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MEKELLE UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
In Partial Fulfillment of B.Sc. Degree in Civil
Engineering
Structural Design of A G+4 Commercial Building with Solid &
Pre-cast Slab and Cost Comparison
Prepared by:Keralem Adane
Osman Giragn
Samuel Tesfaye
Tewodros Kassa
Tigistu Fisseha

Advisor:- Kibrealem Mebratu

June 2008

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

Table of content
Acknowledgment..3
Introduction...4
Specification..5
1. Roof design...............................................................................................6
1.1. Wind load analysis...6
1.2. Analysis of lattice purlin 14
1.3. Design of truss15
1.4. Design of lattice purloin 21
1.5. Slab roof design 23
1.6. Weld design 25
2. Design of slab...26
2.1 Solid slab design. 26
2.1.1 Depth determination 26
2.1.2 Loading 28
2.1.3 Analysis 29
2.1.4 Reinforcement design 38
2.2 Pre-cast slab design.39
2.2.1 Loading 40
2.2.2 Analysis and design 41
3. Design of stair 48
4. Frame analysis 55
4.1 Vertical load analysis 55.
4.1.1 Solid slab 55
4.1.2 Pre-cast slab 59
4.2 Lateral load analysis 62.
4.2.1 Earth quake analysis 62
4.2.2 Wind load analysis 64
4.3 Distribution of storey shear 67
4.4 Load combination 83
5.Design of beam and column 85
5.1 Beam design85
5.1.1 Solid slab beams86
5.1.2 Pre-cast beams 93
5.1.3 Design of beams for shear and torsion 99
5.2 Column design104
5.2.1 Design procedure. 104
5.2.2 Design of isolated columns 111
5.2.3 Reinforcement design 120
5.2.3.1 Solid slab column 120
5.2.3.2 Pre-cast slab column 121
6. Foundation design 124
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6.1 Footing design 125


6.2 Mat foundation design128
7. Cost estimation135
Conclusion and recommendation 138
References 139

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Acknowledgment
We would like to express our sincere gratitude to our advisor Ato Kibrealem Mebratu for
giving us critical advices throughout the project work. We would also like to thank our friend
Fasil Meles for his material support. At last but not the least, we would like to thank to our
parents for giving their countless material & moral support.

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Introduction
Now a days it is being practical to choose types of structural members for different criterias
especially economy after assuring safety.
So in this particular project we have determined the cost variation for solid and pre-cast floor
system. To do this we have passed many steps.
This paper is prepared in partial fulfillment for the B.Sc. degree in civil engineering. The project
is a structural design of a G+4 commercial building with solid and pre-cast slab systems with
cost estimation & comparison for each staff. The building is located in Mekelle city. The
structural design consists of the design of roof truss, Slabs, Staircase, Beams, Columns and
foundation. The cost estimation comprises of cost for slabs, beams, columns and footings with
their respective formwork.
As can be seen from the architectural drawing, the floor arrangement is typical for all floors
except some modification on the cantilever parts.
For the solid type we first determine depth for deflection and made analysis for dead and live
load as EBCS recommends. During the design of beams, columns and footings we have grouped
them in reference to the stress they are bearing i.e. each group is taking relatively similar stress.
Limit state design method has been adopted for the whole components. Ethiopian building code
of standard EBCS 1, EBCS 2, EBCS 7 and EBCS 8, are referred for the design of the building.
The roof truss, ribs and frame are analyzed using SAP 2000 V 9 for different combination of
loads. And a combination with a critical effect is taken for sizing members and determination of
rebar.
Working drawings for beams, columns, footings stair case and floor slabs are prepared. And
finally Bill of Quantity for Concrete work, Rebar and Footing are prepared.
Generally in this project we have shown the basic steps for analysis and design of frame
structures and we believe we have done a fabulous work which is almost accurate and we
deserve a big hug.

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Specification
Purpose commercial building
Approach- Limit state design method
Material Concrete 25, class I works
Steel S 300 deformed bars
RHS for roof truss and purlin
EGA- 300 for roof cover is used.
Partial safety factors concrete c=1.5
Steel s=1.15
Unit weight of concrete c=24KN/m3
Supporting ground condition = sandy gravel with bearing capacity of 560KPa
Design Data and Materials
Concrete
fck = 0.8*25MPa =20MPa
fctk= 0.21*fck 2/3 =1.547MPa
fcd= 0.85*fck =11.33MPa
c
fctd= fctk=1.032MPa
c
Steel
fyk= 300MPa
fcd= 260.87MPa
Design loads
Fd= f*Fk
Where
Fk = characteristics loads
f = partial safety factor for loads
= 1.3 for dead loads
= 1.6 for live loads
Seismic condition
Mekelle Zone 4

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1. Roof Design
Roof layout

1.1 Wind load Analysis


The roof is categorized according to EBCS-1,1995 table 2.1.3 under category-H :- roof not
accessible except normal maintenance, repair, painting and minor repairs.
From table 2.1.4 the roof will be sloping roof with category-H
qk=0.25KN/m2
Qk=1.0KN

Characteristics wind load


Wind pressure (EBCS-1, 1995 Art. 3.5)

I. External wind pressure


Wind pressure acting on external surface of the structure will be obtained from
We =qref.Ce(ze) (Cpe)
Where qref =reference wind pressure
2

= /2 Vref (Art. 3.7.1)


= air density (from site with altitude above sea level) > 2000m (Mekelle)
=0.94 Kg/m3
Vref = reference wind velocity
Cdir .Ctem .Calt .Vref o
= 1*1*1*22m/s
2
qref = /2 Vref =0.5* 0.94Kg/m3*222 =227.48N/m2
Ce=pressure coefficient that accounts the effect of terrain roughness, topography and
height above the ground on the mean wind speed is defined as

Vref

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7 * KT
2
Ce(z) = C r ( Z ) * C t ( Z ) * 1 +

C r ( Z ) * Ct ( Z )
Where KT = terrain factor
- For urban area in which at least 15% of the surface is covered with buildings by their
average height is 15m.
KT = 0.24
Cr(ze)= roughness coefficient
= KT.ln.(z/z0) for Z min Z
Cr(ze)=Cr(Z min) for Z<Z min
Z0 is the roughness length ( from table 3.2 Art. 3.8.3)
Z min is the minimum height
Z min=16m , Z0 =1m ( from table 3.2 Art. 3.8.3)
Z= the height of the building at roof level
Z=16.91m
Z
Cr(Ze)=KT*ln e = 0.24*ln(16.91/1)
Zo
Cr(Ze = 0.679
Ct(ze)= is the topography coefficient (Art. 3.8.4) and is unity or 1 for not topography unaffected
zone
Ce(ze)= 0.6792 *12*[ 1+(7* 0.24/(.679 *1))]= 1.602
Cpe is the external pressure coefficient derived from appendix .A of EBCS-1, 1995 (Art. A.2.5 for
duo pitch roofs)
- the roof should be divided in to zones as shown below

Case -1 when wind direction 00


I

0.8m

J
6.8

2.6m

H
F

0.8m

2.6m

13m
6.5m

6.5m
26m

Wind =00
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Reference height Ze=h=16.91m


e=b=26m
Area
F=16.9m2
H= 20.8m2
I=20.8m2
G= 33.8m2

June 2008

J=67.6m2

For duo pitch roof the external pressure coefficient is given on table A.4 EBCS 1, 1995
Wind ward side ( upwind face )
Pitch angle =150
Lee ward side = 150
Since for A 10m2 Cpe= Cpe10 (EBCS 1, 1995 Art. A.2.1)

Pitch
angle
15

Zone for wind ward direction


F
G
H
Cpe,10

Cpe,10

Cpe,10

=00
I

Cpe,1

Cpe,1

-0.9

-0.8

-0.3

-0.4

-1.0

0.2

0.2

0.2

Case-2 when wind direction = 900

e/4=1.7m

F
H

1.7m

1.7m

G
H

=900

I
e/4 =1.7m

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e/10=0.68m
b=6.8m
e= min

Area:

2.72m

b=6.8m
2h=33.82m

June 2008

3.4m

e=6.8m

F = 1.156 m2
G = 1.156m2
H = 9.248 m2
I = 11.56 m2

External pressure coefficient


Pitch
angle

150

Zone for wind direction = 900


F

Cpe,10

Cpe,1

Cpe,10

Cpe,1

Cpe,10

Cpe,10

-1.3

-2.0

-1.3

-2.0

-0.6

-0.5

We = qref Ce(z) cpe


= 227.48*1.602 Cpe
= 0.3644Cpe KN/m2
= 0.3644 cpe K2/m 2
Cpe = Cpe 1 , a <1 m2
Cpe = Cpe1 + ( Cpe10 Cpe1) logA10 for 1m2 < A <10m2
Cpe = Cpe10 ; a<10 m2
The calculation for the external pressure for each zones are calculated below
Case1 =00
Zone F = 0.3644*-0.9= - 0.328KN/m2
= 0.3644*0.2 = 0.073 KN/m2
Zone G = 0.3644*- 0.8 = -0.292 KN/m2
=0.3644*0.2 = 0.073 KN/m2
Zone H =0.3644*-0.3 = -0.109 KN/m2
= 0.3644*0.2 = 0.073 KN/m2
Zone J = 0.3644*-1.0 = -0.3644 KN/m2
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Zone I = 0.3644 *-o.4 = -0.146 KN/m2

Case 2 =900
Cpe for F
Cpe = Cpe 1 + (Cpe10 Cpe1) logA10
= -2+ (-1.3+2) log1.156
= -1.96
For G = -1.96
For H=-0.62
Zone F =
Zone G =
Zone H =
Zone I =

0.3644*-1.96 = -0.714 KN/m2


0.3644*-1.96 = -0.714KN/m2
0.3644*-0.62 = -0.226 KN/m2
0.3644 *-0.5 = -0.184 KN/m2

II. Internal wind pressure


Wi = qref Ce(zi) Cpi
Where Cpi is the internal pressure coefficient obtained from appendix of
EBCS 1-1995 (Art
1.2.9)
-For closed buildings with internal partitions and opening windows the extreme values
Cpi = 0.8 or Cpi = -0.5
- therefore the critical wind load on the roof
Wi =0.3644 *0.8 = 0.292 K*/m2 or
Wi =0.3644 *-0.5 = -0.182 K*/m2
Critical wind load
Critical external wind pressure occurs
On zone For G of case-2 =-0.714K*/m2 (-ve pressure)
On zone F,H or G of case-1=0.073K*/m2 (+ve pressure)
Net -ve wind pressure = -0.714-0.292 =-1.006 K*/m2
Net +ve wind pressure = 0.073+0.182 = 0.255K*/m2

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Cpe calculation for the flat roof


The roof is divided as shown below

F
e/4=0.675

wind

1.35m

F
e/4

=0.675m
e/10=0.27m

1.08m

5.3m

b=2.7m

e=min

{b=2.7, 2h=2(19)=38 }
e=2.7
Areas
F=.675*.27=.182m2
H=1.08*2.7=2.916

External pressure coefficients


F
Sharp
Cpe10
Cpe1
eves
-1.8
-2.5

Cpe10
-1.2

G
Cpe1
-2

G=1.35*.27=.364m2
I=2.7*5.3=14.31m2

H
Cpe10
-0.7

Cpe1
-1.2

I
Cpe10
0.2

Cr(z) roughness coefficient


Cr(z)=Kt ln(z/z0) for zmin < Z
Zo is the roughness length z0=1m (EBCS-1,1995 table 3.2 Art 3.8.3 )
Zmin is the minimum height =16m
Z= the height of the building at roof level
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Z=19m
Cr(z)=Kt ln(z/z0)
=0.24*ln(19/1)=0.707
Ct(z) is topography coefficient (Art 3.8.4)
Ct(z)=1 for not topography affected zone
Ce(Ze)=0.7072*12 *(1+(7*0.24)/(0.707*1))
=1.688
We = qref Ce(z) cpe
=227.48N/m2 (1.688)Cpe
=384Cpe N/m2
The calculation for the external pressure for each zones are calculated below
Zone F = Cpe1= -2.5
Zone G = Cpe1=-2
Zone H = Cpe = Cpe1 + ( Cpe10 Cpe1) logA10 for 1m2 < A <10m2
= -1.432
Zone F = 0.384*-2.5 = -0.86 KN/m2
Zone G = 0.384*-o.2 = -0.768 KN/m2
Zone H = 0.384*-1.432 = -0.55 KN/m2
Zone I = 0.384*-o.2 = -0.768 KN/m2

Internal wind pressure


Wi= 0.384*0.8=0.3072
Wi= 0.384*-0.5=0.192

Critical wind load


Occurs on zone F=-0.96KN/m2
Occurs on zone I=0.077 KN/m2
Net -ve wind pressure =-0.96 0.3072=-1.267 K*/m2
Net +ve wind pressure =0.077 + 0.192= 0.269 K*/m2

Point load calculation and determination of purloin spacing


By looking into the wind pressures and referring MA*UAL OF COLD FORMED
WELDED STRUCTURAL A*D FUR*ITURE STEEL TUBI*G (from kaliti steel
industry) we have selected EGA-300 with thickness of 0.4mm.
The possible loads on purloin
-wind load
- Self weight of EGA-300
- distributed imposed load
Using EGA-300 of thickness 0.4mm from the previous table weight =3.14Kg/m or 0.0314 KN/m
To determine per area load the weight is divided by width of the sheet
=(0.0314KN/m)/0.823
DL=0.0382KN/m2 (dead load)
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The LL=0.25KN/m2
Case-1 wind load (+ve pressure)
WL=0.255KN/m2 * cos15=0.246 KN/m2

Load combination
Pd=1.3DL + 1.6LL + WL
Pd=1.3(0.0382) + 1.6(0.25) + 0.246 =0.696 KN/m2
So from table taking this load and thickness of EGA the purloin spacing is found to be
= 1.75 m

Case-2 Wind load (-ve) (suction)


Pd=1.3(0.0382) + 1.6(0.25) 1.006 cos 15
= -0.522 KN/m2
From table for this loading purloin spacing will be 2m
Use purloin spacing of 1.75m.

Total design load on purloin (lattice girder purloin)


To get the total design load three cases are considered and compiled.

Case-1 Dead Load + Live Load (concentrated)


ST-20

40mm

8 deformed bars

11@410m

205mm

Assuming a ST-30 from table which is having a weight =0.0203


Pd = 0.038cos15 *1.25+ 1KNcos15 *1
= 0.045KN/m + 0.966KN
We have only considered for design the vertical perpendicular load to the EGA sheet. We neglect
the effect of the load which is parallel since its effect is counter balance by its weight and the
wind pressure.

Case -2 Dead Load + Live Load (distributed)


Pd=0.038cos15 + 0.25*1m*cos15 = 0.036KN/m + 0.24KN/m

Case -3 Dead Load + Wind Load


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Pd (+ve) =0.036KN/m + 0.255KN/m2 *1m


=0.036KN/m + 0.255KN/m
Pd (-ve) = 0.036KN/m 1.006KN/m2 *1m
= 0.036KN/m 1.006KN/m

Reaction determination
For case -1
0.966KN
0.0375KN/m

1.75m
R

R=0.0394KN and 1KN at center


2R=.0788KN
For case- 2 R=0.249
2R=0.498
2R = 0.436
For case- 3
R(+ve) = 0.218
R(-ve) = -0.665
2R = -1.33
We have used factor of safety 1- for live load
0.8 for wind load
1.25 for dead load, according to EBCS 1, 2, 3, 1995

1.2 Analysis of lattice purloin


The analysis is done for each case and we include the effect of self weight when we do SAP
analysis by defining the sections. And also we apply the distributed load on the purloin which is
calculated as reaction from the EGA sheet. To apply this to the nodes we concentrate the
distributed load to the center and divide it to the no of nodes, but the concentrated 1KN load is
applied at the middle of the purloin as the code requires.

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Load Combination
COMB 1 = 1(DL) + 1.3(DLp) + LLc
COMB 2 = 1(DL + LLD) + 1.3DLP
COMB 3 = 1(DLr + WL+) + 1.3DLP
COMB 4 = 1(DLr + WL-) + 1.3DLP

SAP result(max result)


COMB 1 Top = -7.67
Diag = -1.27
Bott = 8.16
COMB 2 Top =-8.14
Diag = -1.9
Bott = 8.25
COMB 3 Top = -7.31
Diag tension = 1.79
Bott = 7.4
Critical loads
Top = -8.14
Diag tesion = 1.99
Bott = 8.25

June 2008

where:DLr= dead load of roof


DLP = dead load of purloin
LLc = live load concentrated
WL+= wind load +ve
WL- = wind load -ve

Diag compression = -1.7

Diag compress = -1.9

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1.3 Design of truss


The load on truss comprises of reaction from the purloins and the dead load of the truss itself.

Determination of reactions of purloin


Case -1 wind load
i. positive wind
Reaction from purloin R= 0.89 KN

ii. *egative (suction) wind


Reaction from purloin R= -3.51 KN

Rx= 0.23KN
Ry= 0.86KN
2Rx= 0.46KN
2Ry= 1.72KN
Rx= -0.91KN
Ry= -3.39 KN
2Rx= -1.82KN
2Ry= -6.78KN

Case-2 Live load (distributed)


R= 1.09 KN

2R= 2.18KN

Case -3 Dead load


*EGA sheet
R= .167KN
2R= 0.334KN
* Purloin
R=0.15KN
2R= 0.3 KN
Total dead load = 0.334 + 0.3 = 0.634KN

Load combinations
COMB -1, 1.25DL + 0.8 WL+
COMB 2, 1.25DL + LL
COMB 3, 1.25DL + WL-

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Analysis result
COMB -1

COMB -2

COMB -3

upper chord

max. comp.=10.96 KN
Max. tens. = 6.42 KN
Diagonal
max. comp.= 3.04 KN
Max. tens. =12.46 KN
Bottom chord
max. comp = 10.42KN
Max. tens. = 11.11KN
upper chord

max. comp. = 10.22 KN


Max. tens. = 7.3 KN
Diagonal
max. comp. = 3.38 KN
Max. tens. = 11.27 KN
Bottom chord
max. comp = 11.09KN
Max. Tens. = 10.63KN
upper chord

max. comp. = 11.66 KN


Max. tens. = 22.78KN
Diagonal
max. comp.= 25.43 KN
Max. tens. = 5.19 KN
Bottom chord
max. comp = 22.63KN

Maximum tension

upper chord = 22.78 K*


Diagonal
= 12.46K*
Bottom chord = 20.09K*
Post
= 13.88K*

Maximum compression

upper chord
= 22.78 K*
Diagonal
= 25.43K*
Bottom chord = 20.09K*
Post
= 6.99K*

DESIG* OF TRUSS MEMBERS


Material: - Fe 430

Fy= 275 MPA


Fu= 430 MPA

Diagonal steel member design


Design actions

Nsd =12.46 KN

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Ncd = 25.43 KN
Design is made for the longer member of the diagonal member
i.e

1.13

1.13

1.13

tan 15 = y/2.26m
y= 0.61m
tan = 0.61/1.13 = 28.360

l = 1.13 + .61 = 1.28 m


design is done for compression action and checked for tension actions

section selection
Nbrd = Afy
M1

where A=1
For class 1-3
is reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode
Assuming the reduction factor to be = 0.4
25.43= 0.4*1*A*275*103 /1.1
A= 2.543cm2
So lets use ST-30 with t = 3mm
SECTIO*AL PROPERTIES
H= 30mm
b= 30mm
t = 3mm
A= 3.01 cm2
Ix=Iz=3.5 cm4
Wplx = wplz=2.34cm3
rx = rz=1.08 cm

30mm

30mm
check class of the x-section
d/t 90 E2
24/3 = 8 90*0.922= 76.17
So the section is at least class 3

A =1

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Determination of
1= 86.4
x= z= l/r =1.28/0.0108 = 118.52
x= -z= (118.52/86.4) * 11/2 =1.372
using curve c, x=0.354
check for Nb,Rd
*b,Rd= 26.64K* *sd= 25.43K* OK!
Check for tension Our design tension force Nsd=12.46KN
since our connection is welding Aeff=Agross
Resistance capacity
Npl,Rd=Afy/ M0=3.01*10-4m2*275*106N/m2/1.1=75.25KN
Nu,Rd=0.9Aefffy/ M2=0.9*3.01*10-4m2*275*106N/m2/1.25=59.59KN
*sd=25.43K*< *u,Rd=59.59K* OK!
Therefore the section is capable to carry both tension and compression forces

Post steel member design


Design actions

Nsd =13.88 KN

Ncd = 6.99 KN

Check for tension


for rolled section first we calculate the gross area
Nu,Rd=0.9Aefffy/ M2 Aeff= Nu,Rd M1/0.9fu=13.88*103*1.25/0.9*275
=70mm2
since our connection is welding Aeff=Agross

Lets assume a square section ST-25 with the following sectional properties
A=0.93 cm2
Ix=0.88cm4
25mm
S=0.71cm3
r=0.97cm
w=0.97Kg
25mm
t=1mm
In the absence of any information check for slenderness ratio
180
le/r 180
r910mm/180 =5.056mm =.5056 cm
rmin=0.5056
For rmin0.5056 take nominal size of 25 * 25
ry=0.97
A= 0.93 cm2
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0.93cm2 > 0.7cm2


Therefore no need to check for Npl,Rd and Nu,Rd
Check for compression
Nsd=6.99KN
l= 0.91m taking the above trial section
d/t90E 23/190*0.92 2382.8 OK!
Therefore the class is at least class-3 and has no problem of local buckling thus A=1
Determine 1= 86.4
x= z= l/r =910/97 =9.381
x= -z= (9.381/86.4) * 11/2 =0.109
for cold formed RHS we use curve C and the value of the reduction factor
x=2.784 calculate the design buckling resistance
Nbrd = Afy
= 2.784*1*93*275/1.1 = 64.73KN>>6.99KN
M1

Compression design
Member design for upper and lower chords
Nsd=22.78KN
use Fe430
fy=275
Determination of buckling length
L=1.17m
Selection of trial section by assuming trial value of reduction factor x=0.8
Nbrd = Afy
22.78=0.8*1*A*275/1.1
A=113.9mm2
M1
Trial section
use ST-30 with cross sectional properties
t=2mm
I=2.72cm4
30mm
r=1.13cm

30mm
Class of x-section
d/t 90 E2
24.5/2 = 12.25 90*0.922= 76.17
Therefore the class is at least class-3 and has no problem of local buckling thus A=1
Determine 1= 86.4
x= z= l/r =1.17*102/1.13 =103.54
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-x= -z= (103.54/86.4) * 11/2 =1.2


for cold formed RHS we use curve C and the value of the reduction factor
x=0.4338 calculate the design buckling resistance
= 0.4338*1*214*275/1.1 = 23.21KN >22.78
OK!
Nbrd = Afy
M1

1.4 Design of members for the lattice purlion


CHECK FOR TE*SIO*
Nu,Rd=0.9Aefffy/ M2 =0.9*214*275*/1.25 =42.37K* >22.78K* OK !
Therefore use ST-30 with thickness 2mm for lower and upper chords

Top members
Nsd=8.14KN use Fe430

fy=275
Determination of buckling length
L=0.41m
Selection of trial section by assuming trial value of reduction factor x=0.45
8.14=0.45*1*A*275/1.1
A=72.36mm2
Nbrd = Afy
M1
Trial section use ST-20 with thickness t=1mm
A=0.73cm2
I=0.73 cm4
20mm
r=0.77cm
t=1.2mm
20mm
Class of x-section
d/t 90 E2
17/1.2 = 14.17 90*0.922= 76.17
Therefore the class is at least class-3 and has no problem of local buckling thus A=1
Determine 1= 86.4
x= z= l/r =0.41*102/0.77 =53.25
-x= -z= (53.25/86.4) * 11/2 =0.616
for cold formed RHS we use curve C and the value of the reduction factor
x=0.7757 calculate the design buckling resistance
Nbrd = Afy
= 0.7757*1*73*275/1.1 = 14.16K* >8.14K*
OK!
M1

Bottom members
Nsd=8.25KN(tension) take asection of ST-20 with thickness t=1mm
A=0.73
I=0.73
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r=0.77
Nu,Rd=0.9Aefffy/ M2 =0.9*73*275/1.25 =14.45KN>8.25KN

OK!

