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Whoever loves discipline loves knowledge,

But he who hates reproof is stupid.

prov 12:1

Mechanical Engineering- Gitam University

Combinations of Stroke Lengths and Bore Sizes

Square Under Square or Over Square
It is generally believed that stroke builds torque and bore diameter creates horsepower.
An engine with a bore larger than the stroke is referred to as an over-square engine.
Over-square engines tend to be higher rpm engines than other designs and the more
over-square, the greater the rpm spread between peak torque and peak horsepower.
Most high performance and race engines, with few exceptions, are over-square in
Under-square engines were very common in the early days of automobiles.
Under square engines are more commonly used in commercial trucks and in
industrial equipment and seldom in racing.
A square engine is one with equal or nearly equal bore and stroke dimensions. A
square engine will generally produce more torque than the same cubic inch over-square
design; however the rpm will be lower so the maximum horsepower produced will also
generally be lower

Mechanical Engineering- Gitam University

Much simpler comparing to its piston counterpart.
Power to weight ratio is superior than piston engines.
Smooth power flow and high RPM.
No Seizure at high temperature
Mechanical Engineering- Gitam University


Sealing, leaks from the apex seals greatly

reduces efficiency of the engine.

High Operating Temperature, the housing

operates at steady state with constant
heating in each chamber.

Low fuel efficiency and shorter engine life

due to damaged seals.

Automotive gas turbine

New Generation Vehicles

ULEVs ultra-low emission vehicles
ZEVs zero emission vehicles
EVs electric vehicles
Concerns regarding battery EVs and hybrid EVs
Existing internal combustion engine
EV technology
Fuel cell EVs have been produced and undergoing
further development

Electric vehicles

Electric vehicles

Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Fuel cell Vehicle


FCEVs converts electricity when

needed to power the electric motor
Only exhaust by-products are
water and heat
PEM-proton exchange membrane
fuel cell
Use an electric engine rather than
a heat engine to power the electric
Has a backup battery module
Use an electrochemical reaction
to produce electricity



PEM= Proton Exchange Membrane


Special characteristics of sports car engines

One of the most important considerations when designing a good sports car engine is
the power to weight ratio.
When designing a sports car engine, it is good practice to keep the weight of the engine
as low as possible. This can be achieved by using lightweight materials such as
aluminum alloys for the cylinder heads.
To increase the power to weight ratio in a sports car engine is to use turbo or super
charging of the intake air.
The best engine designers always consider the ratio of bore size to the length of the
piston stroke. An over square shorter stroke sports engine is more suited to a high
power output engine, typical of that used in sports cars.
One of the advantages of an over square sport engine, is that larger intake and exhaust
valves can be used for better breathing at high engine speeds
A low centre of gravity is essential in a sports car to minimise weight transfer from the
inside to the outside wheel when cornering.

A horizontally opposed boxer engine is the best configuration for a low centre of gravity.
The Subaru WRX STI is a sports car that uses boxer engines for this reason.

Depending upon the location of the spark plug, valves and

type of cylinder head , the combustion chambers in SI engines
are of the following shapes:



The basic requirements of a good combustion

chamber are to provide:
High power output
High thermal efficiency and low specific fuel
Smooth engine operation
Reduced exhaust pollutants
High compression ratio:

Small or no excess air.

Complete utilization of the air .
An optimum degree of turbulence

Turbulence is induced by inlet flow configuration or squish. Squish is the rapid

ejection of gas trapped between the piston and some flat or corresponding
surface in the cylinder head. Turbulence induced by squish is preferable to inle
turbulence since the volumetric efficiency is not affected
High Volumetric Efficiency.


High compression ratio.

The compression ratio is limited by the phenomenon of detonation.
Detonation depends on the design of combustion chamber and fuel quality
A small heat loss during combustion.
Good scavenging of the exhaust gases.

Compression Ignition Engines

Two basic categories of CI engines:
Indirect-injection Engine chamber is divided into two regions
and the fuel is injected into the pre ham er which is connected
to the main chamber via a nozzle, or one or more orifices.

Direct-injection Engine have a single open combustion

chamber into which fuel is injected directly



Engine Cross



Same mechanical set-up

as petrol engine
Combustion initiated by
hot compressed air
But no spark plugs!

Mechanical Arrangement Petrol

Classification of Diesel Engine combustion

chambers are as follows,

Open combustion chamber

Pre-combustion chambers
Swirl combustion chambers
Squish combustion chamber
Air cell & energy cell

Types of Cylinders for CI Engines

Glow plug


Direct injection:
quiescent chamber

Direct injection:
swirl in chamber

Indirect injection: turbulent

and swirl pre-chamber

Combustion Problems in Diesel Engine

Turns at 1/2 the speed of the crankshaft
Must be mechanically coupled to the crankshaft
for timing purposes (gears, belts, chains)
The camshaft consists of bearing journals and
lobes spaced along the shaft
Each lobe is positioned to open and close a valve at
a specific time

Camshaft Location

There are two basic locations for the engine

Camshaft located in the block
cam-in-block engine

Camshaft located in the cylinder head

overhead cam (OHC) engine

Piston head designs

Piston rings (general)

Provide seal between cylinder wall and piston
Rings ride on a thin film of oil
Conduct heat from the piston out to the cylinder and the fins
Material is cast iron or chrome steel

Piston rings (type)

Compression rings are located at the top of the piston and seal
the combustion chamber
Types include rectangular, tapered,wedge

Compression rings

Piston ring end gap

The gap at the end of the rings allows for
expansion and contraction and unevenness in the
cylinder wall
Butt, step and angle types
Always stagger the end gaps during ring installation
to prevent losing compression

Firing Order
Refers to the sequence in which the cylinders fire
Determined by the position of the crankshaft rod journals in relation to
each other
May be cast into the intake manifold
Service manual illustrations are usually provided to show the firing

Cylinder Numbering and Firing Order