

The magnitude of acceleration is a = (r rq ) + (rq + 2rq) 2

..

97

CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES

curve, its position can be written as

rP = rur + zuz

Taking time derivatives and using

the chain rule:

Velocity:

.

.

.

vP = rur + rqu + zuz

..

.. .

..

..

Acceleration: aP = (r rq2)ur + (rq + 2rq)u + zuz

98

EXAMPLE

Given: A car travels along acircular path.

.

r = 300 ft, q = 0.4 (rad/s),

..

q = 0.2 (rad/s2)

Find: Velocity and acceleration

Plan: Use the polar coordinate system.

Solution:

..

.

. ..

r = 300 ft, r = r = 0, and q = 0.4 (rad/s), q = 0.2 (rad/s2)

Substitute in the equation

. for velocity

.

v = r ur + rq u = 0 ur + 300 (0.4) u

v = (0)2 + (120)2 = 120 ft/s

99

EXAMPLE

(continued)

Substitute in the equation for acceleration:

.. . .

.

..

a = (r rq 2)ur + (rq + 2rq)u

a = [0 300(0.4)2] ur + [300(0.2) + 2(0)(0.4)] u

a = 48 ur + 60 u ft/s2

a = ( 48)2 + (60)2 = 76.8 ft/s2

100

CONCEPT QUIZ

.

1. If r is zero for a particle, the particle is

A) not moving.

radial acceleration is

..

A) zero.

B) r .

.

C) rq 2.

. .

D) 2rq .

101

Given: The cars speed is constant at

1.5 m/s.

Find: The cars acceleration (as a

vector).

Plan:

Hint: The tangent to the ramp at any point is at an angle

12

f = tan-1(

) = 10.81

2(10)

Also, what is the relationship between f and q?

Plan: Use cylindrical coordinates. Since r is constant, all

derivatives of r will be zero.

102

Solution: Since r is

has 2 components:

. constant, the velocity only

.

vq = rq = v cos f and vz = z = v sin f

.

v cosf

Therefore: q = (

) = 0.147 rad/s

r

..

q = 0

.

vz = z = v sinf = 0.281 m/s

..

z = 0

.

..

r = r = 0

.

.. . .

..

..

2

a = (r rq )ur + (rq + 2rq)u + zuz

.

a = (-rq 2)ur = -10(0.147)2ur = -0.217ur m/s2

103

ATTENTION QUIZ

1. The radial component of velocity of a particle moving in a

circular path is always

A) zero.

B) constant.

C) greater than its transverse component.

D) less than its transverse component.

a circular path is always

A) negative.

B) directed toward the center of the path.

C) perpendicular to the transverse component of acceleration.

D) All of the above.

104

105

TWO PARTICLES

Todays Objectives:

Students will be able to:

1. Relate the positions, velocities,

and accelerations of particles

undergoing dependent motion.

In-Class Activities:

Check Homework

Reading Quiz

Applications

Define Dependent Motion

Develop Position, Velocity,

and Acceleration

Relationships

Concept Quiz

Group Problem Solving

Attention Quiz

106

READING QUIZ

1. When particles are interconnected by a cable, the motions

of the particles are ______

A) always independent.

B) always dependent.

another particle, each coordinate axis system for the

particles _______

A) should be directed along the path of motion.

B) can be directed anywhere.

C) should have the same origin.

D) None of the above.

107

APPLICATIONS

The cable and pulley system shown

can be used to modify the speed of

the mine car, A, relative to the speed

of the motor, M.

It is important to establish the

relationships between the various

motions in order to determine the

power requirements for the motor

and the tension in the cable.

For instance, if the speed of the cable (P) is known because we

know the motor characteristics, how can we determine the

speed of the mine car? Will the slope of the track have any

impact on the answer?

108

APPLICATIONS

(continued)

Rope and pulley arrangements

are often used to assist in lifting

heavy objects. The total lifting

force required from the truck

depends on both the weight and

the acceleration of the cabinet.

How can we determine the

acceleration and velocity of

the cabinet if the acceleration

of the truck is known?

