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Concepts
Solving systems of equations

Solving by graphing
Solving by substitution
Solving by elimination
Word problems

Expansion and simplification

Factoring
Special Products

Solving by graphing
Solving by factoring

Graphing functions
Sketching parabolas
Parabolic properties
Word problems

Trigonometry

Trigonometric ratios
Solving right triangles
Problems involving two right triangles
Sine law
Cosine law
Word problems

Analytic geometry

Line segment length

Midpoints of line segments

Verifying geometric properties

Distances from points to lines

Solving Systems of equations

Numerical Problems
1. {

How to solve by graphing

i. Change to y=mx+b form
ii. Graph the y-intercept
iii. Find the next points using the slope
iv. Repeat for other lines

How to solve by substitution

i. Isolate one of the variables (one with the lowest co-efficient usually works best)
ii. Divide both sides by the co-efficient of the isolated variable
iii. Substitute that value into the same variable in the other equation
iv. Find the value of the other variable and then write: (x,y)

How to solve by elimination

i. Multiply both equations by their factor in the lowest common variable
ii. Add or subtract one from the other so you eliminate the equal variables
iii. Calculate the value of the remaining variable
iv. Substitute the value of that variable to find the value of the other
)
v. Write as (

2. {

3. {

Word problems
4. There are ninety coins, consisting of quarters and loonies, total \$42, how many of each type of
coin are there?
Begin with the let then statement
In this case, let x represent the number of quarters, and y represents the number of
loonies. Then, {

Then simplify both equations, in this case, only the second can be simplified
{

Then you solve the system of equation, by whatever means easiest (or required)

Then substitute the value of y (in this case) into the other equation

There are 24 Loonies and 66 quarters

5. Amy travels 1860km in 6.5h, partly by car at 80km/h and the rest by plane at 750km/h, how did
she travel by each mode
Let x represent the amount of time she travelled the amount of time she travelled by car
and y the amount of time she travelled by plane. Then, {

(
)

Amy travelled 4.5 hours by car and 2 hours by plane

6. Carol invests \$25000, partly in low-risk bonds at 4% and the rest in a stock that she thinks will
earn 8%. If she expects to earn \$1280 interest, how much did she invest at each rate?
Let x represent the amount of money invested in bonds and y the amount of money
invested in stocks. Then, {

(
)

100000-4y+8y=128000

(
)
Then substitute the value of y into the first equation

Carol invested 18000 in bonds and 7000 in stocks

7. Barb ran 100 meters with the wind in 20 seconds and against the wind in25 seconds, find barbs
running speed and the wind speed
Let x represent the speed she travelled with the wind and y the wind speed

simplify

. /

Polynomials and factoring

8.

9.

(
)
Expand then simplify
Write each term within the brackets as multiplied by the terms outside of those
brackets
)
(
)
4 (
(
)
Then multiply

Combine like terms (if any)

Factor
Extract the greatest common factor
In this case, the greatest common factor is
(
)

Then find two factors of the final term 12 that add up to the coefficient of the middle
term, -8. -2 and -6 work, so substitute them into the expression in place of -8a

)
Then group the terms
, (
(

) ( ))( )

Factor difference of squares

Take the square roots of the two terms. In brackets, add them together, and in another set
of brackets, subtract the square root of the negative term (
) from the positive one
(
)
(
)(

Factor

Group the terms, as appropriate. 12vw can be grouped with -8w, the greatest common
factor being 4w, and 15v with -10, the greatest common factor being 5.

( )
( )
Take the two coefficients in questions like this, theyre the terms outside the brackets
and put them in a bracket together
(
)(
)

Factor

Find two factors of -40 that add up to -6

-10 and 4 work, so substitute those into the expression in place of -6d

Group the terms: (

)(

)
Factor (Difference of squares)

Factor out (
)
Theres a difference of squares in the bracket
(

)(

)
Factor (Trinomial factoring)

Multiply the coefficient of the first term, 6, by the coefficient of the last term, -4, which
gives
-24. Note that you always multiply the coefficient of the first term by the 3rd, but
often the coefficient is 1 and in that case it makes no difference.
Find two factors of -24 that add up to 5. -3 and 8 work, so substitute those in place of +5ab.
5ab

Group

( )
( )(

(
)

Factor out the greatest common factor, ab

(
)
Find two terms that add to 1 and multiply to -12. -3 and 4 work, so substitute them in

(
, ( )
( )(

)
( ))
Factor (difference of squares)

Factor out the greatest common factor, 11, to get: (

)
You have a difference of squares in the brackets, which can be simplified:

)(

)(

Factor

Factor (Trinomial factoring)

Multiply the coefficients of the first and last terms to get -48, then solve normally; find two
factors that multiply to -48 and add to 22. -24 and 2 work out, so substitute them in, then
group.

