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Tomahawk (missile)

BGM-109G Ground Launched Cruise Missile

(GLCM) with a W84 nuclear warhead; withdrawn
from service in 1991.

For the sounding rocket, see TE-416 Tomahawk.

The Tomahawk (US /tmhk/ or UK /tmhk/) is
a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile named
after the Native American axe. Introduced by McDonnell
Douglas in the 1970s, it was initially designed as a
medium to long-range, low-altitude missile that could
be launched from a surface platform. It has been improved several times, and due to corporate divestitures
and acquisitions, is now made by Raytheon. Some Tomahawks were also manufactured by General Dynamics
(now Boeing Defense, Space & Security).[3][4]

AGM-109H/L Medium Range Air to Surface Missile (MRASM) a shorter range, turbojet powered
ASM with cluster munitions ; never entered service,
cost US$569,000 (1999).[5]
Ground-launched cruise missiles (GLCM) and their
truck-like launch vehicles were employed at bases in
Europe; they were withdrawn from service to comply with the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces
Treaty. Many of the anti-ship versions were converted
into TLAMs at the end of the Cold War. The Block
III TLAMs that entered service in 1993 can y farther
and use Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to
strike more precisely. Block III TLAM-Cs retain the
DSMAC II navigation system, allowing GPS only missions, which allow for rapid mission planning, with some
reduced accuracy, DSMAC only missions, which take
longer to plan but terminal accuracy is somewhat better, and GPS aided missions which combine both DSMAC II and GPS navigation which provides the greatest
accuracy. Block IV TLAMs are completely redesigned
with an improved turbofan engine. The F107-402 engine provided the new BLK III with a throttle control,
allowing in-ight speed changes. This engine also provided better fuel economy. The Block IV TLAMs have
enhanced deep-strike capabilities and are equipped with
a real-time targeting system for striking eeting targets.
Additionally, the BLOCK IV missiles have the capabilities to be re-targeted inight, and the ability to transmit,
via satcom, an image immediately prior to impact to assist in determining if the missile was attacking the target
and the likely damage from the attack.


The Tomahawk missile family consists of a number of

subsonic, jet engine-powered missiles designed to attack a variety of surface targets. Although a number of
launch platforms have been deployed or envisaged, only
sea (both surface ship and submarine) launched variants
are currently in service. Tomahawk has a modular design,
allowing a wide variety of warhead, guidance, and range


There have been several variants of the BGM-109 Tomahawk employing various types of warheads.
BGM-109A Tomahawk Land Attack Missile
Nuclear (TLAM-A) with a W80 thermonuclear
weapon. Retired from service sometime between
2010 and 2013.[2]
RGM/UGM-109B Tomahawk Anti Ship Missile
(TASM) active radar homing anti-ship missile
variant; withdrawn from service in the 1990s.

3 Upgrades

A major improvement to the Tomahawk is network BGM-109C Tomahawk Land Attack Missile Con- centric warfare-capabilities, using data from multiple senventional (TLAM-C) with a unitary warhead. This sors (aircraft, UAVs, satellites, foot soldiers, tanks, ships)
to nd its target. It will also be able to send data from its
was initially a modied Bullpup warhead.
sensors to these platforms. It will be a part of the net BGM-109D Tomahawk Land Attack Missile Dis- worked force being implemented by the Pentagon.
penser (TLAM-D) with cluster munitions.
The Tactical Tomahawk takes advantage of a loitering
RGM/UGM-109E Tomahawk Land Attack Mis- feature in the missiles ight path and allows commanders
sile (TLAM Block IV) improved version of the to redirect the missile to an alternative target, if required.
It can be reprogrammed in-ight to attack predesignated


shipboard launch tubes. Instead of modifying every ship

able to carry cruise missiles, the ramjet-powered Tomahawk would still have to t within a 21-inch diameter and
20-foot long tube.[9]

4 Launch systems

UGM-109 Tomahawk missile detonates above a test target, 1986

targets with GPS coordinates stored in its memory or to

any other GPS coordinates. Also, the missile can send
data about its status back to the commander. It entered
service with the US Navy in late 2004. The Tactical Tomahawk Weapons Control System (TTWCS) added the capability for limited mission planning on board the ring
unit (FRU).