109

In many kinematics problems, the motion of one object will

depend on the motion of another object.

The blocks in this figure are

connected by an inextensible cord

wrapped around a pulley.

If block A moves downward along

the inclined plane, block B will

move up the other incline.

The motion of each block can be related mathematically by

defining position coordinates, sA and sB. Each coordinate axis is

defined from a fixed point or datum line, measured positive along

each plane in the direction of motion of each block.

110

DEPENDENT MOTION

(continued)

coordinates sA and sB can be

defined from fixed datum lines

extending from the center of

the pulley along each incline

to blocks A and B.

If the cord has a fixed length, the position coordinates sA

and sB are related mathematically by the equation

sA + lCD + sB = lT

Here lT is the total cord length and lCD is the length of cord

passing over the arc CD on the pulley.

111

DEPENDENT MOTION

(continued)

The velocities of blocks A and B

can be related by differentiating

the position equation. Note that

lCD and lT remain constant, so

dlCD/dt = dlT/dt = 0

dsA/dt + dsB/dt = 0

=>

vB = -vA

(positive sA direction), B moves up the incline (negative sB

direction).

Accelerations can be found by differentiating the velocity

expression. Prove to yourself that aB = -aA .

112

Consider a more complicated

example. Position coordinates (sA

and sB) are defined from fixed

datum lines, measured along the

direction of motion of each block.

Note that sB is only defined to the

center of the pulley above block

B, since this block moves with the

pulley. Also, h is a constant.

The red colored segments of the cord remain constant in length

during motion of the blocks.

113

The position coordinates are related by

the equation

2sB + h + sA = lT

Where lT is the total cord length minus

the lengths of the red segments.

Since lT and h remain constant

during the motion, the velocities and

accelerations can be related by two

successive time derivatives:

2vB = -vA and 2aB = -aA

When block B moves downward (+sB), block A moves to the left

(-sA). Remember to be consistent with your sign convention!

114

This example can also be worked

by defining the position coordinate

for B (sB) from the bottom pulley

instead of the top pulley.

The position, velocity, and

acceleration relations then become

2(h sB) + h + sA = lT

and

2vB = vA

2aB = aA

Prove to yourself that the results are the same, even if the sign

conventions are different than the previous formulation.

115

These procedures can be used to relate the dependent motion of

particles moving along rectilinear paths (only the magnitudes of

velocity and acceleration change, not their line of direction).

1. Define position coordinates from fixed datum lines,

along the path of each particle. Different datum lines can

be used for each particle.

2. Relate the position coordinates to the cord length.

Segments of cord that do not change in length during the

motion may be left out.

3. If a system contains more than one cord, relate the

position of a point on one cord to a point on another

cord. Separate equations are written for each cord.

4. Differentiate the position coordinate equation(s) to relate

velocities and accelerations. Keep track of signs!

116

EXAMPLE

Given: In the figure on the left, the

cord at A is pulled down

with a speed of 2 m/s.

Find: The speed of block B.

Plan:

in the motion in this example.

There will be two position

equations (one for each cord).

Write these two equations,

combine them, and then

differentiate them.

117

EXAMPLE (continued)

Solution:

1) Define the position coordinates from a fixed datum line. Three

coordinates must be defined: one for point A (sA), one for block B

(sB), and one for block C (sC).

Define the datum line through the top

pulley (which has a fixed position).

sA can be defined to the point A.

sB can be defined to the center of the

pulley above B.

sC is defined to the center of pulley C.

All coordinates are defined as positive

down and along the direction of motion

of each point/object.

118

EXAMPLE (continued)

2) Write position/length equations for

each cord. Define l1 as the length of

the first cord, minus any segments of

constant length. Define l2 in a similar

manner for the second cord:

Cord 1: sA + 2sC = l1

Cord 2: sB + (sB sC) = l2

3) Eliminating sC between the two

equations, we get

sA + 4sB = l1 + 2l2

4) Relate velocities by differentiating this expression. Note that l1 and l2

are constant lengths.

vA + 4vB = 0 => vB = 0.25vA = 0.25(2) = 0.5 m/s

The velocity of block B is 0.5 m/s up (negative sB direction).