DESIG* ACTIO*S FOR THE DIAGO*AL MEMBERS


Nsd=1.99KN
Ncd=1.9KN
fy=260.8
Material
8 ,S-300
Check is done for both compression and tension actions .

Check for compression resistance

8 deformed bar
buckling length for pin pin support l= 289.91mm
class determination :-the class of the section is taken as
class -2a=1
determination of slenderness ratio ()





1=93.9=93.9*0.92=86.4

x= y=l/r,r= (I/A), A=D2/4=*0.82/4=0.503cm2


I=r4/4=0.02cm4
r=

(0.02/0.503)=0.1990.2cm

x= y=28.91cm/0.2cm=144.55
-=[144.55/86.4]* a1/2=1.673
using curve C , =0.2667
 determination of buckling resistance
Nbrd = Afy
M1

=0.2677*0.503*10-4m2*260.87*106N/m2
1.1
Nbrd=3.193KN > Ncd=1.9KN

OK

Check for tensile capcity ,Nsd=1.99KN


Aeff=Agross
Npl,rd=Afy =0.503*10-4m2*260.87*106N/m2
M1
1.1

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=11.93KN >1.99KN OK!


Nu,rd= 0.9Aeff*fy = 0.9*0.503*10-4m2*260.87*106N/m2
M2
1.25
=9.45 KN > 1.99 KN
OK!
So the section can carry both tensile and compressive action

1.5 Slab roof Design


For the design purpose we take the max positive pressure. The suction pressure can be easily
counter balanced by the weight of the slab.
Net positive wind pressure = 0.269 KN

pc

ps

Changing into equivalent rectangular section using Bares equation


Equivalent rectangular section
c/a= 3.9/5= 0.78 > 0.25
ar =2/3[(2c +a)*a/(a +c)] = 4.79

4.79

br = b- a*(a c)
6*(a + c)
br= 2.5992.6

2.6
 Depth determination
[From EBCS 2-1995 Art. 5.2.3] for ps
d=

[0.4 + 0.6*f ]le


yk

=0.85*2600/24= 108.32 mm

400 a
For pc d= 0.85*1650 =116.87 mm
12
Use for both slabs overall depth, D= d +15 +5= 116.87 + 15 +5=136.87
Use D= 150 mm
 Loading :From water tank having a capacity of 5000 lit = 5m3
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unit wt of water= 9.81KN/ m3


P= 5*9.81= 49.05 KN
Distributed load =49.05 KN =4.08 KN/ m2
12.015 m2
Self weight wt of slab = 0.15* 24KN/ m3=3.6 KN/m2
Live load
=0.5KN/ m2
Wind load
=0.269 KN/ m2
Pd=1.25DL+ LL + 0.8WL = 1.25*7.68 +0.5 + 0.8*.269
Pd =10.31 KN/ m2
 Design of slab
For ps
ly/lx= 1.84
s.c =8
xf =0.0922
ys= 0.0584
yf = 0.045

Mi = i*Pd*lx2
Mys =0.0584* 10.31*2.72= 4.36 KN-m
Myf =0.044*10.31*2.72 =3.31 KN-m
Mxf = 0.0922*10.31*2.72 = 6.85 KN-m
Moment for cantilever slab ps ,pd=5.21KN/m
M= 0.5*wl2= 5.21*1.65^2*0.5 =7.099 KN-m
Moment adjustment

Reinforcement calculation
Moment
7.091

km
20.35

ks
3.96

As
216

Asmin =min*b*d= 0.002*1000*130=260mm2


Asmin<As use all slab minimum reinforcement =260mm2
S=1000*50.3 = 193.46mm
260
Use 8 c/c 190mm
 Reinforcement detail
See the reinforcement detail in the auto cad file
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Design of roof slab 2 is the same as that of the previous roof slab of spacing 8 c/c
190mm

1.3

1.65

3.9

1.6 Weld design


For the upper chord
Design actions Nsd=22.78KN
Ncom=22.7KN
Arrangement of the weld : section selection to be upper chord
ST-30 with 2mm thickness
Fe=430
s 10mm,Ls available =30mm
so lets take S=10mm
a=0.70750.707*10mm=7.07mm
lets use fy=270Mpa
fu=430Mpa
Fw,Rd =fvw,da
fvw,d=0.63fy/gmw 0.65fu/gmw
where Fw,Rd=design strength of the fillet weld per unit 0f length
fvw,d=design shear strength
gmw=1.25
fvw,d =0.63*270Mpa/1.25 =136.08Mpa 0.65fu/gmw
Fw,Rd= 136.08 N/mm2*7.07mm=962.085N/mm
But Nsd/2Fw,Rd =22.78*10^3N/2*962.085N/mm =11.84mm
So the available Ls=30mm >the needed Ls=11.84mm
So use fillet weld with length Ls=30mm and also use connected plate with Fe-430 and thickness
2mm. and also use this conection for all other joints since their design action is less than this.

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2. DESIG* OF SLAB
2.1-SOLID SLAB DESIG*

Sample floor layout


2.1.1 Depth determination
The effective depth requirement for deflection can be calculated by using the following formula
(EBCS- 2; 1995 Art 5.2.3)
D (0.4+0.6 fyk) Le
400 a
Where fyk = is the characteristics strength of the reinforcement
Le = is the effective span and for two span the shorter span
a = is the appropriate constant from table 5.1

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Fourth floor slab


Panel 1

Ly/Lx = 1
Lx = 5000mm
Ly = 5000 mm
a= 45
d (0.4+0.6*300) 5000
400 45

= 94.44mm

Panel 4

Panel 8

Lx = 5000mm
Ly = 5000 mm
Ly/Lx = 1
a= 40
d (0.4+0.6*300) 5000
400
40

= 106.25mm

Ly/Lx = 5/1.65 = 3.03


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a= 12
d (0.4+0.6*300) 1650
400
12

= 116.88mm

First and second floor

A = D2 = 0.5**3.82 = 5.67m 2
4
4
a= 12
Equivalent rectangle

d (0.4+0.6*300) 1530 = 108.37mm


400
12
Comparing all the above critical panels d 116.88mm
Over all depth
D = 116.88 + 10 + 15 = 141.88mm
Use D = 150 mm
Actual depth d =150 10 15 = 125mm

For first and second floor slabs


2.1.2 Loading
Unit weight -pvc 16 KN/m3
-Cement 23 KN/m3
-Terrazzo - 23 KN/m3
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- Concrete - 24 KN/m3
Dead load -pvc tile = 16 *0.008 = 0.128 KN/m2
-Cement screed = 23 *0.03 = 0.69 KN/m2
-terrazzo tile = 23 *0.02 = 0.46 KN/m2
-slab concrete = 24*0.15 = 3.6 KN/m2
-plaster = 23*0.03 = 0.69 KN/m2
-partition load = 1,2 KN/m2
DL1 = (PVC floor finish) = (0.128 + 0.69 + 3.6 + 0.69 + 1.2) KN/m2 = 6.31 KN/m2
DL2 = (Terrazzo tile floor finish = (0.46 + 0.69 + 3.6 + 0.69 + 1.2) KN/m2 = 6.64 KN/m2
Live load (from EBCS-1-1995 Table 2.9 and 2.10)
Category D1 (Areas in general retail shops) = 5 KN/m2
For stairs = 3 KN/m2
Balconies = 4 KN/m2

2.1.3 Analysis
Design moment calculation
The support and span moment of simply supported (external edges) or fully fixed (contentious
edges) are calculated as
Mi = i Pd LX2
Where; Mi = the design moment per unit width at point of reference
Pd = the uniformly distributed load
i = the coefficient given in table A-1 as function of aspect ratio (Ly/Lx) and
Support condition
Lx = shorter span of the panel
Ly = longer span of the panel
Fig.
Where; s = support
f = field (span)
x = direction of shorter span
y = direction of longer span

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Panel 1

Ly/Lx =1
xs = 0.039
ys = 0.039
xs = 0.029
yf = 0.029
2
DL1 = 6.31 KN/m
LL = 5 KN/m2
Pd = ((1.3* DL1) + (1.6*LL))
((1.3* 6.31) + (1.6*5)) KN/m2 = 16.203 KN/m2
Mi = i Pd LX2
Mys = Mxs = 0.039*16.203 KN/m2 *(5m)2 = 15.8 KN.m
Myf = Mxf = 0.029*16.203 KN/m2 *(5m)2 = 11.75 KN.m
Panel 2,3 and 4

Ly/Lx =1
xs = 0.032
ys = 0.032
xs = 0.024
yf = 0.024
2
DL1 = 6.31 KN/m
LL = 5 KN/m2
Pd =16.203KN/m2
Mys = Mxs = 0.032*16.203 KN/m2 *(5m)2 = 12.96 KN.m
Myf = Mxf = 0.024*16.203 KN/m2 *(5m)2 = 9.72 KN.m
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Panel 5

Ly/Lx =1
xs = ys = 0.039
xs = yf = 0.03
Pd =16.203KN/m2
Mys = Mxs = 0.039*16.203 KN/m2 *(5m)2 = 15.8 KN.m
Myf = Mxf = 0.03*16.203 KN/m2 *(5m)2 = 12.15 KN.m
Panel 6

Equivalent rectangular section

Lets take equivalent rectangular area


Fig
Ly/Lx = 5/0.905 = 5.52m one way slab
Pd =16.203KN/m2 * 1m = 16.203KN/m
Fig
Mxs = Pd Lx2
2
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= 16.203KN/m * (0,905m)2 = 6.64KN.m


2
Panel 7

Equivalent rectangular section


2

A = D = 0.5**3.8 = 5.67m
4
4
Equivalent rectangular area
Ly*Lx = 5.67m 2
Lx = 5.67m 2 = 1.49m
3.8m
Ly/Lx = 3.8/1.49 = 2.55  one way slab
Pd = 16 203 KN/m
Fig
Mxs = Pd Lx2 = 16.203KN/m* (1.49m)2 = 17.986KN.m
2
2
Panel 8

Equivalent rectangular area using Bales theorem

so,

ar =2*((2c + a) * a )
3
(a + c)
br = b a(a c)
b(a + c)
ar =2*((2* 1.2m + 1.9m) * 1.9
) = 1.756 m
3
(1.9m + 1.2m)
br = 5 m 1.9m(1.9m 1.2m) = 4.57 m
5(1.9m + 1.2 m)

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Ly/Lx = 4.57/ 1.756 = 2.6 > 2  one way slab


Pd = 16.203KN/m
Mys = Pd Lx2 = 16.203KN/m *(1.756m)2 = 24.81KN.m
2
2
Panel 9

Equivalent rectangle
ar =2*((2c + a) * a )
3
(a + c)
br = b a(a c)
b(a + c)
) = 1.043 m
so,
ar =2*((2* 0.525m + 1.2m) * 1.2
3
(1.2m + 0.525m)
br = 3.1 m 1.2m(1.2m 0.525m) = 2.95 m
3.1(1.2m + 0.525 m)
Ly/Lx = 2.95m/ 1.043m = 2.8 > 2  one way slab
Pd = 16.203KN/m
Mys = Pd Ly2 = 16.203KN/m *(1.043m)2 = 8.8132KN.m
2
Panel 10

Lx/Ly = 3.4m/ 1.35m = 2.52 > 2  one way slab


Pd = 16.203KN/m
Mys = Pd Ly2 = 16.203KN/m *(1.35m)2 = 14.76KN.m
2
2
Panel 11

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Equvalent rectangular area


Ly/Lx = 3.25m/ 1.4m = 2.62 > 2  one way slab
Pd = 16.203KN/m
Mys = Pd Ly2 = 16.203KN/m *(1.4m)2 = 15.88 KN.m
2
2
Panel 12 13,14 and 15

Ly/Lx = 5m/ 1.55m = 3.23 > 2  one way slab


Pd2 = 16.632 KN/m2
Mys = Pd2 Ly2 = 16.632KN/m *(1.55m)2 = 19.98 KN.m
2
2
Panel 17

Pd2 = 16.632 KN/m2


Mys = Pd2 Ly2
2
Panel 18

= 16.632KN/m *(1.55m)2 = 19.98 KN.m


2

Ly/Lx = 4.65m/ 1.1m = 4.23 > 2  one way slab


DL2 = 6.31 KN/m2
LL = 5 KN/m2
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Pd = ((1.3* DL1) + (1.6*LL))


((1.3* 6.31) + (1.6*5)) KN/m2 = 16.203 KN/m2
For one meter strip Pd =16.203KN/m
Mys = Pd Lx2 = 16.203KN/m *(1.1m)2 = 2.45 KN.m
8
8
Panel 1
Is cantilever slab with length of 1.03m
Pd2 = 16.632 KN/m2
Mys = Pd Ly2 = 16.632KN/m *(1.03m)2 = 8.82KN.m
2
2

Adjustment of support and span moment


Support adjustment
Between 1&4 and 4&5
MR = 15.8 KN.m
M = 12.96 KN.m
M = 15.8 12.96 = 2.84
M = 2.84 *100% = 17.97% < 20% ; Then
Md =15.8 +12.86 = 14.38KN/m
2
Between 5&6
MR = 6.64 KN.m
ML = 15.8 KN.m
Md = 15.8 KN. m ; Since it is cantilever
Span moment
Panel 1&5
Mxfd = Mxf + Cx M
= 11.75 + 0.38*(2.84) =12.83 KN.m
Panel 5
Mxfd = Mxf + Cx M
= 12.15 + 0.38*(2.84) = 13.58 KN.m

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After moment adjustment check depth for flexure, taking the maximum moment
Mmax =24.81 KN-m

From material used the design constants


c1=0.0858
fcd=11.33Mpa
c2=3074
fyd= 260.87Mpa
m= 28.78
b= 0.8Ecu *
fcd
( Ecu + Eyd ) fyd
b= 1000mm, Ecu= 0.0035, Eyd= (260.87/(200*103) = 0.0013
b=0.8*0.0035*11.33*0.75
=
( 0.0035 + 0.0013) *260.87
Check for effective depth

d=79.89< 125 mm

OK!!

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Reinforcement design
Moment
Km
Ks
As
Asmin
S calculated
19.98
35.76
4.108
656.62
212.5
119.55
12.83
28.66
4.03
413.64
212.5
189.78
17.986
33.92
4.09
588.50
212.5
133.39
24.81
39.85
4.16
825.68
212.5
95.07
14.38
30.34
4.05
465.91
212.5
168.49
9.72
24.94
4
311.04
212.5
252.38
12.96
28.8
4.04
418.87
212.5
187.41
14.76
30.73
4.06
479.40
212.5
163.74
15.88
31.88
4.07
517.05
212.5
151.82
13.58
29.48
4.05
439.99
212.5
178.41
2.45
12.52
3.87
75.85
212.5
236.71
8.813
23.75
3.982
280.75
212.5
179.16
6.64
20.65
3.961
210.41
212.5
236.71

S provided
10c/c110
10c/c180
10c/c130
10c/c90
10c/c160
10c/c250
10c/c180
10c/c160
10c/c150
10c/c170
8c/c220
8c/c170
8c/c220

Reinforcement detail

NB: The full reinforcement details are attached with AutoCAD files.

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2.2Pre-cast slab design


General
Precast beam slab system is a system of slab construction in which reinforced concrete
precast beam elements, with their latticed reinforcement bars projected out, are used.
During construction, these beam elements will be placed at certain intervals, to accommodate
hollow concrete block. These blocks of specified dimensions are placed along these
prefabricated beams and across the span of these elements in a similar fashion as in the case of
ribbed slab construction. Concrete will be casted over the blocks and the beam elements.
The projected reinforcement bars from the beam elements are used as an anchorage for the
concrete, in addition to their main purpose, i.e. shear resistance.
The beam elements, together with the blocks, act as formwork for the concrete casted. In
addition the beam elements will acts as flexural members to carry the loads until the cast in-situ
concrete attains its full strength
The pre-cast beam span is 5m and it is only one type therefore from the GTZ technical manualII the section is recommended as follows

And also the cross-sectional dimensions of the HCB is given below

220mm

550mm

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Design constants and assumptions


Material properties
C-25
fcd = 0.85 fck in compression fctd=fck/gc in tension
Therefore fcd=11.33 Mpa fctd=1.0 Mpa steel S-300 fyd=fyk/gs
Hollow concrete block (HCB) g=14KN/m2

Design of pre-cast beam element


For starting use 10 for top members and 8 for diagonal members

2.2.1Loading
A) Initial condition

625mm
Dead load pre-cast beam and Hollow Block
Pre-cast beam = 1.3*0.12*0.08*24=0.299KN/m
Hollow block = 1.3*0.069*14=1.256 KN/m
Live load = 1.6*2*0.625= 2KN/m
qd= 0.299+1.256+2= 3.6K*/m

B)Final condition

hf

60
280
220mm

625mm
Dead load
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Pre-cast beam 1.3*.12*.08*24 = .299 KN/m


Hollow Block 1.3*.069*14 = 1.256 KN/m
Cast In situ Concrete
1.3(.625*.06+2(.14*0.06))*24= 1.69KN/m
Concrete Floor finishes and partition wall
Partition load=0.625*1.2*1.3=0.975 KN/m
Plastering = 1.3*23*0.03*0.625=0.561KN/m
PVC floor finish = 1.3*16*0.002*0.625=0.104KN/m
Terrazzo floor finish=1.3*23*0.02*0.625=0.374KN/m
Live load =5*0.625*1.6=5KN/m
qd1= 0.299+1.256+1.69+0.975+0.561+0.104+5=9.884K*/m (for PVC floor finish)
qd2= 0.299+1.256+1.69+0.975+0.561+0.374+5=10.154K*/m (for terrazzo floor finish)

2.2.2Analysis and design


Mmax=wl2/8=10.154*52/8=31.73KNm

Final condition
10.154K*/m

The minimum depth required for deflection


d (.4+.6*300/400)5000/20=212.5
Actual d=D-/2 cover
= 280-16/2-15=257>212.5

OK!!!

be bw + le/5=120+5000/5=1120
actual=625
be = 625mm

Determination of neutral axis


= c1-(c12-4M/(c2bd2))
= 0.00305
m=fyd/fcd*0.8=260.87/0.8*11.33=28.78
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x= md=0.00305*28.78*257=22.56
y=0.8X=0.8*22.56=18.05<60
the section is rectangular with b=be=625
M=31.73
using design table
Km=((m/b))/d = 27.72
Ks=4.024
As=KsM/d=4.024*31.73/0.257=496.81mm2
Therefore use
220

Check for shear


Acting shear Vsd=pdl/2=10.173*5/2=25.385KN
The shear force VC carried by the concrete in members with out significant axial forces shall be
taken as
VC = 0.25fctdK1K2bwd
Where K1= 1.6-d =1.6-0.257=1.343
K2= (1+50)=1.1`
fctd= 1 Mpa
Vc=0.25*1*1.343*1.1*120*257=11.41 KN
For T-section Vc=1.1*11.41=12.55KN
VRD=0.25 *fcd *bw*d=0.25*11.33*120*257=87.354KN
Vs=Vsd-Vc=25.385-12.55=12.84KN
S=
Assume spacing =150mm
S=2*50.3*260.87*(257-20)(cos72.6+sin72.6)/12.84
S=289.69mm
Assume s=200mm
= =67.380
S=2*50.3*260.87*(257-20)(cos67.38+sin67.38)/12.84
S=372.66mm
Lets use 8 c/c 200mm

240mm
67.3

200mm

Check for initial condition

3-dimentional truss model analysis


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q=3.6KN/m
l=200mm
p=q*l/2 = 3.6KN/m*0.2m/2=0.36KN
p/2 =0.18K*

Location of neutral axis


Assume the neutral axis depth x to be above the concrete section (i.e x<180)

Moment about N.A


As1*x= As2*(235-X)
= 628*(235-x)
78.5x = 147.58-628.x
X=208.89mm
So the concrete part that carry the compression load is
(120*(208.89-200)=1066.8mm2
Force resisted by concrete section is
=11.33Mpa*1066.8mm2=12.086KN
To get the compressive force acting on steel members we have modeled the pre-cast beam as 3-D
truss whose members are pin connected and also we reduced the acting compressive force which
is resisted by the concrete section.

