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United States Court of Appeals

Tenth Circuit

DEC 23 1997








No. 97-5056


Appeal from the United States District Court
for the Northern District of Oklahoma
(D.C. No. 96-CR-148-K)
Submitted on the briefs:
Michael G. Katz, Federal Public Defender, and Susan L. Foreman, Assistant
Federal Public Defender, Denver, Colorado, for Defendant-Appellant.
Stephen C. Lewis, United States Attorney, and T. Scott Woodward, First Assistant
United States Attorney, Tulsa, Oklahoma, for Plaintiff-Appellee.
Before SEYMOUR, Chief Judge, PORFILIO and MURPHY, Circuit Judges.
SEYMOUR, Chief Judge.

Ray Beshera Fisher, who was indicted along with four others, pled guilty to
one count of conspiracy to commit armed bank robbery in violation of 18 U.S.C.
371 and one count of armed bank robbery in violation of 18 U.S.C. 2113(a) and
(d). The district court sentenced him to 136 months imprisonment followed by
five years of supervised release pursuant to U.S.S.G. 2B3.1. In doing so, the
court added the following enhancements to the base offense level: two levels for
causing a victim bodily harm and two levels for physical restraint of a victim. 1
In addition, the court ordered Mr. Fisher and other co-defendants to each pay
restitution in the amount of $10,282.71. Mr. Fisher asserts on appeal that the
district court improperly increased his sentence for physical restraint of a victim
and improperly ordered him to pay restitution for the entire amount of loss,
including losses for which he was not responsible. We affirm. 2

The relevant facts are as follows. Coconspirators asked Mr. Fisher to
drive them to a bank in a Jeep Cherokee. En route, Mr. Fisher learned that the
The district court added other enhancements, none of which is at issue in
this appeal.

After examining the briefs and appellate record, this panel has determined
unanimously that oral argument would not materially assist the determination of
this appeal. See Fed. R. App. P. 34(a); 10th Cir. R. 34.1.9. The cause is
therefore ordered submitted without oral argument.


Jeep had been stolen and that the purpose of the trip was to rob the bank.
Coconspirators entered the bank, leaving Mr. Fisher outside with a childs walkietalkie to warn them if anything went wrong. Inside the bank, one coconspirator
hit a security guard on the head with a stolen firearm and then held the gun to the
guards head as the other coconspirators jumped the teller counter and took
$9,657.00. Mr. Fisher later received approximately $700.00 as his share of the
robbery proceeds. He did not participate in the original theft of the Jeep or the
Under the guidelines for robbery, U.S.S.G. 2B3.1, the district court set
Mr. Fishers base offense level at 20. The court then added the following
fourteen levels for specific offense characteristics under U.S.S.G. 2B3.1(b)(1)
to (5): two for the taking of financial institution property; seven because a
firearm was discharged; two because the security guard sustained bodily injury;
two because the guard was physically restrained; and one because a firearm was
taken from the guard during the robbery. Mr. Fisher contends on appeal that the
district court improperly determined the security guard had been physically
restrained within the meaning of the sentencing guidelines, and that the court
erred in setting the amount of restitution. We address each argument in turn.


The facts underlying the conviction are undisputed. We therefore review
de novo the district courts application of the sentencing guidelines. See United
States v. Roberts, 898 F.2d 1465, 1469 (10th Cir. 1990).
The guideline governing robbery sets forth a variety of offense
characteristics allowing enhancement of the base sentence. A sentence may be
increased two levels for conduct resulting in bodily injury to a victim, U.S.S.G.
2B3.1(b)(3), or for conduct resulting in physical restraint of a victim to facilitate
the crime, U.S.S.G. 2B3.1(b)(4). Mr. Fisher argues that the conduct underlying
the striking of the security guard with the firearm was improperly double-counted
because the act of hitting someone with a gun necessarily requires that the gun
will be held to that person at some point. We disagree.
The application instructions accompanying the sentencing guidelines
contemplate cumulative application of the enhancements for specific offense
The offense level adjustments from more than one specific offense
characteristic within an offense guideline are cumulative (added
together) unless the guideline specifies that only the greater (or
greatest) is to be used. Within each specific offense characteristic
subsection, however, the offense level adjustments are alternative;
only the one that best describes the conduct is to be used.