Each missile is stored and launched from a pressurized

canister[13] that protects it during transportation and storage and acts as a launch tube. These canisters were racked
in Armored Box Launchers (ABL), which were installed
on the re-activated Iowa class battleships USS Iowa, USS
New Jersey, USS Missouri, and USS Wisconsin. The
ABLs were also installed on eight Spruance class destroyers, the four Virginia class cruisers, and the USS Long
Beach. These canisters are also in Vertical launching systems (VLS) in other surface ships, Capsule Launch Systems (CLS) in the later Los Angeles class submarines, and
in submarines torpedo tubes. All ABL equipped ships
have been decommissioned.

In 2012, the USN studied applying Advanced Anti- For submarine-launched missiles (called UGM-109s), afRadiation Guided Missile (AARGM) technology into the ter being ejected by gas pressure (vertically via the VLS)
Tactical Tomahawk.[6]
or by water impulse (horizontally via the torpedo tube),
In February 2014, the U.S. Navy began working on a the missile exits the water and a solid-fuel booster is igbunker-busting warhead for the Tomahawk. Called the nited for the rst few seconds of airborne ight until tranJoint Multi-Eects Warhead System (JMEWS), it would sition to cruise.
weigh 3,500 lb (1,600 kg) and be compatible with exist- After achieving ight, the missiles wings are unfolded
ing Block IV missiles.[7]
for lift, the airscoop is exposed and the turbofan engine
In 2014, Raytheon began testing Block IV improvements is employed for cruise ight. Over water, the Tomahawk
to attack sea and moving land targets.[8] The new passive uses inertial guidance or GPS to follow a preset course;
radar seeker will passively pick up the electromagnetic once over land, the missiles guidance system is aided by
radar signature of a target and follow it, and actively send Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM). Terminal guidout a signal to bounce o potential targets before impact ance is provided by the Digital Scene Matching Area Corto discriminate its legitimacy before impact.[7] Mounting relation (DSMAC) system or GPS, producing a claimed
the multi-mode sensor on the missiles nose would re- Circular error probable of about 10 meters.
move fuel space, but company ocials believe the Navy
would be willing to give up space for the sensors new
technologies.[9] The new seeker could make the Tomahawk a candidate for the U.S. Navys Oensive AntiSurface Warfare (OASuW) Increment II requirement.
The previous Tomahawk Anti-Ship Missile, retired over
a decade ago, was equipped with inertial guidance and
the seeker of the Harpoon (missile) and there was concern with its ability to clearly discriminate between targets from a long distance, which would be more reliable with the new seekers passive detection and active
millimeter-wave radar;[10] the Tomahawk would likely
compete against a version of the Lockheed Martin Long
Range Anti-Ship Missile for ship-launched needs.[11]
Raytheon is planning to oer to perform the upgrades as
the older Block IVs are brought back to the factory for
recertication around 2018.[12]
A supersonic version of the Tomahawk is under consideration for development with a ramjet to increase its speed
to Mach 3. A limiting factor to this is the dimensions of

The Tomahawk Weapon System consists of the missile,

Theater Mission Planning Center (TMPC)/Aoat Planning System, and either the Tomahawk Weapon Control
System (on surface ships) or Combat Control System (for
Several versions of control systems have been used, including:
v2 TWCS Tomahawk Weapon Control System
(1983), also known as green screens, was based
on an old tank computing system.
v3 ATWCS Advanced Tomahawk Weapon Control System (1994), rst Commercial O the Shelf,
uses HP-UX.
v4 TTWCS Tactical Tomahawk Weapon Control
System, (2003).
v5 TTWCS Next Generation Tactical Tomahawk
Weapon Control System. (2006)


United States Navy

Launch of a Tactical Tomahawk cruise missile from

the USS Stethem.
The USS Missouri launching a Tomahawk missile.
Submarine launch from USS Florida.
Launch trajectory from an Arleigh Burke class destroyer.

