479 vues

Transféré par Eddie Liang

- BeerVectorDynamicsISM_Ch11_v2
- CalcNotes01.pdf
- Ex_10_1_FSC_part1
- 210464296-CBSE-Sample-Paper-Solutions-for-Class-11-Mathematics-Set-C.pdf
- Locksmith_Questions_HSGEO.pdf
- W49 Revision Exercise AM SPM Mon
- Mathematics Methods Year 11 Formula Sheet PDF
- 1stmathsanew2012
- hw6-sol
- Geometry and Trigonomitry Test Revision
- ch-14
- Problem Session (3)
- CSS 4E5N Prelim 2009 EMath Paper 1 - With Answer Key
- 2001 Maths3 HSC Joel swd mac books mandarins car audio banana meat pasta mint paper towel deterinant
- Trigonometry
- Math141HW4
- Sample Qs
- CLEP Pre-Calculus Practice Test 2.pdf
- Trigonometric Functions
- pset4

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 36

Concepts

Solving systems of equations

Solving by graphing

Solving by substitution

Solving by elimination

Word problems

Factoring

Special Quadratics

Special Products

Quadratic equations

Solving by graphing

Solving by factoring

The quadratic formula

Quadratic functions

Graphing functions

Sketching parabolas

Parabolic properties

Word problems

Trigonometry

Trigonometric ratios

Solving right triangles

Problems involving two right triangles

Sine law

Cosine law

Word problems

Analytic geometry

Midpoints of line segments

Distances from points to lines

Numerical Problems

1. {

i. Change to y=mx+b form

ii. Graph the y-intercept

iii. Find the next points using the slope

iv. Repeat for other lines

i. Isolate one of the variables (one with the lowest co-efficient usually works best)

ii. Divide both sides by the co-efficient of the isolated variable

iii. Substitute that value into the same variable in the other equation

iv. Find the value of the other variable and then write: (x,y)

i. Multiply both equations by their factor in the lowest common variable

ii. Add or subtract one from the other so you eliminate the equal variables

iii. Calculate the value of the remaining variable

iv. Substitute the value of that variable to find the value of the other

)

v. Write as (

2. {

3. {

Word problems

4. There are ninety coins, consisting of quarters and loonies, total $42, how many of each type of

coin are there?

Begin with the let then statement

In this case, let x represent the number of quarters, and y represents the number of

loonies. Then, {

Then simplify both equations, in this case, only the second can be simplified

{

Then you solve the system of equation, by whatever means easiest (or required)

Then substitute the value of y (in this case) into the other equation

5. Amy travels 1860km in 6.5h, partly by car at 80km/h and the rest by plane at 750km/h, how did

she travel by each mode

Let x represent the amount of time she travelled the amount of time she travelled by car

and y the amount of time she travelled by plane. Then, {

(

)

6. Carol invests $25000, partly in low-risk bonds at 4% and the rest in a stock that she thinks will

earn 8%. If she expects to earn $1280 interest, how much did she invest at each rate?

Let x represent the amount of money invested in bonds and y the amount of money

invested in stocks. Then, {

(

)

100000-4y+8y=128000

(

)

Then substitute the value of y into the first equation

7. Barb ran 100 meters with the wind in 20 seconds and against the wind in25 seconds, find barbs

running speed and the wind speed

Let x represent the speed she travelled with the wind and y the wind speed

simplify

. /

8.

9.

(

)

Expand then simplify

Write each term within the brackets as multiplied by the terms outside of those

brackets

)

(

)

4 (

(

)

Then multiply

Factor

Extract the greatest common factor

In this case, the greatest common factor is

(

)

Then find two factors of the final term 12 that add up to the coefficient of the middle

term, -8. -2 and -6 work, so substitute them into the expression in place of -8a

)

Then group the terms

, (

(

) ( ))( )

Take the square roots of the two terms. In brackets, add them together, and in another set

of brackets, subtract the square root of the negative term (

) from the positive one

(

)

(

)(

Factor

Group the terms, as appropriate. 12vw can be grouped with -8w, the greatest common

factor being 4w, and 15v with -10, the greatest common factor being 5.