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4
3

SAP result
(1) Max. Tension =6.13 KN
(2) Max. Compression = 11.91 KN
(3) Max. compression =2.72KN
Max. Tension = 1.99KN
(4) Max. Tension 0.3KN

Capacity check for members


According to EBCS-3,1995
A*fy / M1
N t,rd
0.9 Aeff fU/ M2

M1 = 1.1
M2 = 1.25

Since the Top reinforcement bar is 10


N t,rd

using Fe430

78.5*260.87/1.1=18.62 KN
0.9*78.5*300/1.25=16.96 KN

So take Ntrd = 16.96KN


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And also the buckling resistance of axial loaded compression members is


Nb,rd= Nbrd = Afy / M1
Design axial load Nsd=11.91KN
Buckling length l=0.2m
Determination of
1= 89.12
x= z= l/r =80 A=1
x= -z= (80/89.12) * 11/2 =0.898
using curve c, x=0.5998
check for Nb,Rd
Nb,Rd= 11.16KN is alittle bit less than Nsd=11.91
Since the centroid of the section is below the concrete section the concrete section carrys
alittle bit so the total Nsd doesnt apply on the steel so its safe. But for the safety purpose we
insert the formwork at the mid span.
Case 1 when all the LL at the 1st span and to get the maximum span moment.

2.5m
2.5m
Case 2 when all live loads are distributed over the whole span

P1=1/2*(3.6*0.2)=0.36 KN
P1=1/2(1.6*0.2)=0.16KN
For case 2 P2=0.36KN
Case 1
The maximum tension for(2)=1.94KN
Compression for (2) =2.37KN
Diagonal (3) comp.= 1.25KN
Tension= 1.15KN
Bott (1) comp.=1.5KN
Tens. =0.57KN
For case 2
For (2) max. tens. 2.57KN
Max.comp. 2.02KN
For bott (1) =1.2KN tension

For case 1

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For diagonal comp. (3) =1.02 KN


Tens. =0.76KN
For bottom horizontal comp.=0.1KN
Critical actions from the two cases
Tension
= 2.57KN
Compression = 2.37KN
Ntrd = 0.9Aeff*fyd / M2
= 0.9*78.5*300/1.25
= 16.96
Ntsd=2.57< Ntrd=16.96 KN
For compression x=0.5998
Nbrd= Afy / M1=0.5998*78.5*260.87/1.1
Nbrd=11.17 KN
Nsd=2.37<11.17KN
OK!
For diagonal members
Maximum tension =1.15
Maximum compression=1.25
Ntrd = 0.9Aeff*fyd / M2 =0.9*50.3*300/1.25=10.865KN
Ntsd=1.15<Ntrd=10.865KN
OK!

For compression
Buckling length =0.26
1= 89.92
x= z= l/r =130 A=1
x= -z= (130/89.92) * 11/2 =1.446
using curve c, x=0.332
Nbrd= Afy / M1=0.332*50.3*260.87/1.1
Nbrd=3.96 KN
Nsd=1.25<3.96KN =Ntrd
OK!
For bottom longitudinal reinforcement the max. Compression and tension are in significant, thus
no need of checking.
Hence use 10 fo the top members and 8 for the diagonal members.
110

2 20

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NB: The irregular solid slabs are already designed in the solid slab design part.

Sample pre-cast slab layout and reinforcement detail

*B:- the remaining details are attached with AutoCAD files

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3. Design of stair
DESIG* OF STAIR 1
No of risers in one flight =9
Risers height =0.17
Length of thread =0.3
tan = 0.17 =29.50
0.3

1.65m
2.4m
2.15m
Depth required for deflection
From survisability limt state(EBCS-2 ,1995-Art 5-2-3)
d = (0.4+0.6 *fyk)/400 (le/a )
fyk=300mpa, a =24 (end span)
le=5400
d=0.85*4550/24=161.1
D =161.1 + 15 +8 =184.1
take D =190 for end slab
Actual d=167mm
Loading (taking 1m strip)
Dead load on the stair
 RC slab (inclined) = 0.91*1*24 =5.24KN/m
Cos 29.5
 Due to steps per meter width = 0.3*0.17*1*24*1 = 2.04KN/m
2
0.3
 Floor Finishing
Terrazzo tile (2cm) = 0.02*23 = 0.46KN/m2
Cement Screed (2 cm) = 0.03*23 = 0.69 KN/m2
Plastering =23*0.03=0.69 KN/m2
On the tread = (0.46+0.69)*1=1.15KN/m
On the riser = 1.15*0.17*1*9/2.4 =0.73KN/m
Dead load on stair = (5.24+2.04+1.15+0.73+0.69/cos29.5)
= 9.95 KN/m
Dead load on the landing portion
 Landing Slab = 0.19*1*24 = 4.56KN/m
 Plastering = 0.3*1*23 = 0.69KN/m
 Cement screed = 0.69*1 = 0.69KN/m
 Terrazzo tile =23*0.02*1 = 0.46KN/m
6.4KN/m
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Total load on the landing = 6.4KN/m


Live Load
On stair category A, qt = 3 KN/m2 (EBCS-2,1995 table 2.10)
Total live load on stair case = 3 KN/m2 * 1m = 3 KN/m
Design Load
On stair, DL1 = 1.3*9.95+1.6*3 = 17.735 KN/m
On landing, DL2 = 1.3*6.4+1.6*3 = 13.12 KN/m

Shear Force Diagram

Bending moment Diagram

Reinforcement Design
Reinforcements are calculated using design table
At support
Mdes =17.86KNm
Km = (M/b) = (17.86/1) = 25.3
d
0.167
Ks =3.994
Hence
As = Ks * M = 3.994 * 17.86 = 427.12 mm2
d
0.167
Asmin=0.002*1000*167=334 mm2
Spacing
S = as * b = 113 * 1000 = 264.56mm
As
427.12
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Spacing provided
12 c/c 260
Transverse reinforcement
As=0.2As=0.2*427.12=85.424
S = as * b = 50.3 * 1000 = 588.8mm
As
85.424
Smax
2D =380
350
Use 8 c/c 350mm

Span moment
m=31.65KN.m
Km=
=33.68
Ks=4.087
As=Ks m/d =4.087*31.63/0.167 =774.05 mm2
S=

=145.98

use 12 c/c 140


Distribution reinforcement
A=0.2As=154.81
S=

=324.91mm

use 8 c/c 200

Design of Stair 2
No of risers in one flight =14
Risers height =2.3/14=0.165
Length of thread =0.3
tan = 0.165 =28.810
0.3

3.9m
2.15
Depth required for deflection
d= (0.4+0.6fyk) le/ba
fyk=300mpa, ba=24
400
le=6050
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d=(0.4+0.6*300)*6050 =214.27mm
400 24
D=214.27+15+8 = 237.27mm
Use D=240mm
d=240-15-8=217mm
Loading (taking 1m strip)
Dead load on the stair
 RC slab (inclined) = 0.24*1*24 =6.574KN/m
Cos 28.81
 Due to steps per meter width = 0.3*0.165*1*24*1 = 1.98KN/m
2
0.3
 Floor Finishing
Terrazzo tile (2cm) = 0.02*23 = 0.46KN/m2
Cement Screed (2 cm) = 0.03*23 = 0.69 KN/m2
Plastering =23*0.03=0.69 KN/m2
On the tread = (0.46+0.69)*1=1.15KN/m
On the riser = 1.15*0.165*1*14/3.9 =0.681KN/m
Dead load on stair = (6.574+1.98+0.681+1.15+0.69/cos28.81)
= 11.17 KN/m
Dead load on the landing portion
 Landing Slab = 0.24*1*24 = 5.76KN/m
 Plastering = 0.3*1*23 = 0.69KN/m
 Cement screed = 0.69*1 = 0.69KN/m
 Terrazzo tile =23*0.02*1 = 0.46KN/m
7.6KN/m
Total load on the landing = 7.6KN/m
Live Load
On stair category A, qt = 3 KN/m2 (EBCS-2,1995 table 2.10)
Total live load on stair case = 3 KN/m2 * 1m = 3 KN/m
Design Load
On stair, DL1 = 1.3*11.17+1.6*3 = 19.321 KN/m
On landing, DL2 = 1.3*7.6+1.6*3 = 14.68 KN/m

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Shear Force Diagram

Bending moment Diagram

Reinforcement Design
Reinforcements are calculated using design table
At span
Mdes =82.93KNm
Km = (M/b) = (82.93/1) = 41.97
d
0.217
Ks =4.2094
Hence
As = Ks * M = 4.2094 * 82.93 = 1608.69 mm2
d
0.217
Spacing
S = as * b = 201 * 1000 = 124.95mm
As
1608.69
Spacing provided
16 c/c 120
Transverse reinforcement
Asmin =0.002*1000*217= 434mm2
Asmin =0.2As=0.2*1608.69=321.738mm2
Asmin=434 mm2
S = as * b = 50.3 * 1000 = 156.34mm
As
434
Use 8 c/c 150mm
Check for shear
Vc = 0.25fctdK1 K2bwd
d=240.15-8=217mm
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Where: K1 = (1+50)=1.37 2.0


K2=1.6-d=1.383 1.0
(d in meter)
Fctd=(0.1(25/1.25)^2/3)/1.5=1.032
Vc=0.25*1.032*1.383*1.37*1000*217
Vc=106.07 KN
Vsd=56.67<106.07KN
OK!

Staircase for precast and solid slab which is continuous with the slab

2.4m

2.15m

No of risers in one flight =9


Risers height =2.3/14=0.17
Length of thread =0.3
tan = 0.165 =29.810
0.3
Depth required for deflection
d= (0.4+0.6fyk) le/ba
fyk=300mpa, ba=24
400
le=6050
d=(0.4+0.6*300)*4550 =161.1mm
400 24
D=161.1+15+8=184.1
take D=190mm
Loading on one meter strip from the previous cases
On stair =17.35 KN/m
On landing = 13.12 KN/ m

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Shear force diagram

Bending moment diagram

Reinforcement design
At the support
m=39.63KN.m
d=190-15-8=167mm
Km=
=37.69
Ks=4.15
As=Ks m/d =4.15*39.63/0.167 =984.82 mm2 >Asmin=334mm2
S=

=114.74

use 12 c/c 110mm


Since the moment on the span is minimum the design is governed by top reinforcement
For span use 12 c/c 110mm
Transverse reinforcement Asmin
Use 8 c/c 350mm

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4. FRAME A*ALYSIS
4.1Vertical load analysis
The load on the beam includes self weight, load from the wall on it, transferred load from
slab, Live load on the beam.
According to EBCS-2, 1995(Art. 3.4) the load transferred to beams supporting a two way slab
distribution on a supporting beam is shown in figure 4.5 of EBCS-2, 1995

4.1.1Solid slabs
The design loads on beams supporting the solid slabs spanning in two directions right angles
supporting uniformly distributed loads may be assessed by using EBCS-2 1995 Art A.3.8
The equn. Is given by the formula,
V=v PdLx
v is a constant that depends on the support condition of the panel and Lx is the
shortest span of the panel.
The assumed distribution of the load on the supporting beam is shown. Which assures
that the load is assumed to be transferred only to 75% of the beam length.

To convert such a distribution to uniformly distributed load through out the span, we compared
the fixed end moment equation value with the span moment equation value and we took the
maximum.
From fixed end moment

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Fixed end moment:


MFAB= -MF BA=W*S/24(3L2-S2)
Span moment:
MS =0.75L/2*WL/2-0.076WL2+ (0.75L/2)2*W/2.
For the equivalent beam having UDL W| and length L
W|

Fixed end moment: MFAB=-MF BA= W|L2/12


Span moment: MS = W|L2/24
Equating the fixed end moment equation
W| = 0.914W
W*S/24(3L2-S2) = W|L2/12
Equating the span moment equations:
0.75L/2*WL/2-0.076WL2+ (0.75L/2)2*W/2 = W|L2/24
W| =0.984W
Taking weighted moment distribution factor
=0.914+0.984/2=0.949
W= 0.949Vs

load transfer to beams


1st and 2nd
vx
panel
1&5
2,3,4
p6
p7
p8
p9
p10
p11
p12
p13,14,15
p16
p17
p18

type of
panel

vy

Lx Ly Ly/LX vxc vxD vyc vyD Pd


3
5
5
1 0.36 0.24 0.36
16.2
1
5
5
1 0.33 0.24 0.33
16.2
cantilever
16.2
cantilever
16.2
cantilever
16.2
cantilever
16.2
cantilever
16.2
cantilever
16.2
cantilever
16.63
cantilever
16.63
cantilever
13.12
cantilever
16.63
cantilever
16.2

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Lx vxc
vxD vyc
5 27.68
18 27.68
5 25.37
25.37
0.9 14.66
1.5 24.14
1.8 28.45
1
16.9
1.4 21.87
1.4 22.68
1.6 25.78
1.6 25.78
1.7 20.25
1.6 25.78
1.1 17.82

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Vertical load on the frames

AXIS-3

AXIS-4

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AXIS-A

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4.1.2 Pre-cast slab


The total loads on beams include slab load, wall loads and reactions from cantilevers. The load
distribution from slab to beam is a serious of concentrated loads

AXIS-A

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AXIS-E

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AXIS-3

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4.2 Lateral Load Analysis


The lateral loads to be considered are:
a) earthquake analysis and
b) wind load analysis
The analysis for both will be done and the critical load condition will be considered for
the design.

4.2.1 Earthquake Analysis


Determination of base shear
According to EBCS-8, 1995 static method of analysis is used
The seismic base shear force Fb for each main direction is determined by the equation.
Fb = Sd (T) WT
Where
Sd(T) = ordinate of the design spectrum at period T and is given by:
=
The parameter is the ratio of the design bed rock acceleration to acceleration of
gravity, g, and given by:
= oI
0 = the bed rock acceleration ratio for the site and depends on
the seismic zone as given in table 1.1 of EBCS-8, 1995.
For zone 4, building location in mekelle, o=0.10
I = the importance factor of the building i.e. 1.4 for important
buildings such as hospital and 1.2 for buildings whose seismic resistance is of importance
in view of the consequences associated with a collapse e.g. schools, assembly halls, cultural
institutions etc. (Table 2.4, EBCS-1995)
use I = 1.2
The parameter is the design response factor for the site and is given by:
= 1.2 S 2.5
T1 2/3
S = site coefficient for soil characteristics, table 1.2
= 1.0 for subsoil class A.(includes rocks, stiff deposits of sand, gravel or over consolidated clay
T1 = the fundamental period of vibration of the structure
(in sec) for translational motion in the direction of
motion. For buildings with heights up to 80m, the value
of T1 may be approximated using:
T1 = C 1 H
H=height of the building= 19.3m
C1=0.075 for moment resisting concrete frames
T1 = 0.075* 19.3 =0.691 sec

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= 1.2 *1.2 =1.84 2.5


ok!
2/3
0.691
The parameter, , is the behavior factor to account energy dissipation capacity given by:
= okDkRkW 0.7
o= basic type of the behavior factor, dependent on
structural type (table 3.2)
for frame system , o=0.20
kD= factor reflecting ductility class ,use kD =2.0 for DC L
kR= factor reflecting the structural regularity in elevation
use kR =1.0
kW= factor reflecting the prevailing failure mode in
Structural system with walls.
=1.0 for frame and frame equivalent dual systems.
=0.2*2.0*1.0*1.0=0.4 0.7
ok!
Sd(T) =
= 0.12*1.84*0.4= 0.0883
WT = seismic dead load, obtained as the total permanent load
=11360.26
The base shear will be
Fb =0.0883*11360.26 = 1003.11 KN

Distribution of base shear over height of a building


The base shear force shall be distributed over the height of a structure, concentrated at
each floor level,

Fi =

( F b F t )W i h i
n

hj

j=0

Where

n = number of stories
Fi = the concentrated lateral force acting at floor i
Ft = the concentrated extra force at the top of the building
accounting whiplash effect for slender building, which is
given by:
Ft =0.07*T1*Fb (EBCS- 8,1995 Art. 2.3.3.2.3)
=0.07*0.691*1002KN
=48.47KN
Wi, Wj =that portion of total weight W located at or assigned to
level i or j, respectively.
hi, hj = height above the base to level i or j, respectively.

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level
Ground floor
first floor
second floor
third floor
fourth floor
roof
head room

hi

wihi
1.50
5.30
8.35
11.40
14.45
17.50
20.55

1546.76
12276.74
19082.77
26566.53
35161.19
12704.15
3677.63
111015.8

June 2008

Fi(K*)
13.29
105.45
163.90
228.18
302.00
109.12
31.59

4.2.2 Wind Load Analysis


According to EBCS, 1995, the wind pressure acting on external surface, We & internal surface,
Wi are:
We=qref Ce(Zi)Cpe
WI=qref Ce(Zi)Cpi
 Reference wind pressure, qref
qref = 1/2**Vref 2
Where Vref =CDIRCTEMPCALT Vref,O
=1.0*1.0*1.0*22 m/s
= 22 m/s
=air density
= 0.94Kg/m3
Hence,
qref =0.5*0.94*222 =227.48N/m2
 Exposure coefficient
To get the critical wind load we calculate the wind acting on the longest side of the
building.
Long side elevation of the building

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4.3m

16m

27.75m
Ce(Z)=Cr(z)2Ct(z)2{ 1+7Kt/ Cr(z)Ct(z)}
Where
Z is reference height
write wind load analysis
 Reference height
Cross wind width, b=28m
h<b, hence the building is considered as one part.
Terrain category: category 4, urban areas in which at least 15% of the surface is covered with
buildings and their average height exceeds 15m. (table 3.1, EBCS-1995)
KT=0.24
Zo=1m
Zmin=16m
 Roughness coefficient, Cr(z)

KTln(Z/ Zo) ; Z Zmin


Cr(z) =
Cr(Zmin) ;

Z < Zmin

Case-1
Where
Ze =16m= Zmin =16m
Cr(16) = Cr(16) = 0.24*ln16=0.67
Case-2
Where Ze=20.3m
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Cr(20.3) = 0.24*ln20.3=0.723
 Topography coefficient
Ct = 1, assuming that it is topography unaffected.
The exposure coefficient will be;
Case-1
Ce(16)=Cr(16)2Ct(16)2{ 1+7Kt/ Cr(16)Ct(16)}
= 0.672*1*{1+7*0.24/(0.67*1) }
= 1.575
Case-2
Ce(20.3)=1.74
 External pressure coefficient, Cpe
Wall zonation:
b= 27.75
e=27.75, d <e
emin=
2h=32
The zonation is according to EBCS-1
zone
d/h=0.425
1
4

A
Cpe10
-1
-1

B
Cpe10
-0.8
-0.8

D
Cpe10
0.8
0.6

E
Cpe10
-0.3
-0.3

Determination of external pressures and internal pressure


Face
external internal
D
E
D
E

Cpe10
0.8
-0.3
-0.5
0.8

upper @
20.3m
0.32
-0.12
-0.2
0.32

Net
lower @
16m
upper
lower
0.29
0.52
-0.11
-0.44
-0.18
0.47
0.29
-0.4

We neglect the effect of wind on adjacent faces due to its possession of high moment of inertia.

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By looking in to the earth quake and wind pressures the earth quake pressure governs and design
is done for the earth quake forces.