119

CONCEPT QUIZ

1. Determine the speed of block B.

A) 1 m/s

B) 2 m/s

C) 4 m/s

cable. Which of the following is

correct ?

y

A) vA= - vB

B) (vx)A= - (vx)B

120

Given: In this pulley system, block A is

moving downward with a speed

of 4 ft/s while block C is

moving up at 2 ft/s.

Find: The speed of block B.

Plan:

All blocks are connected to a single cable, so only one

position/length equation will be required. Define

position coordinates for each block, write out the

position relation, and then differentiate it to relate the

velocities.

121

(continued)

Solution:

1) A datum line can be drawn through the upper, fixed, pulleys

and position coordinates defined from this line to each block

(or the pulley above the block).

2) Defining sA, sB, and sC as shown,

the position relation can be written:

sA + 2sB + sC = l

3) Differentiate to relate velocities:

vA + 2vB + vC = 0

4 + 2vB + (-2) =0

vB = -1 ft/s

The velocity of block B is 1 ft/s up (negative sB direction).

122

ATTENTION QUIZ

1. Determine the speed of block B when

block A is moving down at 6 ft/s while

block C is moving down at 18 ft/s .

A) 24 ft/s

B) 3 ft/s

C) 12 ft/s

D) 9 ft/s

vC=18 ft/s

vA=6 ft/s

block A when block B is moving

downward with a speed of 10 m/s.

j

A) (8i + 6j) m/s

vB=10 m/s

i

123

124

USING TRANSLATING AXES

Todays Objectives:

Students will be able to:

1. Understand translating

frames of reference.

2. Use translating frames of

reference to analyze relative

motion.

In-Class Activities:

Check Homework,

Reading Quiz

Applications

Relative Position, Velocity and

Acceleration

Vector & Graphical Methods

Concept Quiz

Group Problem Solving

Attention Quiz

125

READING QUIZ

1. The velocity of B relative to A is defined as

A) vB vA .

B) vA vB .

C) vB + vA .

D) vA + vB .

there can be at most _________ unknowns (either

magnitudes and/or directions of the vectors).

A) one

B) two

C) three

D) four

126

APPLICATIONS

When you try to hit a

moving object, the position,

velocity, and acceleration of

the object all have to be

accounted for by your mind.

You are smarter than you

thought!

Here, the boy on the ground is at d = 10 ft when the girl in

the window throws the ball to him.

If the boy on the ground is running at a constant speed of 4

ft/s, how fast should the ball be thrown?

127

APPLICATIONS (continued)

When fighter jets take off or

land on an aircraft carrier,

the velocity of the carrier

becomes an issue.

km/hr and plane A takes off at a horizontal air speed of 200

km/hr (measured by someone on the water), how do we find the

velocity of the plane relative to the carrier?

How would you find the same thing for airplane B?

How does the wind impact this sort of situation?

128

The absolute position of two

particles A and B with respect to

the fixed x, y, z reference frame are

given by rA and rB. The position of

B relative to A is represented by

rB/A = rB rA

Therefore, if rB = (10 i + 2 j ) m

and

rA = (4 i + 5 j ) m,

then

rB/A = (6 i 3 j ) m.

129

RELATIVE VELOCITY

To determine the relative velocity of B

with respect to A, the time derivative of

the relative position equation is taken.

vB/A = vB vA

or

vB = vA + vB/A

and vB/A is the relative velocity of B with respect to A.

Note that vB/A = - vA/B .

130

RELATIVE ACCELERATION

The time derivative of the relative

velocity equation yields a similar

vector relationship between the

absolute and relative accelerations

of particles A and B.

These derivatives yield: aB/A = aB aA

or

aB = aA + aB/A

131

SOLVING PROBLEMS

Since the relative motion equations are vector equations,

problems involving them may be solved in one of two ways.