( )

( )

Take the two coefficients in questions like this, theyre the terms outside the brackets

and put them in a bracket together

(

)(

)

Factor

-10 and 4 work, so substitute those into the expression in place of -6d

)(

)

Factor (Difference of squares)

Factor out (

)

Theres a difference of squares in the bracket

(

)(

)

Factor (Trinomial factoring)

Multiply the coefficient of the first term, 6, by the coefficient of the last term, -4, which

gives

-24. Note that you always multiply the coefficient of the first term by the 3rd, but

often the coefficient is 1 and in that case it makes no difference.

Find two factors of -24 that add up to 5. -3 and 8 work, so substitute those in place of +5ab.

5ab

Group

( )

( )(

(

)

(

)

Find two terms that add to 1 and multiply to -12. -3 and 4 work, so substitute them in

(

, ( )

( )(

)

( ))

Factor (difference of squares)

)

You have a difference of squares in the brackets, which can be simplified:

)(

)(

Factor

Multiply the coefficients of the first and last terms to get -48, then solve normally; find two

factors that multiply to -48 and add to 22. -24 and 2 work out, so substitute them in, then

group.

(

)

(

)

(

)(

)

10. A box has a length of x centimeters, find the volume and surface area if width is 4 cm shorter

than the length and the height is 3 times the length

First calculate for the volume

(

)

(

)(

)

(

)

11. Find the area between the two rectangles with dimensions

To calculate this, you must subtract the area OF smaller rectangle from the area of the

larger rectangle

(

)(

) (

)(

)

1.

solve by factoring

You have a difference of squares, so the equation can be turned into

(3a + 4) (3a 4) = 0

To solve by factoring, you must determine the two possible answers

One of those factors has to equal 0

If 3a + 4 = 0, then 3a = - 4, and a = -4/3

If 3a -4 = 0 , then 3a = 4, and a = 4/3

The two possible answers are a = -4/3 and a = 4/3

Trinomial factoring

Multiply the 3rd term by the co-efficient of the first, then determine the two numbers

that multiply to that number and add to the 2nd term

In this case (

)

You would re-write the equation as:

)

(

)

Then separate the first two terms and the last two terms (

This then becomes (

)(

)=0

To solve by factoring, you must determine the two possible answers

One of those factors has to equal 0

If

, then

If

, then

The two possible answers are 8 and 5

Trinomial factoring

Multiply the 3rd term by the co-efficient of the first, then determine the two numbers

that multiply to that number and add to the 2nd term

)

In this case (

You would re write the equation as:

)

(

)

Then separate the first two and last two terms as (

)(

)

This becomes (

To solve by factoring, you must determine the two possible answers

One of those factors has to equal 0

If

, then

If

, then

Trinomial factoring

Multiply the 3rd term by the co-efficient of the first, then determine the two numbers

that multiply to that number and add to the 2nd term

)

In this case (

You would re write the equation as:

)

(

)

Then separate the first two and last two terms as (

)(

)

This becomes (

To solve by factoring, you must determine the two possible answers

One of those factors has to equal 0

If

, then

If

, then

The two possible answers are 8 and -2

You have a difference of squares, factor out the GCF in this case (x)

( )(

)=0

To solve by factoring, you must determine the two possible answers

One of those factors has to equal 0

would be obvious

If

, then

If you notice, the value of the variable x is the negative of the co-efficient of the second

term plus or minus the square root of three squared minus four times the co-efficient of

the first term minus the last divided by twice the co-efficient of the first term

and

( )

( )

Graphing functions

A function is a set of ordered pairs for each value of x there is only one for y

To find a function one would conduct a vertical line test which will only intersect one point on the line

A relation will have multiple points,

A quadratic function will have a degree of ,

or

Parabola

Basic function

Can draw table of values, randomly select values of x and see their relation to y

Parabola

-3

18

-2

-1

18

Y=ax^2

If a is more than one the parabola will be stretched vertically

What if we then have a fraction for a (much smaller number?)

x

-3

-2

1.3

-1

0.3

0.3

1.3

Y=-x^2

x

Y

-3

-9

-2

-4

-1

-1

-1

-4

-9

The X value can only happen once, if it happens multiple times, it is not a function.

The vertical line test, Take a ruler and make sure it never hits the line more than one time

(

)

Functions

Domain: the domain states what x can be, and is written as:

*

This says; the domain of x is any real number, and must be equal to or less than two

Range: the range states what y is and can be written as:

The vertex: The point where both sides of the function come to a point and is written (_, _)

Opening: where the function appears to open to, can be up or down.