4.3 Distribution of Storey Shear


The horizontal forces at each level, Fi, determined in the above manner are distributed to
lateral load resistive structural elements in proportion to their rigidities assuming rigid floor
diaphragms.
a) Determination of center of mass
Center of mass is a point on a floor level where the whole mass and its inertial
effects can be replaced using lumped equivalent mass.
Xm = WiXi ; Ym = WiYi
Wi
Wi
Xm Ym = the coordinate of the point of application of Fi when the seismic action is parallel to
the Y- directin and X direction respectively.
GROUND FLOOR
BLDNG PART
TOTAL WT
TOTAL MOMENT
WX
WY
wall
659.27
9487.16
2830.32
beam
209.09
2890.80
638.25
column
162.82
2362.87
761.16
TOTAL
1031.17
14740.83
4229.73
Xm,Ym
14.30
4.10

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BLDNG PART

TOTAL WT

wall
beam
column
slab
inclined slab
landing
pvc finishing
screed finishing
Total

709.69
294.42
218.40
734.59
56.52
19.44
33.19
250.13
2316.37
Xm,Ym

BLDNG PART
wall
beam
column
slab
inclined slab
landing
pvc finishing
screed finishing
Total

June 2008

FIRST FLOOR
TOTAL MOMENT
WX
WY
9876.74
2798.11
3934.78
1001.36
3244.09
1045.84
8986.83
2005.45
1198.14
415.39
464.62
117.13
407.79
170.40
3090.75
677.47
31203.74
8231.15
13.47
3.55

SECOND FLOOR
TOTAL WT
TOTAL MOMENT
WX
WY
709.69
9876.74
2798.11
294.42
3934.78
1001.36
187.39
2719.53
876.06
734.59
8986.83
2005.45
56.52
1198.14
415.39
19.44
464.62
117.13
33.19
407.79
170.40
250.13
3090.75
677.47
2285.36
30679.17
8061.37
Xm,Ym

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

13.42

3.53

Page 68

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

BLDNG PART
wall
beam
column
slab
inclined slab
landing
pvc finishing
screed finishing
Total

BLDNG PART
wall
beam
column
slab
inclined slab
landing
pvc finishing
screed finishing
Total

BLDNG PART
wall
beam
column
slab
inclined slab

THIRD FLOOR
TOTAL WT
Wx
732.78
294.42
187.39
744.23
56.52
19.44
40.31
255.30
2330.40
Xm,Ym

June 2008

TOTAL MOMENT
Wy
9664.66
3934.78
2719.53
8981.63
1198.14
464.62
422.13
3139.18
30524.65
13.10

FOURTH FLOOR
TOTAL WT
TOTAL MOMENT
Wx
Wy
845.74
10937.92
294.42
3934.78
187.39
2719.53
745.32
9053.85
56.52
1198.14
19.44
464.62
40.04
414.53
244.43
2839.08
2433.30
31562.45
Xm,Ym
12.97

2992.85
1001.36
876.06
2053.64
415.39
117.13
157.06
695.70
8309.19
3.57

3060.36
1001.36
876.06
2084.45
415.39
117.13
156.94
690.89
8402.57
3.45

ROOF LEVEL
TOTAL WT
TOTAL MOMENT
Wx
Wy
237.21
4578.80
1170.83
212.25
3017.76
713.01
117.12
1904.78
520.01
39.37
793.86
297.03
56.52
1198.14
415.39

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Page 69

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

landing
TRUSS+EGA+CHIPWOOD
Total

June 2008

19.44
44.05
725.95
Xm,Ym

BLDNG PART
beam
column
slab
inclined slab
landing
Total

HEAD ROOM LEVEL


TOTAL WT
Wx
52.92
23.42
64.64
28.26
9.72
178.96
Xm,Ym

464.62
577.53
12535.49
17.27

117.13
149.76
3383.17
4.66

TOTAL MOMENT
Wy
1138.04
330.90
518.84
148.74
1379.37
407.03
599.07
207.70
232.31
58.56
3867.64
1152.92
21.61
6.44

Determination of center of stiffness


Center of stiffness is a point where the stiffness or strength of the floor is concentrated.
Xs = DiyXi ; Ys = DixYi
Diy
Dix
Where
Xi, Yi = coordinates of the shear center of the frame element
Dix, Diy = lateral stiffness of a particular element along X and Y axes, respectively.
The rigidity, D of a column has a relation with:
- stiffness of the column itself
- stiffness of upper and lower beams
- heights of upper and lower columns
- upper and lower shear forces
- location of storey
D = a Kc
Kc = column stiffness
a = factor depending on boundary conditions
Computation of a
If K represents the total sum of stiffness ratios of beams above and below the column
divided by 2Kc, the approximate formula to obtain a for general cases is:
a = K / (2+K)

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Page 70

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

k1

June 2008

k2

k = I/ L

Kc
k3

k2

Kc

k4

k4

k =0.5*k1+k2+k3+k4
Kc

k =0.5*k2+k4
Kc

The above expressions of a for cases of fixed column base is


a = (0.5+K)
(2+k)
and

and K = Ktop
Kc

for pin supported columns

Calculation of shear center


LEVEL
Axis Dy
Xi
DyXi
Axis
GROUND A
0.000894
0
0
4
B
0.000894
5 0.00447
3
C
0.000894
10 0.00894
2
D
0.000894
15 0.01341
1
E
0.002393
20 0.04785
F
0.000576 23.54 0.01356
G
0.000103 24.02 0.00247
H
0.000913
25 0.02281

0.00756
0.11352
xS
15.0157
FIRST
Axis Dy
Xi
DyXi
Axis
A
0.00038
0
0
4
B
0.00038
5 0.0019
3
Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Dx
Yi
0.00299
0
0.003182
5
0.001377 7.7
0.001198
9
0.008746
Ys

DxYi
0
0.01590825
0.01060269
0.01078116
0.0372921
4.26372227

Dx
Yi DxYi
0.012172
0
0
0.012976
5 0.06488222
Page 71

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison


C
D
E
F
G
H

1ST-4th

ROOF

H.ROOM

10 0.0038
0.00038
0.00038
15 0.00571
0.009963
20 0.19925
0.002886 23.54 0.06794
0.003373 24.02 0.08101
0.002142
25 0.05355
0.019885
0.41317
Xs
20.7777

Axis
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H

June 2008
2 0.004799 7.7 0.03695594
1 0.004908
9 0.0441748
0.034857
0.14601295
Ys 4.18896113

Dy
Xi
DyXi
Axis
0.00038
0
0
4
0.00038
5 0.0019
3
0.00038
10 0.0038
2
0.00038
15 0.00569
1
0.001437
20 0.02875
0.000369 23.54 0.00869
0.000429 24.02 0.0103
0.000442
25 0.01105
0.004196
0.07018
Xs
16.7262
Axis Dy
Xi
DyXi
Axis
A
0.00028
0
0
4
B
0.00028
5 0.0014
3
C
0.00028
10 0.0028
2
D
0.00028
15 0.0042
1
E
0.001185
20 0.0237
F
0.000305 23.54 0.00718
G
0.000368 24.02 0.00885
H
0.000334
25 0.00836

0.003312
0.05648
Xs
17.0533
Axis Dy
Xi
DyXi
Axis
E
0.000268
20 0.00535
3
G
0.000116 24.02 0.0028
2
H
0.000116
25 0.00291

0.0005
0.01106
Xs
22.0981

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Dx
Yi
0.001574
0
0.001678
5
0.00062 7.7
0.000634
9
0.004505
Ys

DxYi

Dx
Yi
0.001212
0
0.001293
5
0.000484 7.7
0.000491
9
0.003479
Ys

DxYi

Dx
Yi
0.000206
5
0.00024 7.7
0.000446
Ys

DxYi
0.00103186
0.00184569
0.00287755
6.45086338

0
0.00838865
0.0047703
0.00570805
0.018867
4.18777854

0
0.00646251
0.00372346
0.00441705
0.01460303
4.19713009

Page 72

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

Direct shear force distribution


For a given storey shear
Qix = Dix * Q, Qix = Diy * Q
Dix
Diy
Axes in x-dxn
FLOOR GROUND
FIRST
SECOND
FORCE
13.29
105.78
164.42
DDDAXIS
VALUE
Qi
VALUE Qi
VALUE
Qi
4
0.003 4.543171
0.012 36.9382
0.002 57.44
3
0.0032 4.83463
0.013 39.3783
0.002 61.23
2
0.0014 2.092359
0.005 14.5645
6E-04 22.61
1
0.0012 1.820261
0.005 14.8947
6E-04 23.15
0.0087
0.035
0.005

THIRD
228.27
DVALUE Qi
0.001574 79.74
0.001678 85.007
0.00062 31.39
0.000634 32.135
0.004505

FOURTH
302.12

FLOOR
FORCE

D-VALUE
0.00157377
0.00167773
0.00061952
0.00063423
0.00450525

Qi
105.5368
112.508
41.54477
42.53109

ROOF
109.16
DVALUE
0.001212
0.001293
0.000484
0.000491
0.003479

HEADROOM
31.60

Qi
D-VALUE
Qi
AXIS
38.03917
4
40.55121
0.000206372 14.61945
3
15.17151
0.0002397 16.98038
2
15.39791
1
0.000446072

Axes in y-dxn
FLOOR
FORCE

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H

GROUND
13.29042136
DVALUE
Qi
0.0009 1.57154
0.0009 1.57154
0.0009 1.57154
0.0009 1.57154
0.0024 4.206323
0.0006 1.012809
0.0001 0.180896
0.0009 1.604234
0.0076

FIRST
105.7757269
DVALUE
Qi
4E-04 2.02353
4E-04 2.02353
4E-04 2.02353
4E-04 2.02353
0.01 52.9951
0.003 15.3529
0.003 17.9401
0.002 11.3935
0.02

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

SECOND
164.4221758
DVALUE
Qi
0.00038 14.87
0.00038 14.87
0.00038 14.87
0.00038 14.87
0.00144 56.32
0.00037 14.47
0.00043 16.81
0.00044 17.33
0.0042

THIRD
228.2715446
DVALUE
Qi
0.00038 20.65
0.00038 20.65
0.00038 20.65
0.00038 20.65
0.001437 78.197
0.000369 20.084
0.000429 23.338
0.000442 24.053
0.004196
Page 73

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

FOURTH
302.1207209
D-VALUE
0.00037955
0.00037955
0.00037955
0.00037955
0.00143729
0.00036915
0.00042895
0.0004421
0.00419571

Qi
27.33061
27.33061
27.33061
27.33061
103.4949
26.58108
30.88771
31.8346

June 2008

ROOF
HEADROOM
FLOOR
109.1597995
31.59983145
FORCE
DVALUE
Qi
D-VALUE
Qi
AXIS
0.00028 9.22275
4
0.00028 9.22275
3
0.00028 9.22275
2
0.00028 9.22275
1
0.001185 39.05695 0.00026757 16.89932
0
0.000305 10.05581
0
0.000368 12.13888 0.000116378 7.350258
0
0.000334 11.01716 0.000116378 7.350258
0.003312
0.000500326

Calculation of eccentricities
Eccentricity is the difference between the center of mass and center of stiffness of the floor.
Actual eccentricities
ex = Xm Xs
ey = Ys Ym
Accidental eccentricities
For various sources of eccentricities in locating the masses and spatial
variation of seismic motion, an additional accidental eccentricity, eli is considered in
addition to the actual eccentricity.
It is given by:
eli = 0.05 li
Where eli is the floor dimension perpendicular to the direction of seismic action.
Design eccentricities
ed,x = ex + elx
and
ed,y = ey + ely

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Page 74

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

eccentrities
ex
actual
ey
accidental ex
ey

June 2008

head
room
ground
first
second third
fourth roof
0.72
7.22
3.21
3.63
3.76
-0.21
0.49
0.16
0.62
0.64
0.62
0.73
-0.46
0.01
1.25
1.25 1.25
1.25 1.25 1.25
0.25
0.45
0.45 0.45
0.45 0.45 0.45
0.135

DESIGN
ECCENTRICITIES

LEVEL ground
first
second third
fourth roof
edx1
1.97
8.47
4.46
4.88
5.01
1.04
edx2
-0.53
5.97
1.96
2.38
2.51
-1.46
edy1
0.61
1.07
1.09
1.07
1.18
-0.01
edy2
-0.29
0.17
0.19
0.17
0.28
-0.91

head
room
1.74
-0.76
0.46
-0.44

Calculation of shear correction factor


When the shear center and mass center do not coincide, torsion will be developed due to the
lateral forces. This is also somehow amplified by the inherent existence of accidental
eccentricities. As a result the direct shear forces obtained above need to be corrected to take this
effect. The shear correction factors are calculated using
ix = 1+(Dix)edy *yi
Jr
iy = 1+(Diy)edx *xi
Jr
Jr = Jx + Jy

where Jx = (Dix yi2)


Jy = (Diy xi2)
xi = Xi Xs
yi =Ys Yi

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Page 75

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

Ground floor

DI
R

AXI
S
4

1
A
B
C
D
E
F
G

Ys- XsDX(Y DY(X


Yi Xi
DX
DY s-Yi)2 i-Xs)2
4.2
0.054
6
0.003
4
0.7
0.003
0.001
4
2
7
3.4
0.001
0.016
4
4
3
0.001
0.026
4.7
2
9
4
15.01
9E6
04
0.2
10.01
9E6
04
0.09
5.015
9E7
04
0.02
0.015
9E7
04
0
0.00
4.984
2
0.06
6E8.524
04
0.04
1E9.004
04
0.01
9E9.984
04
0.09
0.099
2
0.51
Jx
Jy

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

y1

y2

x,m
ax

y,m
ax

x1
1.01
3

x2
0.99
4

0.99
8

1.00
1

1.001

0.99
5

1.00
2

1.002

0.99
4

1.00
3

1.003

1.013

1.043
1
1.028
8
1.014
4

0.98
8
0.99
2
0.99
6

1
0.961
7
0.984
2

1.01
1.00
4
1.00
1
1.00
8

1.01

0.997
0.970
7

1.043
1.029
1.014

1.004
1.001
1.008

Page 76

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

First floor

4.1
9
0.8
1
3.5
1
4.8
1

20.77
8
15.77
8
10.77
8
5.777
7
0.777
7

-2.762

-3.242

-4.222

A
B
C
D

0.012
2

0.213
6

1.06
7

1.01
1

1.06
7

0.013

0.008
5

0.98
6

0.99
8

0.99
8

0.004
8

0.059
2

0.97
8

0.99
6

0.99
6

0.004
9

0.113
6

0.96
9

0.99
5

0.99
5

4E04
4E04
4E04
4E04
0.01
0.00
3
0.00
3
0.00
2

0.1
6
0.0
9
0.0
4
0.0
1
0.0
1
0.0
2
0.0
4
0.0
4
0.394 0.4
2
9
Jx
Jy

1.082
4
1.062
5
1.042
7
1.022
9
1.080
7
0.916
9
0.886
1
0.905
8

1.05
8
1.04
4
1.03
1.01
6
1.05
7
0.94
1

1.08
2
1.06
3
1.04
3
1.02
3
1.08
1
0.94
1

0.92
0.93
4

0.92
0.93
4

Second floor
4
3
2
X
Y

1
A
B

4.19
0.81
3.51
4.81
16.726
11.726

0.0016

0.0276

1.023 1.004

1.023

0.0017

0.0011

0.995 0.999

0.999

0.0006

0.0076

0.992 0.999

0.999

0.0006

0.0147

0.989 0.998

0.998

4E-04
4E-04

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

0.11
0.05

1.0904 1.04
1.0633 1.028

1.09
1.063
Page 77

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison


C
D
E
F
G
H

4E-04
4E-04
0.001
4E-04
4E-04
4E-04

6.7262
1.7262
-3.274
-6.814
-7.294
-8.274

June 2008

0.02
0
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.051 0.26
Jx
Jy

1.0363
1.0093
0.933
0.9642
0.9555
0.9479

1.016
1.004
0.971
0.984
0.98
0.977

1.036
1.009
0.971
0.984
0.98
0.977

Third floor

4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H

4.19
-0.81
-3.51
-4.81

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
16.73
11.73
6.73
1.73
-3.27
-6.81
-7.29
-8.27

0.03
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.11
0.05
0.02
0.00
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.05 0.26
Jx
Jy

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

1.02
1.00
0.99
0.99

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

1.02
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.10
1.07
1.04
1.01
0.93
0.96
0.95
0.94

1.05
1.03
1.02
1.00
0.96
0.98
0.98
0.97

1.10
1.07
1.04
1.01
0.96
0.98
0.98
0.97

Page 78

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

Fourth floor

4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H

4.26
-0.81
-3.51
-4.81

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.03
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

16.73
11.73
6.73
1.73
-3.27
-6.81
-7.29
-8.27

1.03
0.99
0.99
0.99

1.01
1.00
1.00
1.00

0.11
0.05
0.02
0.00
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.05 0.26
Jx
Jy

1.03
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.10
1.07
1.04
1.01
0.93
0.96
0.95
0.94

1.05
1.04
1.02
1.01
0.96
0.98
0.98
0.97

1.10
1.07
1.04
1.01
0.96
0.98
0.98
0.97

Roof
4
3
2
1

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H

4.2
-0.8
-3.5
-4.8

0.0012
0.0013
0.0005
0.0005
17.053
12.053
7.0533
2.0533
-2.947
-6.487
-6.967
-7.947

0.0214
0.0008
0.0059
0.0113
3E-04
3E-04
3E-04
3E-04
0.001
3E-04
4E-04
3E-04

0.08
0.04
0.01
0
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.0394
0.2
Jx
Jy

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

1
1
1
1

0.981
1.004
1.006
1.009

1
1.004
1.006
1.009
1.0207
1.0146
1.0086
1.0025
0.9848
0.9914
0.9889
0.9885

0.971
0.979
0.988
0.996
1.021
1.012
1.016
1.016

Page 79

1.021
1.015
1.009
1.002
1.021
1.012
1.016
1.016

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

Head room

0.000
2

1.4
5
1.2
5

0.000
2

2.098
1

-1.922

-2.902

0.0004

1.0
4

0.96
1

1.04

0.0004

0.9
6

1.03
9

1.03
9

3E04
1E04
1E04

0
0

0.0008
Jx
Jy

0
0

1.287
0.885
6
0.827
3

0.87
4

1.28
7

1.05
1.07
6

1.05
1.07
6

Corrected shear forces for torsion


Corrected shear forces are given by = max * Q
LEVEL GROUND
Axis
4
3
2
1
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H

max*Qi
4.60
4.84
2.10
1.83
1.64
1.62
1.59
1.57
4.25
1.02
0.18
1.62

FIRST

SECOND

max max*Qi max max*Qi


1.07
39.42 1.02
58.76
1.00
39.29 1.00
61.18
1.00
14.51 1.00
22.58
1.00
14.82 1.00
23.10
1.08
2.19 1.09
16.22
1.06
2.15 1.06
15.82
1.04
2.11 1.04
15.41
1.02
2.07 1.01
15.01
1.08
57.27 0.97
54.67
0.94
14.45 0.98
14.24
0.92
16.50 0.98
16.48
0.93
10.64 0.98
16.93

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

THIRD
max
max*Qi
1.02
81.54
1.00
84.94
1.00
31.35
1.00
32.08
1.10
22.69
1.07
22.08
1.04
21.47
1.01
20.86
0.96
75.40
0.98
19.70
0.98
22.78
0.97
23.39

Page 80

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

FOURTH

ROOF

max max*Qi Qi max max*Qi Qi


1.03
108.20
1.00
38.03
1.00
112.37
1.00
40.71
1.00
41.46
1.01
15.27
1.00
42.41
1.01
15.54
1.10
30.09
1.02
9.41
1.07
29.27
1.01
9.36
1.04
28.44
1.01
9.30
1.01
27.62
1.00
9.25
0.96
99.61
1.02
39.89
0.98
26.05
1.01
10.18
0.98
30.12
1.02
12.33
0.97
30.91
1.02
11.20

June 2008

HEAD ROOM
max

max*Qi

1.04
1.04

15.21
17.64

1.29
1.05
1.08

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

LEVEL
Axis
4
3
2
1

A
B
C
D
21.75 E
F
7.72 G
7.91 H

Page 81

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

Earth quake loading on frames

AXIS-A

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Page 82

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

AXIS-E

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Page 83

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

AXIS-3
4.4 Load combination
The final critical design bending moments, shear forces and axial forces will be obtained
from whichever the following five combinations of loading that produces the critical effect.
Case 1. Consider vertical load only
Case 2. Consider 75% of vertical load with earthquake effect from positive X direction
Case 3. Consider 75% of vertical load with earthquake effect from negative X direction
Case 4. Consider 75% of vertical load with earthquake effect from positive Y direction
Case 5. Consider 75% of vertical load with earthquake effect from negative Y direction
The frame is analyzed using sap2000 version 9

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Page 84

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

NB:- The same procedure is performed for the pre-cast slab system.

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Page 85

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

5. DESIG* OF BEAMS A*D COLUM*S


5.1 Beam design
Beams are flexural members which are used to transfer the loads from slab to columns.
Basically beams should be designed for flexure (moment). Furthermore it is essential to check
and design the beam sections for torsion and shear. Beams may be designed for flexural moment
depending on the magnitude of the moment and the X- sectional dimensions. on the other hand
the beam can be singly reinforced, doubly reinforced T or section.

Style of beam reinforcement


 Singly reinforced cross section
The moment capacity of a given singly reinforced beam is given by
M=bd2fyd (1-0.4m)
is taken to be 0.75 b to re assure ductility of the material. Afterward for the given sectional
dimensions and material data, the total area of reinforcement required for the applied moment M
is given by
As=bd
Where:
=1/2(c1 +

(C1 4 M / C 2 bd 2 )

M=moment
m=fyd/ (0.8fcd)
d=effective depth
 Doubly reinforced cross section
Incase when the dimension of the section is limited, the concrete may be subjected to higher
compression stress. Thus additional steel bars are placed in the compression zone of the section.
Hence the design moment, Md is obtained by
Md = M1+M2
Where;
M1=the moment resisted by concrete and partial steel As
M2= The moment resisted by steel in compression, As, and the left over steel As2
M1 can be computed via in the manner of singly reinforced section
M1=0.8bd2 fcd*m(1-0.4m), is stated above.
As1= bd but since M2=M-M1=Asfs(d-dc)=As2fyd(d-dc)
At yielding the compression steel both area of steel becomes equal
As=As2= (M-M1)/ ( fyd(d-dc) = (M-M1)/( fs(d-dc).i.e. fyd = fs
fs=(x-dc)Es*c/x ,x= mb

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Page 86

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

Longitudinal reinforcement design

In this specific project we have used design tables for the calculation of reinforcement area as
per the provision of EBCS 2, 1995.