Navigation and other details

Tomahawk operators

The TLAM-D contains 166 sub-munitions in 24 canisters; 22 canisters of seven each, and two canisters of six
each to conform to the dimensions of the airframe. The
sub-munitions are the same type of Combined Eects
Munition bomblet used in large quantities by the U.S.
Air Force with the CBU-87 Combined Eects Munition.
The sub-munitions canisters are dispensed two at a time,
one per side. The missile can perform up to ve separate
target segments which enables it to attack multiple targets. However, in order to achieve a sucient density of
coverage typically all 24 canisters are dispensed sequentially from back to front.
TERCOM Terrain Contour Matching. A digital representation of an area of terrain is mapped based on digital
terrain elevation data or stereo imagery. This map is then
inserted into a TLAM mission which is then loaded on
to the missile. When the missile is in ight it compares
the stored map data with radar altimeter data collected
as the missile overies the map. Based on comparison
results the missiles inertial navigation system is updated
and the missile corrects its course. TERCOM was based
on, and was a signicant improvement on, Fingerprint,
a technology developed in 1964 for the SLAM.[14]
On July 26, 2014 it was announced that 196 additional Remnants of a shot down Tomahawk from Operation Allied
Force, showing the turbofan engine at the Museum of Aviation
Block IV missiles had been purchased.[15]
DSMAC Digital Scene Matching Area Correlation. A
digitized image of an area is mapped and then inserted
into a TLAM mission. During the ight the missile will
verify that the images that it has stored correlates with the
image it sees below itself. Based on comparison results
the missiles inertial navigation system is updated and the
missile corrects its course.
Total program cost: $US 11,210,000,000[16]



United States Navy

In the 1991 Gulf War, 288 Tomahawks were

launched, 12 from submarines and 276 from surface ships.[17] The rst salvo was red by the cruiser
USS San Jacinto on January 17, 1991. The attack

in Belgrade, Serbia.

submarines USS Pittsburgh and USS Louisville followed.

On 26 June 1993, 23 Tomahawks were red at the
Iraqi Intelligence Services command and control
On 10 September 1995, the USS Normandy
launched 13 Tomahawk missiles from the central
Adriatic Sea against a key air defense radio relay
tower in Bosnian Serb territory during Operation
Deliberate Force.
On 3 September 1996, 44 cruise missiles between
UGM-109 and B-52 launched AGM-86s, were red
at air defence targets in Southern Iraq.
On 20 August 1998, around 75 Tomahawk missiles
were red simultaneously to two separate target ar-


eas in Afghanistan and Sudan in retaliation to the missiles were acquired and test-red in November 1998;
bombings of American embassies by Al-Qaeda.
all Royal Navy eet submarines are now Tomahawk capable, including the new Astute-class.[29][30][31][32] The
On 16 December 1998, Tomahawk missiles were Kosovo War in 1999 saw the Swiftsure-class HMS Splenred at key Iraqi targets in during Operation Desert did become the rst British submarine to re the TomaFox.
hawk in combat. It has been reported that seventeen of
In spring 1999, 218 Tomahawk missiles were the twenty Tomahawks red by the British during that
red by US ships and a British submarine during conict hit their targets accurately; the UK subsequently
Operation Allied Force against key targets in Serbia bought 20 more Block III to replenish stocks.
and Montenegro.
Afghanistan War, in Operation Telic as the British conIn October 2001, approximately 50 Tomahawk mis- tribution to the 2003 Iraq War, and during Operation Elsiles struck targets in Afghanistan in the opening lamy in Libya in 2011.
hours of Operation Enduring Freedom.
In April 2004, the UK and US governments reached an
During the 2003 invasion of Iraq, more than 802 agreement for the British to buy 64 of the new genertomahawk missiles were red at key Iraqi targets.[18] ation of Tomahawk missilethe Block IV or TacTom
missile.[34] It entered service with the Royal Navy on 27
On 17 December 2009, two Tomahawk missiles March 2008, three months ahead of schedule.[35] In July
were red at targets in Yemen.[19] One of the tar- 2014 the US approved the sale to the UK of a further 65
gets was hit by a TLAM-D missile. The target was submarine-launched Block IVs at a cost of US$140m indescribed as an 'alleged Al-Qaeda training camp' cluding spares and support;[36] as of 2011 the Block III
in al-Majalah in al-Mahfad a region of the Abyan missiles were on Britains books at 1.1m and the Block
governorate of Yemen. Amnesty International re- IV at 0.87m including VAT.[37]
ported that 55 people were killed in the attack, including 41 civilians (21 children, 14 women, and six The Sylver Vertical Launching System on the new Type
men). The US and Yemen governments refused to 45 destroyer is claimed by its manufacturers to have
conrm or deny involvement, but diplomatic cables the capability to re the Tomahawk, although the A50
released as part of United States diplomatic cables launcher carried by Type 45 is too short for the weapon
leak later conrmed the missile was red by a US (the longer A70 silo would be required). Nevertheless,
Type 45 has been designed with weight and space marNavy ship.[20]
gin for a strike-length Mk41 or Sylver A70 silo to be
On 19 March 2011, 124 Tomahawk missiles[21] retrotted, allowing Type 45 to use TLAM Block IV if
were red by U.S. and British forces (112 US, 12 required, and the new Type 26 frigates will have strikeBritish)[22] against at least 20 Libyan targets around length VLS tubes. SYLVER user France is developing
Tripoli and Misrata.[23] As of 22 March 2011, 159 MdCN, a version of the Storm Shadow/Scalp cruise misUGM-109 were red by US and UK ships against sile that has a shorter range but a higher speed than Tomahawk and can be launched from the SYLVER system.
Libyan targets.[24]