Stretched: when a function has an integer co-efficient of x, ex:

Compressed: when a function has a fractional co-efficient of x, ex:

The scale factor: the co-efficient of x, can be an integer or a fraction

The y-intercept: pretty self-explanatory, the point where the line intersects the y axis, usually takes the

form of the variable K.

The x intercepts: the points where the line intersects the x axis, if they intersect the y axis at a positive

point, this will be non-existent (written as none), is written as an ordered pair.

The equations on the test should come across as:

Practice

Equation

vertex

opening

Stretched

compressed

Scale

factor

y-intercept

X-intercept

range

Domain

In grade 10 analytic geometry, the few concepts in the course and their formulas are:

Finding lengths of line segments

) (

Standard Form

The equation of a circle with centre (h,k) and radius r

Line segments are a given set of points, often two endpoints of a graphed line.

To find the length of one of these lines, one can attempt to count how many spaces they cover on a

graph, or they can calculate the length using the Cartesian coordinates (x,y), (x,y)

As shown above, the formula for length of a line segment is:

And use the coordinates provided, (x,y), (x,y), but note one should be (

should be (

)

Example

Given points A(2,1) and B(3,5) determine the length of the line segment to the nearest tenth

A good way to dissect equations is to use GRASS, given, required, analysis, solution statement

Given: A(2,1), B(3,5)

Required: l

Analysis:

Solution (substitute)

)

(

( )

( )

Note: this is the exact solution; you do not need to round any

(If asked for one tenth of a unit only)

Use GRASS to determine the value of the unknown variable

The formula for this type of equation is (

)

(

)

coordinates of the circle centre, and r being the radius

Example

Determine the radius a circle with centre (0,0) and point (2,7). Round to the nearest tenth, if

necessary

Given: the centre of the circle (h,k)=(0,0), therefore h=0 and k=0, a known point is (2,7), x=2, y=7

Required: value of r

Analysis: (

Solution

(

( )

( )

Statement:

(

You may also be asked to find the equation of a circle with a given radius and centre. To find this,

substitute known values, and isolate the variables

Example

Write an equation for a circle with Centre (5,2) and radius 4

Given: h=5, k=2 and r=4

(

( )

)

( )

The midpoint of a line segment is the point on the line that is the equal distance from both

endpoints

To find the midpoint, you can calculate using endpoints, endpoint 1 (

(

) (

Example

Determine the midpoint of the following lines given their endpoints:

a) (5,7) and (3,9,)

b) (-2, -4) and (-2, 8)

a) Given:

=5,

Required: mp

Analysis:

(

) (

Solution:

(

( ) (

) (

)

) and endpoint 2

Equations of lines

Calculating equations of lines, both in slope- y- intercept form and standard form is an essential

skill.

You will be asked to find the equation of lines using endpoints, and use these lines to calculate

intersections.

The formula for calculating slope is:

You can use the slope (once found) and another point on the line, such as an endpoint to

calculate the y-intercept.

Example

Find the slope and y-intercept of the line that passes through (1,2) and (-2,5)

Now, use one of the endpoints to find the equation of the line

Parallel lines have the same slope, by different y intercepts.

The slope of a perpendicular line is the negative reciprocal of the line it is perpendicular to,

meaning to flip its fractional value and multiply it by -1, for example 3/2 becomes -2/3.

Median

The median of a triangle is a line segment that joins a vertex to the midpoint of the opposite side. In

grade 10, the objective is to find the equation of its line.

The equation of a median is found by:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Using its coordinates and the coordinates of the opposite vertex to calculate slope

Using that slope, and any known point on the line (midpoint or vertex) determine the value of b

Write the equation of the line in y=mx+b form

The place where three medians within a triangle intersect is called the Centroid

Example

has verticies A(3,4), B(-5,2), C(1,-4)

Find the equation for the median from C to AB: CD

1. Find the midpoint of the opposite side, AB

) (

) (

) ( )

)

)

Or in standard form

Right bisectors

A right bisector is a line that divides a line in two parts at 90 degrees. In grade 10 mathematics, the

objective is to determine the equation of the line

To find the equation of a right bisector:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Calculate the slope of the line being bisected