5.1.1 Solid slab beams


moment
22.42
12.4
44.97
173.14
102.74
174.08
128.5
71.05
14.31
141.28
96.44
102.44
66.6

LOCATION
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
1st &2nd
1st &2nd
1st &2nd
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam

b
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25

AXIS-A
d
Km
KS
AS1
0.307 30.85
4.06
296.499
0.307 22.94
3.98 Asmin
0.307 43.69 4.252
622.8418
0.446 59.01
2410.72
0.446 45.45 4.296
989.6212
0.455 58.00
2410.72
0.446 50.83 4.425
1274.916
0.455 37.05
4.12
643.3538
0.455 16.63 3.963
124.6385
0.455 52.25
4.47
1387.96
0.355 55.33
1285.81
0.355 57.02
1275.096
0.355 45.98 4.306
807.8299

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

(As1 )
212
212
412+116
424+316
516
424+316
420
316+220
212
420+114
420
420
416

Page 87

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

AXIS-B
d
Km
KS
As1
(As1 )
0.307 26.99 4.015
224.5523 212
0.307 14.80 min
153.5 212
0.307 28.90 4.039
258.917 214
0.445 60.18
4.27
1720.282 424
0.445 53.34
4.3
1361.216 324
0.445 64.42
2707.4 624
0.445 56.32
4.52
1595.204 324&120
0.445 42.68
4.22
855.0004 220 +212
0.445 56.58
1595.204 324&120
0.357 56.22
4.52
1275.096 420
0.357 56.59
1275.096 420
0.357 46.61
4.32
837.7412 220 +212

moment
17.17
5.16
19.68
179.28
140.87
205.44
157.05
90.16
158.5
100.71
102.03
69.23

LOCATION
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
1st &2nd
1st &2nd
1st &2nd
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam

b
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25

moment
22.15
9.89
16.01
177.98
114.32
35.44
182.2
166.48
95.32
150.1
115.1
111.28
61.8

LOCATION
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam

AXIS -C
b
d
Km
KS
AS1
(As1 )
0.25 0.307 30.66 3.994
288.1664 312
0.25 0.307 20.49
3.97
127.8935 212
0.25 0.307 26.07
4
208.5993 212
0.25 0.446 59.82
2416.4 524+116
0.25 0.446 47.95
4.36
1117.568 420
0.25 0.455 26.17
4.01
312.3393 216
0.25 0.455 59.33
2241 424+316
0.25 0.446 57.86
1941.5 324+316
0.25 0.446 43.78
4.26
910.4556 220+214
0.25 0.455 53.85
4.53
1494.402 224+316
0.25 0.355 60.44
1550 324+120
0.25 0.355 59.43
1550 324+120
0.25 0.355 44.29
4.19
729.4141 416

moment
24.86
12.74
14.44
166.42
96.08
157.49
165.87
105.43

LOCATION
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
4th&3rd
4th&3rd
4th&3rd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd

b
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25

AXIS-D
d
Km
KS
AS1
0.307 32.48
4.07
329.5772
0.307 23.25
3.98
165.1635
0.307 24.76 3.988
187.5789
0.446 57.85
1941.5
0.446 43.96
4.26
917.7148
0.455 55.16
1595.204
0.446 57.75
1941.5
0.446 46.04
4.31
1018.841

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

(As1 )
314
212
212
324+316
220+214
324&120
324+316
420
Page 88

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison


80.93
145.5
103.85
99.45
74.01

moment
32.22
6.42
31.25
21.98
13.42
10.41
12.46
3.9
157.15
112.47
121.7
47.81
130.59
81.82
52.57
179.08
120.73
156.16
101.81
146.86
149.72
150.8
100.84
59.44
97.73
85.69
119.53
106.97
130.62

1st&2nd
1st&2nd
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam

LOCATION
HEAD ROOM
HEAD ROOM
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
4th&3rd
4th&3rd
4th&3rd
4th&3rd
4th&3rd
4th&3rd
4th&3rd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam

0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25

b
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25

0.455
0.455
0.355
0.355
0.355

39.54
53.02
57.41
56.18
48.47

AXIS-E
d
Km
0.307 36.98
0.307 16.51
0.307 36.42
0.307 30.54
0.307 23.87
0.307 21.02
0.307 23.00
0.307 12.87
0.446 56.22
0.446 47.56
0.446 49.47
0.455 30.39
0.455 50.23
0.455 39.76
0.455 31.87
0.446 60.01
0.446 49.27
0.446 56.04
0.446 45.25
0.446 54.34
0.446 54.87
0.446 55.07
0.335 59.95
0.335 46.03
0.335 59.02
0.335 55.27
0.335 65.27
0.355 58.27
0.355 64.39

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

June 2008
4.16
4.51

4.37

739.9314
1442.209
1398.54
1398.54
911.0527

KS
AS1
4.12 432.3987
Asmin
4.11 418.3632
4.06 290.6801
Asmin
Asmin
3.97 161.1277
Asmin
1744.84
4.349 1096.709
4.396 1199.536
4.04 424.5108
4.415 1267.154
4.166 749.1475
4.054 468.3929
1754.68
4.392 1188.893
1744.84
4.29 979.2935
1442.209
1717.45
1717.45
4.275 1286.839
4.09 725.7003
4.28
1248.61
4.2
1074.322
4.386 1564.951
4.32 1301.719
4.43
1629.99

216+220
420+116
324
324
214+220

(As1 )
314
212
412
214
212
212
212
212
424
224+116
224+214
314
224+216
220+112
214+116
424
224+214
424
220+216
420+116
424
424
320
220
320
320
224+214
220+314
320+124

Page 89

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison


AXIS-H
d
Km
KS
AS1
0.307 39.16 4.159
489.5969
0.307 22.85
Asmin
0.307 34.45 4.092
372.8119
0.446 55.16
1717.45
0.446 48.51 4.373
1147.471
0.446 40.91
4.18
779.9074
0.446 59.01
2412.33
0.446 55.67
1744.84
0.446 44.09 4.265
924.3383
0.355 56.34
1394.7
0.355 52.42 4.481
1092.607
0.355 51.46 4.435
1042.287

June 2008

moment
36.14
12.3
27.97
151.31
117.03
83.215
173.14
154.14
96.66
100
86.56
83.43

LOCATION
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
4th&3rd
4th&3rd
4th&3rd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam

b
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25

moment
186.912
184.18
150.25
174
176.859
180.71
92.19
81.38
71.86
85.69
104.94
155.98
148.96
132.93
134.47
132.34
137.81
82.511
70.31
48.76
67.357
73.61
42.44
37.65

LOCATION
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
TTBeam
TTBeam

AXIS-4
b
d
Km
KS
AS1
(As1 )
0.25 0.446 61.31
4.51
2341 424+316
0.25 0.446 60.86
2341 424+316
0.25 0.455 53.88
4.53
1495.896 324+114
0.25 0.446 59.15
4.51
1759.507 424
0.25 0.455 58.46
4.51
1753.042 424
0.25 0.455 59.09
1754.68 424
0.25 0.455 42.20
4.25
861.1154 224
0.25 0.455 39.65
4.2
751.2 416
0.25 0.455 37.26
4.15
655.4264 314+116
0.25 0.455 40.69
4.22
794.7512 416
0.25 0.455 45.03
4.31
994.047 516
0.25 0.446 56.01
4.52
1580.784 324+214
0.25 0.446 54.73
1717.45 424
0.25 0.455 50.68 4.427
1293.365 224+216
0.25 0.455 50.97
4.44
1312.191 320+216
0.25 0.455 50.57
4.42
1285.589 420
0.25 0.455 51.60
4.45
1347.812 224+314
0.25 0.455 39.93
4.21
763.4534 416
0.25 0.455 36.86
4.14
639.7437 116+314
0.25 0.455 30.69
4.01
429.731 314
0.25 0.455 36.08
4.13
611.3943 216+212
0.25 0.455 37.71
4.16
673.0057 212+314
0.25 0.307 42.44
4.25
587.5244 312+214
0.25 0.307 39.97
4.19
513.855 316

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

(As1 )
316
212
216
424
320+212
220+114
424+220
424
320
324
224+116
220+314

Page 90

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison


33.94
25.63
17.05
25.89
17.73
13.94
9.27
8.61
5.69
97.3
78.96
81.53
83.34
81.92
22.74
75.44
66.48
68.82
69.32
73.37

moment
21.36
11.92
158.02
177.72
164.47
117.51
104.24
71.82
122.93
122.06
95.75
moment
30.11
14.5
11.27
28.93
32.82

TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam

0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25

LOCATION
TTBeam
TTBeam
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
3rd&4th
3rd&4th

b
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25

3rd&4th
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam

0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25

LOCATION
Head Room
Head Room
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam

b
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25

0.307
0.307
0.307
0.307
0.307
0.307
0.307
0.307
0.307
0.357
0.357
0.357
0.357
0.357
0.357
0.357
0.357
0.357
0.357
0.357

37.95
32.98
26.90
33.15
27.43
24.32
19.83
19.12
15.54
55.26
49.78
50.58
51.14
50.71
26.72
48.66
45.68
46.47
46.64
47.99

4.15
4.13
4.014
4.082
min
min
min
min
min
4.598
4.405
4.425
4.43
4.425
4
4.37
4.29
4.33
4.34
4.34

June 2008
458.798
344.7945
222.9274
344.2442

1253.18
974.2824
1010.561
1034.163
1015.395
254.7899
923.4532
798.8773
834.7076
842.7137
891.949

316
216
212
212+114
212
212
212
212
212
420
220+216
220+216
220+216
220+216
214
320
416
220+212
220+212
224

AXIS-1
d
Km
KS
As1
(As1 )
0.307 30.11
3.97
276.2189 214
0.307 22.49
3.96
153.7564 212
0.455 55.26
4.52
1748 424
0.455 58.60
1857 520+216
0.455 56.37
4.52
1895 520+216
0.455 47.65
4.39
1133.778 320+212
0.455 44.88 4.282
981.0015 224+112
0.455 37.25
4.14
653.4831
0.355 62.46
4.63
1817
0.355 62.24
1817
0.355 55.13
4.57
1232.613
AXIS-2
d
Km
KS
As1
0.307 35.75
4.11
403.1013
0.307 24.81
3.97
187.5081
0.307 21.87
3.96
145.372
0.307 35.04
4.1
386.3616
0.307 37.32
4.15
443.658

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

314+212
424
424
420
(As1 )
216
212
212
216
412
Page 91

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison


177.03
171.09
121.87
115.06
103.82
57.36
118.84
116.89
87.01

moment
15.34
42.74
14.28
22.64
16.53
17.64
27.43
38.55
199.64
178.245
182.77
182.33
148.37
193.54
117.14
87.28
75.44
94.43
72.55
144.86
154.125
154.971
142.89
145.66
107.87
76.46
77.375
77.025
75.474

1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam

LOCATION
Head Room
Head Room
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th

58.48
57.50
48.53
47.15
44.79
33.29
61.42
60.91
52.55

June 2008

0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25

0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.355
0.355
0.355

b
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25

AXIS-3
d
Km
KS
As1
(As1 )
0.307 25.52
3.99
199.37 212
0.307 42.59
4.23
588.8932 220
0.307 24.62
4.09
190.245 212
0.307 31.00 4.434
326.9894 312
0.307 26.49
4.02
216.4515 212
0.307 27.36
4.03
231.5609 214
0.307 34.12
4.09
365.4355 216
0.307 40.45
4.19
526.1384 212 +214
0.446 63.36
4.51
2569 524+216
0.446 59.87
4.51
2170 424+216
0.446 60.62
2241 424+316
0.446 60.55
4.51
2241 424+316
0.455 53.54
4.53
1477.178 324+114
0.455 61.15
2415.64 424+220
0.455 47.57
4.35
1119.91 320+212
0.455 41.07
4.2
805.6615 220+212
0.455 38.18
4.14
686.4211 314+212
0.455 42.71
4.23
877.8877 416+112
0.455 37.44
4.15
661.7198 314+212
0.446 53.97
4.53
1471.336 224+216
0.446 55.67
4.5
1555.073 324+212
0.446 55.82
4.51
1567.083 324+212
0.446 53.60
4.53
1451.327 420+116
0.446 54.12
4.47
1459.866 324+112
0.446 46.57
4.28
1035.165 220+216
0.455 38.44
4.18
702.4237 216+214
0.455 38.67
4.18
710.8297 216+214
0.455 38.58
4.18
707.6143 216+214
0.455 38.19
4.17
691.7068 216+214

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

4.7
4.41
4.38
4.28
4.05
4.65
4.51

1857
2412.33
1181.202
1107.611
976.5925
510.567
1712
1550
1105.395

520+216
424+220
224+214
224+212
220+216
216+112
324+216
324+120
224+212

Page 92

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison


48.39
95.54
93.45
92.83
114.01
94.49
100.71
68.65
56.89
57.4
55.78
61.71

3rd&4th
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam

0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25

0.455
0.355
0.355
0.355
0.355
0.355
0.355
0.355
0.355
0.355
0.355
0.355

Inclined beam
LOCATION AS
(AS)
Gbeam
1332.63 320+216
Gbeam
1171.31 320+212
Gbeam
964.61 220+216
Gbeam
1240.9 420
Gbeam
924.75 220+214
1st&2nd
1645.39 324+214
1st&2nd
1194.29 224+214
1st&2nd
1201.26 224+214
1st&2nd
1409.64 420+114
1st&2nd
972.08 224+114
3rd&4th
796.81 314+312
3rd&4th
668.66 314+212
3rd&4th
639.49 314+212
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
Head Room
Head Room
Head Room

696.39
525.17
157.5
187.61
159.75
157.5
157.5
157.5
157.5

30.58
55.07
54.46
54.28
60.16
54.76
56.54
46.68
42.49
42.68
42.08
44.26

June 2008
4.01
4.52
4.52
4.52

426.4701
1253
1239
1230
1550
1252
1416
845.0718
684.2825
690.4169
669.36
749.2115

314
420
420
420
324+120
420
324+112
220+212
314+212
214+216
314+212
316+114

landing beams
LOCATION AS
G-floor
2179.44
G-floor
1898.36
G-floor
2221.63
1st&2nd
1560.77
1st&2nd
1357.31
1st&2nd
1728.52
3rd&4th
790.18
3rd&4th
615.56
3rd&4th
915.1
roof
356.15
roof
225
roof
225

(AS)
424+216
324+316
424+314
324+212
324
324+216
416
414
316+214
216
212
212

4.52
4.52
4.37
4.27
4.27
4.26
4.31

214+216
214+212
212
212
212
212
212
212
212

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Page 93

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

5.1.2 Pre-cast slab beams


moment LOCATION
15.41 TTBeam
49.82
170.54
66.22
156.53
197.12
129.72
130.95
177.07
88.64
93.91
85.39

moment
10.83
23.12
194.49
168.55
245.89
178.456
198.58
154.49
84.374
92.296
89.94

moment
6.52
18.94
196.44
174.54
228.84
161.03
146.9
189.22

TTBeam
1st&2nd
1st &2nd
1st &2nd
1st &2nd
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam

LOCATION
TTBeam
TTBeam
1st&2nd
1st &2nd
1st &2nd
3rd &4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam

LOCATION
TTBeam
TTBeam
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th

AXIS-A
b
d
Km
KS
AS1
(As1 )
0.25 0.307 25.57 4.007 201.1331 212
0.25
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

b
0.25
0.25
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

0.307
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.355
0.355
0.355

45.98
4.31 699.4274 216+214
52.40
1829.2 324+220
32.65 4.0765 593.2875 316
50.20
1599.4 520
56.34
2396.13 424+220
45.70
45.92 4.308 1239.852 420
53.39
2014.8 216+324+214
48.42
4.36 1088.649 314+220
49.84
1168.59 320+212
47.52

d
0.307
0.307
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.355
0.355
0.355

AXIS-B
Km
KS
AS1
21.44 3.966 139.9081
31.32 4.067 306.2835
55.96
52.09
1829.2
62.92
3260.34
53.60
2086.4
56.55
2396.13
49.87
1654.94
47.24 4.341
1031.74
49.41
1158.51
48.77

b
0.25
0.25
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

(As1 )
212
214
424+220
324+220
524+516
324+216+314
424+220
324+214
314+220
320+212

AXIS -C
d
Km
KS
AS1
0.307 16.63 min
#######
0.307 28.35 4.032
248.7494
0.455 56.24
2371.5
0.455 53.01
1958.3
0.446 61.93
3060.63
0.455 50.92
1744.8
0.455 48.63
1427.68
0.455 55.20
2222.2

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

(As1 )
212
114+112
424+220
324+220
424+420
324+314
420+212
424+314
Page 94

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison


83.01 Gbeam
91.4 Gbeam
92.33 Gbeam

moment
4.67
17.43
165.37
143.17
179.26
196.46
171.23
218.24
81.81
91.12
94.02

moment
30.99
27.88
28.95
18.28
1.22
8.45
14.04
2.71
10.07
158.53
123.65
96.97
83.29
139.69
36.74
87.24
181.92
135.14
166.35
111.05
110.87

LOCATION
TTBeam
TTBeam
4th&3rd
4th&3rd
4th&3rd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam

LOCATION
HEAD ROOM
HEAD ROOM
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
4th&3rd
4th&3rd
4th&3rd
4th&3rd
4th&3rd
4th&3rd
4th&3rd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd

0.3
0.3
0.3

b
0.25
0.25
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

b
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

June 2008

0.355 46.86 4.324


0.355 49.17
0.355 49.42

d
0.307
0.307
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.355
0.355
0.355

d
0.307
0.307
0.307
0.307
0.307
0.307
0.307
0.307
0.307
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455

1011.085 220+216
1180.58 316+220
1195.44 316+220

AXIS-D
Km
KS
AS1
14.08 min
153
27.20 4.018 228.1229
51.60
1791.79
48.01 4.36 1371.915
53.72
2086.4
56.24
2371.5
52.51
1901.71
59.28
2765.05
46.52 4.323 996.2384
49.09
1180.58
49.87
1205.57
AXIS-E
Km
36.27
34.40
35.05
27.85
7.20
18.94
24.41
10.72
20.67
50.52
44.62
39.51
36.62
47.43
24.32
37.48
54.12
46.65
51.75
42.29
42.25

KS
4.113
4.094
4.101
4.026
min
min
3.986
min
3.961

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

4.276
4.162
4.114
4.346
3.986
4.141
4.326
4.463
4.217
4.216

(As1 )
212
212
324+314
224+314
324+216+314
424+220
424+112
424+320
220+314
316+220
316+220

AS1
415.1852
371.7939
386.723
239.724
153.5
153.5
182.2913
153
129.926
1654.94
1162.038
887.0091
753.088
1334.27
321.8585
793.9799
2086.4
1284.87
1631.692
1029.226
1027.314

(As1 )
214+112
216
216
112+114
212
212
212
212
212
324+214
320+212
316+214
514
320+216
312
416
324+216+314
324
324+214
220+216
220+216
Page 95

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison


173.46
112.42
47.2
98.49
107.95
108.6
136.06

moment
35.57
26.93
123.6
107.526
144.544
156.45
122.3
164.56
100.8
83.79
89.25

moment
144.44
104.14
60.13
118.76
100.73
120.93
97.79
124.1
93.55
125.01
131.28
140.096
116.75
81.84
91.44
62.82
30.14

1st&2nd
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam

LOCATION
TTBeam
TTBeam
4th&3rd
4th&3rd
4th&3rd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam

LOCATION
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

0.455
0.455
0.355
0.355
0.355
0.355
0.355

b
0.25
0.25
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

AXIS-H
d
Km
0.307 38.85
0.307 33.81
0.455 44.61
0.455 41.61
0.455 48.24
0.455 50.19
0.455 44.38
0.455 51.47
0.355 51.63
0.355 47.08
0.355 48.59

b
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25

AXIS-4
d
Km
0.455 52.83
0.455 44.86
0.455 34.09
0.455 47.90
0.455 44.12
0.455 48.34
0.455 43.47
0.455 48.97
0.455 42.51
0.455 49.15
0.455 50.36
0.455 52.03
0.455 47.49
0.455 39.77
0.455 42.03
0.455 34.84
0.455 24.13

June 2008

52.85 4.498 1714.776 424


42.55 4.224 1043.653 220+216
35.33 4.103 545.5256 216+114
51.04 4.436 1230.709 420
53.43 4.5315 1377.959 420+114
53.60
4.54 1388.856 420+114
59.99
1926.9 424+112

KS
AS1
4.151 480.9481
4.088 358.5988
4.275 1161.297
4.202 993.0203
4.36 1385.081
1599.4
1161.297
1631.692
4.45 1263.549
4.334 1022.946
4.375 1099.912

(As1 )
216+112
216
320+212
516
420+114
520
320+212
324+214
224+216
220+216
220+314

KS

(As1 )
420+216
516
216+114
320+212
320
320+212
320
420
316+214
420
324
324+212
224+212
220+114
220+212
316
214

4.304
4.091
4.353
4.263
4.36
4.248
4.223

4.35
4.16
4.211
4.098
3.984

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

AS1
1604.53
985.0957
540.6414
1136.181
943.7626
1158.802
912.9932
1206.11
868.2674
1214.93
1340
1516.28
1116.181
748.2514
846.2722
565.7942
263.9072

Page 96

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison


83.27
59.01
93.14
33.75
64.06
66.05
91.94
95.02
39.71
17.62
39.53
14.15
35.45
9.23
24.97
18.67
8.32
22.34
4.23
96.69
75.31
81.12
68.79
83.48
70.06
83.07
76.76
80.23
99.24

moment
2.74
13.23
22.64
175.83
142.2
185.74
79.896
87.07
108.94

3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam

0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25

0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.307
0.307
0.307
0.307
0.307
0.307
0.307
0.307
0.307
0.307
0.307
0.357
0.357
0.357
0.357
0.357
0.357
0.357
0.357
0.357
0.357

40.11
33.77
42.42
25.54
35.18
35.72
42.15
42.85
41.05
27.35
40.96
24.51
38.79
19.79
32.55
28.15
18.79
30.79
13.40
55.09
48.62
50.46
46.46
51.19
46.89
51.06
49.08
50.18
55.81

LOCATION
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th

b
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25

AXIS-1
d
Km
0.307 10.78
0.307 23.70
0.307 31.00
0.455 58.29
0.455 52.42
0.446 61.12
0.455 39.29
0.455 41.02
0.455 45.88

June 2008
4.172
4.088
4.22
3.994
4.101
4.107
4.214
4.231
4.19
4.019
4.189
3.987
4.15
3.955
4.078
4.032
min
4.058
min
4.593
4.379
4.434
4.32
4.456
4.332
4.452
4.392
4.455
4.614

763.5218
530.1822
863.8479
296.2582
577.3847
596.192
851.5058
883.5816
541.9704
230.667
539.3849
183.7656
479.2101
118.9077
331.6862
245.2034
153
295.2955
153
1243.97
923.7605
1007.524
832.4168
1041.98
850.1398
1035.932
944.3415
1001.189
1282.614

220+114
216+114
220+212
214
316
316
220+212
316+214
216+114
212
216+114
212
214+116
212
116+114
214
212
214
212
420
320
220+216
220+212
220+314
220+212
220+216
320
220+216
224+216

KS
AS1
(As1 )
min
154 212
3.981 171.5591 212
4.06 299.4085 214
4.481
1853 424
4.483 1401.061 116+420
2126.2 424+216
4.158 730.1265 220+112
4.19 801.8095 416
4.307 1031.219 220+216

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Page 97

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison


123.09 Gbeam
97.46 Gbeam
124.68 Gbeam

moment
5.87
14.54
30.95
11.59
33.42
133.38
117.64
176.79
77.46
81.29
91.79
100.9
94.9
108.26

moment
16.27
20.93
41.28
18.53
9.5
11.38
8.83
16.86
17.25
9.25
29.58
35.82
11.77
126.82
110
110.44
107.01
98.47

LOCATION
Head Room
Head Room
Head Room
TTBeam
TTBeam
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam

LOCATION
Head Room
Head Room
Head Room
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd

June 2008

0.25 0.355 62.50


0.25 0.355 55.62 4.609
0.25 0.355 62.91

2003.4 424+212
1265.333 324
2003.4 424+212

b
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25

AXIS-2
d
Km
0.307 15.78
0.307 24.84
0.307 36.24
0.307 22.18
0.307 37.66
0.455 50.76
0.455 47.68
0.446 59.62
0.455 38.69
0.455 39.63
0.455 42.11
0.355 56.59
0.355 54.88
0.355 58.62

KS
AS1
min
153
3.989
188.9253
4.112
414.5485
3.971
149.915
4.131
449.7004
1340
4.352
1125.207
1853
4.148
706.1628
4.164
743.9375
4.213
849.9149
1429.3
1220.01
1345.67

(As1 )
212
212
214+112
212
314
324
224+212
424
216+214
220+112
220+212
116+420
420
420+112

b
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25

AXIS-3
d
Km
0.307 26.28
0.307 29.80
0.307 41.86
0.307 28.04
0.307 20.08
0.307 21.98
0.307 19.36
0.307 26.75
0.307 27.06
0.307 19.81
0.307 35.43
0.307 38.99
0.307 22.35
0.455 49.50
0.455 46.10
0.455 46.19
0.455 45.47
0.455 43.62

KS
As1
4.006
212.305
4.048
275.976
4.207
565.6839
4.028
243.1233
3.957
122.4479
3.97
147.1616
3.952
113.6683
4.012
220.3333
4.016
225.6547
3.955
119.1653
4.104
395.4278
4.153
484.5618
3.972
152.2816
1214.93
4.312
1042.462
4.315
1047.36
4.297
1010.598
4.25
919.7747

(As1 )
212
214
316
214
212
212
212
212
212
212
216
214+116
212
420
224+114
224+114
224+112
214+220

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106.94
101.23
109.9
103.44
119.22
82.61
88.42
58.23
33.26
76.67
56.91
38.72
76.07
60.62
81.59
51.57
99.4
89.94
87.35
86.16
83.54
85.72
89.12
71.8
70.2
68.24
73.15

1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam
Gbeam

0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25

0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.455
0.355
0.355
0.355
0.355
0.355
0.355
0.355
0.355
0.355
0.355

Inclined beam(SAP)
LOCATION
AS
(AS)
Gbeam
1377.25 420+114
Gbeam
1235.31 420
Gbeam
1176.7 224+120
Gbeam
961.86 516
Gbeam
966.54 516
1st&2nd
1723.22 424
1st&2nd
1426.32 420+116
1st&2nd
1183.39 224+120
1st&2nd
991.29 516
1st&2nd
1269.18 324
3rd&4th
847.42 220+212
3rd&4th
745 416

45.46
44.23
46.08
44.71
47.99
39.95
41.33
33.54
25.35
38.49
33.16
27.35
38.34
34.22
39.70
31.57
43.82
53.43
52.65
52.29
51.49
52.16
53.19
47.74
47.20
46.54
48.18

June 2008
4.3
4.267
4.312
4.278
4.36
4.17
4.198
4.085
4.001
4.147
4.082
4.019
4.142
4.092
4.165
4.066
4.256

4.354
4.34
4.324
4.36

LOCATION
G-floor
G-floor
G-floor
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
1st&2nd
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
roof
roof
roof

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

1010.642
949.3372
1214.45
972.5633
1142.416
757.107
815.796
522.7902
292.4687
698.7923
510.564
342.0125
692.4878
545.1803
746.8623
460.8431
929.7723
1317.8
1246.82
1246.82
1160.19
1246.82
1317.8
880.6118
858.2197
831.1824
898.4056

224+112
320
420
312+220
320+212
220+114
220+116
216+114
214
216+214
216+112
216
216+214
216+114
220+114
314
320
320+216
420
420
320+212
420
320+216
316+214
220+212
216+214
316+214

landing beams
AS
(AS)
2172.62 424+216
2002.28 424+212
2291.24 424+220
1500.52 420+214
1475.75 420+212
1839 320+224
729.35 416
697.65 216+214
984.77 516
343.9 216
225 212
225 212
Page 99

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison


3rd&4th
3rd&4th
3rd&4th
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
TTBeam
Head Room
Head Room
Head Room

2.4
6.15
3.21
3.9
5.65
16.36
6.62

216+214
214+212
216+214
212
212
212
212
212
212
212

692.88
520.69
678.21
159.65
162.19
204.96
157.5
157.5
157.5
157.5

0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25

June 2008

roof

225 212

corridor beams added for prec


0.455
6.81 min
0.455
10.90 min
0.455
7.88 min
0.455
8.68 min
0.455
10.45 min
0.455
17.78 min
0.455
11.31 min

227
227
227
227
227
227
227

212
212
212
212
212
212
212

5.1.3 Design of beams for shear and torsion


Shear reinforcement design
Beam sections are subjected to shear forces in addition to flexural actions.
Shear is resisted by the combined actions of the following
 Shear resistance of concrete in compression zone
 Shear reinforcements or stirrups
 Dowel action in tension bars across crack
 Aggregate interlocking across the inclined crack in tension zone
*ominal reinforcement
The shear force VC carried by the concrete in members with out significant axial forces shall
be taken as
VC = 0.25fctdK1K2bwd
Where K1= (1+50) < 2.0
K2= 1.6-d > 1.0 (d in meters). For members where more than 50%of the
bottom reinforcement is curtailed, K2 = 1.
max =0.04

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June 2008

As is the area of tensile reinforcement


The ultimate limit state in shear is characterized by either diagonal compression failure of
concrete or failure of shear reinforcement due to diagonal tension.

Diagonal compression failure of concrete


To avoid compression failure of concrete the shear resistance of the section , VRD shall not be
less than the applied shear force Vd.
Where:
VRD=0.25 *fcd *bw*d
If VRD < Vd .increase the concrete section

Diagonal Tension failure of web reinforcement


If the applied shear force Vd < VRD > the shear resistance of the section Vc Shear
reinforcement need be provided. The spacing in this case is given by
S=(d-d)Asv*fyk/(Vd-Vc)
( section 4.5 EBCS-2,1995)
The shear between the critical section which is at a distance d from the face of the support, and
the point beyond which maximum spacing is used is reinforced by the difference of shear
capacity of concrete. The region beyond this is reinforced with maximum spacing.( section 4.56,EBCS-2,1995,page 43-46)
The maximum spacing Smax between stirrups, in the longitudinal direction should be
= 800
=d

Shear design sample


Axis D
1st &2ndfloor level
As, actual =1941.5 mm2, d=446mm ,b= 250 mm
=As/bd=0.0174
VC = 0.25fctdK1K2bwd
K1 =1+50=1.87
k2=1.6-d=1.154
Then Vc=62.1KN
VRD=0.25 *fcd *bw*d=0.25*11.33*250*446=311.1 KN

Taking the design shear at d distance from the face of the column Vd=112.6KN
S=(d-d)Asv*fyk/(Vd-Vc) = 2*50.3*260.87*(446-43)/(112.6-62.1)=209.7 mm
But Vd< 2/3Vrd as per EBCS 2-1995 Smax= 0.5d=220mm
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Use 8 c/c 200mm.Since the minimum reinforcement &the design result are all most similar
, so use 8 c/c 200mm through out the length
The reimaing shear designs are displayed in the reinforcement detail

Torsional reinforcement
Torsion results from the monolithic character of construction; and any assymetric in the loading of
the floor slab produces torsion to the supporting beams.
Torsion shear stresses create diagonal tension resulting in diagonal crack. Thus, we need to
provide both closed stirrups and longitudinal steel to avoid brittle fracture.

Torsional resistance of concrete


Torsional effect may be disregarded whenever the design torque TSD is less than TC given by (
section 4.6.4 EBCS-2, 1995,page 48)
TC = 1.2fctdAefhef however, minimum reinforcement may be provided in such away that
, and the spacing of stirrups shall not exceed Uef /8
min= 0.4 /fyk
More ever, at least one longitudinal bar shall be placed at each corner of the closed stirrup with
spacing not exceeding 350mm.

Limiting value of ultimate shear


In order to prevent diagonal compression failure in the concrete the torsional resistance, TRD, of a
section shall not be less than the applied torque TSd.
Where TRD = 0.8fcdAefhef > Tsd.

Design for torsional reinforcement


When Tsd >Tc..high torsional moment. Hence ,both longituidinal bars Asl & closed stirrups Astr
must be provided.

Combined actions
a) Torsion and bending or torsion and axial forces
 Simple super position by separately determining area of reinforcements may be applied.
b) Torsion and shear
 limiting values for torsion and shear are
and VRd,com = vVRd in which
TRd, com = tTRd

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June 2008

Further the torsional and shear resistance of the concrete shall be


TC, com = tcTC
and VC,com = vcVC in which

(section 4.6.6 EBCS-2,1995,page 49-50.)


AXIS-4 (TORSIO*AL DESIG*)
Applied shear actions , Tsd=6.01kn.m
Vsd=32.19kn
350
Equivalent hallow section
250
A=250*350=87.5*103mm2
U=2(250+350)=1200mm
Hef=def/5=(350-43)/5=61.4<A/U=72.92
250
Aef=[350-61.4]8[250-61.4]=54429.96mm2
Uef={[350-61.4]+[250-61.4]}*2=954.4mm

Check shear capacity


VC = 0.25fctdK1K2bwd
=As/bd=[3*201]/[250*307]=0.00689
K1=1+50=1.3446
K2=1.6-d=1.291
Vc=0.25*1.032*1.291*1.3446*250*309=34.6kn
VRD=0.25 *fcd *bw*d=218.81kn
Torsion
TC = 1.2fctdAefhef=4.14kn.m
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June 2008

TRD = 0.8fcdAefhef=30.29kn.m
Using combined action
Factor for combined action
Using the above formula t=0.8033 tc=0.842
v=0.5956
vc=0.540
Combined section capacity
Vc=vc*Vc=0.540*34.6=18.63kn
Vrd,com=Vrd*v=0.5956*218.81=130.41kn
Tc,com=Tc*tc=0.842*4.41=3.48kn.m
Trd,com=Trd*t=0.8033*30.29=24.32kn.m
Check Vsd with VC,com
Vsd=32.19>Vc,com=18.63
It requires shear reinforcement
S=(d-d)Asv*fyk/(Vd-Vc) = [2*50.3*260.87*(309-41)]/[13.56*103] =518.67mm
2/3Vrd=86.94
Smax=0.5d=0.5*309=154.5
Use8c/c 150mm
Tc=3.486kn.m<Tsd=6.01kn.m needs torsional reinforcement
Tef=Tsd-Tc=2.614kn.m
Longitudinal reinforcement

Al=

=87.85mm2

Al/2=43.93mm2
Top reinforcement=602.1+43.93=646.03mm2
So use 220
Bottom reinforcement=235.5+43.93=279.43
So use 214
Spacing S=

=546.455mm

Smax=0.5d hence use 8c/c 150mm


The same procedure is applied for the reimaing torsional action.

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

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June 2008

Sample reinforcement detail

AXIS-4

5.2 Column design


Columns are axially loaded vertical members, which carry their load primarily in compression.
The majority of compression or tension members carry a portion of the load in bending which
may arise due to the unbalanced moments in the members connected to their ends.
The result
of such bending moments in axially loaded members into reduces the range of axial force that the
member can carry. For this reason, it is essential to note that the effect of bending in axially
loaded members should be considered in designing these columns.
5.2.1 Design Procedure
1. To design a column in a particular frame first the frame is classified wheather it is sway
or non sway.
2. To determine the nature of the frame we substitute the beams and columns by one
substitute frame
3. The value of the axial force on each substitute frame column is obtained by adding the
axial load each column for the story including self weight.
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June 2008

4. the values of the stiffness coefficients of the substitute frame is given by


For beams=2*Kbi
For column =Kci
Where: Kbi stiffness coefficient of beam
Where: Kci stiffness coefficient of column
5. The effective length of the substitute frame is computed for each storey assuming as sway
frame as shown below.
The effective length buckling Le of a column in a given plane is obtained from the
following approximate equation provided that certain restriction is complied with.
a) Non sway mode
Le/L= (m+0.4)/ (m+0.8) 0.8
b) Sway mode:
Conservatively:
Le/L= (1+0.8 m) 1.15
Where: m is a stiffness coefficient which will be discussed
Using the following theoretical model.

K12

Kc1

K11

Kc
K22

K21

Kc2

1 =Kc1+Kc
K11+K12
2 =Kc2+Kc
K21+K22
1 = 1 + 2
2

Kc1 and Kc2 are column stiffness coefficients (EI/l)


Kc is the stiffness coefficient of the column being designed
=1.0 if opposite end elastically or rigidly restrained
= 0.5 if opposite ends are free to rotate
= 0 for cantilever beam

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June 2008

The above approximate equation for effective length calculation is applicable for values
of 1 and 2 not exceeding 10.
If a base is designed to resist the column moment may be taken as 1.0.
6. the dimension of the substitute column is computed to find the moment of inertia of the
section (Ic)
7. The amount of reinforcement required by the substitute column is computed and the
moment of inertia of the reinforcement with respect to the centroid of the concrete section
is determined.
In lieu of more accurate determination, the first order moment, Mdl, at critical section of the
substitute may be determined using:
Mdl = 2+3 HL
1+ 2 +6
Where: H= the total horizontal reaction at the bottom of the story.
L= the story shear
8. The buckling load of a story may be assumed to be equal to that of the substitute
Beam-column frame, and may be determined as
Ncr= 2 EIe
Le2
Where: EIe is the effective stiffness of the substitute column designed
Le is the effective length.
In lieu of more accurate determination, the effective stiffness of a column may be taken as:
EIe= 0.2Ec Ic + Es Is
Where Ec= 1100fcd
Es is the modulus of elasticity of steel
Ic, Is are the moment of inertia of the concrete
and reinforcement sections, respectively
of the substitute column, with respect to
the centroid of the concrete section.
Computation of moment of inertia of reinforced concrete section with respect to the centroid
of the concrete.

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As/2
S

June 2008

d Is = (n ( * r4)/4 + * r2*d2)
Where
n = number of bars

As/2
S

Reinforcing the substitute column using the biaxial chart using the following formulas:
= Nsd * 103
Ac *fcd
= Mdl * 106
Ac * fcd *S
w = As,tot *fyd
Ac *fcd
We have designed five columns for solid and six columns for the pre-cast slab systems.
Substitute column
Determination of substitute column for each axis. Sample substitute frame is shown below.

AXIS -4
Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

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June 2008

The result of the substitute frames are tabulated as follows


AXIS4
LEVE
L

Found
Groun
d

Le

Nsd

HL

Md1

8.92

1.00

301.09

1.50

3.34

1975.36

451.64

113.48

0.04

2.9

8.92

224.05

3.80

9.10

1903.78

851.39

569.50

0.20

3.22

2.90

158.88

3.05

5.66

1446.68

484.58

235.89

0.08

3.22

3.22

98.67

3.05

5.77

999.10

300.94

150.47

0.05

3.22

3.22

50.43

3.05

5.77

502.31

153.81

76.91

0.03

4.69

3.22

15.67

3.05

6.23

101.84

47.79

21.37

0.01

As

Is

Ic

3135.008 1020

196957002

3403.96 824

226854001

3135.008 1020

196957002

3135.008 1020

196957002

3135.008 1020

196957002

3135.008 1020

196957002

EIe

1.28E+1
0
1.28E+1
0
1.28E+1
0
1.28E+1
0
1.28E+1
0
1.28E+1
0

Nsd/Nc
r

Ncr

7.129E+13
7.727E+13
7.129E+13
7.129E+13
7.129E+13
7.129E+13

63007705.1
8
9210012.38
4
21917624.0
2
21126915.3
7
21126915.3
7
18127122.2
9

0.4
4
0.4
3
0.3
3
0.2
3
0.1
1
0.0
2

w
mi
n
0.2
mi
n
mi
n
mi
n
mi
n

condition

0.03 non-sway
0.21 ''sway''
0.07 non-sway
0.05 non-sway
0.02 non-sway
0.01 non-sway

AXIS-2
LEVEL

Le

Nsd

HL

Md1

Found

11.9

1.00

253.85

1.50

3.73

833.87

380.78

80.42

0.07

0.32 min

Ground

4.02

11.94

197.14

3.80

10.33

778.22

749.13

509.75

0.42

0.30

0.79

4.46

4.02

140.73

3.05

6.39

627.80

429.23

208.06

0.17

0.24

0.2

4.46

4.46

91.53

3.05

6.52

471.96

279.17

139.58

0.11

0.18

0.1

4.46

4.46

51.78

3.05

6.52

315.78

157.93

78.96

0.06

0.12

0.02

12.6

4.46

23.18

3.05

8.53

166.29

70.70

22.86

0.02

0.06 min

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Page 109

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5
As

6.31

12.61

Is

1812.608 620

17.49

3.05

June 2008

8.93

Ic

72.19

EIe

53.34

Ncr

33.42

0.03

0.03 min

Nsd/Ncr condition

68346169 4.278E+09 2.433E+13

17262278.72

0.05 non-sway

291981824 4.278E+09 6.906E+13

6385878.969

0.12 ''sway''

1968.111 426

77089269 4.278E+09 2.608E+13

6293839.196

0.10 non-sway

1812.608 620

68346169 4.278E+09 2.433E+13

5647044.625

0.08 non-sway

1812.608 620

68346169 4.278E+09 2.433E+13

5647044.625

0.06 non-sway

1812.608 620

68346169 4.278E+09 2.433E+13

3294931.883

0.05 non-sway

1812.608 620

68346169 4.278E+09 2.433E+13

3009827.243

0.02 non-sway

7774.04 1032

AXIS-3
LEVEL
Found
Ground
1
2
3
4
5
As
3135.008
5531.435
3135.008
3135.008
3135.008
3135.008
3135.008

1
2
H
8.91
1 324.3
2.9 8.91 270.6
3.22
2.9 200.7
3.22 3.22 123.1
3.22 3.22 59.96
6.26 3.22
12.6
7.82 6.26
5.44

Is
1020 196957002
830
354950030
1020 196957002
1020 196957002
1020 196957002
1020 196957002
1020 196957002

Le
Nsd
HL
Md1

v
1.5 3.34
2061.48 486.41 122.29 0.04
3.8 9.09
1915.2 1028.2 687.59 0.25
3.05 5.66
1452.15 612.14 297.99 0.11
3.05 5.77
1014.74 375.46 187.73 0.07
3.05 5.77
583.79 182.88
91.44 0.03
3.05 6.68
155.85
38.43
15.44 0.01
3.05 7.85
59.35 16.592
7.65 0.00
Ic
EIe
Ncr
Nsd/Ncr condition
1.28E+10 7.129E+13 63007705.18
0.00 non-sway
1.28E+10 1.029E+14 12277159.55
0.00 non-sway
1.28E+10 7.129E+13 21940864.41
0.00 non-sway
1.28E+10 7.129E+13 21112271.86
0.00 non-sway
1.28E+10 7.129E+13 21112271.86
0.00 non-sway
1.28E+10 7.129E+13 15751926.29
0.01 non-sway
1.28E+10 7.129E+13 11406365.47
0.03 non-sway

AXISB
LEVEL 1
2
H
Found
14.9
1
319.3
Ground 4.84
14.86
269
1 5.37
4.84
209.9
2 5.37
5.374
134.4
3 5.37
5.374
72.69
4 7.82
5.374
18.75
As

Is
Ic

Le
1.5
3.8
3.05
3.05
3.05
3.05

4.07
11.32
6.88
7.02
7.02
7.64
EIe

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

0.46
0.43
0.33
0.23
0.13
0.04
0.01

w
min
0.33
min
min
min
min
min

Nsd
HL
Md1

v
w
2252.2
478.92
87.63
0.07 0.88
0.08
2108.1
1022.2 710.34
0.26 0.47
0.35
1566.1
640.1 309.51
0.25 0.61
0.4
1032.92
409.8 204.90
0.17 0.40
0.13
540.28
221.7 110.85
0.09 0.21
0.02
44.99
57.188
24.95
0.02 0.02
0.03
Ncr
Nsd/Ncr
condition
Page 110

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison


1812.608
3444.195
3936.223
1812.608
1812.608
1812.608

AXIS-E
LEVEL
Found
Ground
1
2
3
4
5
As
2562.848
7999.306
3200.122
2562.848
2562.848
2562.848
2562.848

620
824
826
620
620
620

68346169
226854001
154178539
68346169
68346169
68346169

1
2
H
4.44
1
473
1.45 4.44 368.2
1.61 1.45 290.6
1.61 1.61 195.9
1.61 1.61 113.7
1.33 1.61 44.02
4.23 1.33 14.49

Is
624
139106542
1032 504623744
626
163439197
624
139106542
624
139106542
624
139106542
624
139106542

4.278E+09
1.28E+10
4.278E+09
4.278E+09
4.278E+09
4.278E+09

2.433E+13
7.727E+13
4.15E+13
2.433E+13
2.433E+13
2.433E+13

June 2008
14518736.79
5945286.218
8644145.467
4868281.781
4868281.781
4110202.46

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.02

non-sway
non-sway
non-sway
non-sway
non-sway
non-sway

Le
Nsd
HL
Md1

v
1.5
2.67
2061.48 709.43 248.05 0.12
3.8
6.96
1915.2
1399 875.39 0.31
3.05
4.55
1452.15 886.36 435.35 0.21
3.05
4.61
1014.74 597.62 298.81 0.15
3.05
4.61
583.79 346.82 173.41 0.08
3.05
4.5
155.88 134.26
69.23 0.03
3.05
5.48
59.35 44.195
16.55 0.01
Ic
EIe
Ncr
Nsd/Ncr condition
8.552E+09 4.914E+13 67961309.81
0.00 non-sway
1.28E+10 1.328E+14 27034263.05
0.00 non-sway
8.552E+09 5.401E+13
25720151.2
0.00 non-sway
8.552E+09 4.914E+13
22797247.4
0.00 non-sway
8.552E+09 4.914E+13
22797247.4
0.00 non-sway
8.552E+09 4.914E+13 23925401.56
0.01 non-sway
8.552E+09 4.914E+13 16133297.64
0.05 non-sway

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

0.57
0.43
0.40
0.28
0.16
0.04
0.02

Page 111

w
min
0.47
0.23
0.13
0.04
0.03
min

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

5.2.2Design of isolated columns

For buildings, a design method may be used which assumes the compression members to
be isolated and adopts a simplified shape for the deformed axis of the column.