(
)
(
)
(
)(
)
10. A box has a length of x centimeters, find the volume and surface area if width is 4 cm shorter
than the length and the height is 3 times the length
First calculate for the volume

(
)

(
)(
)

(
)
11. Find the area between the two rectangles with dimensions
To calculate this, you must subtract the area OF smaller rectangle from the area of the
larger rectangle
(
)(
) (
)(
)

Solving for X intercepts

1.

solve by factoring
You have a difference of squares, so the equation can be turned into
(3a + 4) (3a 4) = 0
To solve by factoring, you must determine the two possible answers
One of those factors has to equal 0
If 3a + 4 = 0, then 3a = - 4, and a = -4/3
If 3a -4 = 0 , then 3a = 4, and a = 4/3
The two possible answers are a = -4/3 and a = 4/3

Trinomial factoring
Multiply the 3rd term by the co-efficient of the first, then determine the two numbers
that multiply to that number and add to the 2nd term
In this case (
)
You would re-write the equation as:
)
(
)
Then separate the first two terms and the last two terms (
This then becomes (
)(
)=0
To solve by factoring, you must determine the two possible answers
One of those factors has to equal 0
If
, then
If
, then
The two possible answers are 8 and 5

Trinomial factoring
Multiply the 3rd term by the co-efficient of the first, then determine the two numbers
that multiply to that number and add to the 2nd term
)
In this case (
You would re write the equation as:
)
(
)
Then separate the first two and last two terms as (
)(
)
This becomes (
To solve by factoring, you must determine the two possible answers
One of those factors has to equal 0
If
, then

If

The two possible answers are -2 and -2/3

, then

Trinomial factoring
Multiply the 3rd term by the co-efficient of the first, then determine the two numbers
that multiply to that number and add to the 2nd term
)
In this case (
You would re write the equation as:
)
(
)
Then separate the first two and last two terms as (
)(
)
This becomes (
To solve by factoring, you must determine the two possible answers
One of those factors has to equal 0
If
, then
If
, then
The two possible answers are 8 and -2

You have a difference of squares, factor out the GCF in this case (x)
( )(
)=0
To solve by factoring, you must determine the two possible answers
One of those factors has to equal 0

would be obvious
If

, then

A quadratic equation is written as

If you notice, the value of the variable x is the negative of the co-efficient of the second
term plus or minus the square root of three squared minus four times the co-efficient of
the first term minus the last divided by twice the co-efficient of the first term

and

( )
( )

Graphing functions
A function is a set of ordered pairs for each value of x there is only one for y
To find a function one would conduct a vertical line test which will only intersect one point on the line
A relation will have multiple points,
A quadratic function will have a degree of ,
or
Parabola
Basic function
Can draw table of values, randomly select values of x and see their relation to y
Parabola

-3

18

-2

-1

18

Y=ax^2
If a is more than one the parabola will be stretched vertically
What if we then have a fraction for a (much smaller number?)
x

-3

-2

1.3

-1

0.3

0.3

1.3

Y=-x^2
x
Y
-3

-9

-2

-4

-1

-1

-1

-4

-9

Domain (X values) and range (Y values)

The X value can only happen once, if it happens multiple times, it is not a function.
The vertical line test, Take a ruler and make sure it never hits the line more than one time
(
)

Functions
Domain: the domain states what x can be, and is written as:
*

This says; the domain of x is any real number, and must be equal to or less than two
Range: the range states what y is and can be written as:

Either of these can display the value of x as *

The vertex: The point where both sides of the function come to a point and is written (_, _)
Opening: where the function appears to open to, can be up or down.
Stretched: when a function has an integer co-efficient of x, ex:
Compressed: when a function has a fractional co-efficient of x, ex:
The scale factor: the co-efficient of x, can be an integer or a fraction

, the two stretches the line

The y-intercept: pretty self-explanatory, the point where the line intersects the y axis, usually takes the
form of the variable K.
The x intercepts: the points where the line intersects the x axis, if they intersect the y axis at a positive
point, this will be non-existent (written as none), is written as an ordered pair.