Find the negative reciprocal of that line: the slope of the right bisector

Use the slope of the right bisector and the midpoint (where it bisects) to determine the

equation of the right bisector

The place where three right bisectors intersect within a triangle is called the circumcentre

Example

has verticies A(3,4), B(-5,2), C(1,-4)

Find and equation for GH, the right bisector of AB

) (

) (

) ( )

)

)

4. Use the slope of the right bisector and the midpoint to find the y intercept

Or in standard form

Altitudes

An altitude of a triangle is a segment from a vertex to an opposite side, which it intersects at a right

angle

To calculate an altitude

1. Calculate the slope of the line intersected by the altitude

2. Use the negative reciprocal of that slope, as the slope of the altitudes (because it intersects the

line at a 90 degree angle.)

3. Use the opposite vertex and the slope of the altitude to find the altitude equation

The place where the three altitudes intersect is called the orthocentre

Example

has verticies A(3,4), B(-5,2), C(1,-4)

Find an equation for CE, the altitude from C to AB

1. Calculate the slope of the line intersected by the altitude

3. Use the opposite vertex and the slope of the altitude to find the altitude equation

Or in standard form

Congruent triangles

A congruent triangle is a triangle with where corresponding side lengths and angles are equal

A

B

have

angles

and DEF are congruent they

equal side lengths and equal

Proving congruence

Although one may be told that these triangles are congruent, to prove that they are, there are three

mainly used theorems (congruence postulates)

1) Side, Side, Side: congruence can be demonstrated by showing that all corresponding sides

are equal.

2) Side, Angle, Side: congruence can be demonstrated by showing that two of the sides, and the

contained angles (angle of the two corresponding sides intersection) are equal, the triangles

are congruent

3) Angle, Side, Angle: if one corresponding side, and any two corresponding angles within the

triangle are equal, then the triangles are also congruent.

Note:

Note:

Note:

means similar to

Similar triangles

The corresponding angles of similar triangles are equal, while their side lengths are proportional

A

that both triangles, ABC and

DEF have identical

correspondent angles, while

they have proportional side

lengths.

C

E

Also

as = =

Proving similarities

To prove that two triangles are similar, there are three main theorems that apply

1) Angle, Angle: show that two angles are similar

2) Side, Side, Side: show that three sides are proportional

3) Side, Angle, Side: show that two sides are proportional and the contained angles are equal

B

c

E

a

C

b

F

e

If two triangles are similar, the ratio of their heights is equal to the ratio of corresponding sides,

C

d=5cm

b=10cm

B

g=4cm

E

e

f=6cm

Since the triangles are similar, the ratios of the corresponding sides are equal

or

Substitute the know values

Take the first part of the ratio, and use it to calculate the values of c and e

So, e is 8cm and c is 7.5 cm

Finding Areas

AB = 8cm, DE = 12 cm

The area of

is 54cm^2

Solution

AB/DE = 8/12=2/3

The ratio of the areas of the triangles is

or 4/9

=

Let the area of ABC be x, x/54 = 4/9

Then calculate using the cross product rule: 9*x=54*4, 9x=216, x=24

Therefore ABC= 24cm^2

7cm

5cm

Show why

4cm

C

Since AB is parallel to DE

angle A = angle E

Alternate angles

angle b = angle d

Alternate angles

Opposite angles

6cm

D

x

y

Since

Solution of x

Solution of y

Trigonometry

Trigonometry is the study of the relationship between angles and sides in triangles.

A

There are names for each of the sides in the triangle, these

are:

AC- The Hypotenuse: generally the longest side, the

hypotenuse is located opposite the right angle

AB- Opposite: This angle is the one always opposite from

the chosen angle

BC-Adjacent: The third side of a triangle

Theta:

Side ratios

There are three important ratios of sides in right triangles. These functions are all functions of the

given angle, theta. These sides are:

Sine

Cosine

Cosine, shown as cos on a calculator, is represented by the equation

adjacent/hypotenuse

Tangent

A

15 O

In this triangle:

Sine = O/H=15/17

B

A

17 H

Cosine = A/H=8/17

Tangent =O/A=15/8

Note: When you are using a calculator ensure that your calculator is in degree mode

Note for future reference When using inverted side ratios use the

nd

button

Finding angles

If you know a trig ratio of an angle, you can find the angle using a calculator. You can use inverted

functions to find the angles from the trig ratio.