U.S.S.G. 1B1.1, comment. (n.4). 3 Impermissible double counting or cumulative

occurs when the same conduct on the part of the defendant is used
to support separate increases under separate enhancement provisions
which necessarily overlap, are indistinct, and serve identical
United States v. Blake, 59 F.3d 138, 140 (10th Cir. 1995) (quoting United States
v. Flinn, 18 F.3d 826, 829 (10th Cir. 1994)).
The same or similar conduct may justify the application of more than one
enhancement where more than one discrete effect emanates from the conduct.
[N]o double counting occurs where, although the conduct underlying the two
enhancements is the same, a single guideline provision requires the district court
to increase the defendants sentence based on different aspects of the defendants
conduct. United States v. Perkins, 89 F.3d 303, 310 (6th Cir. 1996). Here, Mr.
Fishers sentence was increased because the guard was physically restrained with
the gun and because, either separately or in the process, he suffered bodily injury.
Mr. Fisher argues that since he received a seven-level enhancement for
discharge of a firearm under 2B3.1(b)(2)(A), the two-level increase for
otherwise using the firearm to physically restrain a victim is barred by the rule
requiring that only the category that best describes the conduct be applied. Mr.
Fishers argument is misplaced. The district court increased Mr. Fishers
sentence by two levels for using the firearm to effect a physical restraint of the
security guard pursuant to 2B3.1(b)(4)(B), a separate subcategory of offense
characteristics, not for otherwise using the firearm pursuant to
2B3.1(b)(2)(B). In this regard, use of the firearm was incidental to its result -that being physical restraint -- as we discuss infra.


Moreover, in this case, the conduct warranting the physical restraint enhancement
was actually distinct from the conduct supporting the bodily injury enhancement
in that the coconspirator struck the security guard with the gun and then
restrained him by holding the gun to his head for a period longer than it took to
strike him. See id.
Mr. Fisher next argues that the enhancement for physical restraint
constituted double-counting because the effort to dissuade the guard from moving
and interfering with the robbery by holding a gun to his head added nothing to the
basic crime of robbery and thus had already been counted in the base offense
level. On this theory, the coconspirators conduct in holding the gun to the
guards head is subsumed in the crime of robbery because all robbery involves a
taking by force. Once again, we disagree.
It is well established that physical restraint is not an element of the
offense of robbery. United States v. Rosario, 7 F.3d 319, 321 (2d Cir. 1993).
Robbery need not involve a physical holding, and one can envision various types
of robberies involving no restraint at all. United States v. Mikalajunas, 936 F.2d
153, 156 (4th Cir. 1991). The enhancement for physical restraint is applicable
when the defendant uses force to impede others from interfering with commission
of the offense. See Rosario, 7 F.3d at 321 (Rosario facilitated the commission of
the offense in that the victim could do nothing about [his] situation because of

the physical restraint. Facilitation of the offense is the added something which
justifies the imposition of the physical restraint enhancement.) (citations
Although Mr. Fisher argues that restraint occurs only when a victim is
either physically touched or forced to do something at gunpoint, we reject this
limitation. Physical restraint is not limited to physical touching of the victim.
See United States v. Doubet, 969 F.2d 341, 346 (7th Cir. 1992). Rather, physical
restraint occurs whenever a victim is specifically prevented at gunpoint from
moving, thereby facilitating the crime. See id. at 346-47; United States v. Jones,
32 F.3d 1512, 1519 (11th Cir. 1994); United States v. Thompson, 109 F.3d 639,
641 (9th Cir. 1997). Keeping someone from doing something is inherent within
the concept of restraint, and in this case one coconspirator deliberately kept the
security guard at bay by pointing a gun directly at his head while two others
looted the teller counter. See, e.g., United States v. Foppe, 993 F.2d 1444, 1452
(9th Cir. 1993) (The dictionary defines restraint as (1) the act of holding back
from some activity or (2) by means of force, an act that checks free activity or
otherwise controls.) (citation omitted); United States v. Robinson, 20 F.3d 270,
279 (7th Cir. 1994) (spraying of mace effected physical restraint because it
prevented the victim from chasing after robber and impeded victims movement


for some time). The district court properly applied the two-level increase for
physical restraint.

Mr. Fisher also appeals the district courts order of restitution contending
the court erred by ordering restitution in an amount that exceeded the total loss
and by holding Mr. Fisher accountable for the theft of the Jeep for which he was
not responsible. Because Mr. Fisher did not object to the order of restitution at
sentencing, we review it for plain error. See Fed. R. Crim. P. 52(b); United States
v. Lampley, No. 96-7074, 1997 WL 644459, at *2 (10th Cir. Oct. 20, 1997).
It is true that the sentencing court may not order restitution in an amount
greater than the total loss caused. See United States v. Arutunoff, 1 F.3d 1112,
1121 (10th Cir. 1993). Here, although coconspirators were also ordered to repay
the full amount of the loss, the Judgment and Sentence specifies that payment
shall not exceed the compensable injury. There was thus no error.
With respect to the Jeep, we find nothing in the record to indicate that the
district court committed error that was particularly egregious, obvious, or
substantial, the plain error standard, in determining the amount to be paid for
the damage to the Jeep. See United States v. Gilkey, 118 F.3d 702, 704 (10th Cir.
1997). Moreover, a disputed question of fact is deemed waived if not raised

below. See id.; United States v. Ciapponi, 77 F.3d 1247, 1252 (10th Cir.), cert.
denied, 116 S. Ct. 1839 (1996). Inasmuch as the amount assessed for the theft of
the Jeep, as opposed to the damage subsequently done to it, is a disputed fact
question we decline to address it.
We AFFIRM Mr. Fishers sentence and the order of restitution.