On 23 September 2014, 47 Tomahawk missiles

were red by the United States from the USS Arleigh
Burke and USS Philippine Sea, which were operating
from international waters in the Red Sea and Persian Gulf, against ISIL targets in Syria in the vicinity of Ar-Raqqah, Deir ez-Zor, Al-Hasakah and AlBukamal,[25] and against Khorasan group targets in
Syria west of Aleppo.[26]

6.3 United States Air Force

Main article: BGM-109G Ground Launched Cruise
The USAF is a former operator of the nuclear-armed version of the Tomahawk, the BGM-109G Gryphon.

The United States Navy has a stockpile of around

3,500 Tomahawk cruise missiles of all variants, with
a combined worth of approximately US $2.6 billion. 6.4

Other users

Tomahawk production for the United States Navy The Netherlands (2005) and Spain (2002 and 2005)
is scheduled to end in Fiscal Year 2015,[27] with a were interested in acquiring the Tomahawk system,
replacement entering service a decade later.[28]
but the orders were later cancelled in 2007 and 2009


Royal Navy

In 2009 the Congressional Commission on the Strategic

Posture of the United States stated that Japan would be
In 1995 the US agreed to sell 65 Tomahawks to the UK concerned if the TLAM-N were retired, but the governfor torpedo-launch from her nuclear submarines. The rst ment of Japan has denied that it had expressed any such

It is believed that the SLCM version of the Popeye was
developed by Israel after the US Clinton administration
refused an Israeli request in 2000 to purchase Tomahawk SLCMs because of international MTCR proliferation rules.[41]
As of March 12, 2015 Poland has expressed interest in
purchasing long-range Tomahawk missiles for its future


Babur (cruise missile)

UGM-89 Perseus
ArcLight (missile)
Scalp Naval (missile)

9 References
[1] United States Department Of Defense Fiscal Year 2015
Budget Request Program Acquisition Cost By Weapon
System (PDF). Oce Of The Under Secretary Of Defense (Comptroller)/ Chief Financial Ocer. March
2014. p. 65.

As of 2014, the U.S. Navy is seeking a replacement

for the Tomahawk, the Next-Generation Land Attack
Weapon, which shall have increased lethality and sur- [2] Kristensen, Hans M. (March 18, 2013). US Navy Instruction Conrms Retirement of Nuclear Tomahawk
vivability; options include Tomahawk improvements or a
Cruise Missile. Strategic Security. Federation of Amerinew weapon. The Navy is developing a surface-launched
can Scientists. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
version of the air-launched Long Range Anti-Ship Missile, aiming to defeat enemy air defenses using sensors [3] "McDonnell Douglas: History New Markets, Boeing
history website.
and autonomous ight. A future version of the LRASM
may include several vendors, but Lockheed Martin has
been the principal developer and is investing funds to de- [4] "Raytheon Tomahawk Cruise Missile, Raytheon Tomahawk Evolution Handout.
velop and test an LRASM that can be launched from vertical launch systems on Navy ships.[43] The Navy believes [5] The US Navy - Fact File
its inventory of 4,000 Tomahawk missiles are sucient
for future scenarios, so production is planned to end af- [6] Viability Study associated with Advanced AntiRadiation Guided Missile.
ter 2016, relying on stocks until the next-generation landattack weapon is developed; Raytheon opposes this ac[7] Navy Wants Its Tomahawks to Bust More Bunkers - Detion, claiming that Tomahawk production takes over 100
fensetech.org, 14 February 2014
suppliers in 24 US states, and that restarting production
could take two years and increase costs. It could take up [8] Swim, Rocket, Fly and Hunt: Navys Morphing Missile
Gets New Abilities.
to a decade for a replacement to be elded, during which
time Tomahawk stocks may potentially be depleted.
The Navys FY 2016 budget supports a new Next Gener- [9] Facing End of Tomahawk Production, Raytheon Plays
Industrial Base Card - Nationaldefensemagazine.org, 2
ation Strike Capability (NGSC) eort, which combines
April 2014
the Next-Generation Land Attack Weapon with the Offensive Anti-Surface Warfare (OASuW) Increment II ef- [10] New Seeker Could Put Tomahawk In Long-Range AntiShip Missile Race - Aviationweek.com, 12 November
fort to procure a new anti-ship missile. NGSC could ei2014
ther be a common weapon or a family of weapons, but
the goal is to use technologies across multiple mission
[11] Arming New Platforms Will Push Up Value Of Missiles
Market - Aviationweek.com, 5 January 2015