Total eccentricity
The total eccentricity to be used for the design of columns of constant cross section at the
critical section is given by:
etot= ee+ea+e2
Where
 ee is equivalent constant first-order eccentricity of the design axial load
- for first-order eccentricity eo is equal at both ends of a
column ee= eo
for first-order moment varying linearly along the length, the equivalent eccentricity is the
higher of the following two values
ee =0.6eo2 + 0.4 eo1
ee =0.4 eo2
eo1 and eo2 are first-order eccentricities at the ends eo2 being
positive and greater in magnitude than eo1.
 ea is the additional eccentricity to account for geometric imperfection, introduced by
increasing the eccentricity of the longitudinal force acting in the most unfavorable
direction.
Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Page 112

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

ea = Le/ 300 20mm


Le is the effective length of isolated column.
 e2 is the second order eccentricity
According to EBCS-2, 1995 Art. 4.4.6(2) second order effects in compressive members
need not be taken into account in the following cases
a) for sway frames the greater of

25
; which ever is maximum
15/d
d = Nsd/Acfcd
b) for non sway frames
50 25 (M1/M2)
Where
M1 and M2 are the 1st order (calculated moments at
the ends, M2 being always positive and greater
than M1 , and M1 being positive if member is bent
in single curvature and negative if bent in double curvature.
For sway frames in the absence of rigorous method the amplified sway moments
method can be employed to obtain the sway contribution by multiplying the 1st order moment by
magnification factor given by:
s = 1/(1 Nsd/Ncr) provided; Nsd/Ncr 0.25

Determination of first order moment


col A-3
level

Mdy
M1

found
ground

-10.62
115.16

first

M2

eo1

e02

11.17

1368.42

0.0077608

0.00816

118.57

1076.01

-99.46

111.08

806.45

second

-37.56

42.01

557.52

third
fourth

-41.94
-16.04
Mdx

44.65
43.3

314.86
113.28

found

-10.87

17.56

1368.42

ground
first
second

-13.75
-18.35
-70.31

15.94
21.51
91.01

1076.01
806.45
557.52

-0.107025
0.1233306
0.0673698
0.1332021
-0.141596
0.0079435
0.0127787
-0.022754
-

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

0.6eo2+0.4eo1

0.4eo2

eo

0.0017933

0.003265

0.003265

4.468

0.11019

0.0233065

0.044078

0.044078

47.428

0.13774

0.0333114

0.055096

0.055096

44.432

0.07535

0.018263

0.030141

0.030141

16.804

0.14181
0.38224

0.0318046
0.1727048

0.056724
0.152895

0.056724
0.172705

17.86
19.564

0.01283

0.004522

0.005133

0.005133

7.024

0.01481
0.02667
0.16324

0.0037769
0.0069019
0.0474996

0.005926
0.010669
0.065296

0.005926
0.010669
0.065296

6.376
8.604
36.404

Page 113

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

third

-62.69

80.18

314.86

fourth

-10.99

35.68

113.28

June 2008

0.1261121
0.1991044
0.0970162

column
B-3
Mdy
level
M1
M2
P
eo1
found
0.42
0.89 2252.23 0.0001865
ground 120.88 131.3 1602.82 0.0754171
first
-11.14 12.12 1278.28 0.0087148
second
-2.3
5.93 1032.91 0.0022267
third
-1.48
2.82 429.55 0.0034455
fourth
-6.08
7.08
44.99 0.1351411
Mdx
found
-5.96
9.68 2252.23 0.0026463
ground -24.34
36.7 1602.82 0.0151857
first
113.43 116.88 1278.28 0.0887364
second -56.35 56.89 1032.91 0.0545546
third
-71.73 92.79 429.55 0.1669887
fourth
-6.39 44.02
44.99 0.1420316

0.25465

0.07315

0.101861

0.101861

32.072

0.31497

0.1501766

0.125989

0.150177

17.012

e02
0.6eo2+0.4eo1 0.4eo2
eo
M
0.0004
0.0003117 0.000158 0.000312
0.702
0.08192

0.018984 0.032767 0.032767

52.52

0.00948

0.002203 0.003793 0.003793

4.848

0.00574

0.0025539 0.002296 0.002554

2.638

0.00657

0.0025608 0.002626 0.002626

1.128

0.15737

0.0403645 0.062947 0.062947

2.832

0.0043

0.0015203 0.001719 0.001719

3.872

0.0229

0.007664 0.009159 0.009159

14.68

0.09144

0.0193666 0.036574 0.036574

46.752

0.05508

0.0112246 0.022031 0.022031

22.756

0.21602

0.0628146 0.086407 0.086407

37.116

0.97844

0.5302512 0.391376 0.530251

23.856

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Page 114

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison


column
E-3
level

Mdy
M1

M2

eo1

found

-0.67

4.15

1790.15

ground

-0.75

5.18

1633.3

first

-36.87

37.55

949.05

second

-32.36

33.38

671.98

third

-30.2

32.22

387.46

fourth

-16.38

23.42

90.38

H.room

-13.77
Mdx

25.07

28.97

found

-32.76
101.76

97.68

1790.15

119.28

1633.3

-141.7
120.83
100.46

147.18

949.05

129.96

671.98

112.08

387.46

-34.9

55.16

90.38

-14.95

29.25

28.97

ground
first
second
third
fourth
H.room

column
E-2
level
found
ground
first
second

0.0003743
0.0004592
0.0388494
0.0481562
0.0779435
0.1812348
0.4753193
0.0183001
0.0623033
0.1493072
0.1798119
0.2592784
0.3861474
0.5160511

Mdy
M1
M2
P
eo1
1.28
8.38 833.97 0.0015348
1.7
4.34
456.7 0.0037224
-1.24
1.47 461.38 0.0026876
-3.93
5.69 401.311 0.0097929

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

June 2008

e02

0.6eo2+0.4eo1

0.4eo2

eo

0.00232

0.0012412

0.000927

0.001241

2.222

0.00317

0.0017192

0.001269

0.001719

2.808

0.03957

0.0081998

0.015826

0.015826

15.02

0.04967

0.010542

0.01987

0.01987

13.352

0.08316

0.0187168

0.033263

0.033263

12.888

0.25913

0.082983

0.103651

0.103651

9.368

0.86538

0.3290991

0.346151

0.346151

10.028

0.05457

0.0254191

0.021826

0.025419

45.504

0.07303

0.0188967

0.029212

0.029212

47.712

0.15508

0.033326

0.062033

0.062033

58.872

0.1934

0.0441144

0.077359

0.077359

51.984

0.28927

0.0698498

0.115707

0.115707

44.832

0.61031

0.2117283

0.244125

0.244125

22.064

1.00967

0.3993787

0.403866

0.403866

11.7

e02
0.6eo2+0.4eo1 0.4eo2
eo
M
0.01005
0.0066429 0.004019 0.006643
5.54
0.0095
0.0071907 0.003801 0.007191 3.284
0.00319

0.0008366 0.001274 0.001274

0.588

0.01418

0.00459 0.005671 0.005671

2.276

Page 115

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

third

-9.19

9.78

fourth

-5.13

9.34

-9.89
Mdx

17.57

H.room

found

297.53 0.0308876 0.03287


157.38 0.0325963 0.05935
68.19 0.1450359 0.25766

105.98

833.97

144.6

456.7

first

-62.05
140.04
122.54

126.93

461.38

second

-97.43

104.25 401.311

third

-68.94

76.62

297.53

fourth

-33.02

33.98

157.38

H.room

-24.69

32.2

68.19

ground

column
H-3
level

Mdy
M1

M2

found

-4.61

19.84

1557.47

ground

-1.89

29.48

560.41

first
second
third

-16.62
16.68
9.17

22.94
18.59
23.29

514.99
434.68
321.27

-2.9

23.43

240.88

16.42

124.59

92.96

1557.47

ground

-13.21
Mdx
-15.38
116.33

165.83

560.41

first

-68.08

123.76

514.99

fourth
H.room
found

June 2008

0.0744032
0.3066346
0.2655945
0.2427793
0.2317077
0.2098106
0.3620766

eo1
0.0029599
0.0033725
0.0322725
0.0383731
0.028543
0.0120392
0.1060278
-0.009875
0.2075802
0.1321967

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

0.0073673 0.013148 0.013148

3.912

0.0225696 0.023739 0.023739

3.736

0.0965831 0.103065 0.103065

7.028

0.12708

0.0464861 0.050832 0.050832 42.392

0.31662

0.0673177 0.126648 0.126648

0.27511

0.0588279 0.110044 0.110044 50.772

0.25977

0.0587524 0.103909 0.103909

0.25752

0.0618291 0.103008 0.103008 30.648

0.21591

0.0456221 0.086364 0.086364 13.592

0.47221

0.1384954 0.188884 0.188884

e02

0.6eo2+0.4eo1

0.4eo2

eo

57.84

41.7

12.88

0.01274

0.0064592

0.005095

0.006459

10.06

0.0526

0.0302136

0.021042

0.030214

16.932

0.04454
0.04277
0.07249

0.0138177
0.0410095
0.0549133

0.017818
0.017107
0.028997

0.017818
0.041009
0.054913

9.176
17.642

0.09727

0.0535453

0.038907

0.053545

12.898

0.13179

0.0366643

0.052717

0.052717

6.568

0.05969

0.0318619

0.023875

0.031862

49.624

0.29591

0.0945129

0.118363

0.118363

66.332

0.24032

0.0913105

0.096126

0.096126

49.504

Page 116

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

second

-54

97.89

434.68

third

-37.45

74.51

321.27

fourth
H.room

-12.36
-17.28

25.33
17.41

240.88
124.59

June 2008

0.1242293
0.1165686
0.0513119
-0.138694

0.2252

0.0854284

0.09008

0.09008

39.156

0.23192

0.0925265

0.092769

0.092769

29.804

0.10516
0.13974

0.0425689
0.028365

0.042062
0.055895

0.042569
0.055895

10.254
6.964

Moment due to imperfection


column E2
level
foundation
ground
first
second
third
fourth
H.room
level
foundation
ground
first
second
third
fourth
H.room
column E3
level
foundation
ground
first
second
third
fourth
H.room
level

x-dxn
Le
1.39253
10.2917
2.80135
2.81176
2.81176
2.91835
2.93109
y-dxn
Le
1.23737
5.36735
2.22377
2.24308
2.24308
2.49388
2.74134

x-dxn
Le
1.34109
3.42767
2.56249
2.57922
2.57922
2.76646
2.88328
y-dxn
Le

eacalc
0.004642
0.034306
0.009338
0.009373
0.009373
0.009728
0.00977

20 ea
Nsd
Ma
0.02
0.02 833.97
16.6794
0.02 0.0343056
456.7 15.667383
0.02
0.02 461.38
9.2276
0.02
0.02 401.311
8.02622
0.02
0.02 297.53
5.9506
0.02
0.02 157.38
3.1476
0.02
0.02
68.19
1.3638

eacalc
0.004125
0.017891
0.007413
0.007477
0.007477
0.008313
0.009138

20 ea
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02

0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02

Nsd
Ma
833.97
16.6794
456.7
9.134
461.38
9.2276
401.311
8.02622
297.53
5.9506
157.38
3.1476
68.19
1.3638

0
eacalc
0.00447
0.011426
0.008542
0.008597
0.008597
0.009222
0.009611
eacalc

20 ea
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02

Nsd
Ma
0.02 1790.15
35.803
0.02 1633.3
32.666
0.02 949.05
18.981
0.02 671.98
13.4396
0.02 387.46
7.7492
0.02
90.38
1.8076
0.02
28.97
0.5794

20 ea

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Nsd

Ma

Page 117

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison


foundation
ground
first
second
third
fourth
H.room

column A3
level
foundation
ground
first
second
third
fourth
H.room
level
foundation
ground
first
second
third
fourth
H.room
column B3
level
foundation
ground
first
second
third
fourth
H.room
level

1.29167
3.27488
2.40302
2.42191
2.42191
2.64814
2.78359

x-dxn
Le
1.38032
3.53444
2.68623
2.70014
2.70014
2.75236
0
y-dxn
Le
1.43125
3.65724
2.84348
2.85241
2.85241
2.88509
0

x-dxn
Le
1.34109
3.42767
2.56249
2.57922
2.57922
2.64323
0
y-dxn
Le

0.004306
0.010916
0.00801
0.008073
0.008073
0.008827
0.009279

0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02

eacalc
0.004601
0.011781
0.008954
0.009
0.009
0.009175

20 ea
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02

eacalc
0.004771
0.012191
0.009478
0.009508
0.009508
0.009617
0

20 ea
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02

June 2008
0.02 1790.15
0.02 1633.3
0.02 949.05
0.02 671.98
0.02 387.46
0.02
90.38
0.02
28.97

0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0
0

35.803
32.666
18.981
13.4396
7.7492
1.8076
0.5794

Nsd
Ma
1368.42
27.3684
1076.01
21.5202
806.45
16.129
557.52
11.1504
314.86
6.2972
113.28
2.2656
0
0

Nsd
Ma
0.02 1368.42
27.3684
0.02 1076.01
21.5202
0.02 806.45
16.129
0.02 557.52
11.1504
0.02 314.86
6.2972
0.02 113.28
2.2656
0.02
0
0

0
eacalc
0.00447
0.011426
0.008542
0.008597
0.008597
0.008811
0
eacalc

20 ea
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02

0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0

20 ea

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Nsd
Ma
2252.23
45.0446
1602.82
32.0564
1278.28
25.5656
1032.91
20.6582
429.55
8.591
44.99
0.8998
0
0
Nsd

Ma

Page 118

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison


foundation
ground
first
second
third
fourth

1.43125
3.65724
2.84348
2.85241
2.85241
2.88509

0.004771
0.012191
0.009478
0.009508
0.009508
0.009617

column H3
level
foundation
ground
first
second
third
fourth
H.room

0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02

June 2008
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02

2252.23
1602.82
1278.28
1032.91
429.55
44.99

45.0446
32.0564
25.5656
20.6582
8.591
0.8998

ea
Nsd
Ma
0.02 1557.47 31.1494
0.02
560.41 11.2082
0.02
514.99 10.2998
0.02
434.68
8.6936
0.02
321.27
6.4254
0.02
240.88
4.8176
0.02
124.59
2.4918

Design moment
column E2
level
foundation
ground
first
second
third
fourth
H.room

Mdx
Ma
Mdxtot
42.392 16.6794
59.07
62.2952
9.134
71.43
50.772
9.2276
60.00
41.7 8.02622
49.73
30.648
5.9506
36.60
13.592
3.1476
16.74
12.88
1.3638
14.24

colmnE-3
level
foundation
ground
first
second
third
fourth
H.room

Mdx
Ma
Mdxtot
45.504
35.803
81.31
47.712
32.666
80.38
58.872
18.981
77.85
51.984 13.4396
65.42
44.832
7.7492
52.58
22.064
1.8076
23.87
11.7
0.5794
12.28

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Mdy
Ma
Mdytot
5.54
16.6794
22.22
3.53695 15.667383
19.20
0.588
9.2276
9.82
2.276
8.02622
10.30
3.912
5.9506
9.86
3.736
3.1476
6.88
7.028
1.3638
8.39

0 Mdy
Ma
Mdytot
2.222
35.803
38.03
2.808
32.666
35.47
15.02
18.981
34.00
13.352
13.4396
26.79
12.888
7.7492
20.64
9.368
1.8076
11.18
10.028
0.5794
10.61

Page 119

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

Column
A-3
level
foundation
ground
first
second
third
fourth

Mdx
Ma
Mdxtot
7.024 27.3684
34.39
6.376 21.5202
27.90
8.604
16.129
24.73
36.404 11.1504
47.55
32.072
6.2972
38.37
17.012
2.2656
19.28

0 Mdy
Ma
Mdytot
4.468
27.3684
31.84
47.428
21.5202
68.95
44.432
16.129
60.56
16.804
11.1504
27.95
17.86
6.2972
24.16
19.564
2.2656
21.83

colmn B-3
level
foundation
ground
first
second
third
fourth

Mdx
Ma
Mdxtot
3.872 45.0446
48.92
14.68 32.0564
46.74
46.752 25.5656
72.32
22.756 20.6582
43.41
37.116
8.591
45.71
23.856
0.8998
24.76

0 Mdy
Ma
Mdytot
0.702
45.0446
45.75
52.52
32.0564
84.58
4.848
25.5656
30.41
2.638
20.6582
23.30
1.128
8.591
9.72
2.832
0.8998
3.73

column H3
level
foundation
ground
first
second
third
fourth
H.room

Mdx
Ma
Mdxtot
49.624 31.1494
80.77
66.332 11.2082
77.54
49.504 10.2998
59.80
39.156
8.6936
47.85
29.804
6.4254
36.23
10.254
4.8176
15.07
6.964
2.4918
9.46

0 Mdy
Ma
Mdytot
10.06
31.1494
41.21
16.932
11.2082
28.14
9.176
10.2998
19.48
17.826
8.6936
26.52
17.642
6.4254
24.07
12.898
4.8176
17.72
6.568
2.4918
9.06

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Page 120

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

5.2.3 Reinforcement Design


5.2.3.1 solid slab columns
Longitudinal Reinforcement
As min = 0.008Ac
As max = 0.08Ac
Colmn
A-3

h
b
As
Asmin Asprvd
level
Nsd
Mdx
Mdy

foundn 1368.42 34.39 31.84 1.0 0.07 0.07


0.28 1489.704
980 1489.70
ground 1076.01 27.90 68.95 0.8 0.06 0.14
0.29 1542.907
980 1542.91
first
806.45 24.73 60.56 0.6 0.05 0.12
0.1
532.037
980
980
second
557.52 47.55 27.95 0.4 0.10 0.06
0.06 319.2222
980
980
third
314.86 38.37 24.16 0.2 0.08 0.05 0.045 239.4167
980
980
fourth
113.28 19.28 21.83 0.1 0.06 0.07
0.12 469.0612
720
720

colmn
B-3
level
foundn
ground

816
816
412&414
412&414
412&414
416

first
second
third
fourth

Nsd
Mdx Mdy
h
b

As
Asmin Asprvd
2252.23 48.92 45.75 1.2 0.07 0.06
0.46 3196.565
1280 3196.6 824
1602.82 46.74 84.58 0.9 0.06 0.12 0.325 2258.443
1280 2258.4 424&414
420&
1278.28 72.32 30.41 0.9 0.15 0.06
0.32 1702.518
980 1702.5 412
1032.91 43.41 23.30 0.7 0.09 0.05 0.055 292.6204
980
980 414&412
429.55 45.71
9.72 0.4 0.15 0.02
0.12 469.0612
720
720 416
44.99 24.76
3.73 0.0 0.08 0.01
0.2 781.7687
720 781.77 416

colmn
E-3
level
foundn
ground
first
second
third
fourth
H.room

Nsd
Mdx
Mdy

h
b

As
Asmin Asprvd
1790.15 81.31 38.03 1.0 0.11 0.05
0.36
2501.66
1280 2501.7
1633.3 80.38 35.47 0.9 0.11 0.05 0.275
1910.99
1280
1911
949.05 77.85 34.00 0.7 0.16 0.07
0.35
1862.13
980
1862.1
671.98 65.42 26.79 0.5 0.13 0.06 0.115 611.8426
980
980
387.46 52.58 20.64 0.3 0.11 0.04
0.06 319.2222
980
980
90.38 23.87 11.18 0.1 0.08 0.04 0.115
449.517
720
720
28.97 12.28 10.61 0.0 0.04 0.03
0.1 390.8843
720
720

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

424&812
420&416
420&414
412&414
412&414
416
416

Page 121

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

colmn
E-2
level
foundn
ground
first
second
third
fourth
H.room

Nsd
Mdx
Mdy

h
b

As
Asmin Asprvd
833.97 59.07 22.22 0.6
0.12 0.05 0.09 478.8333
980
980 412&414
456.7 71.43 19.20 0.3
0.15 0.04 0.16 851.2592
980
980 412&414
461.38 60.00
9.82 0.3
0.12 0.02 0.06 319.2222
980
980 412&414
401.311 49.73 10.30 0.3
0.10 0.02 0.03 159.6111
980
980 412&414
297.53 36.60
9.86 0.3
0.12 0.03 0.07
273.619
720
720 416
157.38 16.74
6.88 0.2
0.05 0.02
0
0
720
720 416
68.19 14.24
8.39 0.1
0.05 0.03 0.06 234.5306
720
720 416

colmn
H-3
level
foundn
ground
first
second
third
fourth
H.room

Nsd
Mdx
Mdy

h
b

As
Asmin Asprvd
1557.47 80.77 41.21 0.9 0.11 0.06
0.28 1945.735
1280 1945.7
560.41 77.54 28.14 0.4 0.16 0.06
0.23 1223.685
980 1223.7
514.99 59.80 19.48 0.4 0.12 0.04
0.05 266.0185
980
980
434.68 47.85 26.52 0.4 0.16 0.09
0.3 1172.653
720 1172.7
321.27 36.23 24.07 0.3 0.12 0.08
0.13 508.1497
720
720
240.88 15.07 17.72 0.2 0.05 0.06
0
0
720
720
124.59
9.46
9.06 0.1 0.03 0.03
0.04 156.3537
720
720

420&416
420
420
420
416
416
416

5.2.3.2 pre-cast slab columns


Following the same procedure the final out put for the pre-cast slab columns is tabulated below
colum A-3
level
foundation
ground
first
second
third
fourth

Nsd
1422.5
1141.5
850.75
626.26
340.59
89.96

column B3
level
foundation
ground
first
second

Nsd
Mdx Mdy
h
b

As
Asmin Asprvd
1751.2 83.70 38.10 1.0 0.12 0.05
0.37 2571
1280 2571.15
1606.5 79.52 36.57 0.9 0.11 0.05
0.27 1876
1280 1876.24
1195.3 68.90 28.16 0.7 0.10 0.04 0.065 451.7
1280 1280.00
797.91 54.77 18.70 0.4 0.08 0.03
0.01 39.09
1280 1280.00