Types of equations you may come across

The equations on the test should come across as:

Practice
Equation

vertex

opening

Stretched
compressed

Scale
factor

y-intercept

X-intercept

range

Domain

Analytic geometry Review sheet

In grade 10 analytic geometry, the few concepts in the course and their formulas are:
Finding lengths of line segments

) (

Standard Form

Distances from points to lines

The equation of a circle with centre (h,k) and radius r

Length of a line segment

Line segments are a given set of points, often two endpoints of a graphed line.
To find the length of one of these lines, one can attempt to count how many spaces they cover on a
graph, or they can calculate the length using the Cartesian coordinates (x,y), (x,y)
As shown above, the formula for length of a line segment is:

And use the coordinates provided, (x,y), (x,y), but note one should be (
should be (
)

) and the other

Example
Given points A(2,1) and B(3,5) determine the length of the line segment to the nearest tenth
A good way to dissect equations is to use GRASS, given, required, analysis, solution statement
Given: A(2,1), B(3,5)
Required: l

Analysis:

Solution (substitute)
)

(
( )

( )

Note: this is the exact solution; you do not need to round any
(If asked for one tenth of a unit only)

Equations of circles with radius r and centre (h,k)

Use GRASS to determine the value of the unknown variable
The formula for this type of equation is (

)
(
)
coordinates of the circle centre, and r being the radius

, h and k being the (x,y)

Example
Determine the radius a circle with centre (0,0) and point (2,7). Round to the nearest tenth, if
necessary
Given: the centre of the circle (h,k)=(0,0), therefore h=0 and k=0, a known point is (2,7), x=2, y=7
Required: value of r
Analysis: (

Solution
(
( )

( )

Statement:
(

Note: if centre is not (0,0) substitute it into (h,k)

You may also be asked to find the equation of a circle with a given radius and centre. To find this,
substitute known values, and isolate the variables

Example
Write an equation for a circle with Centre (5,2) and radius 4
Given: h=5, k=2 and r=4

(
( )

)
( )

Midpoint of a line segment

The midpoint of a line segment is the point on the line that is the equal distance from both
endpoints
To find the midpoint, you can calculate using endpoints, endpoint 1 (

As shown above the formula for finding midpoints is:

(

) (

Example
Determine the midpoint of the following lines given their endpoints:
a) (5,7) and (3,9,)
b) (-2, -4) and (-2, 8)
a) Given:

=5,

Required: mp
Analysis:
(

) (

Solution:
(
( ) (

) (
)

) and endpoint 2

Equations of lines
Calculating equations of lines, both in slope- y- intercept form and standard form is an essential
skill.
You will be asked to find the equation of lines using endpoints, and use these lines to calculate
intersections.
The formula for calculating slope is:

You can use the slope (once found) and another point on the line, such as an endpoint to
calculate the y-intercept.

Example
Find the slope and y-intercept of the line that passes through (1,2) and (-2,5)

Now, use one of the endpoints to find the equation of the line

Parallel and perpendicular lines

Parallel lines have the same slope, by different y intercepts.

Perpendicular lines are lines that intersect at a 90 degree angle

The slope of a perpendicular line is the negative reciprocal of the line it is perpendicular to,
meaning to flip its fractional value and multiply it by -1, for example 3/2 becomes -2/3.

Medians, right bisectors and altitudes

Median
The median of a triangle is a line segment that joins a vertex to the midpoint of the opposite side. In
grade 10, the objective is to find the equation of its line.
The equation of a median is found by:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Finding the midpoint of the opposite side

Using its coordinates and the coordinates of the opposite vertex to calculate slope
Using that slope, and any known point on the line (midpoint or vertex) determine the value of b
Write the equation of the line in y=mx+b form

The place where three medians within a triangle intersect is called the Centroid

Example
has verticies A(3,4), B(-5,2), C(1,-4)
Find the equation for the median from C to AB: CD
1. Find the midpoint of the opposite side, AB

) (

) (

) ( )

)
)

4. Write the equation in slope, y-intercept form

Or in standard form

Right bisectors
A right bisector is a line that divides a line in two parts at 90 degrees. In grade 10 mathematics, the
objective is to determine the equation of the line
To find the equation of a right bisector:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Find the midpoint of the line being bisected

Calculate the slope of the line being bisected
Find the negative reciprocal of that line: the slope of the right bisector
Use the slope of the right bisector and the midpoint (where it bisects) to determine the
equation of the right bisector

The place where three right bisectors intersect within a triangle is called the circumcentre

Example
has verticies A(3,4), B(-5,2), C(1,-4)
Find and equation for GH, the right bisector of AB

) (

) (

) ( )

)
)

3. Find the negative reciprocal; the slope of the right bisector

4. Use the slope of the right bisector and the midpoint to find the y intercept

Or in standard form

Altitudes
An altitude of a triangle is a segment from a vertex to an opposite side, which it intersects at a right
angle