Cos = .7071

If

cos

If

)

Tan

sin

If

tan (

sin (

Finding sides in right triangles when given an acute angle and another side

B

X (O)

Sin =O/H

Y (A)

50cm

Cos =A/H

(H)

Tan =O/A

A

Find X, the opposite side, given that the angle known is

To find X, use the angle ratio that has X and one of the known sides, in this case, the best ratio to use

is Sine, O/H, because we know the length of the hypotenuse

Now that two sides of the right angled triangle are known, the length of the other side can be found

using either the Pythagorean Theorem or using trigonometry.

Generally, using trigonometry is more common and also easier.

i)

ii)

Using trigonometry

cos

cos

)

)

Unknown denominators

Sometimes the unknown may end up in the denominator. To solve for this, you will need an extra

step:

P

cos

6cm

X

X

X=6.38

Sometimes, two sides of a triangle are known, and the third side length and the other acute angle

must be known.

As you know, you can find a third side using the Pythagorean

Theorem, or using trigonometry

P

A

X

34cm H

R

O

30cm

To determine angles, first label the angles and then select an angle to determine

For example: Solve for the angle of P

sin

sin

sin

sin (

To solve for the last angle, remember that all angles add up to

180-90-61.9=28.1

Word problems

Some terms you will need to know

The angle of depression: The angle of depression is the line of sight and the horizontal, but only

above the below.

The angle of elevation: The angle of elevation is the angle between the line of sight and the

horizontal, but only above the horizontal. The angle of elevation is also known as the angle of

inclination

From the top of a vertical cliff 20 metres high and is vertical, the angle of depression of a boat at sea

is

A. Find the distance of the boat from the base of the cliff

Procedure

Step one: Determine and apply what is given in the problem

We know that the cliff is 20 meters high, and that it is at 90 degrees with the sea, we also know that

the angle of depression of the boat and sea is 25 degrees

(This step does not necessarily need to be written down)

Step two: Diagram

20 Metre

Cliff

Step Three: Labeling sides and angles

Labelled, as well as the Adjacent,

Hypotenuse and Opposite

20 Metre

Cliff

(O)

y (H)

X (A)

Find X (the adjacent)

tan

x

tan

( )

x

tan

x

Step five: find the other side (keep in mind, the Pythagorean Theorem can be used as well)

Find Y (the hypotenuse)

sin

sin

( )

sin

The distance from the boat to the base of the cliff is 42.9 metres and the distance from the boat to

the observer is about 47.3 m

A

15

10

B

C

In

Find angle ACB

sin

sin

CBA=180-90-41.8=48.2

Find CE, (x)

ECD=180-90-48.2=41.8

sin

sin

Example

From a point on the ground, the angle of elevation of the top of a building is

. If one moves 25 metres

closer to that building, the angle of elevation will be

. Find the height of the building.

25

In

tan

(

)(tan

)(

In

,

tan

(tan

Then substitute

(

Proof of sine law for acute angles

B

c

C

D

sin

(sin )

sin

(sin )

Now, h=h

sin

sin

sin

sin sin

sin

sin sin

Together we have

Sine law can be used with two of the above terms (or three, but if that is possible, another method is

more practical.)

When we are given any 2 angles and 1 opposite side, sine law can be used to find other sides. (If two

angles are known, the third can be calculated, because all angles in a triangle must add to

Q

r

40 cm q

and one side, (opposite to Q).

So,

sin

sin

Substitute

sin

sin

Cross multiply

sin

sin

(

Use sine law to find another angle (and subsequently, the other angles)

Try to find the acute angles first. (Only use sine law to find acute angles)

Remember:

sin

sin

c=10cm

a=22cm

sin

sin

sin

Example problem

The angle of elevation of the top of a building is

elevation is

. Find the height of the building.

D

Consider

(

In triangle

sin

(sin

)

A

10m

Cosine Law

Cosine law can be used when Two sides, and a contained angle are given or when three sides are given.