See also
List of missiles
3M-54 Klub
Raduga Kh-55

[12] MEHTA, AARON (16 July 2014). Raytheon Targeting

Tomahawk of the Future. www.defensenews.com (Gannett Government Media). Retrieved 18 July 2014.
[13] GAO (October 1997). Test and evaluation impact of
DOD. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 978-1428979291. Retrieved 2013-08-30.
[14] SLAM Supersonic Low-Altitude Missile. GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved January 25, 2014.
[15] http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2014/07/26/
[16] FAS - BGM-109 Tomahawk

[17] Robinson, John (5 September 1996). Tomahawk launch

breaks submarine silence. Defense Daily. Retrieved 23
May 2015 via HighBeam Research. (subscription required (help)).
[18] BGM-109 Tomahawk - Smart Weapons



[38] No Tomahawks for defence, jets up for sale - New Europe

[40] Japanese Government Rejects TLAM/N Claim

[19] Cruise Missiles Strike Yemen - ABC News. Abcnews.go.com (2009-12-18). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.


[20] Landmine monitor, US 2011 report.

[43] Navy Seeks Next Generation Tomahawk - DoDBuzz.com,

27 March 2014

[21] Live blog: allied airstrikes continue against Gadha

forces. CNN. 2011-03-20.
[22] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/
[23] U.S. launches rst missiles against Gadha forces. CNN.
[24] U.S. aviators rescued; Gadha remains deant. CNN.
11 May 2011.
[25] Sept. 23: U.S. Military, Partner Nations Conduct
Airstrikes Against ISIL in Syria. http://www.centcom.
mil/en''. 23 Sep 2014. Retrieved 23 Sep 2014.
[26] Al-Qaeda Khorasan cell in Syria attack 'was imminent'".
http://www.bbc.com/news/''. 23 Sep 2014. Retrieved 23
Sep 2014.
[27] Obama to kill Navys Tomahawk, Hellre missile programs in budget decimation news.
[28] McGrath, Bryan (March 25, 2014). This is What
Assumption of Additional Risk Looks Like. www.
informationdissemination.net. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
[29] Astute Class Submarines. BAE Systems Maritime Submarines. BAE Systems. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
[30] New Royal Navy Submarine Fires First Tomahawk Missiles Across North American Skies. Royal Navy/MOD.
Retrieved 12 November 2013.
[31] Awesome Astute surpassed every expectation on her
toughest test yet. Royal Navy/MOD. Retrieved 12
November 2013.
[32] Astute on show in the worlds biggest naval base. Royal
Navy/MOD. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
[33] http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm199899/
[34] http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200304/
[35] Royal Navy - World-Class Missile Achieves In-Service
[36] United Kingdom - Tomahawk Block IV Torpedo
Launched Land-Attack Missiles. Defense Security Cooperation Agency. 1 July 2014.
[37] Daily Hansard - Written Answers to Questions. UK Parliament. 17 May 2011.

[44] Proposed halt of Tomahawk missile buys raises concerns

at Raytheon - Azstarnet.com, 13 April 2014
[45] F-35Cs Cut Back As U.S. Navy Invests In Stando
Weapons - Aviationweek.com, 3 February 2015

10 External links
Raytheon Ocial site for the Tomahawk missile


Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


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DN-SC-86-06115 and DN-SC-86-06115 Original artist: USN


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