To calculate an altitude
1. Calculate the slope of the line intersected by the altitude
2. Use the negative reciprocal of that slope, as the slope of the altitudes (because it intersects the
line at a 90 degree angle.)
3. Use the opposite vertex and the slope of the altitude to find the altitude equation
The place where the three altitudes intersect is called the orthocentre

Example
has verticies A(3,4), B(-5,2), C(1,-4)
Find an equation for CE, the altitude from C to AB
1. Calculate the slope of the line intersected by the altitude

2. Find the negative reciprocal; the slope of the altitude

3. Use the opposite vertex and the slope of the altitude to find the altitude equation

Or in standard form

Similar and Congruent triangles

Congruent triangles
A congruent triangle is a triangle with where corresponding side lengths and angles are equal
A

B
have
angles

Observe from the diagram that, ABC

and DEF are congruent they
equal side lengths and equal

Proving congruence
Although one may be told that these triangles are congruent, to prove that they are, there are three
mainly used theorems (congruence postulates)
1) Side, Side, Side: congruence can be demonstrated by showing that all corresponding sides
are equal.
2) Side, Angle, Side: congruence can be demonstrated by showing that two of the sides, and the
contained angles (angle of the two corresponding sides intersection) are equal, the triangles
are congruent
3) Angle, Side, Angle: if one corresponding side, and any two corresponding angles within the
triangle are equal, then the triangles are also congruent.
Note:

Note:

means triangle, literally

Note:

means similar to

Similar triangles
The corresponding angles of similar triangles are equal, while their side lengths are proportional
A

Observe from the diagram

that both triangles, ABC and
DEF have identical
correspondent angles, while
they have proportional side
lengths.

C
E

Also

Each corresponding pair has proportional side lengths, such

as = =

Proving similarities
To prove that two triangles are similar, there are three main theorems that apply
1) Angle, Angle: show that two angles are similar
2) Side, Side, Side: show that three sides are proportional
3) Side, Angle, Side: show that two sides are proportional and the contained angles are equal

Ratios of similar triangles

B
c

E
a

C
b

F
e

If two triangles are similar, the ratio of their heights is equal to the ratio of corresponding sides,

C

d=5cm

b=10cm
B

g=4cm
E

e
f=6cm

, find the values of e and c

Since the triangles are similar, the ratios of the corresponding sides are equal
or
Substitute the know values
Take the first part of the ratio, and use it to calculate the values of c and e
So, e is 8cm and c is 7.5 cm

Finding Areas

AB = 8cm, DE = 12 cm
The area of

is 54cm^2

Solution
AB/DE = 8/12=2/3
The ratio of the areas of the triangles is

or 4/9

=
Let the area of ABC be x, x/54 = 4/9
Then calculate using the cross product rule: 9*x=54*4, 9x=216, x=24
Therefore ABC= 24cm^2

Showing and using similarity

7cm

5cm

Show why

4cm
C

Since AB is parallel to DE
angle A = angle E

Alternate angles

angle b = angle d

Alternate angles

Opposite angles

6cm
D

x
y

Since

Solution of x

Solution of y

Therefore, x is 7.5 cm and y is 10.5 cm

Trigonometry
Trigonometry is the study of the relationship between angles and sides in triangles.
A

There are names for each of the sides in the triangle, these
are:
AC- The Hypotenuse: generally the longest side, the
hypotenuse is located opposite the right angle
AB- Opposite: This angle is the one always opposite from
the chosen angle
BC-Adjacent: The third side of a triangle

Theta:

Side ratios
There are three important ratios of sides in right triangles. These functions are all functions of the
given angle, theta. These sides are:
Sine

Sine, shown as sin on a calculator, the equation to calculate sine is opposite/hypotenuse

Cosine
Cosine, shown as cos on a calculator, is represented by the equation

Tangent
A

Tangent, shown as tan on a calculator, is represented by the equation opposite/adjacent

15 O

In this triangle:
Sine = O/H=15/17

B
A

17 H

Cosine = A/H=8/17

Tangent =O/A=15/8

Note: When you are using a calculator ensure that your calculator is in degree mode
Note for future reference When using inverted side ratios use the

nd

button

Finding angles
If you know a trig ratio of an angle, you can find the angle using a calculator. You can use inverted
functions to find the angles from the trig ratio.
Cos = .7071

If

cos

If
)

Tan

sin

If

tan (

sin (

Finding sides in right triangles when given an acute angle and another side
B

X (O)

Remember the three ratios

Sin =O/H

Y (A)

50cm

Cos =A/H

(H)