B

c

a

h

In

(

b-x

cos )

cos

cos

cos

To find angles, the formulas can be manipulated again, bringing Cos by itself on the left side

cos

cos

cos

Example

10cm

cos

(

(

)(

) cos

)

20cm

,

Find angle B using cosine law

cos

cos

)(

cos

cos

cos

- BeerVectorDynamicsISM_Ch11_v2Transféré parJoe Shmo
- CalcNotes01.pdfTransféré parNjoka Samuel K
- Ex_10_1_FSC_part1Transféré parMuzammil Hasnain
- 210464296-CBSE-Sample-Paper-Solutions-for-Class-11-Mathematics-Set-C.pdfTransféré pargajzender
- Locksmith_Questions_HSGEO.pdfTransféré parharsh
- W49 Revision Exercise AM SPM MonTransféré parBid Hassan
- Mathematics Methods Year 11 Formula Sheet PDFTransféré parAfzal Kareem
- 1stmathsanew2012Transféré parapi-142567765
- hw6-solTransféré parKalai Prem
- Geometry and Trigonomitry Test RevisionTransféré parttong
- ch-14Transféré parLalit Dudheria
- Problem Session (3)Transféré parMaha Hassan
- CSS 4E5N Prelim 2009 EMath Paper 1 - With Answer KeyTransféré parJASON_INGHAM
- 2001 Maths3 HSC Joel swd mac books mandarins car audio banana meat pasta mint paper towel deterinantTransféré park02033
- TrigonometryTransféré parAero Chaitanya
- Math141HW4Transféré pargmrp
- Sample QsTransféré parBalaji
- CLEP Pre-Calculus Practice Test 2.pdfTransféré pardomini809
- Trigonometric FunctionsTransféré parMackenzie Alcantara
- pset4Transféré parHassan Amjad
- 2-D Vector Ops SummaryTransféré parClark Neily, Jr.
- C2 Revision NotesTransféré parBeth Rimmer
- Determinations of Analogues of Gauss Sums and Other Trigonometric SumsTransféré parapi-26401608
- Trigonometry 11thTransféré parAahil Samal
- ce121f-2.docxTransféré parHillary Canlas
- ch3.pdfTransféré parAndrew Borg
- Trigonometry EquationsTransféré parPrem
- UntitledTransféré parapi-245241066
- Childs GardenTransféré parwill bell
- Math 125 - HW4 - SolutionsTransféré parPhuc Dang

- Beskin Dividing Line Segment in Given Ratio LMLTransféré parLâm Văn Sa Huỳnh
- general info-2010.docTransféré parkupaloid
- rpp-smkn12-bandungTransféré parkiaose
- EL Record Book Writing ChecklistTransféré parMimi Zainudin
- Claremont COURIER 1-31-14Transféré parClaremont Courier
- CBSE 2014 Question Paper for Class 12 Music Hindustani Instru. - DelhiTransféré paraglasem
- Gwinnett Schools Calendar 2017-18Transféré parbernardepatch
- Banjarmasin Dalam Angka 2014 BPS Final Rev 1Transféré parThuthy Deroz
- ECSD three-year capital plan for 2019-2022Transféré parAnonymous NbMQ9Ymq
- 4024_s06_qp_1Transféré parAnonymous yYoG8DxyH
- Games Genki English 2Transféré parManu Mtnz Rabadán
- resume libraryTransféré parapi-204173754
- PRACTICE TEST IN GRADE 7Transféré parericmilamattim
- Annual ReportTransféré parclim8200
- career cruising worksheetTransféré parapi-240309221
- Important QuestionsTransféré parKarthikKaru
- 4_7 INVERSE TRIG FNS.pdfTransféré parSivagami Saminathan
- Real NumbersTransféré parAbby Lumanglas
- Cbse Xii Hots Application of Derivatives Chapter 6Transféré parOm Prakash Sharma
- asdfadfTransféré parishmael149
- Straight Lines OKTransféré parPratik Patnaik
- Cal Dow Full Line Calc BrochureTransféré parLuis Murillo
- mechanismos 8Transféré parRolffoTello
- 01 FunctionTransféré parPrasetya
- year 7 student outlineTransféré parapi-319473645
- Examining the Kouzes and Posner Leadership Practices of Elementar (1)Transféré parGihan Talgodapitiya
- Basic ConstructionTransféré parWilson Lim
- stout edu 101 philosophy of educationTransféré parapi-308145714
- Class 9th Math Sample PaperTransféré parPankaj Singhal
- Quaternion reportTransféré parverthex20992828