For instance, the velocity vectors in vB = vA + vB/A could be

written as two dimensional (2-D) Cartesian vectors and the

resulting 2-D scalar component equations solved for up to

two unknowns.

Alternatively, vector problems can be solved graphically by

use of trigonometry. This approach usually makes use of the

law of sines or the law of cosines.

Could a CAD system be used to solve these types of problems?

132

Since vector addition or subtraction forms

a triangle, sine and cosine laws can be

applied to solve for relative or absolute

velocities and accelerations. As a review,

their formulations are provided below.

C

b

a

B

A

c

Law of Sines:

a

sin A

Law of Cosines:

b

sin B

c

sin C

a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2 bc cos A

2

2

b = a + c 2 ac cos B

2

2

2

c = a + b 2 ab cos C

2

133

EXAMPLE

Given:

vA = 650 km/h

vB = 800 km/h

Find:

vB/A

Plan:

a) Vector Method: Write vectors vA and vB in Cartesian

form, then determine vB vA

b) Graphical Method: Draw vectors vA and vB from a

common point. Apply the laws of sines and cosines to

determine vB/A.

134

EXAMPLE (continued)

Solution:

a) Vector Method:

vA = (650 i ) km/h

vB = 800 cos 60 i 800 sin 60 j

= ( 400 i 692.8 j) km/h

vB/A = vB vA = (1050 i 692.8 j) km/h

vB /A =

q = tan-1(

692.8

) = 33.4

1050

135

EXAMPLE (continued)

b) Graphical Method:

Note that the vector that measures the tip of B relative to A is vB/A.

vA

120

vB

vB/A

Law of Cosines:

(vB/A)2 = (800) 2 + (650) 2 (800) (650) cos 120

vB/A = 1258 km/h

Law of Sines:

vB/A

sin(120 )

vA

sin q

or q = 33.4

136

CONCEPT QUIZ

1. Two particles, A and B, are moving in

the directions shown. What should be

the angle q so that vB/A is minimum?

A) 0

B) 180

C) 90

D) 270

ft

vB = 4 s

B

A

vA = 3 ft s

A) (400 i + 520 j ) km/hr

B) (1220 i - 300 j ) km/hr

30

D) (-1220 i + 300 j ) km/hr

137

Given: vA = 30 mi/h

vB = 20 mi/h

aB = 1200 mi/h2

aA = 0 mi/h2

Find:

vB/A

aB/A

Plan:

138

Given: vA = 30 mi/h

vB = 20 mi/h

aB = 1200 mi/h2

aA = 0 mi/h2

Find:

vB/A

aB/A

and determine vB/A and aB/A by using vector equations.

Solution:

The velocity of B is:

vB = 20 sin(30) i + 20 cos(30) j = (10 i + 17.32 j) mi/h

139

The velocity of A is:

vA = 30 i (mi/h)

vB/A = vB vA = (10i + 17.32j) (30i) = (20 i + 17.32 j) mi/h

or

vB/A =

q = tan-1(

17.32

) = 40.9

20

140

The acceleration of B is:

aB = (at)B + (an)B = [ 1200 sin(30) i +1200 cos(30) j]

2

2

+ [ ( 20 ) cos(30) i +(20 ) sin(30) j]

0.3

0.3

aB = 554.7 i +1706 j (mi/h2)

The relative acceleration of B with respect to A is:

aB/A = aB aA = 554.7 i +1706 j (mi/h2)

aA/B =

b = tan-1(1706 / 554.7) = 72

141

ATTENTION QUIZ

1. Determine the relative velocity of particle B with respect to

particle A.

y

A) (48i + 30j) km/h

B) (- 48i + 30j ) km/h

C) (48i - 30j ) km/h

D) (- 48i - 30j ) km/h

vB=100 km/h

30

A

vA=60 km/h

point, what is the magnitude of rB/A at t = 5 s?

ft

A) 20 ft

vB = 4 s

q

B) 15 ft

B

C) 18 ft

D) 25 ft

A

vA = 3 ft s

142

143

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