Tan =O/A
A
Find X, the opposite side, given that the angle known is

and the hypotenuse is 50cm long

To find X, use the angle ratio that has X and one of the known sides, in this case, the best ratio to use
is Sine, O/H, because we know the length of the hypotenuse

Now that two sides of the right angled triangle are known, the length of the other side can be found
using either the Pythagorean Theorem or using trigonometry.
Generally, using trigonometry is more common and also easier.

i)

Using Pythagorean Theorem

ii)

Using trigonometry

cos

cos

)
)

Unknown denominators
Sometimes the unknown may end up in the denominator. To solve for this, you will need an extra
step:
P

cos

6cm

X
X

X=6.38

Two sides known

Sometimes, two sides of a triangle are known, and the third side length and the other acute angle
must be known.
As you know, you can find a third side using the Pythagorean
Theorem, or using trigonometry

P
A
X

34cm H

R
O

30cm

To determine angles, first label the angles and then select an angle to determine
For example: Solve for the angle of P
sin
sin
sin
sin (

To solve for the last angle, remember that all angles add up to
180-90-61.9=28.1

Word problems
Some terms you will need to know
The angle of depression: The angle of depression is the line of sight and the horizontal, but only
above the below.

The angle of elevation: The angle of elevation is the angle between the line of sight and the
horizontal, but only above the horizontal. The angle of elevation is also known as the angle of
inclination

Example word problems solved with trigonometry

From the top of a vertical cliff 20 metres high and is vertical, the angle of depression of a boat at sea
is
A. Find the distance of the boat from the base of the cliff

B. Find the distance of the boat from the observer

Procedure
Step one: Determine and apply what is given in the problem
We know that the cliff is 20 meters high, and that it is at 90 degrees with the sea, we also know that
the angle of depression of the boat and sea is 25 degrees
(This step does not necessarily need to be written down)
Step two: Diagram

20 Metre
Cliff
Step Three: Labeling sides and angles

Notice that the two unknown sides are

Labelled, as well as the Adjacent,
Hypotenuse and Opposite

20 Metre
Cliff
(O)

y (H)

X (A)

Step four: select a side to solve for, and solve

tan
x
tan
( )
x
tan
x
Step five: find the other side (keep in mind, the Pythagorean Theorem can be used as well)
Find Y (the hypotenuse)
sin
sin
( )

sin

Step six: statement

The distance from the boat to the base of the cliff is 42.9 metres and the distance from the boat to
the observer is about 47.3 m

Problems involving right triangles

A

15
10

B
C
In
Find angle ACB
sin
sin

CBA=180-90-41.8=48.2
Find CE, (x)
ECD=180-90-48.2=41.8
sin

sin

Example
From a point on the ground, the angle of elevation of the top of a building is
. If one moves 25 metres
closer to that building, the angle of elevation will be
. Find the height of the building.

25

In
tan
(

)(tan

)(

In

,
tan
(tan

Then substitute
(

Sine law and its application

Proof of sine law for acute angles
B
c

C
D

sin
(sin )
sin
(sin )
Now, h=h
sin

sin

sin
sin sin

sin
sin sin

Then cancel out terms, creating

Together we have
Sine law can be used with two of the above terms (or three, but if that is possible, another method is
more practical.)

Sine law application

When we are given any 2 angles and 1 opposite side, sine law can be used to find other sides. (If two
angles are known, the third can be calculated, because all angles in a triangle must add to

Q
r

40 cm q

In this equation, we know all three angles, because we can equate Q =

and one side, (opposite to Q).

So,
sin

sin

Substitute
sin

sin

Cross multiply
sin

sin
(

Solving with 2 sides and 1 uncontained angle

Use sine law to find another angle (and subsequently, the other angles)
Try to find the acute angles first. (Only use sine law to find acute angles)
Remember:

sin

sin
c=10cm

a=22cm

sin

sin
sin

Solve for the other angles using sine law

Example problem
The angle of elevation of the top of a building is
elevation is
. Find the height of the building.

. If you move 10 metres closer, the angle of

D

Consider
(

In triangle
sin

(sin

)
A

10m

Cosine Law
Cosine law can be used when Two sides, and a contained angle are given or when three sides are given.

B
c

a
h

In
(

b-x

cos )
cos

To find other side lengths, re-arrange the equation to b and c

cos
cos
To find angles, the formulas can be manipulated again, bringing Cos by itself on the left side
cos

cos

cos

Example

Find a to the nearest tenth of a centimetre:

10cm

cos
(
(

)(

) cos
)

20cm

,
Find angle B using cosine law
cos
cos

)(

cos
cos
cos