Mdx
33.11
70.57
61.16
51.90
40.05
13.92

Mdy
36.90
26.12
21.39
17.72
13.36
7.08

h
1.0 0.07
0.8 0.15
0.6 0.13
0.5 0.11
0.3 0.13
0.1 0.03

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

As
Asmin Asprvd
0.08
0.3 1596
980 1596.11 816
0.05 0.32 1703
980 1702.52 420+416
0.04 0.11 585.2
980 980.00 412+414
0.04 0.02 106.4
980 980.00 412+414
0.04 0.18 703.6
720 720.00 416
0.01 0.035 136.8
720 720.00 416

424+416
420+414
416+414
416+414
Page 122

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison


third
fourth

413
48.43

45.04
20.25

9.70
1.66

0.4
0.0

0.15
0.07

June 2008
0.03
0.01

0.13
0.18

508.1
703.6

720
720

720.00 416
720.00 416

column E3
level
foundation
ground
first
second
third
fourth
H.room

Nsd
Mdx Mdy
h
b

As
Asmin Asprvd
1526 75.72 33.08 0.8 0.10 0.05
0.16 1112
1280 1280.00
968.71 83.51 25.31 0.5 0.12 0.03 0.045 175.9
1280 1280.00
751.83 81.73 23.87 0.4 0.11 0.03
0
0
1280 1280.00
545.71 69.51 19.15 0.3 0.10 0.03 0.035 136.8
1280 1280.00
331.26 59.24 13.59 0.3 0.19 0.04 0.315 1231
720 1231.29
96.61 28.24
7.54 0.1 0.09 0.02
0.14 547.2
720
720.00
30.85 11.95 11.54 0.0 0.04 0.04
0.11
430
720
720.00

416+414
416+414
416+414
416+414
416+412
416
416

column E2
level
foundation
ground
first
second
third
fourth
H.room

Nsd
Mdx Mdy
h
b

As
Asmin Asprvd
334.26 50.00 12.67 0.2 0.10 0.03
0.08 425.6
980
980.00
413.92 71.97 17.44 0.3 0.15 0.04
0.19 1011
980 1010.87
428.13 60.28 10.68 0.3 0.12 0.02 0.075
399
980
980.00
377.7 49.76
8.38 0.4 0.16 0.03
0.17 664.5
720
720.00
283.8 36.44
7.40 0.3 0.12 0.02 0.075 293.2
720
720.00
154.59 15.53
5.71 0.2 0.05 0.02
0
0
720
720.00
66.65 13.81
8.08 0.1 0.05 0.03
0.06 234.5
720
720.00

414+412
414+412
414+412
416
416
416
416

columnH-3
level
foundation
ground
first
second
third
fourth
H.room

Nsd
Mdx Mdy
h
b

As
Asmin Asprvd
1521.23 80.19 40.40 0.8 0.11 0.06
0.2 1390
1280 1389.81
1437.09 94.95 46.87 0.8 0.13 0.06
0.27 1876
1280 1876.24
471.89 64.01 11.33 0.5 0.21 0.04 0.375 1466
720 1465.82
448.71 61.02 17.51 0.4 0.20 0.06
0.36 1407
720 1407.18
321.21 53.96 22.38 0.3 0.18 0.07 0.345 1349
720 1348.55
146.81 15.39 10.26 0.1 0.05 0.03
0.06 234.5
720
720.00
63.26 14.99 25.21 0.1 0.05 0.08
0.13 508.1
720
720.00

416+414
420+414
416+414
416+414
416+414
416
416

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Page 123

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison


column E1
level
foundation
ground
first
second
third
fourth

Nsd
237.74
239.7
208.25
161.85
103.27
28.77

Mdx
51.4
51.31
27.51
9.725
8.393
4.683

Mdy
6.267
12.35
9.225
27.44
18.76
6.647

June 2008

h
b

As
Asmin Asprvd
0.2
0.17 0.02 0.26 1016
720 1016.30 414+412
0.2
0.17 0.04
0.3 1173
720 1172.65 416+412
0.2
0.09 0.03 0.05 195.4
720 720.00 416
0.2
0.03 0.09 0.05 195.4
720 720.00 416
0.1
0.03 0.06 0.075 293.2
720 720.00 416
0.0
0.02 0.02 0.05 195.4
720 720.00 416

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Page 124

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

6. Foundation design

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Page 125

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

6.1 Footing Design


A) Interior column footing design (column at (b3))

Y
a

Using comb-1
My
Given
L
Mx = 5.96 kN.m
My =-0.42 kN.m
-Pd =2252.23 kN
Assume L = B

Mx

And an allowable bearing capacity for the soil as


all =560 KPa C-25 and S-300
Proportioning
Using unfactored load; Pd =
ex =

My
Pd

2252.23
= 1608.73
1 .4

0.42
= 0.0037 m
1608.73

M
5.96
ey = x =
= 0.00026m
Pd 1608.73

0.89m

Since a surface footing, B = L

1.5m

0.61m

ey
pd
e
* (1 6 * x 6 * )
A
B
B
1608.73
0.00026
0.0037
560 =
* (1 6 *
6*
)
2
B
B
B

all =

Solving the equation by trial and error, we get B =1.7m


We use B = L = 1.7m
1608 .73
ult a =
* (1 + 0.013 + 0.00094 ) = 562.47 kn/m2
2
1 .7
1608.73
ult b =
* (1 + 0.013 0.00094) = 561.42 kn/m2
2
1 .7
1608.73
ult c =
* (1 0.013 + 0.00094 ) =548.00 kn/m2
2
1 .7
Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Page 126

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

ult d =

June 2008

1608.73
* (1 0.013 0.00094) =546.96 kn/m2
2
1 .7

562.47

561.43

1.7m

1.7m

548
546.96

ult avg = 554.7 Kpa


I . Punching shear
According to EBCS-2, 1995 article 4.7.6 the resistance of footing without punching shear
reinforcement is give by:
Vrd = 0.25 * fctd * k1 * k2 * u * d
Where: K1 = 1+50 2.0
K2 = 1.6 d 1.0 (d in meter)
Assume = 0.002, k1 = 1.0 + 50 * 0.002 = 1.1
0.4+d
L
U = 4* ( 0.4 + d) = 1.6 + 4d
Vrd = 0.25*1043*1.1*1.0*(1.6 + 4*d)*d
B
Vacating = (1.7*1.7 (0.4 + d)2)*554.7
0 .4+d
Then Vrd > Vacting (for safe condition)
B
Hence solving for d
d 0.545
Therefore , D = 549 + 50 + 10 =605mm
So use over all depth of 610mm
II.wide beam shear

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

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Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

According to EBCS-2, 1995, article 4.5.3, the shear force Vc carried by the concrete is given by :
Vc = 0.3*fctd*k1*k2*bw*d
Using 50mm clear cover and 16 longitudinal reinforcement bar
d= 610 50 8 = 560 mm
Vc = 0.3*1043*1.1*1*1.7*0.552 =327.6 kN
Vacting = (B/2 - B/2 - d)*qu*B
= 0.09 *561.42*1.7=85.89kN
Since Vc > Vacting ..... the section is safe !!
So punching governs and the overall depth is found to be 610 mm
III.Reinforcement
M = 364.18*1*1.05*1.05/2 = 200.75 kN.m
Using table No.1
For design

Km =

M
b
d

= 19.46

M
201.99
= 3.96*
= 2428.22mm 2
d
0.56
Amin = min * b*d = .002*1700*560 = 1904 mm2
a *b
201 * 1700
s= s
taking 16
s=
= 140mm
As
2428.22
Ks = 3.96

As = Ks *

16 c/c 140 mm (both direction)


1700 100)
N o of reinforcement = 1 + (
= 12
140
Hence provide 12 16 c/c 140 mm
Similarly the remaining footing and the precast slab footing is done as that of the above
procedure. The result is found in the auto cad detail for both cases.
Take

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Page 128

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

6.2 Mat foundation design


The purpose of designing this mat foundation is due to irregularity of our building and
occurrence of small amount of tension at the edge columns. For a building of G+4 with bearing
capacity of 560 it is not recommended to use mat foundation but we do it to be safer. And also it
is recommended to use cantilever structures to balance the tension by discussing with the
architect. since we dont have this chance we opted to design mat foundation to the local areas in
which tension was developed.
The design procedure for the precast floor system is presented as follows and for the solid case
the results are found in the reinforcement detail and are also tabulated in table.
E
0.5

1.3

2
2.7

0.5 m

3
1.5
0.5m

3.54m

0.48m

0.98m

0.53

Case 1 when E-1& F-1 are in tension


Column
E-1
F-1
E-2
G-2
E-3
H-3

P
-143.77
-279.59
803.13
599.8
1525.96
1521.23

Factored p
-102.7
-199.71
573.7
428.43
1089.97
1086.6

mx
-95.52
-93.38
-108.53
-99.51
-99.8
-94.01

My
3.15
-10.64
5.47
-12.49
2.91
-4.65

R=-102.7-199.71+573.7+428.43+1086.6+1089.97=2876.3 KN
Taking moment about axis E
Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

Page 129

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

ex =3.15-10.64+5.47-12.49+2.91-4.65-199.71*3.54+428.43*4.02+1086.6*5
2876.3
=2.24
ex=0.5+2.24= 2.74m
similarly taking moment about axis 3
ey=1.81m
centroid of the area is found to be
x= 2.797 m
y=2.82m
Eccentricities
Ex= x-ex= 2.797-2.74 =0.057m
Ey =2.82-1.81= 1.01m
Then Mx= R*ey= 2876.3*1.01=2905.1 KN-m
My =R*ex= 2876.3*0.057= 164.01KN-m
Second moment of inertia of the area
Ix= 130.76 m4
Iy=52.76 m4
d=

=105.6 3.142x 22.22y

A
A

da=105.6 +3.142*2.797+ 22.22*2.82 =177.05 KN/m2


db= 105.6+3.142*2.797-22.22*3.18 =43.73 KN/ m2
dc= 105.6-3.142*1.743-22.22*3.18 =29.5 KN/ m2
dd= 105.6-3.142*3.733+22.22*2.82 =156.53 KN/ m2
Case 2 When E-1&F-1 are in compression
Column
P
Factored p
mx
E-1
1064.74
760.53
93.85
F-1
1087.33
776.7
91.5
E-2
803.13
573.7
-108.53
G-2
857.76
612.7
-5.87
E-3
1525.96
1089.97
-99.8
H-3
1521.23
1086.6
-94.01
The same procedure is followed to calculate eccentricities & moment
Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

My
-5.91
3.55
5.47
-86.22
2.91
-4.65

Page 130

Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

STRIP 1

STRIP 2

J
STRIP 3

co-ordinates
F (-2.797,2.03) ,J (-0.527,-2.83)
E (-2.797,0.03)

STRIP 5

B
F

STRIP 4

d=

June 2008

H (2.16,2.03)
I (2.449,0.03)
G (-0.527,3.18)
D

ey=0.56m
Mx=Rey=2744.11KN.m
ex=0.137 m
My=Rex=671.33KN.m
2
p/A=179.9KN/m
Mx/Ix=20.99KN/m2
My/Ix=12.86KN/m2
dA=179.9+12.86*2.797-20.99*2.82=156 KN/m2
d B= 179.9+12.86*2.797+20.99*3.18=282.62 KN/m2
dC= 179.9-12.86*1.743+20.99*3.18=224.23 KN/m2
dD= 179.9-12.86*3.73-20.99*2.82=72.7 KN/m2
dF= 179.9+12.86*2.797+20.99*2.03=258.48 KN/m2
dE= 179.9+12.86*2.797+20.99*0.03=216.5 KN/m2
d H= 179.9-12.86*2.16+20.99*2.03=194.73 KN/m2
dI= 179.9-12.86*2.449+20.99*0.33=194.04 KN/m2
dG= 179.9+12.86*0.527+20.99*3.18=253.43 KN/m2
dC= 179.9+12.86*0.527-20.99*2.82=127.5 KN/m2
Since the stress in case 2 greater than that of case 1 so the mat is designed for the compression
case

X-direction
Strip 1
Pu=760.53+776.7=1537.23 KN
A=5.46m2
Qavg=240.015 KN/m2
Q=240.015 KN/m2*5.46m2=1310.48 KN
Average load =1310.48 KN+1537.23KN/2=1423.86 KN
Modified soil rxn =Q*(

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= 240.02KN/m2*[
Load correction factor =

June 2008

]= 260.79 KN/m2

=1423.86/1537.23= 0.93

Corrected load for


E-1,p= 707.3 KN F-1,P=722.33KN
The same procedure is followed for the next strips and the results are tabulated as follows.
Load correction
Modified soil
Strip
pu
Average soil Average
factor
rxn
load
rxn
2
1186.4
204.7
1637.41
160.5
1.38
3
2176.57
148.73
2336.11
139.22
1.07
4
2424.2
205.1
2608.85
191.54
1.08
5
2476
169.5
2897.9
147.96
1.17
*.B. strip 4&5 are spanning in the y- direction

Analysis of individual strips


SAP result for the solid case is presented for sample
STRIP 1

SFD

BMD
Strip 2

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SFD

STRIP 3
Depth determination (precast case)
Case 1 when one of the edge has no resistance
Punching check for the column E-3 which is located at the edge with maximum axial load

0.4+d
0.4m
0.5
0.2+0.5d
0.7+0.5d

Vac=p-d(0.4+d)(0.7+0.5d)
=1166.3-139.22(0.4+d)(0.7+0.5d)
=1127.32-125.3d-69.61d2
Vres=0.5 fctd (1+50)*(1.8+d)d
=1021.68d+1135.2 *d2
equating vact vres
then d = 0.602m

0.7+d
0.5

0.2+d

For strip 4 case d=191.54KN/m2


Vact=1166.3-191.54(0.4+d)*(0.7+0.5d)
Vact= 112.67-172.4d-95.77d2
Vres ==1021.68d+1135.2 *d2
Equating vact vres then d= 0.6m

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Case when the edge has resistance

0.4+d
0.4+d

Check for the wide beam shear


Maximum wide beam shear =306 KN for strip -1
Vres = 0.3fctd (1+50) bw *d
=0.3*1.043*10^3*1.1*1.15*0.788=312 KN
Vres < vact
ok
So use 0ver all depth of 850mm
d=850-50-12=78

Reinforcement design
moment
Strip-1
364.06
65.72
Strip-2
255.71
113.22
Strip-3
417.34
20.31
Strip-4
215.48
51.95
129.49
75.58
Strip-5
166.46
71.22
89.81
70.72

km

ks

As

spacing

s.provided

1.15
1.15

0.788
0.788

22.58
9.59

3.974
min

1835.70
1812.4

196.71
199.24

20c/c190

2.00
2.00
Strip-3
2.85
2.85

0.788
0.788

14.35
9.55

min
min

3152
3152

199.24
199.24

20c/c190
20c/c190

0.788
0.788

15.36
3.39

min
min

4491.6
4491.6

199.24
199.24

20c/c190
20c/c190

2.27
2.27
2.27
2.27

0.788
0.788
0.788
0.788

12.36
9.585
9.585
7.323

min
min
min
min

3577.52
3577.52
3577.52
3577.52

199.24
199.24
199.24
199.24

20c/c190
20c/c190
20c/c190
20c/c190

3.265
3.265
3.265
3.265

0.788
0.788
0.788
0.788

9.06
5.93
6.66
4.91

min
min
min
min

5145.64
5145.64
5145.64
5145.64

199.24
199.24
199.24
199.24

20c/c190
20c/c190
20c/c190
20c/c190

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Reinforcement design for solid case


moment
Strip-1
436.78
79.06
Strip-2
596.5
142.75
Strip-3
1296.38
113.62
Strip-4
590.95
91.57
96.62
Strip-5
494.10
169.26

Km

Ks

As

spacing

s.provided

1.15
1.15

0.788
0.788

24.73
10.52

3.988
Min

2210.62
1812.4

163
199.24

20c/c160
20c/c190

2.00
2.00

0.788
.788

21.92
8.02

3.9695
Min

3004.302
3152

209
199.24

20c/c190
20c/c190

2.85
2.85

0.788
0.788

27.066
8.01

4.0158
Min

6606.64
4491.6

135.45
199.24

20c/c130
20c/c190

2.27
2.27
2.27

0.788
0.788
0.788

20.48
8.66
8.28

3.96
Min
Min

2969.65
3577.52
3577.52

240
199.24
199.24

20c/c190
20c/c190
20c/c190

3.265
3.265

0.788
0.788

15.61
9.17

Min
Min

5145.64
5145.64

199.24
199.24

20c/c190
20c/c190

The reinforcement detail is attached with AutoCAD

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7. Cost estimation

Solid slab
A-SUB STRUCTURE
1. CO*CRETE WORK
1.10 Reinforced concrete quality C-25, 360
kg of cement/m3, filled into formwork
and vibrated around rod reinforcement
(formwork
and
reinforcement
measured separately)
a) Footing , Grade beam &footing
columen

m2

53.74 1300.00

69,856.80

1.20 Provide, cut and fix in position sawn


zigba wood or steel formwork which
ever appropriate.
a) Footing , Grade beam &footing
columen

m2

384.26

75.00

28,819.50

a) 8-24 mm deformed bar

kg

110.20

26.00

2,865.20

b) 6 mm plain bar

kg

812.44

25.00

20,311.05

1.30 Mild steel reinforcement according to


structural drawings. Price includes
cutting, bending, placing in position
and tying wire and required spacers.

TOTAL CARRIED TO
SUMMARY ....................

121,852.55

B-SUPER STRUCTURE
1. CO*CRETE WORK
1.10 Reinforced concrete quality C-25, 360
kg of cement/m3, filled into formwork
and vibrated around rod reinforcement
(formwork
and
reinforcement
measured separately)
a) floor slabs

b) beams .

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121.97 1250.00

152,462.50

62.19 1250.00

77,742.75
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June 2008

c) columns .

26.61 1250.00

33,262.50

1.20 Provide, cut and fix in position sawn


zigba wood or steel formwork which
ever appropriate.
a) Elevation column, beams & floor
slabs

m2

1250.40

70.00

87,528.00

a) 8-24 mm deformed bar

kg

28873.64

25.00

721,841.00

b) 6 mm plain bar

kg

357.56

26.00

9,296.56

1.30 Mild steel reinforcement according to


structural drawings. Price includes
cutting, bending, placing in position
and tying wire and required spacers.

TOTAL CARRIED TO
SUMMARY ....................

1,082,133.31

Grand total of solid

1,203,989.96

pre-cast ribbed slab


A. super structure
1. CO*CRETE WORK
1.10 Reinforced concrete quality C-25, 360
kg of cement/m3, filled into formwork
and vibrated around rod reinforcement
(formwork
and
reinforcement
measured separately)
a) floor slabs

a1)solid part

m3

17.51 1250.00

21,891.25

a2)cast in situ

m3

51.36 1250.00

64,193.75

a3)beam element

m3

7.76 1250.00

9,700.75

76.17 1250.00

95,212.50

26.29 1250.00

32,862.50

b) beams .

c) columns .

1.20 Class C 200mm thick HCB wall


which can satisfy the designed
strength , bedded in cement mortar
(1:3).Price shall include mortar bed.
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pcs

4992.00

9.60

47,923.20
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1.30 Provide, cut and fix in position sawn


zigba wood or steel formwork which
ever appropriate.
a) Elevation column, beams & floor
slabs

m2

681.86

70.00

47,730.20

a) 8-24 mm deformed bar

kg

26465.95

25.00

661,648.75

b) 6 mm plain bar

kg

1429.20

26.00

37,159.20

1.40 Mild steel reinforcement according to


structural drawings. Price includes
cutting, bending, placing in position
and tying wire and required spacers.

1,018,322.10

TOTAL CARRIED TO SUMMARY

B.sub structure
1. CO*CRETE WORK
1.10 Reinforced concrete quality C-25, 360
kg of cement/m3, filled into formwork
and vibrated around rod reinforcement
(formwork
and
reinforcement
measured separately)
a) Footing , Grade beam &footing
columen

m2

52.78 1300.00

68,608.02

1.20 Provide, cut and fix in position sawn


zigba wood or steel formwork which
ever appropriate.
a) Footing , Grade beam &footing
columen

m2

338.65

75.00

25,398.75

a) 8-24 mm deformed bar

kg

800.69

25.00

20,017.25

b) 6 mm plain bar

kg

110.70

26.00

2,878.20

1.30 Mild steel reinforcement according to


structural drawings. Price includes
cutting, bending, placing in position
and tying wire and required spacers.

TOTAL CARRIED TO SUMMARY

Grand total of pre-cast

Mekelle University, Department of Civil Engineering

116,902.22
1,135,224.32

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Senior project, structural design & cost comparison

June 2008

Conclusion and recommendation


Conclusion
The main aim of the project is to compare the total cost variation of pre-cast and solid slab
systems. To attain this we have done a detail analysis and design for each case. And finally we
have come out with the total cost of each system as shown below.
Total cost(birr)
pre-cast

solid

difference

concrete
work

340,391.97

333,333.95

-7,058.02

reinforcement

721,703.40

754,308.51

32,605.11

73128.95

116347.5

43,218.55

1,135,224.32 1,203,989.96

68,765.64

form-work
total

Total difference = (1,203,989.96-1,135,224.32)*100/(1,203,989.96)=5.7115%


As the above data shows the pre-cast slab type is less-costier than that of solid floor type. And
also it is clear that the major difference is caused by the cost of form-work and reinforcement
instead of concrete cost.
Generally using pre-cast slabs is advantageous by minimizing the construction time, work manship, construction equipment and attaining quality of materials.

Recommendation
The overall works of the building should be inspected and supervised throughout the
entire construction time in order to achieve the design strength.
Care should be taken when handling, casting and placing the precast beam element.
Especially the support condition on construction time must be the same as that of
previously determined arrangement on the design part.
And also it is better to remove application of concentrated force for the precast floor
system, which can cause falling out of the hallow block concrete.
The quality of materials should fulfill the design strength.

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References
 Ethiopian Building Code Standard 1, 2, 3, 7, & 8 1995.
 Gtz technical manual
 Kality steel industry manual of cold framed welded structural & furniture steel tubing

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